WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacterial diseases

  1. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930445 A report on investigation of an outbreakof legionnaires’disease in a hotel in Beijing.DENG Changying(邓长英),et al.Beijing ArmedForce General Hosp,Beijing,100027.Chin J Epi-demiol 1993;14(2):78—79.During the period from February to March,1992,an outbreak of upper respiratory infection(influenza—like syndrome)took place in a hotelin Beijing.An epidemiological investigation andbacteriological examination were carried out inthis hotel.The results showed that it was anoutbreak of Legionnaires’disease caused by Le-gionella pneumophila serogroup 10(Lpl0).Theincidence was 13.51%(5/37).This is the firstreport on Lp10 infection in China.

  2. Periodontal diseases as bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bascones Martínez

    Full Text Available The periodontal disease is conformed by a group of illnesses affecting the gums and dental support structures. They are caused by certain bacteria found in the bacterial plaque. These bacteria are essential to the onset of illness; however, there are predisposing factors in both the host and the microorganisms that will have an effect on the pathogenesis of the illness. Periodontopathogenic bacterial microbiota is needed, but by itself, it is not enough to cause the illness, requiring the presence of a susceptible host. These diseases have been classified as gingivitis, when limited to the gums, and periodontitis, when they spread to deeper tissues. Classification of periodontal disease has varied over the years.The one used in this work was approved at the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, held in 1999. This study is an overview of the different periodontal disease syndromes. Later, the systematic use of antibiotic treatment consisting of amoxicillin, amoxicillinclavulanic acid, and metronidazole as first line coadjuvant treatment of these illnesses will be reviewed.

  3. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  4. The bacterial microbiota in inflammatory lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Numerous lines of evidence, ranging from recent studies back to those in the 1920s, have demonstrated that the lungs are NOT bacteria-free during health. We have recently proposed that the entire respiratory tract should be considered a single ecosystem extending from the nasal and oral cavities to the alveoli, which includes gradients and niches that modulate microbiome dispersion, retention, survival and proliferation. Bacterial exposure and colonization of the lungs during health is most likely constant and transient, respectively. Host microanatomy, cell biology and innate defenses are altered during chronic lung disease, which in turn, alters the dynamics of bacterial turnover in the lungs and can lead to longer term bacterial colonization, as well as blooms of well-recognized respiratory bacterial pathogens. A few new respiratory colonizers have been identified by culture-independent methods, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens; however, the role of these bacteria in respiratory disease remains to be determined.

  5. The Bacterial Microbiota in Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffnagle, Gary B.; Dickson, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence, ranging from recent studies back to those in the 1920's, have demonstrated that the lungs are NOT bacteria-free during health. We have recently proposed that the entire respiratory tract should be considered a single ecosystem extending from the nasal and oral cavities to the alveoli, which includes gradients and niches that modulate microbiome dispersion, retention, survival and proliferation. Bacterial exposure and colonization of the lungs during health is most likely constant and transient, respectively. Host microanatomy, cell biology and innate defenses are altered during chronic lung disease, which in turn, alters the dynamics of bacterial turnover in the lungs and can lead to longer term bacterial colonization, as well as blooms of well-recognized respiratory bacterial pathogens. A few new respiratory colonizers have been identified by culture-independent methods, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens; however, the role of these bacteria in respiratory disease remains to be determined. PMID:26122174

  6. Bacterial meningitis and diseases caused by bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rings, D M

    1987-03-01

    Bacterial meningitis most commonly occurs in young calves secondary to septicemia. Clinical signs of hyperirritability are usually seen. Meningitis can be confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and culture or by necropsy. Intoxications by the exotoxins of Clostridium perfringens types C and D, C. botulinum, and C. tetani are difficult to confirm. The clinical signs of these intoxications vary from flaccid paralysis (botulism) to muscular rigidity (tetanus). Treatment of affected cattle has been unrewarding in botulism and enterotoxemia, whereas early aggressive treatment of tetanus cases can often be successfully resolved. Botulism and enterotoxemia can be proved using mouse inoculation tests, whereas tetanus is diagnosed largely by ruling out other diseases.

  7. [3] Diseases Caused By Bacterial Pathogens In Inland Water

    OpenAIRE

    若林, 久嗣; 吉田, 照豊; 野村, 哲一; 中井, 敏博; 高野, 倫一

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial diseases cause huge damages in fish farms worldwide, and numerous bacterial pathogens from inland and saline waters have been identified and studied for their characterization, diagnosis, prevention and control. In this chapter, eight important fish diseases viz. 1) streptococcosis (inland water), 2) furunculosis, 3) bacterial gill disease, 4) columnaris disease, 5) bacterial cold-water disease, 6) red spot disease, 7) edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella ictaluri), and 8) motile aeromonad...

  8. Bacterial meningitis: Mechanisms of disease and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Kornelisse (René); R. de Groot (Ronald); H.J. Neijens (Herman)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBacterial meningitis continues to be a serious infectious disease with a high morbidity and mortality in young children. Early recognition and initiation of adequate treatment are the major determinants for a good outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the host inflammatory res

  9. Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...

  10. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  11. Prevention of bacterial foodborne disease using nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Craig; Hudson, J Andrew; D'Sa, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne disease is an important source of expense, morbidity, and mortality for society. Detection and control constitute significant components of the overall management of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and this review focuses on the use of nanosized biological entities and molecules to achieve these goals. There is an emphasis on the use of organisms called bacteriophages (phages: viruses that infect bacteria), which are increasingly being used in pathogen detection and biocontrol applications. Detection of pathogens in foods by conventional techniques is time-consuming and expensive, although it can also be sensitive and accurate. Nanobiotechnology is being used to decrease detection times and cost through the development of biosensors, exploiting specific cell-recognition properties of antibodies and phage proteins. Although sensitivity per test can be excellent (eg, the detection of one cell), the very small volumes tested mean that sensitivity per sample is less compelling. An ideal detection method needs to be inexpensive, sensitive, and accurate, but no approach yet achieves all three. For nanobiotechnology to displace existing methods (culture-based, antibody-based rapid methods, or those that detect amplified nucleic acid) it will need to focus on improving sensitivity. Although manufactured nonbiological nanoparticles have been used to kill bacterial cells, nanosized organisms called phages are increasingly finding favor in food safety applications. Phages are amenable to protein and nucleic acid labeling, and can be very specific, and the typical large "burst size" resulting from phage amplification can be harnessed to produce a rapid increase in signal to facilitate detection. There are now several commercially available phages for pathogen control, and many reports in the literature demonstrate efficacy against a number of foodborne pathogens on diverse foods. As a method for control of pathogens, nanobiotechnology is therefore flourishing.

  12. Prevention of bacterial foodborne disease using nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billington C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Craig Billington, J Andrew Hudson, Elaine D'SaFood Safety Programme, ESR, Ilam, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: Foodborne disease is an important source of expense, morbidity, and mortality for society. Detection and control constitute significant components of the overall management of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and this review focuses on the use of nanosized biological entities and molecules to achieve these goals. There is an emphasis on the use of organisms called bacteriophages (phages: viruses that infect bacteria, which are increasingly being used in pathogen detection and biocontrol applications. Detection of pathogens in foods by conventional techniques is time-consuming and expensive, although it can also be sensitive and accurate. Nanobiotechnology is being used to decrease detection times and cost through the development of biosensors, exploiting specific cell-recognition properties of antibodies and phage proteins. Although sensitivity per test can be excellent (eg, the detection of one cell, the very small volumes tested mean that sensitivity per sample is less compelling. An ideal detection method needs to be inexpensive, sensitive, and accurate, but no approach yet achieves all three. For nanobiotechnology to displace existing methods (culture-based, antibody-based rapid methods, or those that detect amplified nucleic acid it will need to focus on improving sensitivity. Although manufactured nonbiological nanoparticles have been used to kill bacterial cells, nanosized organisms called phages are increasingly finding favor in food safety applications. Phages are amenable to protein and nucleic acid labeling, and can be very specific, and the typical large "burst size" resulting from phage amplification can be harnessed to produce a rapid increase in signal to facilitate detection. There are now several commercially available phages for pathogen control, and many reports in the literature demonstrate efficacy against a

  13. Host Antimicrobial Peptides in Bacterial Homeostasis and Pathogenesis of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R. Heimlich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses function as a first line of host defense against the development of bacterial infection, and in some cases to preserve the sterility of privileged sites in the human host. Bacteria that enter these sites must counter host responses for colonization. From the host’s perspective, the innate immune system works expeditiously to minimize the bacterial threat before colonization and subsequent dysbiosis. The multifactorial nature of disease further challenges predictions of how each independent variable influences bacterial pathogenesis. From bacterial colonization to infection and through disease, the microenvironments of the host are in constant flux as bacterial and host factors contribute to changes at the host-pathogen interface, with the host attempting to eradicate bacteria and the bacteria fighting to maintain residency. A key component of this innate host response towards bacterial infection is the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. As an early component of the host response, AMPs modulate bacterial load and prevent establishment of infection. Under quiescent conditions, some AMPs are constitutively expressed by the epithelium. Bacterial infection can subsequently induce production of other AMPs in an effort to maintain sterility, or to restrict colonization. As demonstrated in various studies, the absence of a single AMP can influence pathogenesis, highlighting the importance of AMP concentration in maintaining homeostasis. Yet, AMPs can increase bacterial virulence through the co-opting of the peptides or alteration of bacterial virulence gene expression. Further, bacterial factors used to subvert AMPs can modify host microenvironments and alter colonization of the residential flora that principally maintain homeostasis. Thus, the dynamic interplay between host defense peptides and bacterial factors produced to quell peptide activity play a critical role in the progression and outcome of disease.

  14. [Pseudomonas syringae - the agent of bacterial diseases of weeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasichnik, L A; Savenko, E A; Butsenko, L N; Shcherbina, T N; Patyka, V F

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of bacterial diseases of the associated weeds have been identified and described in the wheat crops grown in different farming systems. On the basis of its morphological, biochemical and serological properties the agent isolated from frost-blite, barnyard grass, wild radish, couch grass, bottle-brush, bindweed and sow thistle has been identified as Pseudomonas syringae. Serological affinity between the weed bacteria and the agent of bacterial diseases of cereals has been established.

  15. Silicon control of bacterial and viral diseases in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr Nachaat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon plays an important role in providing tolerance to various abiotic stresses and augmenting plant resistance against diseases. However, there is a paucity of reports about the effect of silicon on bacterial and viral pathogens of plants. In general, the effect of silicon on plant resistance against bacterial diseases is considered to be due to either physical defense or increased biochemical defense. In this study, the interaction between silicon foliar or soil-treatments and reduced bacterial and viral severity was reviewed. The current review explains the agricultural importance of silicon in plants, refers to the control of bacterial pathogens in different crop plants by silicon application, and underlines the different mechanisms of silicon-enhanced resistance. A section about the effect of silicon in decreasing viral disease intensity was highlighted. By combining the data presented in this study, a better comprehension of the complex interaction between silicon foliar- or soil-applications and bacterial and viral plant diseases could be achieved.

  16. Host-bacterial interplay in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrakshi Chickanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed and other electronic basis from 1991 to 2014. Search included books and journals based on the systematic and critical reviews, in vitro and in vivo clinical studies on molecular basis of host microbial interactions. Clearly, an understanding of the host susceptibility factor in addition to microbial factors by elucidating the molecular basis offers opportunity for therapeutic manipulation of advancing periodontal destruction. One of the hallmarks of pathogenesis is the ability of pathogenic organisms to invade surrounding tissues and to evade the host defence. This paper focuses the general overview of molecular mechanisms involved in the microbiota and host response to bacterial inimical behavior in periodontics.

  17. Bacterial disease management: challenges, experience, innovation and future prospects: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, George W; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zeng, Quan; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by bacterial pathogens place major constraints on crop production and cause significant annual losses on a global scale. The attainment of consistent effective management of these diseases can be extremely difficult, and management potential is often affected by grower reliance on highly disease-susceptible cultivars because of consumer preferences, and by environmental conditions favouring pathogen development. New and emerging bacterial disease problems (e.g. zebra chip of potato) and established problems in new geographical regions (e.g. bacterial canker of kiwifruit in New Zealand) grab the headlines, but the list of bacterial disease problems with few effective management options is long. The ever-increasing global human population requires the continued stable production of a safe food supply with greater yields because of the shrinking areas of arable land. One major facet in the maintenance of the sustainability of crop production systems with predictable yields involves the identification and deployment of sustainable disease management solutions for bacterial diseases. In addition, the identification of novel management tactics has also come to the fore because of the increasing evolution of resistance to existing bactericides. A number of central research foci, involving basic research to identify critical pathogen targets for control, novel methodologies and methods of delivery, are emerging that will provide a strong basis for bacterial disease management into the future. Near-term solutions are desperately needed. Are there replacement materials for existing bactericides that can provide effective disease management under field conditions? Experience should inform the future. With prior knowledge of bactericide resistance issues evolving in pathogens, how will this affect the deployment of newer compounds and biological controls? Knowledge is critical. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathosystems is required to not

  18. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Peter J Barnes; Ian M Adcock; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  19. Major bacterial diseases in aquaculture and their vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture is emerging as the fastest growing food-producing industry in the world due to the increasing demand for food fish consumption. However, the intensive culture of food fish has led to outbreaks of various bacterial diseases, resulting in annual economic losses to the aquaculture industry ...

  20. Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease : a concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hament, JM; Kimpen, JLL; Fleer, A; Wolfs, TFW

    1999-01-01

    Although bacterial superinfection in viral respiratory disease is a clinically well documented phenomenon, the pathogenic mechanisms are still poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed some of the mechanisms involved. Physical damage to respiratory cells as a result of viral infection may lead

  1. Bacterial Intestinal Superinfections in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Beyond Clostridum difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobatón, Triana; Domènech, Eugeni

    2016-07-01

    Besides genetics and environmental factors, intestinal microbiota seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. For many decades, it has been said that some enteropathogens may even trigger both inflammatory bowel disease development and disease flares. For this reason, stool testing had been performed in inflammatory bowel disease flares but current guidelines only recommend to rule out Clostridium difficile infection and there is no clear advice for other enteropathogens given that the scarce available evidence points at a low prevalence of this sort of intestinal superinfections with no clear impact on disease course. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the role of bacterial enteropathogens on disease pathogenesis and flares beyond C. difficile.

  2. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T D Chugh

    2008-11-01

    There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels. Their control requires continuing surveillance, research and training, better diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. Emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases and diseases caused by multiresistant organisms constitute the major threats in India. This review of bacterial emerging and re-emerging diseases should be of critical importance to microbiologists, clinicians, public health personnel and policy makers in India.

  3. Comparative molecular analysis of bacterial species associated with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Iuliis, V; Ursi, S; Di Tommaso, L M; Caruso, M; Marino, A; D Ercole, S; Caputi, S; Sinjari, B; Festa, F; Macri, M; Martinotti, S; Vitullo, G; Toniato, E

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disorder affecting the supporting teeth structures, including gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing loss of connective tissue, reabsorption of alveolar bone and formation of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between bacterial growth and periodontal disease. Fifty-seven patients aged between 21 and 65 years, median age 46 years, were enrolled. According to gingival pocket depth, ranging from 3 to 7 mm, patients were divided into two groups: the first (30 patients, 53%) with deep pockets ³ 5 mm and the second (27 patients, 47%) less than 5 mm. The samples taken were processed for microbiological analysis by absolute quantitative real-time Taq-Man technique. Patients affected by periodontal disease were 32 (56%) and patients with gingival bleeding were 35 (61%). This data showed that the presence, the type and the bacterial load in gingival pockets were strongly correlated with gingival depth, periodontal disease and gingival bleeding. Quantitative microbiological analysis is a key point to improve patient compliance, allowing to choose the specific antibiotic treatment. avoiding antibiotic resistance and ensuring the successful outcome of therapy for periodontal disease.

  4. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis; Koutsounas; Garyfallia; Kaltsa; Spyros; I; Siakavellas; Giorgos; Bamias

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation(BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence.BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT.

  5. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Krijnen (Pieta); C.J. Kaandorp; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); D. van Schaardenburg (Dirkjan); H.J. Moens; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease. METHODS: In a decision analysis, data from a prospective study on bacterial arthritis in 4907 patients with joint dise

  7. Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Purnawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a tomato pathogen causing wilt disease which can lose crop production up to 100%. This problem also has economical impact to Indonesia, though controlling this pathogen has been donebefore. Biological control using endophytic bacteria is one of alternative control methods to support agriculture sustainability. The objective of these experiments are isolating endophytic bacteria taken from healthy tomato stems and root as well as investigating patogens as biocontrol agents of tomato bacterial wilt disease. Among 10 isolates found, only Ps1 and Ps8 can inhibit R. solanacearum based on antagonistic test in vitro using seed coat method and 4-7 mm inhibition zone forming. In vivo test was applied in green house in 30 days old of tomatoes usingendophytic bacteria by theroot soak technique. The result shows Ps1 and Ps8 within 15-16 days incubation period have suppressed 8.07%-9.19% pathogen attack.

  8. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Jin, Lee-Way; DeCarli, Charles; Phinney, Brett; Sharp, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains. Methods: Brain samples from gray and white matter were studied from patients with AD (n = 24) and age-matched controls (n = 18). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E coli K99 pili protein were evaluated by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Human brain samples were assessed for E coli DNA followed by DNA sequencing. Results: LPS and E coli K99 were detected immunocytochemically in brain parenchyma and vessels in all AD and control brains. K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains (p < 0.01) and K99 was localized to neuron-like cells in AD but not control brains. LPS levels were also greater in AD compared to control brain. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and with Aβ1-40/42 around vessels in AD brains. DNA sequencing confirmed E coli DNA in human control and AD brains. Conclusions: E coli K99 and LPS levels were greater in AD compared to control brains. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and around vessels in AD brain. The data show that Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. They are consistent with our LPS-ischemia-hypoxia rat model that produces myelin aggregates that colocalize with Aβ and resemble amyloid-like plaques. PMID:27784770

  9. Effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    M Kalhor; M Abbasi; L. Amini; A. Barikani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in women of reproductive age. Studies have shown that bacterial vaginosis can affect the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: This interventional study was conducted in 100 women with rheumatoid arthritis (50 women with bacterial vaginosis and 50 women without b...

  10. Application of hordothionins and cecropin B for engineering bacterial disease resistance into plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial diseases can cause a drastic decrease of yield in certain crops. Breeding for bacterial disease resistance therefore is of utmost necessity. Up to now, traditional plant breeding was the only method to reach this goal. Recent developments in genetic engineering technology however provide n

  11. Gut flora and bacterial translocation in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Almeida; Sumedha Galhenage; Jennifer Yu; Jelica Kurtovic; Stephen M Riordan

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that derangement of gut flora is of substantial clinical relevance to patients with cirrhosis. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen, in particular, predispose to an increased potential for bacterial infection in this group. Recent studies suggest that, in addition to their role in the pathogenesis of overt infective episodes and the clinical consequences of sepsis, gut flora contributes to the pro-inflammatory state of cirrhosis even in the absence of overt infection.Furthermore, manipulation of gut flora to augment the intestinal content of lactic acid-type bacteria at the expense of other gut flora species with more pathogenic potential may favourably influence liver function in cirrhotic patients. Here we review current concepts of the various inter-relationships between gut flora, bacterial translocation, bacterial infection, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and liver function in this group.

  12. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-28

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations.

  13. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  14. Bacterial vaginal diseases%细菌性阴道病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢妮娜; 李国平; 卢葆华

    2002-01-01

    @@ 引言 细菌性阴道病(Bacterial Vaginosis,BV)是与阴道菌丛微生态相关常见传染性非炎症综合征,属于性传播疾病的一种[1].可引发妊娠期、产褥期并发症及新生儿感染性疾病[2].

  15. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, C.

    2014-01-29

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. 2013 The Authors Molecular Ecology John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Kyoung; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Seon Min; Jang, Ji Won; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is an important cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We retrospectively analyzed data from 409 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary referral center with ALD diagnosis. Of a total of 544 admissions, 133 (24.4%) cases presented with bacterial infection, of which 116 were community-acquired whereas 17 were hospital-acquired. The common types of infection were pneumonia (38%), biliary tract infection (17%), soft tissue infection (12%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (9%). Diabetes, serum Na patients with ALD. Overall 30-day and 90-day mortalities in patients with bacterial infection were significantly (P patients with ALD. A thorough evaluation at admission or on clinical deterioration is required to detect possible infection with prompt management.

  17. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  19. Effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalhor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in women of reproductive age. Studies have shown that bacterial vaginosis can affect the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: This interventional study was conducted in 100 women with rheumatoid arthritis (50 women with bacterial vaginosis and 50 women without bacterial vaginosis referred to the Rheumatology clinic in Tehran during 2013. The activity of rheumatoid arthritis was assessed by DAS-28 in both groups before the study. The women were treated with oral metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for one week in the intervention group. The disease activity was also assessed in both groups after the study. Data were analyzed using T-test, Chi-square test, and ANOVA. Findings: The disease activity was not significantly different between the two the groups before the study. But the disease activity in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group after the study. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that the treatment of bacterial vaginosis can improve the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. These findings indicate the importance of attention to health care in women with rheumatoid arthritis by healthcare providers.

  20. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould. PMID:27721697

  1. Association of secondhand smoke exposure with pediatric invasive bacterial disease and bacterial carriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between secondhand smoke (SHS exposure and pediatric invasive bacterial disease (IBD but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of SHS exposure and two outcomes, IBD and pharyngeal carriage of bacteria, for Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two independent reviewers searched Medline, EMBASE, and selected other databases, and screened articles for inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified 30 case-control studies on SHS and IBD, and 12 cross-sectional studies on SHS and bacterial carriage. Weighted summary odd ratios (ORs were calculated for each outcome and for studies with specific design and quality characteristics. Tests for heterogeneity and publication bias were performed. Compared with those unexposed to SHS, summary OR for SHS exposure was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-2.69 for invasive meningococcal disease, 1.21 (95% CI 0.69-2.14 for invasive pneumococcal disease, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.93-1.62 for invasive Hib disease. For pharyngeal carriage, summary OR was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.36 for N. meningitidis, 1.66 (95% CI 1.33-2.07 for S. pneumoniae, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.48-1.95 for Hib. The association between SHS exposure and invasive meningococcal and Hib diseases was consistent regardless of outcome definitions, age groups, study designs, and publication year. The effect estimates were larger in studies among children younger than 6 years of age for all three IBDs, and in studies with the more rigorous laboratory-confirmed diagnosis for invasive meningococcal disease (summary OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.72-6.13. CONCLUSIONS: When considered together with evidence from direct smoking and biological mechanisms, our systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that SHS exposure may be associated

  2. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS FOLLOWING SPLENECTOMY FOR MALIGNANT AND NONMALIGNANT HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Leone

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenectomy, while often necessary in otherwise healthy patients after major trauma, find its primary indication for patients with an underlying malignant or nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Indications of splenectomy for hematologic diseases have been reducing in the last few years, due to improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In high-income countries, there is a clear decrease over calendar time in the incidence of all indication splenectomy except nonmalignant hematologic diseases. However, splenectomy, even if with different modalities including laparoscopic splenectomy and partial splenectomy, continue to be a current surgical practice both in nonmalignant hematologic diseases, such as Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP, Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA, Congenital Hemolytic Anemia such as Spherocytosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia and Malignant Hematological Disease, such as lymphoma. Today millions of people in the world are splenectomized. Splenectomy, independently of its cause, induces an early and late increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolism and infections. Infections remain the most dangerous complication of splenectomy. After splenectomy, the levels of antibody are preserved but there is a loss of memory B cells against pneumococcus and tetanus, and the loss of marginal zone monocytes deputed to immunological defense from capsulated bacteria. Commonly, the infections strictly correlated to the absence of the spleen or a decreased or absent splenic function are due to encapsulated bacteria that are the most virulent pathogens in this set of patients. Vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines again Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis should be performed before the splenectomy. This practice reduces but does not eliminate the occurrence of overwhelming infections due to capsulated bacteria. At present, most of infection found in splenectomized patients

  3. [Diversity of soil bacterial community in banana orchards infected with wilt disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Xiao-yu; Zhou, Deng-bo; Tan, Xin; Gao, Zhu-fen; Zhang, Xi-yan; Qi, Chun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County, Hainan Province of South China. The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods, and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Then, the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated. In the same areas, most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards, with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH. The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards. The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144, 147 and 233 bp, respectively. Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool, it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium. The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N, available K, available P and water content, and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.

  4. Quorum sensing and bacterial pathogenicity: From molecules to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksh Deep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration (i.e. a Quorum and communicate with them. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteria a mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying the production of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficient bacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defense mechanisms and establish infection. Quorum sensing systems are studied in a large number of gram-negative bacterial species belonging to α, β, and γ subclasses of proteobacteria. Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. Presently, Quorum sensing is considered as a potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy to control multi/all drug-resistant infections. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation.

  5. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  6. Determination of bacterial disease map for rainbow trout farms in Van province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Muhammed; Önalan, Şükrü

    2016-04-01

    Lactococcosis, yersiniosis, listenollosis and cold water disease agents are frequently observed in Turkey as bacterial fish pathogens. Bacterial fish pathogens have high mortality prognosis, causing significant economic losses for the businesses. Use of molecular methods in substantiation of disease factors became prevalent in recent years. These methods have a significant role in fast diagnosis and early treatment of fish diseases. In the present study, 8 rainbow trout samples were obtained from each of 19 rainbow trout farms located in Van province, Turkey and registered with Food, Agriculture and Livestock Ministry. Total genomic DNAs were isolated from kidney tissues of sampled rainbow trout. Obtained DNAs were analyzed with real-time PCR there is/not (+/-) analysis using disease specific primer pairs for each disease. Molecular diagnosis of lactococcosis pathogen in 4 farms out of 19 rainbow trout farms active in Van province, and yersiniosis pathogen in 1 farm were made as a result real-time PCR analysis. Listenollosis and cold water pathogens were not molecularly observed. Results of the present study demonstrated that the region was safe for bacterial fish pathogens of cold water disease and listenollosis, which are observed frequently in Turkey, and there were deficiencies in preventive measures against lactococcosis and yersiniosis and fish transfer was a significant reason for the prevalence these diseases.

  7. Role of long non-coding RNAs in bacterial cold water disease pathogenesis in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the major causes of mortality in salmonids. Three genetic lines of rainbow trout designated as ARS-Fp-R (resistant), ARS-Fp-C (control) and ARS-Fp-S (susceptible) have significant differences in survival rate follow...

  8. Recent trends in control methods for bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases.

  9. Bacterial toxins fuel disease progression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lindahl, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) bacterial infections constitute a major clinical problem caused by compromised skin barrier and a progressive immunodeficiency. Indeed, the majority of patients with advanced disease die from infections with bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus...

  10. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated p...

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease in rats: Bacterial and chemical interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inaya Abdallah Hajj Hussein; Rania Tohme; Kassem Barada; Mostafa Hassan Mostafa; Jean-Noel Freund; Rosalyn A Jurjus; Walid Karam; Abdo Jurjus

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To develop a novel model of colitis in rats, using a combination of iodoacetamide and enteropathogenic E. Coll (EPEC), and to elucidate the pathophysiologic processes implicated in the development of ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=158) were inoculated intrarectally on a weekly basis with 4 different combinations: (a) 1% methylcellulose (MC),(b) 100 μL of 6% iodoacetamide (IA) in 1% MC, (c) 200 μL containing 4 x 108 colony factor units (CFU) of EPEC, and (d) combined treatment of (IA) followed by bacteria (B) after 2d. Thirty days post treatment, each of the four groups was divided into two subgroups; the inoculation was stopped for one subgroup and the other subgroup continued with biweekly inoculation until the end of the experiment. Colitis was evaluated by the clinical course of the disease, the macroscopic and microscopic alterations, activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and by TNF-α gene expression.RESULTS: Findings indicative of UC were seen in the combined treatment (IA+B) as well as the IA continued treatment groups: the animals showed slow rate of increase in body weight, diarrhea, bloody stools, high colonic ulcer score, as well as histological alterations characteristic of UC, with an extensive inflammaton/reaction. During the course of the experiment, the MPO activity was consistently elevated and the TNF-α gene expression was upregulated compared to the control animals.CONCLUSION: The experimental ulcerative colitis model used in the present study resembles, to a great extent, the human disease. It is reproducible with characteristics indicative of chronicity.

  12. Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eManching

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P< 0.001. Lower species richness—alpha diversity--was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression.

  13. Heuristic reevaluation of the bacterial hypothesis of peptic ulcer disease in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šešelja, Dunja; Straßer, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the first half of the twentieth century the research on peptic ulcer disease (PUD) focused on two rivaling hypothesis: the "acidity" and the "bacterial" one. According to the received view, the latter was dismissed during the 1950s only to be revived with Warren's and Marshall's discovery of Helicobacter pylori in the 1980s. In this paper we investigate why the bacterial hypothesis was largely abandoned in the 1950s, and whether there were good epistemic reasons for its dismissal. Of special interest for our research question is Palmer's 1954 large-scale study, which challenged the bacterial hypothesis with serious counter-evidence, and which by many scholars is considered as the shifting point in the research on PUD. However, we show that: (1) The perceived refutatory impact of Palmer's study was disproportionate to its methodological rigor. This undermines its perceived status as a crucial experiment against the bacterial hypothesis. (2) In view of this and other considerations we argue that the bacterial hypothesis was worthy of pursuit in the 1950s.

  14. Bacterial vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects on clinical outcomes and cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Salvador; Marco, Francisco M; Martínez-Carbonell, Juan A; Carratalá, José A

    2015-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Exacerbation episodes impair lung function leading to disease progression. Levels of inflammation markers correlate with disease severity. Bacterial immunomodulators have shown a beneficial effect in COPD, improving symptoms and reducing the rate of exacerbations. This is an observational prospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis and COPD, who received bacterial autogenous vaccine for 12 months. The rate of exacerbation, severity of symptoms and lung function were studied at baseline and after treatment. In addition, plasma levels CRP, IL6, IL8, and TNFα were measured. After treatment we found a reduction in mean acute respiratory infections and signs of lung disease. Acute phase proteins IL6 and CRP increased in blood and IL8 decreased. These changes may be related to the repeated injection of inactivated bacteria. Given the implication of these factors in the pathogenesis of COPD, particularly the production of IL8, the causes and consequences of cytokine modulation by bacterial vaccines should be investigated. Vaccination with autogenous vaccines for 1 year can produce a significant clinical improvement in COPD patients, reducing the frequency of exacerbations associated to changes in the profile of markers of inflammation.

  15. Cleavage of CXCR1 on neutrophils disables bacterial killing in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Dominik; Latzin, Philipp; Hordijk, Peter; Marcos, Veronica; Rudolph, Carsten; Woischnik, Markus; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Koller, Barbara; Reinhardt, Dietrich; Roscher, Adelbert A; Roos, Dirk; Griese, Matthias

    2007-12-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) activates neutrophils via the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. However, the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis are frequently colonized by bacterial pathogens, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils and IL-8. Here we show that IL-8 promotes bacterial killing by neutrophils through CXCR1 but not CXCR2. Unopposed proteolytic activity in the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis cleaved CXCR1 on neutrophils and disabled their bacterial-killing capacity. These effects were protease concentration-dependent and also occurred to a lesser extent in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Receptor cleavage induced the release of glycosylated CXCR1 fragments that were capable of stimulating IL-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells via Toll-like receptor 2. In vivo inhibition of proteases by inhalation of alpha1-antitrypsin restored CXCR1 expression and improved bacterial killing in individuals with cystic fibrosis. The cleavage of CXCR1, the functional consequences of its cleavage, and the identification of soluble CXCR1 fragments that behave as bioactive components represent a new pathophysiologic mechanism in cystic fibrosis and other chronic lung diseases.

  16. Serum sialic acid in malignant tumors, bacterial infections, and chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefenelli, N; Klotz, H; Engel, A; Bauer, P

    1985-01-01

    The total serum sialic acid concentration was determined in 2,264 persons with various malignant tumors, bacterial infections, rheumatic diseases, and chronic liver diseases, and in a control group. The thiobarbiturate method according to Warren was used. The upper limit (95% percentile) in the control group was 2.23 mumol/ml. Higher values were found in the groups with neoplasms (mean: 3.04 mumol/ml), inflammatory diseases (e.g., pneumonia: 3.02 mumol/ml), and active rheumatoid arthritis (3.05 mumol/ml). In the group with malignant diseases, the sialic acid concentration at the time of diagnosis was highest for bronchial carcinoma (3.29 mumol/ml) and lowest for breast cancer (2.58 mumol/ml). In chronic liver diseases the mean sialic acid level was lower than in a heterogeneous group of noninflammatory and nonneoplastic diseases. The estimation of the serum sialic acid concentration could be useful in the detection of tumor burden and metastases, and in the evaluation of the later course and prognosis of malignant neoplasms if bacterial/inflammatory and active rheumatoid processes can be excluded.

  17. Gene expression analysis during cassava defense response to bacterial blight disease

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a destructive disease in the South América and África and yield losses range between 12 and 100%. Cytochemistry and biochemistry of defense response to CBB have been well studied. However, the response of the plant to pathogen attack at the molecular and cellular level remains uncharacterized. Identification of genes associated with defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation ...

  18. Both msa Genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum Are Needed for Full Virulence in Bacterial Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Coady, Alison M; Murray, Anthony L.; Elliott, Diane G.; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits.

  20. Antibody repertoire profiling using bacterial display identifies reactivity signatures of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Bradley N; Murray, Joseph A; Kagnoff, Martin; Kaukinen, Katri; Daugherty, Patrick S

    2013-01-15

    A general strategy to identify serum antibody specificities associated with a given disease state and peptide reagents for their detection was developed using bacterial display peptide libraries and multiparameter flow cytometry (MPFC). Using sera from patients with celiac disease (CD) (n = 45) or healthy subjects (n = 40), bacterial display libraries were screened for peptides that react specifically with antibodies from CD patients and not with those from healthy patients. The libraries were screened for peptides that simultaneously cross-react with CD patient antibodies present in two separate patient groups labeled with spectrally distinct fluorophores but do not react with unlabeled non-CD antibodies, thus affording a quantitative separation. A panel of six unique peptide sequences yielded 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity (AUC = 0.91) on a set of 60 samples not used for discovery, using leave-one-out cross-validation. Individual peptides were dissimilar with known CD-specific antigens tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and deamidated gliadin, and the classifier accuracy was independent of anti-tTG antibody titer. These results demonstrate that bacterial display/MPFC provides a highly effective tool for the unbiased discovery of disease-associated antibody specificities and peptide reagents for their detection that may have broad utility for diagnostic development.

  1. A Brief Review of Viral and Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Colorectal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a common source of presentation to colorectal surgeons. Clinicians need to remain mindful of the possibility of STDs when faced with atypical clinical presentations. This article aims to provide surgeons with a synopsis of common pathogens, their clinical presentations, diagnostic investigations and treatment regimens. Evidence Acquisition The most common bacterial pathogens include Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea with synchronous infections at presentation occurring frequently. Patients often present with proctitis. Gonorrhea patients can also experience bloody purulent perianal discharge. Less common bacterial pathogens include syphilis, chancroid and donovanosis. The commonest STD worldwide remains human papillomavirus. Given its vast array of subtypes its manifestations include benign hyperproliferative lesions like perianal warts and extend to anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. Other important viral infections of the anorectum include human immunodeficiency virus and subsequent acquired immune deficiency disease as well as herpes simplex virus and molluscum contangiosum. Results Debate exists whether the increasing incidence of STDs affecting the anorectum reported in western literature represents a real increase or a reflection of greater patient and clinician recognition and reporting. Conclusions Regardless, a broad understanding of common bacterial and viral pathogens remains important part of modern colorectal practice. Remaining mindful of the manifestations of these common pathogens, options for diagnosis and management are important in disease control to limit the impact of these pathogens across the wider community.

  2. Bacterial diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005156 The study of bacteriophage-bases assay detecting ethambutol resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MA Xiao-wei(马晓薇) ,et al. Pneum Hosp Shanghai,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Infect Dis,2004;22(6) :377-380. Objective: To set up and evaluate the method of phage amplified biologically assay (PhaB) in the rapid detection of ethambutol resistance. Methods:

  3. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008377 Effective expression and immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1 HXB2 subtype Tat protein deleted the cysteine-rich region in E. coli. CHEN Lu(陈璐), et al. Dept Microbiol, 2nd Milit Med Univ, Shanghai 200433.Chin J Microbiol 2008;28(5):404-409. Objective Deleting the cysteine-rich region (22-37 amino acids) of HIV-1 HXB2 Tat protein(whole length is 101 amino acids) to improve its stability and expression level in E.

  4. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010289 The detection of marOR mutations and their relations with acrAB-tolC expression in Shigella. REN Jingchao(任静朝),et al. Dept Epidemiol & Biostatistics,Public Health Coll,Zhengzhou Univ,Zhengzhou 450001.Chin J Microbiol 2010;30(3):201-204. Objective To

  5. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970230 Malignant transformation of gastric mucosalcells induced by concentrated Helicobacter pylori cul-trure supernatant in vitro. LIANG Houjie(梁后杰), etal. Dept Gastroenterol, Southwest Hosp, 3rd MilitMed Univ, Chongqing, 630038. Chin J New Gastroen-terol 1997; 5(4): 213-215.

  6. Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008241 Comparison of opa typing with Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing for discrimination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from patients and their sex partners.CHEN Hongxiang(陈宏翔),et al.Dept Dermatol Wuhan Union Hosp,Tongji Med Coll,Huazhong Sci & Technol Univ,Wuhan 4300022.Chin J Dermatol 2008;41(5):307-310.Objective To compare the potentiality of opa typing ersus Ncisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing(Ng-MAST)in discrimination of N.gonorrhoeae iso-lates,and to investigate the consistency of genotypes of

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-03-26

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required.

  8. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeon, Min-Seong; Son, Soo-Hyeong; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria. PMID:27721693

  9. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kyeon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria.

  10. Gut bacterial profile in patients newly diagnosed with treatment-naïve Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricanek P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Petr Ricanek,1,2 Sheba M Lothe,1 Stephan A Frye,1 Andreas Rydning,2 Morten H Vatn,3,4 Tone Tønjum1,51Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog and Faculty Division Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 3EpiGen Institute, Faculty Division Akershus University Hospital, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 4Department of Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 5Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Department of Microbiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayObjectives: The aim of this study was to define the composition of the gut bacterial flora in Norwegian patients with early stage Crohn's disease (CD. Methods: By using a nonselective metagenomics approach, the general bacterial composition in mucosal biopsies from the ileum and the colon of five subjects, four patients with different phenotypes of CD, and one noninflammatory bowel disease control, was characterized. After partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing, BLAST homology searches for species identification and phylogenetic analysis were performed.Results: An overall biodiversity of 106 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs was detected in the cloned libraries. Nearly all OTUs belonged to the phylae Bacteroidetes (42% in CD, 71% in the control or Firmicutes (42% in CD, 28% in the control, except for some OTUs that belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria (15% in CD, 0% in the control and a few OTUs that could not be assigned to a phylum (2% in CD, 1% in the control.Conclusion: Based on the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Norway, this pilot study represents a relevant determination of the gut microbiota in Norwegian patients compared to previous findings in other countries. The bacterial profile of Norwegian CD patients was found to be similar

  11. Cultivation-Independent Methods Reveal Differences among Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Triatomine Vectors of Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Methodology/Principal Findings Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. Conclusions/Significance The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure

  12. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  13. Oregon ESA 2010 BKD vertical transmission - Test of analyses for bacterial kidney disease as predictors of vertical transmission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Although the pathogen causing bacterial kidney disease is known to be transmitted from broodstock female to offspring, there is large uncertainty around the...

  14. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  15. Clinical implications of oral candidiasis: host tissue damage and disseminated bacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric F; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2015-02-01

    The clinical significance of polymicrobial interactions, particularly those between commensal species with high pathogenic potential, remains largely understudied. Although the dimorphic fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are common cocolonizers of humans, they are considered leading opportunistic pathogens. Oral candidiasis specifically, characterized by hyphal invasion of oral mucosal tissue, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) and immunocompromised individuals. In this study, building on our previous findings, a mouse model was developed to investigate whether the onset of oral candidiasis predisposes the host to secondary staphylococcal infection. The findings demonstrated that in mice with oral candidiasis, subsequent exposure to S. aureus resulted in systemic bacterial infection with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy of tongue tissue from moribund animals revealed massive C. albicans hyphal invasion coupled with S. aureus deep tissue infiltration. The crucial role of hyphae in the process was demonstrated using a non-hypha-producing and a noninvasive hypha-producing mutant strains of C. albicans. Further, in contrast to previous findings, S. aureus dissemination was aided but not contingent upon the presence of the Als3p hypha-specific adhesion. Importantly, impeding development of mucosal C. albicans infection by administering antifungal fluconazole therapy protected the animals from systemic bacterial disease. The combined findings from this study demonstrate that oral candidiasis may constitute a risk factor for disseminated bacterial disease warranting awareness in terms of therapeutic management of immunocompromised individuals.

  16. The dynamics of spreading bacterial diseases and ilnesses caused by helminthosis in Adjara Autonomous Republic 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtatidze, N; Chachnelidze, R; Chkaidze, M

    2013-01-01

    According to the data of past few years it has been determined that the general incidence and the prevalence of the bacterial and helminthosis diseases have increased. Epidemic Supervision has registered a slight increase of such diseases in data of 2011. Taking into consideration this fact, this research is quite important for the region of Adjara. The aim of our research is to study the dynamics of spreading some bacterial and helminthosis diseases in Adjara Autonomous Republic. In particular, the diseases caused by different bacterias of leptospira family - leptospirosis and illnesses caused by helminthosis - ascariasis, enterobiasis and trichocephalosis. according to the reseaches held it has been determined that there have been several cases of leptospirosis registered in Adjara. Specifically, 10 cases in 2008, 6 in 2009, 30 in 2010 and 31 cases in 2011 out of which 10 of the cases where laboratorily claimed. There were cases of ascariasis, enterobiasis and trichocephalosis. According to data, there are 5 times less cases of trichocephalosis than of ascariasis. As for enterobiasis, it's less than ascariasis (the difference is 205 cases). In therms of the aging, all the cases occur more frequently in the group of children below the age of 14.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been used to treat a range of different conditions, including periodontal disease (PD and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. That DHA helps with these oral and gastrointestinal diseases in which inflammation and bacterial dysbiosis play key roles, raises the question of whether DHA may assist in the prevention or treatment of other inflammatory conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome, which have also been linked with inflammation and alterations in normal host microbial populations. Here we review established and investigated associations between DHA, PD, and IBD. We conclude that by beneficially altering cytokine production and macrophage recruitment, the composition of intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity, lipopolysaccharide- and adipose-induced inflammation, and insulin signaling, DHA may be a key tool in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1987-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BRD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon of the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon of Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem,and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's third year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cells and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (cellular proliferation), and the kinetics of mortality after Lethal injections of the bacterium. An important facet of this research is the identification and isolation of virulence factors. These studies are not only important to the dissection of the mechanism of pathogenesis of bacterial kidney disease, but the purification of such a factor(s) will insure the production of a more potent vaccine. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified antigenic material which protect; (2) identified antigenic material which can exacerbate the disease; (3) identified a possibly major mechanism of pathogenesis via the interference with antibody; (4) the general ability to produce delineated a western blot technique for identification of infected fish; (5) described the

  19. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen

    1988-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's fourth year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various--chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cell and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (chemiluminescence), and the kinetics of mortality after lethal injections of the bacteria. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified immunization procedures which enhance the induction of high levels of antibody; (2) identified functionally distinct serum antibodies which may possess different abilities to protect salmon against BKD; (3) begun the isolation and characterization of anti-R. salmoninarum antibodies which may correlate with varying degrees of protection; (4) identified chemiluminescence as a potential method for assessing cellular immunity to bacterial kidney disease; and (5) characterized two monoclonal antibodies to R. salmoninarum which will be of benefit in the diagnosis of this disease.

  20. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Martyn D.; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of ...

  1. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We syn

  2. Culturable bacterial microbiota of the stomach of Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastric disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.

  3. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.

  4. Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, A.M.; Murray, A.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Rhodes, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. Copyright ?? 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Jellyfish as vectors of bacterial disease for farmed salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Hugh W; Delannoy, Christian M J; Hay, Stephen; Nicolson, James; Sutherland, David; Crumlish, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Swarms or blooms of jellyfish are increasingly problematic and can result in high mortality rates of farmed fish. Small species of jellyfish, such as Phialella quadrata (13 mm in diameter), are capable of passing through the mesh of sea cages and being sucked into the mouth of fish during respiration. Results of the current study show that the initial damage to gills of farmed Atlantic salmon, likely produced by nematocyst-derived toxins from the jellyfish, was compounded by secondary bacterial infection with Tenacibaculum maritimum. Results also demonstrate that these filamentous bacteria were present on the mouth of the jellyfish and that their DNA sequences were almost identical to those of bacteria present on the salmon gills. This suggests that the bacterial lesions were not the result of an opportunistic infection of damaged tissue, as previously thought. Instead, P. quadrata is probably acting as a vector for this particular bacterial pathogen, and it is the first time that evidence to support such a link has been presented. No prior literature describing the presence of bacteria associated with jellyfish, except studies about their decay, could be found. It is not known if all jellyfish of this and other species carry similar bacteria or the relationship to each other. Their source, the role they play under other circumstances, and indeed whether the jellyfish were themselves diseased are also not known. The high proteolytic capabilities of T. maritimum mean that partially digested gill tissues were readily available to the jellyfish, which rely heavily on intracellular digestion for their nutrition.

  6. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  7. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1986-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BRD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's second year was to chemically modify the major antigens of Renibacteirium salmoninarum, immunize coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to test the immunogenicity of the preparations used. Immunogenicity of the antigenic material was tested by (1) admixture experiments, using whole KD cells with muramyl dipepetide, Vibrio anguillarum extract, E. coli lipopolysaccharide, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Freund's complete adjuvant. In addition to these goals a number of important techniques have been developed in order to facilitate the production of the vaccine. These procedures include: (1) the use of the soluble antigen for diagnosis in the ELISA and Western blot analysis, (2) detection of salmonid anti-KD antibodies by an ELISA technique, (3) detection of cellular immune responses to the soluble antigen, and (4) development of immersion challenge procedures for bacterial kidney disease (BKD).

  8. PINK DISEASE, A REVIEW OF AN ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIAL DISEASE IN PINEAPPLE

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    VIANEY MARÍN-CEVADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pink disease is an asymptomatic pineapple disease in the field and is evidenced with a reddark coloration when the infected fruit is processed to obtain products such as juice, jam, and preservatives. Tatumella morbirosei and T. ptyseos (formerly Pantoea citrea have been demonstrated as causal agents. Although T. morbirosei and T. ptyseos have been well studied, there are currently no cost effective control methods in pineapple cultivation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the significant and updated research on the role of pink disease in pineapple.

  9. Persistent and Recurrent Bacterial Bronchitis—A Paradigm Shift in Our Understanding of Chronic Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Alya; Everard, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    The recent recognition that the conducting airways are not “sterile” and that they have their own dynamic microbiome, together with the rapid advances in our understanding of microbial biofilms and their roles in the causation of respiratory diseases (such as chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, and chronic otitis media), permit us to update the “vicious circle” hypothesis of the causation of bronchiectasis. This proposes that chronic inflammation driven by persistent bacterial bronchitis (PBB) causes damage to both the epithelium, resulting in impaired mucociliary clearance, and to the airway wall, which eventually manifests as bronchiectasis. The link between a “chronic bronchitis” and a persistence of bacterial pathogens, such as non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, was first made more than 100 years ago, and its probable role in the causation of bronchiectasis was proposed soon afterward. The recognition that the “usual suspects” are adept at forming biofilms and hence are able to persist and dominate the normal dynamically changing “healthy microbiome” of the conducting airways provides an explanation for the chronic colonization of the bronchi and for the associated chronic neutrophil-dominated inflammation characteristic of a PBB. Understanding the complex interaction between the host and the microbial communities of the conducting airways in health and disease will be a key component in optimizing pulmonary health in the future. PMID:28261574

  10. Partially responsive celiac disease resulting from small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance

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    Misra Asha

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption syndrome all over the world. Though it was considered uncommon in India in past, it is being described frequently recently. Some patients with celiac disease do not improve despite gluten free diet (GFD. A study described 15 cases of celiac disease unresponsive to GFD in whom small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO or lactose intolerance was the cause for unresponsiveness. Case presentation During a three-year period, 12 adult patients with celiac disease were seen in the Luminal Gastroenterology Clinic in a tertiary referral center in northern India. Two of these 12 patients (16.6%, who did not fully respond to GFD initially, are presented here. Unresponsiveness resulted from SIBO in one and lactose intolerance in the other. The former patient responded to antibiotics and the latter to lactose withdrawal in addition to standard GFD. Conclusion In patients with celiac disease partially responsive or unresponsive to GFD, SIBO and lactose intolerance should be suspected; appropriate investigations and treatment for these may result in complete recovery.

  11. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education.

  12. Evaluating clinical periodontal measures as surrogates for bacterial exposure: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs David R; Papapanou Panos N; Demmer Ryan T; Desvarieux Moïse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are currently no methodological studies evaluating which clinical periodontal measures best reflect the levels of subgingival bacterial colonization in population-based settings. We investigated the characteristics of clinical periodontal definitions that were most represen...

  13. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  14. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  15. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Maxine Caws

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated pulmonary tuberculosis. The host genotype of tuberculosis cases was also compared with the genotype of 392 cord blood controls from the same population. Isolates of M. tuberculosis were genotyped by large sequence polymorphisms. The hosts were defined by polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2. We found a significant protective association between the Euro-American lineage of M. tuberculosis and pulmonary rather than meningeal tuberculosis (Odds ratio (OR for causing TBM 0.395, 95% confidence intervals (C.I. 0.193-0.806, P = 0.009, suggesting these strains are less capable of extra-pulmonary dissemination than others in the study population. We also found that individuals with the C allele of TLR-2 T597C allele were more likely to have tuberculosis caused by the East-Asian/Beijing genotype (OR = 1.57 [95% C.I. 1.15-2.15] than other individuals. The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis.

  16. The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caws, Maxine; Thwaites, Guy; Dunstan, Sarah; Hawn, Thomas R.; Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen; Thuong, Nguyen Thuy Thuong; Stepniewska, Kasia; Huyen, Mai Nguyet Thu; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Huu Loc, Tran; Gagneux, Sebastien; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; van der Sande, Marianne; Small, Peter; Thi Hoang Anh, Phan; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thi Quy, Hoang; Thi Hong Duyen, Nguyen; Quang Tho, Dau; Hieu, Nguyen T.; Torok, Estee; Hien, Tran Tinh; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Thi Quynh Nhu, Nguyen; Duy, Phan Minh; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated pulmonary tuberculosis. The host genotype of tuberculosis cases was also compared with the genotype of 392 cord blood controls from the same population. Isolates of M. tuberculosis were genotyped by large sequence polymorphisms. The hosts were defined by polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2). We found a significant protective association between the Euro-American lineage of M. tuberculosis and pulmonary rather than meningeal tuberculosis (Odds ratio (OR) for causing TBM 0.395, 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) 0.193–0.806, P = 0.009), suggesting these strains are less capable of extra-pulmonary dissemination than others in the study population. We also found that individuals with the C allele of TLR-2 T597C allele were more likely to have tuberculosis caused by the East-Asian/Beijing genotype (OR = 1.57 [95% C.I. 1.15–2.15]) than other individuals. The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis. PMID:18369480

  17. Phenotypic diversity and emerging new tools to study macrophage activation in bacterial infectious diseases

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    Jean-Louis eMege

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing versus repair of the host response to bacteria: M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases such as leprosy and Whipple’s disease, most acute (sepsis or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology.

  18. Transgenic resistance confers effective field level control of bacterial spot disease in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Horvath

    Full Text Available We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides.

  19. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

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    Kathryn P. Haley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world’s human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

  20. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae

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    Da-Ran Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August, the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  1. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Ran; Gang, Gun-Hye; Jeon, Chang-Wook; Kang, Nam Jun; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2016-08-01

    Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS) disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August), the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%). To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  2. Evaluating clinical periodontal measures as surrogates for bacterial exposure: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs David R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are currently no methodological studies evaluating which clinical periodontal measures best reflect the levels of subgingival bacterial colonization in population-based settings. We investigated the characteristics of clinical periodontal definitions that were most representative of exposure to bacterial species that are believed to be either markers, or themselves etiologic, of periodontal disease. Methods 706 men and women aged ≥ 55 years, residing in northern Manhattan were enrolled. Using DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization in subgingival biofilms, standardized values for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were averaged within mouth and summed to define "bacterial burden". Correlations of bacterial burden with clinical periodontal constructs defined by the severity and extent of attachment loss (AL, pocket depth (PD and bleeding on probing (BOP were assessed. Results Clinical periodontal constructs demonstrating the highest correlations with bacterial burden were: i percent of sites with BOP (r = 0.62; ii percent of sites with PD ≥ 3 mm (r = 0.61; and iii number of sites with BOP (r = 0.59. Increasing PD or AL severity thresholds consistently attenuated correlations, i.e., the correlation of bacterial burden with the percent of sites with PD ≥ 8 mm was only r = 0.16. Conclusions Clinical exposure definitions of periodontal disease should incorporate relatively shallow pockets to best reflect whole mouth exposure to bacterial burden.

  3. Huanglongbing, a systemic disease, restructures the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

    2010-06-01

    To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P citrus by "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots.

  4. Using data clustering as a method of estimating the risk of establishment of bacterial crop diseases

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    Michael J. Watts

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has investigated the use of data clustering of regional species assemblages to estimate the relative risk of establishment of insect crop pest species. This paper describes the use of these techniques to estimate the risk posed by bacterial crop plant diseases. Two widely-used clustering algorithms, the Kohonen Self-Organising Map and the k-means clustering algorithm, were investigated. It describes how a wider variety of SOM architectures than previously used were investigated, and how both of these algorithms reacted to the addition of small amounts of random 'noise' to the species assemblages. The results indicate that the k-means clustering algorithm is much more computationally efficient, produces better clusters as determined by an objective measure of cluster quality and is more resistant to noise in the data than equivalent Kohonen SOM. Therefore k-means is considered to be the better algorithm for this problem.

  5. Genomics reveals historic and contemporary transmission dynamics of a bacterial disease among wildlife and livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Drees, Kevin P.; Luikart, Gordon; Quance, Christine; Anderson, Neil J.; Clarke, P. Ryan; Cole, Eric K.; Drew, Mark L.; Edwards, William H.; Rhyan, Jack C.; Treanor, John J.; Wallen, Rick L.; White, Patrick J.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Cross, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has provided fundamental insights into infectious disease epidemiology, but has rarely been used for examining transmission dynamics of a bacterial pathogen in wildlife. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), outbreaks of brucellosis have increased in cattle along with rising seroprevalence in elk. Here we use a genomic approach to examine Brucella abortus evolution, cross-species transmission and spatial spread in the GYE. We find that brucellosis was introduced into wildlife in this region at least five times. The diffusion rate varies among Brucella lineages (B3 to 8 km per year) and over time. We also estimate 12 host transitions from bison to elk, and 5 from elk to bison. Our results support the notion that free-ranging elk are currently a self-sustaining brucellosis reservoir and the source of livestock infections, and that control measures in bison are unlikely to affect the dynamics of unrelated strains circulating in nearby elk populations.

  6. Influence of bacterial kidney disease on smoltification in salmonids: Is it a case of double jeopardy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.; Poe, T.P.; Schreck, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a chronic, progressive infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs), the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), on selected aspects of smoltification in yearling juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). After experimentally infecting fish with Rs using an immersion challenge, we sampled them every two weeks to monitor changes in gill Na+, K+-ATPase (ATPase), cortisol, infection level, mortality, growth, and other stress-related physiological factors during the normal time of parr-smolt transformation in fresh water (i.e., from winter to spring). A progressively worsening infection with Rs did not alter the normal changes in gill ATPase and condition factor associated with smoltification in juvenile chinook salmon. The infection did, however, lead to elevated levels of plasma cortisol and lactate and depressed levels of plasma glucose, indicating that the disease is stressful during the later stages. A dramatic proliferation of BKD was associated with maximal responses of indicators of smoltification, suggesting that the process of smoltification itself can trigger outbreaks of disease. Our results suggest mechanisms that probably influence the reported inability of Rs-infected fish to successfully adapt to sea water.

  7. Pathogenicity of a Very Virulent Strain of Marek's Disease Herpesvirus Cloned as Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

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    Lorraine P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC vectors containing the full-length genomes of several herpesviruses have been used widely as tools to enable functional studies of viral genes. Marek's disease viruses (MDVs are highly oncogenic alphaherpesviruses that induce rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Oncogenic strains of MDV reconstituted from BAC clones have been used to examine the role of viral genes in inducing tumours. Past studies have demonstrated continuous increase in virulence of MDV strains. We have previously reported on the UK isolate C12/130 that showed increased virulence features including lymphoid organ atrophy and enhanced tropism for the central nervous system. Here we report the construction of the BAC clones (pC12/130 of this strain. Chickens were infected with viruses reconstituted from the pC12/130 clones along with the wild-type virus for the comparison of the pathogenic properties. Our studies show that BAC-derived viruses induced disease similar to the wild-type virus, though there were differences in the levels of pathogenicity between individual viruses. Generation of BAC clones that differ in the potential to induce cytolytic disease provide the opportunity to identify the molecular determinants of increased virulence by direct sequence analysis as well as by using reverse genetics approaches on the infectious BAC clones.

  8. Gene expression analysis during cassava defense response to bacterial blight disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Suárez Mauricio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava bacterial blight (CBB caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam is a destructive disease in the South América and África and yield losses range between 12 and 100%. Cytochemistry and biochemistry of defense response to CBB have been well studied. However, the response of the plant to pathogen attack at the molecular and cellular level remains uncharacterized. Identification of genes associated with defense responses is one of most critical steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance mechanisms in cassava. In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes during pathogen attack by subtractive hybridization, using the Differential Subtraction Chain method (DSC. A population of cDNA obtained from infected plants was used as ";treatment"; and a population of cDNA obtained from healthy plants was used as ";control";. 1536 clones were isolated from the resistant varieties (MBRA 685 and SG 107-35. Of these, 110 randomly selected clones were sequenced and a homology search was conducted. The sequence analysis showed that 14 cDNA clones shared homology with plant genes involved in defense responses, 70 clones were either homologous to plant genes of unknown function or showed no homology, representing new genes potentially involved in cassava defense responses. A cDNA microarray was constructed by spotting the clones identified from our subtractive libraries. Other clones potentially involved in cassava defense responses were also included. The cassava defense cDNA microarray was used to confirm the differential expression of the clones. Keywords: cassava, bacterial blight, gene expression, subtractive library, microarrays.

  9. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  10. Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1 Mediates Pathogen Resistance and Virulence Function of a Bacterial Effector in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Shine, M B; Gao, Qing-Ming; Navarre, Duroy; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan; Hu, Guohua; Kachroo, Aardra

    2014-05-28

    Enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1) and phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) are well-known regulators of both basal and resistance (R) protein-mediated plant defense. We identified two EDS1-like (GmEDS1a/GmEDS1b) proteins and one PAD4-like (GmPAD4) protein that are required for resistance signaling in soybean (Glycine max). Consistent with their significant structural conservation to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) counterparts, constitutive expression of GmEDS1 or GmPAD4 complemented the pathogen resistance defects of Arabidopsis eds1 and pad4 mutants, respectively. Interestingly, however, the GmEDS1 and GmPAD4 did not complement pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation in the eds1/pad4 mutants. Furthermore, the GmEDS1a/GmEDS1b proteins were unable to complement the turnip crinkle virus coat protein-mediated activation of the Arabidopsis R protein Hypersensitive reaction to Turnip crinkle virus (HRT), even though both interacted with HRT. Silencing GmEDS1a/GmEDS1b or GmPAD4 reduced basal and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation and enhanced soybean susceptibility to virulent pathogens. The GmEDS1a/GmEDS1b and GmPAD4 genes were also required for Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea2 (Rpg2)-mediated resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Notably, the GmEDS1a/GmEDS1b proteins interacted with the cognate bacterial effector AvrA1 and were required for its virulence function in rpg2 plants. Together, these results show that despite significant structural similarities, conserved defense signaling components from diverse plants can differ in their functionalities. In addition, we demonstrate a role for GmEDS1 in regulating the virulence function of a bacterial effector.

  11. Investigation of polymerase chain reaction assays to improve detection of bacterial involvement in bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin J; Blackburn, Paul; Elliott, Mark; Patterson, Tony I A P; Ellison, Sean; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Ball, Hywel J

    2014-09-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes severe economic losses to the cattle farming industry worldwide. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the BRD complex are Mannheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Trueperella pyogenes. The postmortem detection of these organisms in pneumonic lung tissue is generally conducted using standard culture-based techniques where the presence of therapeutic antibiotics in the tissue can inhibit bacterial isolation. In the current study, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to assess the prevalence of these 5 organisms in grossly pneumonic lung samples from 150 animals submitted for postmortem examination, and the results were compared with those obtained using culture techniques. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected in 51 cases (34%) by PCR and in 33 cases (22%) by culture, H. somni was detected in 35 cases (23.3%) by PCR and in 6 cases (4%) by culture, Myc. bovis was detected in 53 cases (35.3%) by PCR and in 29 cases (19.3%) by culture, P. multocida was detected in 50 cases (33.3%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, and T. pyogenes was detected in 42 cases (28%) by PCR and in 31 cases (20.7%) by culture, with all differences being statistically significant. The PCR assays indicated positive results for 111 cases (74%) whereas 82 cases (54.6%) were culture positive. The PCR assays have demonstrated a significantly higher rate of detection of all 5 organisms in cases of pneumonia in cattle in Northern Ireland than was detected by current standard procedures.

  12. [Experience of using bacteriophages and bitsillin-5 to reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases of bacterial ethiology in military personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimkin, V G; Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-02-01

    The authors defined epidemiological efficacy and safety of the use of bacteriophages(streptococcal, staphylococcal, piobakferiophage multipartial) and bitsillin-5 to reduce tonsillitis morbidityand other respiratory diseases with bacterial etiology in groups of servicemen during their formationagainst increase of seasonal morbidity. The results of the use of these preventive agents were evaluatedby a comparative analysis of this disease in experimental and control groups. In total 510 healthy conscriptswere involved into the study. The effectiveness of prophylactic use of bacteriophages and bitsillin-5, whichprovided a reduction in the incidence of respiratory infections of bacterial ethiology, tonsillitis, and otherrespiratory diseases is showed. Recommendations on the choice of drugsfor the prevention of these infections,methods and organization of their application in organized groups are given.

  13. Phenomenology of infant death rates. Identification of the peaks of viral and bacterial diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2016-01-01

    After birth setting up an effective immune system is a major challenge for all living organisms. In this paper we show that this process can be explored by using the age-specific infant death rate as a kind of sensor. This is made possible because, as shown by the authors in Berrut et al. (2016), between birth and a critical age t_c, for all mammals the death rate decreases with age as an hyperbolic function. For humans t_c is equal to 10 years. At some ages the hyperbolic fall displays spikes which, it is assumed, correspond to specific events in the organism's response to exogenous factors. One of these spikes occurs 10 days after birth and there is another at the age of about 300 days. It is shown that the first spike is related to viral infections whereas the second is related to bacterial diseases. By going back to former time periods during which infant mortality was much higher than currently, it is possible to get a magnified view of these peaks which in turn may give us useful information about how a...

  14. Organisms causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in children with liver disease and ascites in Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Haghighat; Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Abdolvahab Alborzi; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Bahman Pourabbas; Mehdi Kalani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the causative agents of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in children with liver disease and ascites in our center.METHODS: During a 2.5 year period, from September 2003 to March 2006, 12 patients with 13 episodes of SBP were studied. In all cases at the time of admission serum albumin and glucose, urinalysis and urine culture was performed. Analysis [white blood cell (WBC) count with differential, albumin, glucose], gram stain, culture by BACTEC method and antibiogram was done on ascitic fluids. Abdominal paracentesis was repeated after 48h of antibiotic therapy for bacteriologic assay. The patients were followed for at least three months in a gastroenterology clinic.RESULTS: There were 7 girls (58%) and 5 boys (42%)with a median age of 5.2 years (range, 6 mo to 16 years). All cases had positive ascitic fluid culture. Gram stain was positive in 5 (38.5%) of them. The isolated organisms were S. pneumoniae in 5 (38.5%), E. coli in 2(15.3%), S. viridans in 2 (15.3%), and K. pneumoniae,H. influenza, Enterococci, and nontypable Streptococcus each in one (7.7%). All of them except Enterococci were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. All ascitic fluid cultures were negative after 48 h of antibiotic therapy.CONCLUSION: S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of SBP in the pediatric age group and we recommend a third generation cephalosporine (e.g., Ceftriaxione or Cefotaxime) for empirical therapy in children with SBP.

  15. A rapidly progressing, deadly disease of Actias selene (Indianmoonmoth) larvae associated with a mixed bacterial and baculoviral infection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marta A Skowron; Beata Guzow-Krzemińska; Sylwia Barańska; Paulina Jędrak; Grzegorz Węgrzyn

    2015-09-01

    The outbreak of an infectious disease in captive-bred Lepidoptera can cause death of all the caterpillars within days. A mixed baculoviral–bacterial infection observed among Actias selene (Hübner 1807), the Indian moon moth (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), larvae was characterized and followed by a photographic documentation of the disease progression. The etiological agents were determined using mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It appeared that the disease was caused by a mixed infection of larvae with a baculovirus and Morganella morganii. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the virus and microbiological description of the pathogenic bacterium are presented.

  16. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  17. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1988 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1989-08-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonids is a very complex disease which appears to exploit a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. An understanding of these mechanisms is essential to the development of efficacious vaccines. It has become well established from the studies published .in this report and those of others that soluble antigens which are secreted by Renibacterium salmoninarum have toxigenic potential. If they are found to be responsible for mortality, the development of toxoid(s) could be paramount to the production of a vaccine. One must, however, be circumspect in producing a vaccine. A thorough knowledge, not only of the pathogen, but also of the immune system of the host is an absolute requirement. This becomes of particular importance when dealing with fish diseases, since the field of fish immunology is still within its infancy. This lack of knowledge is particularly felt when the induction of a prophylactic immune response concomitantly leads to pathological side effects which may be as destructive as the original infection. Indeed, it appears that some aspects of BKD may be due to the induction of hypersensitivity reactions. If such immunopathologies are expressed, it is prudent to thoroughly evaluate the nature of the immunoprophylaxis to insure that these harmful sequelae do not occur. Evaluation of a variety of antigens, adjuvants, immune responses, and survival data leads us to recommend that attempts at prophylaxis against BKD should center upon the elicitation of cellular immunity utilizing preparations of Mycobacterium chelonii. The choice of this species of mycobacteria was made because of its effectiveness, ease of maintenance and production, and the lack of need for its propagation within containment facilities. These assets are important to consider if large scale vaccine production is to be profitable. As can be seen from the data provided, M. chelonii alone is capable of producing prophylaxis to BKD, however, this is likely due to the

  18. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health and disease. Design: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30 were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction. Results: From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120–353 were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143–306 and dental caries (mean 221, range 165–353 as compared to orally healthy individuals (mean 174, range 120–260 (p=0.04 and p=0.04. Nine probe targets were identified with a different relative abundance between groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Cross-sectional comparison of salivary bacterial profiles by means of HOMINGS analysis showed that different salivary bacterial profiles were associated with oral health and disease. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to evaluate if saliva-based screening for disease-associated oral bacterial profiles may be used for identification of patients at risk of acquiring periodontitis and dental caries.

  19. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in infants and children with chronic liver disease: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Latif Zainab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a serious complication in infants and children with chronic liver disease (CLD; however its diagnosis might be difficult. We aimed to study the feasibility of diagnosing SBP by routine ascitic fluid tapping in infants and children with CLD. Methods We enrolled thirty infants and children with biopsy-proven CLD and ascites. Ascitic fluid was examined for biochemical indices, cytology and cell count. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological cultures of ascitic fluid were preformed. Direct smears were prepared from ascitic fluid deposit for Gram and Zheil-Nelson staining. Results Patients were divided into three groups: Group I included five patients with SBP in which the cell count was ≥ 250/mm3 and culture was positive (16.7%, Group II, eight patients with culture negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA with cells ≥ 250/mm3 and negative culture (26.7% and Group III, seventeen negative patients (56.6% in which cells were 3 and culture was negative. None of our patients had bacteriascites (i.e. culture positive with cells 3. Presence of fever was significantly higher in SBP and CNNA. The mean lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly higher in ascitic fluid in the infected versus sterile cases (p Conclusions SBP is a rather common complication in children with CLD. Culture of the ascitic fluid is not always diagnostic of infection. Biochemical parameters of the ascitic fluid definitely add to the diagnostic accuracy. LDH ascitic/serum ratio ≥ 0.5, an arterial-ascitic pH gradient ≥ 0.1 and total ascitic fluid protein ≤ 1 gm/dl are the most significant parameters suggesting infection.

  20. Practical benefits of knowing the enemy: Modern molecular tools for diagnosing the etiology of bacterial diseases and understanding the taxonomy and diversity of plant pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the identity of bacterial plant pathogens is essential to strategic and sustainable disease management. However, such identifications are linked to bacterial taxonomy, a complicated and changing discipline that depends on methods and information that often are not used by those who are diagn...

  1. Direct bacterial killing in vitro by recombinant Nod2 is compromised by Crohn's disease-associated mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Herve Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A homeostatic relationship with the intestinal microflora is increasingly appreciated as essential for human health and wellbeing. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR domain of Nod2, a bacterial recognition protein, are associated with development of the inflammatory bowel disorder, Crohn's disease. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying disruption of intestinal symbiosis in patients carrying Nod2 mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, using purified recombinant LRR domains, we demonstrate that Nod2 is a direct antimicrobial agent and this activity is generally deficient in proteins carrying Crohn's-associated mutations. Wild-type, but not Crohn's-associated, Nod2 LRR domains directly interacted with bacteria in vitro, altered their metabolism and disrupted the integrity of the plasma membrane. Antibiotic activity was also expressed by the LRR domains of Nod1 and other pattern recognition receptors suggesting that the LRR domain is a conserved anti-microbial motif supporting innate cellular immunity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of anti-bacterial activity demonstrated with Crohn's-associated Nod2 mutations in vitro, supports the hypothesis that a deficiency in direct bacterial killing contributes to the association of Nod2 polymorphisms with the disease.

  2. Bacterial flora concurrent with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hu; Li-Hua He; Di Xiao; Guo-Dong Liu; Yi-Xin Gu; Xiao-Xia Tao; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylorl) bacterial flora concurrent with H.py/ori infection.METHODS:A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H.py/ori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture.All the non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).RESULTS:A total of 201 non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0%) of the 103 gastric samples,including 153 isolates identified successfully at species level and 48 at genus level by MALDI-TOF MS.The dominant species were Streptococcus,Neisseria,Rothia and Staphylococcus,which differed from the predominantly acid resistant species reported previously in healthy volunteers.The prevalence of non-H.pylori bacteria was higher in non-ulcer dyspepsia group than in gastric ulcer group (100% vs 42.9%,P < 0.001).Six bacterial species with urease activity (Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus capitis,Staphylococcus aureus,Brevibacterium spp.and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were also isolated.CONCLUSION:There is a high prevalence of the non-H.pylori bacteria concurrent with H.pylori infection,and the non-H.pylori bacteria may also play important as-yet-undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of stomach disorders.

  3. The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD susceptibility genes NOD1 and NOD2 have conserved anti-bacterial roles in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in the form of Crohn’s disease (CD or ulcerative colitis (UC, is a debilitating chronic immune disorder of the intestine. A complex etiology resulting from dysfunctional interactions between the intestinal immune system and its microflora, influenced by host genetic susceptibility, makes disease modeling challenging. Mutations in NOD2 have the highest disease-specific risk association for CD, and a related gene, NOD1, is associated with UC. NOD1 and NOD2 encode intracellular bacterial sensor proteins acting as innate immune triggers, and represent promising therapeutic targets. The zebrafish has the potential to aid in modeling genetic and environmental aspects of IBD pathogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of the Nod signaling components in the zebrafish larval intestine. The nod1 and nod2 genes are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and neutrophils together with the Nod signaling pathway genes ripk2, a20, aamp, cd147, centaurin b1, erbin and grim-19. Using a zebrafish embryo Salmonella infection model, morpholino-mediated depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 reduced the ability of embryos to control systemic infection. Depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 decreased expression of dual oxidase in the intestinal epithelium and impaired the ability of larvae to reduce intracellular bacterial burden. This work highlights the potential use of zebrafish larvae in the study of components of IBD pathogenesis.

  4. Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

    2014-07-01

    The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions.

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens associated with Bacterial Disease in Catla catla in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Omprakash Darak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a detailed analysis was carried out to evaluate the association of various bacterial pathogens with Catla catla from Marathwada region of Maharashtra. The freshwater fishes were collected from different water bodies and fish culturing centre of eight districts of Marathwada region viz. Aurangabad, Jalna, Parbhani, Nanded, Hingoli, Latur, Beed and Osmanabad. The analysis could yield thirteen pathogenic bacteria from the fish samples that included Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Aeromonas sp., Streptococcussp., Flavobacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Proteus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacteria sp., E.coli , Pseudomonas sp. The bacterial strains were identified based on colony morphology, cell morphology and biochemical chemical characters. The dominant bacterial pathogen was Pseudomonas sp. The Pseudomonas sp associated with Catla catla could survive on host as well as in water. Pseudomonas fluorescens was very sensitive to Kanamycin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and Neomycin, less sensitive to tetracycline, amikacin and Chlorophenicol and very less sensitive to Oxytetracycline, Erythromycin and Penicillin.

  6. Possible implication of bacterial infection in acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo eFuji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. In the pathogenesis of acute GVHD, it has been established that donor-derived T cells activated in the recipient play a major role in GVHD in initiation and maintenance within an inflammatory cascade. To reduce the risk of GVHD, intensification of GVHD prophylaxis like T cell depletion is effective, but it inevitably increases the risk of infectious diseases and abrogates beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effects. Although various cytokines are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GVHD, GVHD initiation is such a complex process that cannot be prevented by means of single inflammatory cytokine inhibition. Thus, efficient methods to control the whole inflammatory milieu both on cellular and humoral view are needed. In this context, infectious diseases can theoretically contribute to an elevation of inflammatory cytokines after allogeneic HSCT and activation of various subtypes of immune effector cells, which might in summary lead to an aggravation of acute GVHD. The appropriate treatments or prophylaxis of bacterial infection during the early phase after allogeneic HSCT might be beneficial to reduce not only infectious-related but also GVHD-related mortality. Here, we aim to review the literature addressing the interactions of bacterial infections and GVHD after allogeneic HSCT.

  7. Possible Implication of Bacterial Infection in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kapp, Markus; Einsele, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the pathogenesis of acute GVHD, it has been established that donor-derived T-cells activated in the recipient play a major role in GVHD in initiation and maintenance within an inflammatory cascade. To reduce the risk of GVHD, intensification of GVHD prophylaxis like T-cell depletion is effective, but it inevitably increases the risk of infectious diseases and abrogates beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effects. Although various cytokines are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GVHD, GVHD initiation is such a complex process that cannot be prevented by means of single inflammatory cytokine inhibition. Thus, efficient methods to control the whole inflammatory milieu both on cellular and humoral view are needed. In this context, infectious diseases can theoretically contribute to an elevation of inflammatory cytokines after allogeneic HSCT and activation of various subtypes of immune effector cells, which might in summary lead to an aggravation of acute GVHD. The appropriate treatments or prophylaxis of bacterial infection during the early phase after allogeneic HSCT might be beneficial to reduce not only infectious-related but also GVHD-related mortality. Here, we aim to review the literature addressing the interactions of bacterial infections and GVHD after allogeneic HSCT. PMID:24795865

  8. Is it easy to clinically distinguish inflammatory arthritis of bacterial origin from monoarthritis attacks of gout disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, O Şahap; Ergişi, Yılmaz; Ayanoğlu, Tacettin; Tokgöz, Mehmet Ali; Sezgin, Erdem Aras; Göçün, Pınar Uyar

    2016-12-01

    Acute monoarthritis is a common situation in orthopedic emergency where the patient presents with typical inflamed joint. It is hard to clinically distinguish inflammatory arthritis of bacterial origin from monoarthritis attacks of gout disease. If these two situations, which are the most common causes of acute monoarthritis, are misdiagnosed, outcomes might be catastrophic and costly. Synovial fluid analysis is the most reliable method for confirming the diagnosis although it might not always lead to definitive diagnosis. If there is clinical suspicion for crystal arthropathy, repeated examinations may provide benefits for confirming the diagnosis.

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015 was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. Results: About 48.37% (228/470 of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235 of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87 of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25–35. Conclusion: Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  10. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  11. Comparing bacterial community composition between healthy and white plague-like disease states in Orbicella annularis using PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Zawada, David G.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Coral disease is a global problem. Diseases are typically named or described based on macroscopic changes, but broad signs of coral distress such as tissue loss or discoloration are unlikely to be specific to a particular pathogen. For example, there appear to be multiple diseases that manifest the rapid tissue loss that characterizes ‘white plague.’ PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays were used to compare the bacterial community composition of both healthy and white plague-like diseased corals. Samples of lobed star coral (Orbicella annularis, formerly of the genus Montastraea [1]) were collected from two geographically distinct areas, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park, to determine if there were biogeographic differences between the diseases. In fact, all diseased samples clustered together, however there was no consistent link to Aurantimonas coralicida, which has been described as the causative agent of white plague type II. The microarrays revealed a large amount of bacterial heterogeneity within the healthy corals and less diversity in the diseased corals. Gram-positive bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes) comprised a greater proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to healthy samples. Diseased samples were enriched in OTUs from the families Corynebacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Streptococcaceae. Much previous coral disease work has used clone libraries, which seem to be methodologically biased toward recovery of Gram-negative bacterial sequences and may therefore have missed the importance of Gram-positive groups. The PhyloChip™ data presented here provide a broader characterization of the bacterial community changes that occur within Orbicella annularis during the shift from a healthy to diseased state.

  12. A novel bacterial disease of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas molecular pathology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Fiona; Powell, Adam; Gregory, Simon; Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Dyson, Paul J; Rowley, Andrew F; Shields, Robin J

    2007-09-01

    Several rickettsia-like diseases have been reported in arthropods (insects and crustaceans), some of which result in significant losses of economically important species such as shrimp and crabs. This study reports on the molecular pathology of a recently emerged disease of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, termed milky disease - named as a result of the unusual milky appearance of the haemolymph (blood). This disease was more prevalent (>26 %) during summer months when the water temperature in a pilot crab farm was approximately 19 degrees C. The putative causative agent of the disease was a Gram-negative bacterium that could not be cultured on a range of agar-based growth media. Diseased crabs showed significant reductions in free blood cell numbers and total serum protein. Such animals also displayed raised levels of glucose and ammonium in blood. Ultrastructural and in situ hybridization studies revealed that the causative agent associated with milky disease multiplied in the fixed phagocytes of the hepatopancreas (digestive gland), ultimately to be released into the haemolymph, where the circulating blood cells showed little response to the presence of these agents. Attempts to induce the infection by short-term temperature stress failed, as did transmission experiments where healthy crabs were fed infected tissues from milky disease affected individuals. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from the milky disease bacteria indicated that they are a previously undescribed species of alpha-proteobacteria with little phylogenetic similarity to members of the order Rickettsiales.

  13. Hyperglycemia Impairs Neutrophil-Mediated Bacterial Clearance in Mice Infected with the Lyme Disease Pathogen.

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    Ashkan Javid

    Full Text Available Insulin-insufficient type 1 diabetes is associated with attenuated bactericidal function of neutrophils, which are key mediators of innate immune responses to microbes as well as pathological inflammatory processes. Neutrophils are central to immune responses to the Lyme pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. The effect of hyperglycemia on host susceptibility to and outcomes of B. burgdorferi infection has not been examined. The present study investigated the impact of sustained obesity-independent hyperglycemia in mice on bacterial clearance, inflammatory pathology and neutrophil responses to B. burgdorferi. Hyperglycemia was associated with reduced arthritis incidence but more widespread tissue colonization and reduced clearance of bacterial DNA in multiple tissues including brain, heart, liver, lung and knee joint. B. burgdorferi uptake and killing were impaired in neutrophils isolated from hyperglycemic mice. Thus, attenuated neutrophil function in insulin-insufficient hyperglycemia was associated with reduced B. burgdorferi clearance in target organs. These data suggest that investigating the effects of comorbid conditions such as diabetes on outcomes of B. burgdorferi infections in humans may be warranted.

  14. Characteristics of Bacterial Strains from Pseudomonas Genera Isolated from Diseased Plum Trees

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    Veljko Gavrilović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from diseased plum trees are presented is this paper. Based on pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics, isolated starins were divided into two groups: First group of strains, isolated from diseased plum branches with symptoms of suden decay, was simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; second group of strains, isolated from necrotic flower buds on plum trees, exhibited characteristics simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum. In addition, phytopathogenic fungi belonging to genera Phomopsis, Botryosphaeria and Leucostoma, were also isolated from diseased plum trees. Further study of these pathogens and their role in the epidemiology of suden plum trees decay is in progress.

  15. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  16. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.

  17. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  18. Protective effect of a bacterial extract against acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖; 郑劲平; 袁锦屏; 曾广翘; 钟南山; 林材元

    2004-01-01

    Background Immunostimulating agents made from bacterial extracts represent a class of medications that contains antigens derived from several bacterial strains and their potential ability to prevent bacterial infections results from the stimulation of the nonspecific component of the immune system. The present study investigated the effect of the oral immunostimulant Broncho-Vaxom, which includes material from eight different species of bacteria that are frequently present in the lower respiratory tract, on the frequency and severity of acute exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis accompanied by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Ninety patients with chronic bronchitis complicated with COPD were randomly divided into groups A and B. Forty-nine subjects in group A received oral capsules containing 7mg Broncho-Vaxom, while 41 patients in group B received similar placebo capsules. Both groups took one capsule daily for the first 10 days of each month for 3 consecutive months. The frequency of acute exacerbation, symptom scores, and lung function were recorded for the following one year period.Results There was a significant decrease in the incidence, duration, and severity of acute exacerbation, as well as a reduction in the course of antibiotics administered and in the dosage of bronchodilator and mucolytic agent in group A, as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). Symptom scores for cough, sputum, dyspnea, as well as symptoms observed upon auscultation of the chest also improved significantly in group A as compared to group B (P<0.05, respectively). The bacterial clearance rate in sputum cultures from patients who received no antibiotics for the first 3 months was also significantly higher in group A compared to group B (P<0.01).Conclusions Orally administered Broncho-Vaxom is associated with a decrease in the incidence of acute exacerbation and a decrease in the need for antibiotics and symptomatic relief medications in patients

  19. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik;

    2016-01-01

    and disease. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test...... with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction. RESULTS: From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120-353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143-306) and dental...... Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health...

  20. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health...... and disease. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test...... with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction. RESULTS: From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120-353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143-306) and dental...

  1. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL FACTOR AND IMMUNOLOGICAL СHANGES IN NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES OF MICROBIAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniychuk O.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Today during the study of the development mechanisms of any somatic disease possible participation of the microorganism as trigger factor or its influence on the course of the disease or development of complications is considered. Microflora participation in the etiopathogenesis of noninfectious diseases allows to divide the latest into the following groups: Naturally, the first aspects of the study of the role of microorganisms in the development of noninfectious diseases are pathological processes developing in the organs and systems of the body, which are natural biotope, particularly gastrointestinal tract. The imbalance in the functioning of the macroorganism (stress, poor diet causes changes in the composition of endogenous microcenosis and therefore dysbiosis. Thus changes in the hormonal homeostasis, immunoreactivity, in the hypothalamic-adrenal system, speed of peristalsis of the intestines are observed, the overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine developes. A classic disease of a group of diseases that are accompanied by the development of erosive conditions are Helicobacter pylori - associated ulcerous disease of 12 duodenal ulcer. Diseases of the colon digestive canal can be divided into 2 groups - ulcerative colitis and tumors. Escherichia are the main representatives of facultative anaerobic microflora of the colon and are involved in the pathogenesis of both ulcerative colitis and cancer. Material and methods. A study in order to compare the inducing impact of Escherichia lipopolysaccharide isolated from patients with nonspecific ulcerative colitis (NUC, N =38, Crohn's disease (CD, N =30 and colon cancer (CC, N =38, on the humoral and cellular (cytokine links of immunity in ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. From the patients in both study groups and individuals from the control group E. coli were isolated from fecal for obtainining LPS. Synthesis induction of TNFα, IL.-8 and IL.-10 was conducted by

  2. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

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    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  3. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  4. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  5. Decreased mortality of lake michigan chinook salmon after bacterial kidney disease challenge: Evidence for pathogen-driven selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, M.K.; Murray, A.L.; Elz, A.; Park, L.K.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Winton, J.R.; Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Elliott, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1960s, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Green River, Washington, were successfully introduced into Lake Michigan. During spring from1988 to 1992, large fish die-offs affecting Chinook salmon occurred in the lake. Multiple ecological factors probably contributed to the severity of the fish kills, but the only disease agent found regularly was Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. in this study, survival after challenge by R. salmoninarum was compared between two Chinook salmon stocks: a Lake Michigan stock from Wisconsin (WI) and the progenitor stock from the Green River. We found that the WI stock had significantly greater survival than the Green River stock. Next, the WI and Green River stocks were exposed to the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum (formerly Vibrio anguillarum), one of the causative agents of vibriosis; survival after this challenge was significantly poorer for the WI stock than for the Green River stock. A close genetic relationship between the Green River and WI stocks was confirmed by analyzing 13 microsatellite loci. These results collectively suggest that disease susceptibility of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon has diverged from that of the source population, possibly in response to pathogen-driven selection. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Gregory D; Marancik, David P; Zwollo, Patty; Kaattari, Stephen L

    2015-03-01

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. We have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen somatic index (spleen weight normalized to body weight, SI). Fish families with larger pre-challenge SI values were found to have greater BCWD survival (resistance) following intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of F. psychrophilum. Since the mammalian spleen is known to be crucial for capture and destruction of encapsulated bacteria, we tested the hypothesis that reduction of spleen size, by surgical splenectomy, should reduce the survival advantage of the larger-spleen, disease-resistant fish. Experiments were performed using two separate lines of fish that had previously been selected either based on BCWD survival (resistant and susceptible), or selected based on spleen size (high and low SI). Following 65 to 81 days post-surgical recovery, fish were challenged with F. psychrophilum and mortality monitored for a minimum of 21 days. No significant difference in the relative survival was detected between splenectomized or sham-operated groups, while SI of splenectomized fish was reduced to an average of 8-12% of control animals. A positive correlation was observed between the SI, measured at the time of splenectomy, and time-to-death post-challenge. In summary, these experiments argue that larger spleen size alone is not sufficient for greater BCWD resistance, but rather it is an indirect indicator of immunological status.

  7. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6 and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7 or severe IBD (n = 7 as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001. Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010, Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015, Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022, and Clostridiales (p = 0.019 were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044 and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040, were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  8. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena Eloy; Leonor Cruz

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenici...

  9. A Study into Digital Dermatitis Transmission and Bacterial Associated Pathological Changes Involved in the Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, Nynne; Boye, Mette; Ekstrøm, C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a highly prevalent painful lesion affecting the feet in dairy cattle. Even though the pathogenesis has been subject of investigation since 1974, there is still a lack of knowledge about the spread of the disease among cows within a herd as well as between herds. The purpose ...

  10. Association between skin diseases and severe bacterial infections in children: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedamin, Robbert SA; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Koning, Sander; Willemsen, Sten P; Bernsen, Roos MD; Schellevis, François G; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette WA; Koes, Bart W

    2006-01-01

    Background Sepsis or bacteraemia, however rare, is a significant cause of high mortality and serious complications in children. In previous studies skin disease or skin infections were reported as risk factor. We hypothesize that children with sepsis or bacteraemia more often presented with skin diseases to the general practitioner (GP) than other children. If our hypothesis is true the GP could reduce the risk of sepsis or bacteraemia by managing skin diseases appropriately. Methods We performed a case-control study using data of children aged 0–17 years of the second Dutch national survey of general practice (2001) and the National Medical Registration of all hospital admissions in the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children who were hospitalized for sepsis or bacteraemia. We selected two control groups by matching each case with six controls. The first control group was randomly selected from the GP patient lists irrespective of hospital admission and GP consultation. The second control group was randomly sampled from those children who were hospitalized for other reasons than sepsis or bacteraemia. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A two-sided p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant in all tests. Results We found odds ratios for skin related GP consultations of 3.4 (95% CI: [1.1–10.8], p = 0.03) in cases versus GP controls and 1.4 (95% CI: [0.5–3.9], p = 0.44) in cases versus hospital controls. Children younger than three months had an odds ratio (cases/GP controls) of 9.2 (95% CI: [0.81–106.1], p = 0.07) and 4.0 (95% CI: [0.67–23.9], p = 0.12) among cases versus hospital controls. Although cases consulted the GP more often with skin diseases than their controls, the probability of a GP consultation for skin disease was only 5% among cases. Conclusion There is evidence that children who were admitted due to sepsis or bacteraemia consulted the GP more often for skin diseases than other children, but the

  11. Association between skin diseases and severe bacterial infections in children: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Suijlekom-Smit Lisette WA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis or bacteraemia, however rare, is a significant cause of high mortality and serious complications in children. In previous studies skin disease or skin infections were reported as risk factor. We hypothesize that children with sepsis or bacteraemia more often presented with skin diseases to the general practitioner (GP than other children. If our hypothesis is true the GP could reduce the risk of sepsis or bacteraemia by managing skin diseases appropriately. Methods We performed a case-control study using data of children aged 0–17 years of the second Dutch national survey of general practice (2001 and the National Medical Registration of all hospital admissions in the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children who were hospitalized for sepsis or bacteraemia. We selected two control groups by matching each case with six controls. The first control group was randomly selected from the GP patient lists irrespective of hospital admission and GP consultation. The second control group was randomly sampled from those children who were hospitalized for other reasons than sepsis or bacteraemia. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI. A two-sided p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant in all tests. Results We found odds ratios for skin related GP consultations of 3.4 (95% CI: [1.1–10.8], p = 0.03 in cases versus GP controls and 1.4 (95% CI: [0.5–3.9], p = 0.44 in cases versus hospital controls. Children younger than three months had an odds ratio (cases/GP controls of 9.2 (95% CI: [0.81–106.1], p = 0.07 and 4.0 (95% CI: [0.67–23.9], p = 0.12 among cases versus hospital controls. Although cases consulted the GP more often with skin diseases than their controls, the probability of a GP consultation for skin disease was only 5% among cases. Conclusion There is evidence that children who were admitted due to sepsis or bacteraemia consulted the GP more often for skin diseases than other

  12. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

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    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  13. Bacteria in a wood fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruez, Emilie; Haidar, Rana; Alou, Maryam T; Vallance, Jessica; Bertsch, Christophe; Mazet, Flore; Fermaud, Marc; Deschamps, Alain; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Compant, Stéphane; Rey, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD) associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interactions have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic), different anatomical part (trunk and cordon) and different type of tissues (necrotic or not) have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analyses, data showed that (i) specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii) depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) with Biolog Ecoplates(TM). Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plant samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus sp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon) and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non-necrotic) of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  14. Het effect van voersamenstelling op bacteriële darmaandoeningen bij varkens = The effect of feed composition on bacterial intestinal diseases in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    De voersamenstelling, met name de koolhydratenfractie in het voer, kan van invloed zijn op het optreden van bacteriële darmaandoeningen. Daarnaast is ook de behandeling van het voer (maalfijnheid, pelleteren, voorfermentatie) van belang, waarbij een grove maling, niet pelleteren en mengen van voer m

  15. Research Progress on Phage Therapy of Bacterial Plant Disease%噬菌体治疗作物细菌性病害的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡重怡; 蔡刘体

    2011-01-01

    噬菌体用于细菌防治已有很长的历史,近年来,作为作物细菌性病害的防治手段之一,利用噬菌体替代传统农药治疗的研究越来越受重视,介绍了噬菌体在作物细菌性病害的最新应用情况,并对噬菌体治疗在作物上的应用前景进行了展望.%The use of phage for bacterial control has already a long history. In recent years, as one of the prevention and treatment measures of bacterial diseases of crops, the use of phage therapy instead of traditional pesticides is calling more and more attentions, this review summarized the newest application of phage for bacterial diseases and its future prospect on corps.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rim Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.

  18. Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelid K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Andelid,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Anders Andersson,1 Bettina Levänen,2 Karin Christenson,3 Pernilla Jirholt,3 Christina Åhrén,4 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Ann Ekberg-Jansson,1 Anders Lindén2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Unit of Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB. We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10 and never-smokers (n=10 were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil

  19. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek's disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sanjay M; Sun, Aijun; Khan, Owais A; Lee, Lucy F; Lupiani, Blanca

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments. This technology was later used to clone full-length genomes of large DNA viruses to study viral gene function. Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpesvirus that causes rapid induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Based on the virus's ability to cause disease in vaccinated chickens, MDV strains are classified into pathotypes, with the most virulent strains belonging to the very virulent plus (vv+) pathotype. Here we report the construction of BAC clones of 686 (686-BAC), a vv+ strain of MDV. Transfection of DNA isolated from two independent clones into duck embryo fibroblasts resulted in recovery of infectious virus. Pathogenesis studies showed that the BAC-derived 686 viruses were more virulent than Md5, a vv strain of MDV. With the use of a two-step red-mediated mutagenesis process, both copies of viral interleukin 8 (vIL-8) were deleted from the MDV genome, showing that 686-BACs were amenable to mutagenesis techniques. The generation of BAC clones from a vv+ strain of MDV is a significant step toward understanding molecular basis of MDV pathogenesis.

  20. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  1. Genomic selection models double the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to a traditional pedigree-based model in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  2. Genome-enabled selection doubles the accuracy of predicted breeding values for bacterial cold water disease resistance compared to traditional family-based selection in rainbow trout aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown previously that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative enabling exploitation...

  3. Bacteria in a wood fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie eBruez; Rana eHaidar; Maryam eTidjani Alou; Jessica eVallance; Christophe eBertsch; Flore eMazet; Marc eFermaud; Alain eDeschamps; Lucia eGuerin-Dubrana; Stephane eCompant; Patrice eRey

    2015-01-01

    Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD) associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interactions have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic), different anatomical part (trunk and cordon) a...

  4. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1985-06-01

    The data presented here demonstrate that there is some variability to the antigenic structure of KDB. Although gel filtration of all antigenic preparations revealed a wide range of sizes for antigens, resolution on a denaturing gel revealed relatively few protein bands and immunological assays revealed the same (3) low number of antigens. It is of particular interest that there seems to be a protein of 60 kd in all preparations, but that there are not larger individual molecular species. This, in turn indicates that the larger molecular weight species detected in gel filtration are most likely aggregates or membrane fragments composed of a lower molecular weight subunit. Use of ultrafiltration of KDM-2 medium appears to be successful in eliminating contamination of high molecular weight material found in KDM-2. There appears to be no alteration in the number of soluble antigens produced by growth in either medium, nor in the number of proteins, as detected by SDS-PAGE. However, soluble antigens isolated from UF-KDM-2 does appear to have greater heterogeneity in their isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns than those from UF-KDM-2. Also, although there does appear to be an extended lag period in KDB growth on UF-KDM-2, there is no alteration in final O.D. or wet weight of cells. Thus, it appears that UF-KDM-2 may be an alternate medium for those wishing to isolate purified bacterial proteins or antigens. ELISA assays have been developed for the detection of soluble KDB antigens. This system is currently being developed as a sensitive measure of the presence of soluble antigen in serum and tissues of fish. Such a sensitive assay may also allow for the detection of KD+ spawners by the testing of ovarian fluid or serum. ELISA assays have also been developed to detect antibodies to soluble and cellular antigens of KDB. These systems have been proven successful in the detection of rabbit and murine monoclonal antibodies against KDB antigens. Future work will develop the use

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): evaluation from clinical, immunological and bacterial pathogenesis perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Daniel J; Borchers, Michael T; Panos, Ralph J

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease manifested by significantly impaired airflow, afflicts ∼14.2 million cases in the United States alone with an estimated 63 million people world-wide. Although there are a number of causes, the predominant cause is excessive tobacco smoke. In fact, in China, there have been estimates of 315,000,000 people that smoke. Other less frequent causes are associated with indirect cigarette smoke, air pollutants, biomass fuels, and genetic mutations. COPD is often associated with heart disease, lung cancer, osteoporosis and conditions can worsen in patients with sudden falls. COPD also affects both innate and adaptive immune processes. Cigarette smoke increases the expression of matrix metalloproteases and proinflammatory chemokines and increases lung titers of natural killer cells and neutrophils. Yet, neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by the phagocytic respiratory burst and phagocytosis is impaired by nicotine. In contrast to innate immunity in COPD, dendritic cells represent leukocytes recruited to the lung that link the innate immune responses to adaptive immune responses by activating naïve T cells through antigen presentation. The autoimmune process that is also a significant part of inflammation associated with COPD. Moreover, coupled with restricted FEV1 values, are the prevalence of patients with single or multiple infections by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Finally, we focus on one of the more problematic infectious agents, the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specifically, we delve into the development of highly problematic biofilm infections that are highly refractory to conventional antibiotic therapies in COPD. We offer a non-conventional, biocidal treatment that may be effective for COPD airway infections as well as with combinations of current antibiotic regimens for more effective treatment outcomes and relief for patients with COPD.

  6. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiying Ren; Ganyu Gu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Tingquan Wu; Tao Song; Shujian Zhang; Zhiyi Chen; Hansong Dong

    2006-12-01

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaGXoo-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaGXoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots, in response to P. cepacia. We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and GXoo

  7. A new bacterial disease of carnation in Portugal caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a leaf spot disease of carnation caused by Burkholderia andropogonis is recorded for the first time in Portugal. Symptoms consisted of ‘eyespot’ lesions on all aerial plant parts, often bordered by water-soaked halos on the leaves. As the disease progressed lesions became dark brown and affected areas dried out. Phenotypic studies and Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers Pf/Pr targeted to 16S rDNA of B. andropogonis were used to identify the pathogen. Pathogenicity tests on china pink plants, re-isolation of the pathogen from inoculated plants and further PCR testing confirmed the identification of the bacterium. Infected plants came from an open air nursery and the whole production was destroyed to avoid dissemination of the pathogen.A ocorrência da mancha bacteriana do craveiro causada por Burkholderia andropogonis é pela primeira vez assinalada em Portugal. Os sintomas observados consistiam em manchas em forma de olho-de-perdiz em todos os órgãos aéreos das plantas afectadas, frequentemente circundadas por halos hidrópicos nas folhas. À medida que a doença progredia, as lesões adquiriam uma coloração castanha escura, acabando os órgãos afectados por secar. A identificação do agente causal da doença baseou-se no estudo dos seus caracteres fenotípicos e na Reacção em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, utilizando os iniciadores específicos Pf/Pr dirigidos à região 16S rDNA de B. andropogonis. A identificação foi confirmada por ensaios de patogenicidade em cravinas, reisolamento do agente causal da doença a partir das plantas inoculadas e novos ensaios PCR. As plantas infectadas provinham de um viveiro ao ar livre e toda a produção foi destruída a fim de evitar a disseminação do patogéneo.

  8. Bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases associated to classical swine cholera in focuses that occurred in the province of Sancti Spiritus in the period 1994-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liván Vergel Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to determine the main diseases associated to the PPC in Sancti Spiritus province from 1994 to 2009 and the specific objectives is to determine the bacterial, parasitical and viral associated to it. A number of 14999 animal in 77 focus were analysed, macroscopic tests were practiced. Samples for histopathologic studies were colleted in 200 hundred animals, bacteriology 220, parasithology 350, and for virological sutudies, 199 samples were taken. For the statistical processing, several computing programs were used such as Microsoft EXCEL y SWX. Pasteurelosis, Salmonelosis, and Colibacilosis were the most common bacterial diseases, gastrointestinal parasites and Cistecercosis were the parasotosis with most insidence and the Circovirosis and Swine Viral Encefalomiocardítis were the only viral associated diseases to the dianostic PPC during that period.

  9. Las enfermedades periodontales como infecciones bacterianas Periodontal diseases as bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bascones Martínez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones periodontales son un conjunto de enfermedades localizadas en las encías y estructuras de soporte del diente. Están producidas por ciertas bacterias provenientes de la placa bacteriana. Estas bacterias son esenciales para el inicio de la enfermedad, pero existen factores predisponentes del hospedador y microbianos que influyen en la patogénesis de la enfermedad. La microbiota bacteriana periodontopatógena es necesaria pero no suficiente para que exista enfermedad, siendo necesaria la presencia de un hospedador susceptible. Estas enfermedades se han clasificado en gingivitis, limitadas a las encías y periodontitis, extendidas a tejidos más profundos. La clasificación de las enfermedades periodontales ha ido variando a lo largo de los años y es en el International Workshop for a Clasification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, en 1999, cuando se aprueba la clasificación que se expone en este trabajo. En él, se hace una revisión global de los diferentes cuadros de las enfermedades periodontales. Posteriormente, se propone el empleo de antibioterapia de utilización sistémica como la amoxicilina, amoxicilina-clavulánico y metronidazol como primera opción de tratamiento coadyuvante de estas enfermedades.

  10. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host

  11. Predictive Value of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease in Cirrhotic Patients with and without Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledar Kraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to assess the predictive value of the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD in hospitalized cirrhotic patients with and without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP and fatal outcome. Methods. A cross-sectional study included 256 consecutive patients (199 men and 57 women diagnosed with cirrhosis and ascites who were hospitalized at the University Hospital Center in Tirana from January 2008 to December 2009. SBP was defined as a neutrophil count of ≥250 cells/mm3 in ascitic fluid. MELD score was based on laboratory parameters determined by UNOS Internet site MELD calculator. Results. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, diabetes, and etiology, there was evidence of a positive association of SBP with MELD score: the odds ratio (OR for SBP for one unit increment of MELD score was 1.06 (95% Cl = 1.02–1.09. MELD score was significantly higher in fatal cases than nonfatal patients (mean age-adjusted score was 32.7 versus 18.4 overall; 34.8 versus 18.0 in SBP patients, and 32.0 versus 18.5 in non-SBP patients; all P<0.001. Conclusions. In this Albanian sample of hospitalized cirrhotic patients, MELD score was confirmed as a significant predictor of both SBP and fatal outcome.

  12. Protection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against white tail disease by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Singaiah; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2013-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) of cultured Macrobrachium rosenbergii is caused by M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and an extra small virus (XSV), both present together, and the mortality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 or 3 days of infection. Possible protection of M. rosenbergii against WTD by oral administration of bacterial expressed and encapsulated double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was studied. Juvenile M. rosenbergii were fed with the feed coated with inactivated bacteria encapsulated dsRNA of MrNV and XSV genes individually and in combination for 7 days followed by challenge with WTD causing agents at 24 h and 72 h post-feeding. Test animals fed with a combination of dsRNA of MrNV and XSV capsid genes showed the highest relative percent survival (RPS) when compared to other treatments with RPS of 80% and 75% at 24 and 72 h respectively. One hundred percent mortality was observed in test animals fed with control dsRNA coated feed. Although in the literature, injection is the most common method used to deliver dsRNA, this study shows that oral administration is effective, feasible and economical.

  13. BGRcast: A Disease Forecast Model to Support Decision-making for Chemical Sprays to Control Bacterial Grain Rot of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hwan; Ko, Sug-Ju; Cha, Kwang-Hong; Park, Eun Woo

    2015-12-01

    A disease forecast model for bacterial grain rot (BGR) of rice, which is caused by Burkholderia glumae, was developed in this study. The model, which was named 'BGRcast', determined daily conduciveness of weather conditions to epidemic development of BGR and forecasted risk of BGR development. All data that were used to develop and validate the BGRcast model were collected from field observations on disease incidence at Naju, Korea during 1998-2004 and 2010. In this study, we have proposed the environmental conduciveness as a measure of conduciveness of weather conditions for population growth of B. glumae and panicle infection in the field. The BGRcast calculated daily environmental conduciveness, Ci , based on daily minimum temperature and daily average relative humidity. With regard to the developmental stages of rice plants, the epidemic development of BGR was divided into three phases, i.e., lag, inoculum build-up and infection phases. Daily average of Ci was calculated for the inoculum build-up phase (Cinf ) and the infection phase (Cinc ). The Cinc and Cinf were considered environmental conduciveness for the periods of inoculum build-up in association with rice plants and panicle infection during the heading stage, respectively. The BGRcast model was able to forecast actual occurrence of BGR at the probability of 71.4% and its false alarm ratio was 47.6%. With the thresholds of Cinc = 0.3 and Cinf = 0.5, the model was able to provide advisories that could be used to make decisions on whether to spray bactericide at the pre- and post-heading stage.

  14. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists.

  15. Circulating bacterial-derived DNA fragment level is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Chun Szeto

    Full Text Available Circulating bacterial DNA fragment is related to systemic inflammatory state in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We hypothesize that plasma bacterial DNA level predicts cardiovascular events in new PD patients.We measured plasma bacterial DNA level in 191 new PD patients, who were then followed for at least a year for the development of cardiovascular event, hospitalization, and patient survival.The average age was 59.3 ± 11.8 years; plasma bacterial DNA level 34.9 ± 1.5 cycles; average follow up 23.2 ± 9.7 months. At 24 months, the event-free survival was 86.1%, 69.8%, 55.4% and 30.8% for plasma bacterial DNA level quartiles I, II, III and IV, respectively (p < 0.0001. After adjusting for confounders, plasma bacterial DNA level, baseline residual renal function and malnutrition-inflammation score were independent predictors of composite cardiovascular end-point; each doubling in plasma bacterial DNA level confers a 26.9% (95% confidence interval, 13.0 - 42.5% excess in risk. Plasma bacterial DNA also correlated with the number of hospital admission (r = -0.379, p < 0.0001 and duration of hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons (r = -0.386, p < 0.0001. Plasma bacterial DNA level did not correlate with baseline arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV, but with the change in carotid-radial PWV in one year (r = -0.238, p = 0.005.Circulating bacterial DNA fragment level is a strong predictor of cardiovascular event, need of hospitalization, as well as the progressive change in arterial stiffness in new PD patients.

  16. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  17. IgG subclass antibodies to human and bacterial HSP60 are not associated with disease activity and progression over time in axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Hjelholt, Astrid Johannesson; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA), an interrelated group of rheumatic diseases, has been suggested to be triggered by bacterial infections prior to the development of an autoimmune response that causes inflammation of the spinal and peripheral joints. Because human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60......), recently renamed HSPD1, and bacterial HSP60 are highly homologous, immunological cross-reactivity has been proposed as a mechanism of disease initiation. However, previous investigations of the humoral immune response to HSP60 in SpA patients have lacked determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses...... of three reactive arthritis-related bacteria; human HSP60; and the microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by ELISA. Serum samples collected from 2004 to 2006 and in 2010 and 2011 from 39 axial SpA patients were analyzed and compared with samples from 39 healthy controls...

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ...

  19. Survey of childhood empyema in Asia: Implications for detecting the unmeasured burden of culture-negative bacterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xuzhuang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parapneumonic empyema continues to be a disease of significant morbidity and mortality among children despite recent advances in medical management. To date, only a limited number of studies have assessed the burden of empyema in Asia. Methods We surveyed medical records of four representative large pediatric hospitals in China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam using ICD-10 diagnostic codes to identify children Results During the study period, we identified 1,379 children diagnosed with empyema or pleural effusion (China, n = 461; Korea, n = 134; Taiwan, n = 119; Vietnam, n = 665. Diagnoses of pleural effusion (n = 1,074 were 3.5 times more common than of empyema (n = 305, although the relative proportions of empyema and pleural effusion noted in hospital records varied widely between the four sites, most likely because of marked differences in coding practices. Although pleural effusions were reported more often than empyema, children with empyema were more likely to have a cultured pathogen. In addition, we found that median age and gender distribution of children with these conditions were similar across the four countries. Among 1,379 empyema and pleural effusion specimens, 401 (29% were culture positive. Staphylococcus aureus (n = 126 was the most common organism isolated, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 83, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 37 and Klebsiella (n = 35 and Acinetobacter species (n = 34. Conclusion The age and gender distribution of empyema and pleural effusion in children in these countries are similar to the US and Western Europe. S. pneumoniae was the second leading bacterial cause of empyema and pleural effusion among Asian children. The high proportion of culture-negative specimens among patients with pleural effusion or empyema suggests that culture may not be a sufficiently sensitive diagnostic method to determine etiology in the majority of cases. Future prospective studies in different countries would

  20. The Impact of Bacterial Resistance of Animals Origin on the Bacterial Infectious Animal Disease Control%动物源细菌耐药性对动物细菌传染性疾病防治的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马苏; 高艳春

    2012-01-01

    通过阐述动物源细菌耐药性的产生及演变趋势,分析抗生素在兽医领域中的应用情况,探讨动物细菌传染性疾病的防治策略,旨在了解细菌耐药性对动物细菌传染性疾病治疗的影响,为兽用药品特别是兽用细菌疫苗的发展提供参考,促进动物卫生安全和公共卫生安全。%This review paper explains theoccurrence and evolution of bacterial resistance of animalorigin, analysis the application of antibiotics in veterinary medicine, investigate control strategies of animal infectious disease. The aim of the paper is tounderstand the impact of drug resistance on the treatment of bacterialinfectious diseases, in order to provide the guidance of development for veterinary drugs especially veterinary bacterial vaccine. It' s a certain significance to promote animal health security and public health security.

  1. Vaginal Gardiner bacteria and bacterial vaginal disease%阴道加德纳菌与细菌性阴道病相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解阴道加德纳菌(GV)在细菌性阴道病(BV))患者中的感染率及健康女性生殖道内的带菌状况,探讨加德纳菌与细菌性阴道病的相关性.方法:对200例细菌性阴道病患者和120例健康女性进行阴道加德纳菌的分离培养.结果:200例细菌性阴道病患者的加德纳菌检出率为40.0%,120例健康女性的加德纳菌检出率为6.7%,两者差异有显著性(P<0.001).结论:细菌性阴道病患者中常见有加德纳菌感染,是细菌性阴道病的主要致病菌之一,加德纳菌对细菌性阴道病的诊断有重要价值,且对阴道加德纳菌与细菌性阴道病相关性研究有重要意义.%Objective:To investigate the vaginal bacteria Gardiner (GV)in bacterial vaginosis (BV))infection rate in patients and healthy women reproductive tract for carrier status,to explore the relaG tionship between the Gardiner bacteria and bacterial vaginosis.Methods:Isolated vaginal bacteria Gardiner on 200 cases of bacterial vaginosis patients and 120 healthy women.Result:200 cases of Gardiner bacteria bacterial vaginosis detection rate was 40%,Gardiner in 120 healthy women detection rate was 6.7%,the dif erence is significant (P<0.001).Conclusion:The patients with bacterial vaginosis in Gardiner bacteria infection,is one of the main pathogenic bacteria of bacterial vaginosis,have an important value in the diagnosis of Gardiner strains of bacterial vaginosis,and vaginal bacteria and Study on Gardiner disease associated bacterial vaginosis has important significance.

  2. Research progress of bacterial melanin and nervous system diseases%细菌黑色素与神经系统疾病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 韩彦青; 姜晓萌; 裴宇恒; 李东芳; 李光来

    2016-01-01

    黑色素是广泛存在于自然界中的一类天然色素家族,苏云金芽孢杆菌突变株可获得高水平细菌黑色素,细菌黑色素能透过血脑屏障,具有抗氧化、螯合有毒金属、促进神经再生等生物学特性,可用来治疗某些与黑色素缺乏相关的神经性疾病,也能促进中枢神经系统及周围神经损伤后的结构和功能的恢复,文章就细菌黑色素在神经系统疾病的相关研究做了综述。%Melanin is a class of natural pigments family in nature. Bacterial melanin with high level of pigment synthesis-Bacillus thuringiensis was obtained. Bacterial melanin can cross the blood-brain barrier, accomplish antioxidant protection, chelate toxic metals, promote nerve regeneration. It can treat nervous system diseases with melanin deficiency, promote the structural and functional recovery of the central nervous system and peripheral nerve injury. This article summarized the research of the function of the bacterial melanin in the nervous system diseases.

  3. Increased Risks of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Interstitial Lung Disease in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Patients With Concomitant Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Chen; Yang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Hsuan-Hwai; Chen, Peng-Jen; Huang, Tien-Yu; Shih, Yu-Lueng; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Chu, Heng-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Sjögren syndrome (SS) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients is high. The influence of SS on the clinical outcomes of PBC patients, however, remains unclear. Our study retrospectively collected data on PBC-only patients and PBC patients with concomitant SS (PBC-SS) to compare the clinical differences of long-term outcomes between them.A total of 183 patients were diagnosed with PBC from January 1999 to December 2014 at our hospital. Of these, the authors excluded patients with diabetes, hypertension, advanced liver cirrhosis at initial diagnosis of PBC (Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification score of ≥7) and other liver diseases (ie, alcoholic liver disease, alpha-antitrypsin deficiency, viral hepatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis), and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Of the remaining 125 patients, 77 (61.6%) were PBC-only and 48 (38.4%) were PBC-SS patients.The mean follow-up duration was 8.76 years. During the observation period, the incidence of interstitial lung disease was higher in the PBC-SS group than in the PBC-only group (P = 0.005). The occurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was significantly different in PBC-SS patients than in PBC-only patients (P = 0.002). The overall survival was lower in PBC-SS patients than in PBC-only patients (P = 0.033). Although the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, end-stage renal disease, variceal bleeding, and hypothyroidism were all higher in the PBC-SS group than in the PBC-only group, the differences were not significant.Our study suggests that PBC-SS patients have a higher risk of developing interstitial lung disease and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and have a poor prognosis. Aggressive surveillance of thyroid and pulmonary functions should therefore be performed in these patients.

  4. Use of Penicillin and Streptomycin to Reduce Spread of Bacterial Coldwater Disease II: Efficacy of Using Antibiotics in Diluents and During Water Hardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric J; Cavender, Wade

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial coldwater disease, caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, has lead to the loss of significant numbers of hatchery-reared salmonids. The bacteria can be spread from parent to progeny within contaminated sperm and ovarian fluid and can enter the egg during fertilization. The addition of antibiotics to diluents and water-hardening solutions could prevent the spread of the disease. In separate trials, a mixture of 0.197 mg/mL penicillin plus 0.313 mg/mL streptomycin was added to both a 0.5% sodium chloride fertilization diluent and hatchery well water during hardening. Tests showed that the addition of the antibiotics to the diluent and during up to 60 min of water hardening had no effect on the eye-up, hatch and deformity rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs compared with the nonantibiotic-treated controls. Also, significant reductions in the prevalence of F. psychrophilum on the surface and inside eggs were observed when compared with controls. These results indicate that the addition of penicillin and streptomycin to diluents and during water hardening can prevent the vertical transmission of bacterial coldwater disease.

  5. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues > Conditions > Sexually Transmitted > Bacterial Vaginosis Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Bacterial Vaginosis Page Content Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in sexually active teenaged girls . It appears to be caused by ...

  6. Overexpression of MoSM1, encoding for an immunity-inducing protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice confers broad-spectrum resistance against fungal and bacterial diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yongbo; Yang, Yayun; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Lei; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2017-01-01

    Potential of MoSM1, encoding for a cerato-platanin protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in improvement of rice disease resistance was examined. Transient expression of MoSM1 in rice leaves initiated hypersensitive response and upregulated expression of defense genes. When transiently expressed in tobacco leaves, MoSM1 targeted to plasma membrane. The MoSM1-overexpressing (MoSM1-OE) transgenic rice lines showed an improved resistance, as revealed by the reduced disease severity and decreased in planta pathogen growth, against 2 strains belonging to two different races of M. oryzae, causing blast disease, and against 2 strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing bacterial leaf blight disease. However, no alteration in resistance to sheath blight disease was observed in MoSM1-OE lines. The MoSM1-OE plants contained elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and constitutively activated the expression of SA and JA signaling-related regulatory and defense genes. Furthermore, the MoSM1-OE plants had no effect on drought and salt stress tolerance and on grain yield. We conclude that MoSM1 confers a broad-spectrum resistance against different pathogens through modulating SA- and JA-mediated signaling pathways without any penalty on abiotic stress tolerance and grain yield, providing a promising potential for application of MoSM1 in improvement of disease resistance in crops. PMID:28106116

  7. Study Progress and Prevention Strategy for Ginger Bacterial Wilt Disease%姜瘟病研究进展和防治策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱正明; 矫振彪; 郭凤领; 陈磊夫; 田延富; 胡燕; 吴金平

    2015-01-01

    Ginger bacterial wilt disease occurred frequently has become the bottleneck for restricting the development of ginger planting industry. The research progress of the symptoms, the pathogens, the pathogenic factors and the infection pathways was summarized. By screening and creating the resource for ginger of the highquality and disease resistance (tolerance), and we obtained resistance materials of bacterial wilt disease. Building new bioactive substances or new genes against pathogen of the bacterial wilt disease by the metagenomic libraryconstructed of the rhizosphere soil microbial of ginger, so we can obtain the new resources and strategies forecological prevention thebacterial wilt disease. By studying the change of soil microbial community for ginger rhizosphere by the theory of the rhizospheremicroecological balance, we can reduce or eliminate thebacterial wilt disease of ginger by the modified for the soil biological activity.%生姜姜瘟病频发已成为制约生姜种植业发展的瓶颈。笔者分析了姜瘟病的发病症状、病原菌、致病环境因子以及侵染路径等方面的研究现状,提出通过筛选、创制“优质、抗(耐)病”的生姜资源,为生姜抗病育种提供新材料;同时,通过构建生姜根际土壤微生物宏基因组文库,挖掘抗姜瘟病病菌的新生物活性物质或新基因,在基因组水平上为姜瘟病的生态防控提供新资源。此外,笔者还利用根际微生态平衡理论,研究了生姜根际土壤微生物群落的变化,通过土壤生物活性的改良,消除或者减轻姜瘟病的危害。

  8. Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhuan Shen

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.

  9. Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.

  10. Differences in visceral fat and fat bacterial colonization between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zulian

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is notably characterized by the expansion of visceral fat with small adipocytes expressing a high proportion of anti-inflammatory genes. Conversely, visceral fat depots in ulcerative colitis (UC patients have never been characterized. Our study aims were a to compare adipocyte morphology and gene expression profile and bacterial translocation in omental (OM and mesenteric (MES adipose tissue of patients with UC and CD, and b to investigate the effect of bacterial infection on adipocyte proliferation in vitro. Specimens of OM and MES were collected from 11 UC and 11 CD patients, processed and examined by light microscopy. Gene expression profiles were evaluated in adipocytes isolated from visceral adipose tissue using microarray and RTqPCR validations. Bacteria within adipose tissue were immuno-detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy. Adipocytes were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis and cells counted after 24 h. Morphology and molecular profile of OM and MES revealed that UC adipose tissue is less inflamed than CD adipose tissue. Genes linked to inflammation, bacterial response, chemotaxis and angiogenesis were down-regulated in adipocytes from UC compared to CD, whereas genes related to metallothioneins, apoptosis pathways and growth factor binding were up-regulated. A dense perinuclear positivity for Enterococcus faecalis was detected in visceral adipocytes from CD, whereas positivity was weak in UC. In vitro bacterial infection was associated with a five-fold increase in the proliferation rate of OM preadipocytes. Compared to UC, visceral adipose tissue from CD is more inflamed and more colonized by intestinal bacteria, which increase adipocyte proliferation. The influence of bacteria stored within adipocytes on the clinical course of IBD warrants further investigations.

  11. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonhost resistance (NHR provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of

  12. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  13. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) is usually caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and routinely treated with systemic antimicrobial agents. Infection is a consequence of reduced immunity associated with alterations of the skin barrier and underlying diseases that may be di...... will improve antimicrobial use and reduce selection of MRSP and other multidrug-resistant bacteria affecting animal and human health....... of an internationally available resource guiding practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SBF. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES: The guidelines were developed by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases, with consultation and advice...... on infection control. Guidance is given for topical and systemic modalities, including approaches suitable for MRSP. Systemic drugs are classified in three tiers. Tier one drugs are used when diagnosis is clear cut and risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance are not present. Otherwise, tier two drugs...

  14. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Al Amri Saleh

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an infection of the ascitic fluid without obvious intra-abdominal source of sepsis; usually complicates advanced liver disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial: low ascitic protein-content, which reflects defi-cient ascitic fluid complement and hence, reduced opsonic activity is thought to be the most important pathogenic factor. Frequent and prolonged bacteremia has been considered as another pertinent cause of SBP. This disease is...

  15. [An in vitro study of the action of kola nitida on bacterial strains implicated in dental caries and periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagate, A; Attoli, L; Kone, D; Ly, Bakayoko; Brou, E; Sixou, M

    2002-06-01

    The Nitida Kola is a substance extracted from the kolanut. In West Africa its use by chewing is widespread among the Manding people. It's said to have tonic, stimulant and aphrodisiac characteristics and even recent studies have shown that it has antibacterial characteristics. The aim of this study is to make an estimation of the Nitida Kola's effects on different bacterial species involved in the two main oral and dental pathologies (teeth decays and periodontal illnesses). The obtained results indicate that the kola extract is not effectual against the tried-out bacteria at regular dose used by chewing.

  16. A non-synonymous coding variant (L616F in the TLR5 gene is potentially associated with Crohn's disease and influences responses to bacterial flagellin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Sheridan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although numerous studies have implicated TLR5, or its ligands, bacterial flagellins, in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have not reported associations with the TLR5 gene. We aimed to examine potential CD-associated TLR5 variants and assess whether they modified inflammatory responses to bacterial flagellins. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL RESULTS: A two-stage study was carried out. In stage 1, we genotyped tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs in the TLR5 gene in a sample of CD cases (<20 years of age, N = 566 and controls (N = 536. Single SNP and haplotype analysis was carried out. In Stage 2, we assessed the functional significance of potential CD-associated variant(s vis-à-vis effects on the inflammatory response to bacterial flagellin using HEK293T cells. We observed marginal association between a non-synonymous coding SNP rs5744174 (p = 0.05 and CD. Associations between SNP rs851139 that is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD with SNP rs5744174 were also suggested (p = 0.07. Haplotype analysis revealed that a 3 marker haplotype was significantly associated with CD (p = 0.01. Functional studies showed that the risk allele (616F (corresponding to the C allele of SNP rs5744174 conferred significantly greater production of CCL20 in response to a range of flagellin doses than the comparator allele (616L. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a non-synonymous coding variation in the TLR5 gene may confer modest susceptibility for CD.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, which causes citrus bacterial spot disease, and related strains provides insights into virulence and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B; Graham, James H; Setubal, João C; Wang, Nian

    2011-11-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity.

  18. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-03-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambdaPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in /sup 35/S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro.

  19. Bacterial wilt of potato (Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2): disease management, pathogen survival and possible eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (Phylovar II, sequevar 1), is a serious endemic disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt. It is a quarantine disease in the EU, and export of potatoes fromEgypt

  20. Gender difference in calcification diseases: is it the result of gender-specific ways of nano-bacterial expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartsburd, P M; Agababov, R; Vainshtein, M

    2013-11-01

    Gender difference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males. We suggest that the male increasing is due to nanobacterial infections and ways of their dissemination. There are specific gender-dependent ways for these infections which bring infection to the different target organs, namely: urinary tract, kidney, prostate in men and placenta in women. Identification of the suggested microbial pathogens and investigation of sex-determined pathways for the dissemination are the following steps to get ascertaining events of gender reasons for different calcification diseases.

  1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L.) LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari; Retno Kawuri; Meitini Wahyuni Proborini

    2015-01-01

    Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L.) causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method). Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8) were ...

  2. Relationship among bacterial colonization, airway inflam- mation, and bronchodilator response in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchodilator reversibility, a response of airway to bronchodilator, occurred in 64% of stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).1 In patients with COPD who have a significant response to bronchodilators, a clinical and functional response to inhaled corticosteroids is similar to that in asthmatics.2

  3. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik;

    2016-01-01

    and disease. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test...

  4. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Martyn D.; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Marisa Caipo; Crump, John A.; Brecht Devleesschauwer; Dörte Döpfer; Aamir Fazil; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Tine Hald; Aron J Hall; Keddy, Karen H.; Lake, Robin J.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Paul R Torgerson

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Foodborne diseases are responsible for a large burden of illness (morbidity) and death (mortality) in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. More than 200 diseases can be transmitted to people through the ingestion of food contaminated with microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) or with chemicals. Contamination of food can occur at any stage of food production—on farms where crops are grown and animals raised, in factories where food is processe...

  5. The combination of PRRS virus and bacterial endotoxin as a model for multifactorial respiratory disease in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gucht, Steven; Labarque, Geoffrey; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2004-12-08

    This paper reviews in vivo studies on the interaction between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and LPS performed in the authors' laboratory. The main aim was to develop a reproducible model to study the pathogenesis of PRRSV-induced multifactorial respiratory disease. The central hypothesis was that respiratory disease results from an overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs. In a first series of studies, PRRSV was shown to be a poor inducer of TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha in the lungs, whereas IL-1 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were produced consistently during infection. We then set up a dual inoculation model in which pigs were inoculated intratracheally with PRRSV and 3-14 days later with LPS. PRRSV-infected pigs developed acute respiratory signs for 12-24h upon intratracheal LPS inoculation, in contrast to pigs inoculated with PRRSV or LPS only. Moreover, peak TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 titers were 10-100 times higher in PRRSV-LPS inoculated pigs than in the singly inoculated pigs and the cytokine overproduction was associated with disease. To further prove the role of proinflammatory cytokines, we studied the effect of pentoxifylline, a known inhibitor of TNF-alpha and IL-1, on PRRSV-LPS induced cytokine production and disease. The clinical effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), meloxicam and flunixin meglumine, were also examined. Pentoxifylline, but not the NSAIDs, significantly reduced fever and respiratory signs from 2 to 6h after LPS. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the lungs of pentoxifylline-treated pigs were moderately reduced, but were still 26 and 3.5-fold higher than in pigs inoculated with PRRSV or LPS only. This indicates that pathways other than inhibition of cytokine production contributed to the clinical improvement. Finally, we studied a mechanism by which PRRSV may sensitize the lungs for LPS. We hypothesized that PRRSV would increase the amount of LPS receptor

  6. Aetiology and factors associated with bacterial diarrhoeal diseases amongst urban refugee children in Eastleigh, Kenya: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqo G. Boru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kenya is home to over 400 000 refugees from neighbouring countries. There is scanty information about diarrhoea amongst urban refugees in Kenya.Objectives: We investigated the enteric bacteria causing diarrhoea amongst urban refugee children and described the associated factors.Method: During the period of August–December 2010, urban refugee children between the ages of two and five who attended Eastleigh County Council Health Centre were enrolled into the study. Diarrhoeal cases were compared with age-matched children with no diarrhoea (controls. Stool specimens were collected and enteric bacteria isolated. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors.Results: A total of 41 cases and 41 controls were enrolled in the study. The age and country of origin were similar for cases and controls. The bacterial isolation rates amongst the cases were: non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 71%, Shigella dysenteriae 2.4%, Shigella flexneri 2.4%, Salmonella paratyphi 5%. For the controls, non-pathogenic E. coli 90% and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC2.4% were amongst the organisms isolated. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin; resistance to other antibiotics varied by isolate type. Factors associated independently with diarrhoea included children not washing their hands with soap (aOR 5.9, p < 0.05, neighbour(s having diarrhoea (aOR 39.8, p < 0.05, children not exclusively breastfed for their first 6 months (aOR 7.6, p < 0.05 and children eating food cooked the previous day (aOR 23.8, p = 0.002.Conclusions: Shigella species, Salmonella species and ETEC were found to be responsible for diarrhoea amongst the urban refugee children. Measures to control and guide the use of antibiotics are critical for the prevention of antibiotic resistance. Efforts to improve personal and domestic hygiene, including educational campaigns to promote appropriate handwashing, should be encouraged.

  7. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  8. Assessment of genetic correlation between bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen index in a domesticated population of rainbow trout: identification of QTL on chromosome Omy19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Wiens

    Full Text Available Selective breeding of animals for increased disease resistance is an effective strategy to reduce mortality in aquaculture. However, implementation of selective breeding programs is limited by an incomplete understanding of host resistance traits. We previously reported results of a rainbow trout selection program that demonstrated increased survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD. Mechanistic study of disease resistance identified a positive phenotypic correlation between post-challenge survival and spleen somatic-index (SI. Herein, we investigated the hypothesis of a genetic correlation between the two traits influenced by colocalizing QTL. We evaluated the inheritance and calculated the genetic correlation in five year-classes of odd- and even-year breeding lines. A total of 322 pedigreed families (n = 25,369 fish were measured for disease resistance, and 251 families (n = 5,645 fish were evaluated for SI. Spleen index was moderately heritable in both even-year (h(2  = 0.56±0.18 and odd-year (h(2  = 0.60±0.15 lines. A significant genetic correlation between SI and BCWD resistance was observed in the even-year line (rg  = 0.45±0.20, P = 0.03 but not in the odd-year line (rg  = 0.16±0.12, P = 0.19. Complex segregation analyses of the even-year line provided evidence of genes with major effect on SI, and a genome scan of a single family, 2008132, detected three significant QTL on chromosomes Omy19, 16 and 5, in addition to ten suggestive QTL. A separate chromosome scan for disease resistance in family 2008132 identified a significant BCWD QTL on Omy19 that was associated with time to death and percent survival. In family 2008132, Omy19 microsatellite alleles that associated with higher disease resistance also associated with increased spleen size raising the hypothesis that closely linked QTL contribute to the correlation between

  9. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial gastroenteritis is present when bacteria cause an infection of the stomach and intestines ... has not been treated Many different types of bacteria can cause ... Campylobacter jejuni E coli Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus ...

  10. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Microbiome in Children with Hirschsprung Disease with and without a History of Enterocolitis: A Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip K Frykman

    Full Text Available Development of potentially life-threatening enterocolitis is the most frequent complication in children with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, even after definitive corrective surgery. Intestinal microbiota likely contribute to the etiology of enterocolitis, so the aim of this study was to compare the fecal bacterial and fungal communities of children who developed Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC with HSCR patients who had never had enterocolitis. Eighteen Hirschsprung patients who had completed definitive surgery were enrolled: 9 had a history of HAEC and 9 did not. Fecal DNA was isolated and 16S and ITS-1 regions sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing and data analysis for species identification. The HAEC group bacterial composition showed a modest reduction in Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia with increased Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria compared with the HSCR group. In contrast, the fecal fungi composition of the HAEC group showed marked reduction in diversity with increased Candida sp., and reduced Malassezia and Saccharomyces sp. compared with the HSCR group. The most striking finding within the HAEC group is that the Candida genus segregated into "high burden" patients with 97.8% C. albicans and 2.2% C. tropicalis compared with "low burden" patients 26.8% C. albicans and 73% C. tropicalis. Interestingly even the low burden HAEC group had altered Candida community structure with just two species compared to more diverse Candida populations in the HSCR patients. This is the first study to identify Candida sp. as potentially playing a role in HAEC either as expanded commensal species as a consequence of enterocolitis (or treatment, or possibly as pathobioants contributing to the pathogenesis of HAEC. These findings suggest a dysbiosis in the gut microbial ecosystem of HAEC patients, such that there may be dominance of fungi and bacteria predisposing patients to development of HAEC.

  11. The bovine paranasal sinuses: Bacterial flora, epithelial expression of nitric oxide and potential role in the in-herd persistence of respiratory disease pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Rónan G.; Lee, Alison M.; McElroy, Máire C.; More, Simon J.; Monagle, Aisling; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    The bovine paranasal sinuses are a group of complex cavernous air-filled spaces, lined by respiratory epithelium, the exact function of which is unclear. While lesions affecting these sinuses are occasionally reported in cattle, their microbial flora has not been defined. Furthermore, given that the various bacterial and viral pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) persist within herds, we speculated that the paranasal sinuses may serve as a refuge for such infectious agents. The paranasal sinuses of clinically normal cattle (n = 99) and of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination (PME: n = 34) were examined by microbial culture, PCR and serology to include bacterial and viral pathogens typically associated with BRD: Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (BPIV-3). Overall, the paranasal sinuses were either predominantly sterile or did not contain detectable microbes (83.5%: 94.9% of clinically normal and 50.0% of cattle submitted for PME). Bacteria, including BRD causing pathogens, were identified in relatively small numbers of cattle (<10%). While serology indicated widespread exposure of both clinically normal and cattle submitted for PME to BPIV-3 and BRSV (seroprevalences of 91.6% and 84.7%, respectively), PCR identified BPIV-3 in only one animal. To further explore these findings we investigated the potential role of the antimicrobial molecule nitric oxide (NO) within paranasal sinus epithelium using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the enzyme responsible for NO synthesis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was detected to varying degrees in 76.5% of a sub-sample of animals suggesting production of this compound plays a similar protective role in the bovine sinus as it does in humans. PMID:28282443

  12. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, D.; Higuera, G.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions...... together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque‐forming units per colony‐forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD....

  13. Research Progress of Spikelet Rot Disease and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice%水稻穗腐病和穗枯病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李路; 刘连盟; 王国荣; 汪爱娟; 王玲; 孙磊; 黎起秦; 黄世文

    2015-01-01

    水稻穗腐病和穗枯病是我国新上升或新出现的两个水稻后期穗部病害。近年来,随着气候的变化、耕作栽培制度及肥水管理的改变以及品种(组合)的更替,两病在我国的发生和危害程度越来越严重。穗腐病和穗枯病病原菌有色,可产生毒素,不但直接影响水稻产量,还导致稻米品质降低,危害食用者的健康。穗腐病和穗枯病在发病时期、发生部位和危害程度上具有相似性。综述了两病害的发生、流行规律、危害状况、病原菌生物特性和毒素研究以及防治方法,提出了研究上目前存在的问题和今后的研究方向。%Rice spikelet rot disease (RSRD)and bacterial panicle blight of rice (BPBR),two newly increasing or emerging diseases in China,are both panicle diseases in the late growth stage of rice.The diseases have become more and more serious in recent years due to the changes of climate,cultivation system,nutrient and water management as well as the substitute of rice varieties/combinations.The RSRD and BPBR not only affected rice yield directly but also decreased rice quality due to the colourful pathogens and pathogenic toxins.The toxins were also noxious to the animals and human beings.The two diseases have similarities in epidemic period,infected parts of rice and the damage degree. The regularity of the diseases’occurrence and epidemiology,the damage status,the investigation of pathogens’ biological characteristics and their toxins,the control approaches in paddy fields were briefly reviewed.We pointed out the issues existed in current research and the research directions of these two diseases in the future.

  14. Inducible CYP2J2 and its product 11,12-EET promotes bacterial phagocytosis: a role for CYP2J2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bystrom

    Full Text Available The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn's disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn's disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

  15. Population genomic analysis of a bacterial plant pathogen: novel insight into the origin of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Nunney

    Full Text Available Invasive diseases present an increasing problem worldwide; however, genomic techniques are now available to investigate the timing and geographical origin of such introductions. We employed genomic techniques to demonstrate that the bacterial pathogen causing Pierce's disease of grapevine (PD is not native to the US as previously assumed, but descended from a single genotype introduced from Central America. PD has posed a serious threat to the US wine industry ever since its first outbreak in Anaheim, California in the 1880s and continues to inhibit grape cultivation in a large area of the country. It is caused by infection of xylem vessels by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, a genetically distinct subspecies at least 15,000 years old. We present five independent kinds of evidence that strongly support our invasion hypothesis: 1 a genome-wide lack of genetic variability in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa found in the US, consistent with a recent common ancestor; 2 evidence for historical allopatry of the North American subspecies X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa; 3 evidence that X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa evolved in a more tropical climate than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; 4 much greater genetic variability in the proposed source population in Central America, variation within which the US genotypes are phylogenetically nested; and 5 the circumstantial evidence of importation of known hosts (coffee plants from Central America directly into southern California just prior to the first known outbreak of the disease. The lack of genetic variation in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in the US suggests that preventing additional introductions is important since new genetic variation may undermine PD control measures, or may lead to infection of other crop plants through the creation of novel genotypes via inter-subspecific recombination. In general, geographically mixing of previously

  16. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Amri Saleh

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is an infection of the ascitic fluid without obvious intra-abdominal source of sepsis; usually complicates advanced liver disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial: low ascitic protein-content, which reflects defi-cient ascitic fluid complement and hence, reduced opsonic activity is thought to be the most important pathogenic factor. Frequent and prolonged bacteremia has been considered as another pertinent cause of SBP. This disease is associated with high mortality and recurrence. Therefore, orompt recognition and institution of therapy and plan of prophylaxis is vital.

  17. A pitfall in diagnosis of human prion diseases using detection of protease-resistant prion protein in urine. Contamination with bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hisako; Doh-ura, Katsumi; Okuwaki, Ryo; Shirabe, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Udono, Heiichiro; Ito, Takashi; Katamine, Shigeru; Niwa, Masami

    2004-05-28

    Because a definite diagnosis of prion diseases relies on the detection of the abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrPSc), it has been urgently necessary to establish a non-invasive diagnostic test to detect PrPSc in human prion diseases. To evaluate diagnostic usefulness and reliability of the detection of protease-resistant prion protein in urine, we extensively analyzed proteinase K (PK)-resistant proteins in patients affected with prion diseases and control subjects by Western blot, a coupled liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis, and N-terminal sequence analysis. The PK-resistant signal migrating around 32 kDa previously reported by Shaked et al. (Shaked, G. M., Shaked, Y., Kariv-Inbal, Z., Halimi, M., Avraham, I., and Gabizon, R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 31479-31482) was not observed in this study. Instead, discrete protein bands with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 37 kDa were detected in the urine of many patients affected with prion diseases and two diseased controls. Although these proteins also gave strong signals in the Western blot using a variety of anti-PrP antibodies as a primary antibody, we found that the signals were still detectable by incubation of secondary antibodies alone, i.e. in the absence of the primary anti-PrP antibodies. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal protein sequencing analysis revealed that the majority of the PK-resistant 37-kDa proteins in the urine of patients were outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the Enterobacterial species. OMPs isolated from these bacteria were resistant to PK and the PK-resistant OMPs from the Enterobacterial species migrated around 37 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, nonspecific binding of OMPs to antibodies could be mistaken for PrPSc. These findings caution that bacterial contamination can affect the immunological detection of prion protein. Therefore, the presence of Enterobacterial species should be excluded in the immunological tests for PrPSc in clinical samples, in

  18. Neglected bacterial zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikeka, I; Dumler, J S

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. Although many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which broad-spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. This review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control.

  19. Discussion on Occurrence and Prevention and Control Technology of Rice Bacterial Foot-rot Disease%水稻细菌性基腐病的发生与防控技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危崇德

    2013-01-01

    Rice bacterial foot-rot disease is one of the most important diseases in rice, in recent years, has happened in southern rice areas and caused a severe yield loss of rice crop. In this paper, influencing factors and disease symptom of rice bacterial foot-rot disease were introduced, and puts forward the corresponding prevention and control technical measures, provide a reference for the effective control of rice bacterial foot- rot disease.%水稻细菌性基腐病是水稻上重要的细菌病害之一,近几年在南方稻区陆续发生,已给水稻生产带来较为严重威胁。介绍了水稻细菌性基腐病的为害症状、影响因素,并提出了相应的防控技术措施,为有效控制水稻细菌性基腐病提供参考。

  20. Determination of the biofilm formation capacity of bacterial pathogens associated with otorhinolaryngologic diseases in the Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yalda; Ling, Lina Chooi; Loke, Mun Fai; Shailendra, Sivalingam; Prepageran, Narayanan; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the association between microbial composition, biofilm formation and chronic otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Malaysia. A total of 45 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic suppurative otitis media and 15 asymptomatic control patients were studied. Swab samples were obtained from these subjects. Samples were studied by conventional microbiological culturing, PCR-based microbial detection and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Streptococcus species were detected in subjects of both patient and control groups. Biofilm was observed in approximately half of the smear prepared from swab samples obtained from subjects of the patient group. Most of these were polymicrobial biofilms. S. aureus biofilm was most prevalent among nasal samples while H. influenzae biofilm was more common among ear and throat samples. Results from this study supported the hypothesis that chronic otorhinolaryngologic diseases may be biofilm related. Due to the presence of unculturable bacteria in biofilms present in specimens from ear, nose and throat, the use of molecular methods in combination with conventional microbiological culturing has demonstrated an improvement in the detection of bacteria from such specimens in this study.

  1. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally.

  2. Comparative transcriptome proifling of two maize near-isogenic lines differing in the allelic state for bacterial brown spot disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-jun; Xu Li; ZHAO Pan-feng; LI Na; WU Lei; HE Yan; WANG Shou-cai

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial brown spot disease (BBS), caused primarily by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hal (Pss), reduces plant vigor, yield and quality in maize. To reveal the nature of the defense mechanisms and identify genes involved in the effective host resistance, the dynamic changes of defense transcriptome triggered by the infection of Pss were investigated and compared between two maize near-isogenic lines (NILs). We found that Pss infection resulted in a sophisticated tran-scriptional reprogramming of several biological processes and the resistant NIL employed much faster defense responses than the susceptible NIL. Numerous genes encoding essential components of plant basal resistance would be able to be activated in the susceptible NIL, such as PEN1, PEN2, PEN3, and EDR1, however, in a basic manner, such resistance might not be sufifcient for suppressing Pss pathogenesis. In addition, the expressions of a large number of PTI-, ETI-, PR-, and WRKY-related genes were pronouncedly activated in the resistant NIL, suggesting that maize employ a multitude of defense pathways to defend Pss infection. Six R-gene homologs were identiifed to have signiifcantly higher expression levels in the resistant NIL at early time point, indicating that a robust surveil ance system (gene-to-gene model) might operate in maize during Pss attacks, and these homolog genes are likely to be potential candidate resistance genes involved in BBS disease resistance. Furthermore, a holistic group of novel pathogen-responsive genes were deifned, providing the repertoire of candidate genes for further functional characterization and identiifcation of their regulation patterns during pathogen infection.

  3. Genetic variation in bacterial kidney disease (BKD) susceptibility in Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon and its progenitor population from the Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hard, Jeffrey J.; Neely, Kathleen G.; Park, Linda K.; Winton, James R.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Mass mortality events in wild fish due to infectious diseases are troubling, especially given the potential for long-term, population-level consequences. Evolutionary theory predicts that populations with sufficient genetic variation will adapt in response to pathogen pressure. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were introduced into Lake Michigan in the late 1960s from a Washington State hatchery population. In the late 1980s, collapse of the forage base and nutritional stress in Lake Michigan were thought to contribute to die-offs of Chinook Salmon due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously, we demonstrated that Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon from a Wisconsin hatchery have greater survival following BKD challenge relative to their progenitor population. Here, we evaluated whether the phenotypic divergence of these populations in BKD susceptibility was due to selection rather than genetic drift. Comparison of the overall magnitude of quantitative trait to neutral marker divergence between the populations suggested selection had occurred but a direct test of quantitative trait divergence was not significant, preventing the rejection of the null hypothesis of differentiation through genetic drift. Estimates of phenotypic variation (VP), additive genetic variation (VA) and narrow-sense heritability (h2) were consistently higher in the Wisconsin relative to the Washington population. If selection had acted on the Wisconsin population there was no evidence of a concomitant loss of genetic variation in BKD susceptibility. The Renibacterium salmoninarum exposures were conducted at both 14°C and 9°C; the warmer temperature accelerated time to death in both populations and there was no evidence of phenotypic plasticity or a genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction. High h2 estimates for BKD susceptibility in the Wisconsin population, combined with a lack of phenotypic plasticity, predicts that future adaptive gains in BKD resistance are still possible and

  4. Bacterial Toxin Fusion Proteins Elicit Mucosal Immunity against a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen When Administered Intranasally to Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Challa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 G-H loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. However, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. In the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant approaches were used to augment mucosal immunity to the FMDV O1 BFS G-H loop epitope, in which the G-H loop was genetically coupled to the E. coli LT-B subunit and coexpressed with the LTA2 fragment (LTA2B-GH, or the nontoxic pseudomonas exotoxin A (ntPE was fused to LTA2B-GH at LT-A2 to enhance receptor targeting. Only guinea pigs that were inoculated intranasally with ntPE-LTA2B-GH and LTA2B-GH induced significant anti-G-H loop IgA antibodies in nasal washes at weeks 4 and 6 when compared to ovalbumin or G-H loop immunized animals. These were also the only groups that exhibited G-H loop-specific antigen-secreting cells in the nasal mucosa. These data demonstrate that fusion of nonreplicating antigens to LTA2B and ntPE-LTA2B has the potential to be used as carriers/adjuvants to induce mucosal immune responses against infectious diseases.

  5. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  6. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  7. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: When Natural Friends Turn into Enemies—The Importance of CpG Motifs of Bacterial DNA in Intestinal Homeostasis and Chronic Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Obermeier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From numerous studies during the last years it became evident that bacteria and bacterial constituents play a decisive role both in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis as well as in the development and perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation. In this review we focus on the role of bacterial DNA which is a potent immunomodulatory component of the bacterial flora. Bacterial DNA has been shown to be protective against experimental colitis. In contrast bacterial DNA essentially contributes to the perpetuation of an already established chronic intestinal inflammation in a Toll-like receptor (TLR9-dependent manner. This dichotomic action may be explained by a different activation status of essential regulators of TLR signaling like Glycogen synthase kinase 3- (GSK3- depending on the pre-activation status of the intestinal immune system. In this review we suggest that regulators of TLR signaling may be interesting therapeutic targets in IBD aiming at the restoration of intestinal immune homeostasis.

  8. Bacterial canker resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is the pathogen causing bacterial  canker in tomato. The disease was described for the first time in 1910 in Michigan, USA. Cmmis considered the most harmful bacteria threatening tomato. Disease transmission occurs via seed and symptoms becom

  9. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setha, To; Chantha, Ngan; Benjamin, Seleena; Socheat, Doung

    2016-09-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005-2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10-12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province.

  10. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Kim, Taejoong; Fadly, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Co-cultivation of the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing the REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named the RM1 strain of MDV, a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity but induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy. We hypothesize that the phenotypic changes were solely due to the LTR insertion. Furthermore, we hypothesize that insertion of REV LTR into an analogous location in a different MDV would result in a similar phenotypic change. To test these hypotheses, we inserted the REV LTR into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5, and designated the virus rMd5-RM1-LTR. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus and the rMd5 virus were passaged in duck embryo fibroblast cells for up to 40 passages before pathogenicity studies. Susceptible chickens were inoculated intra-abdominally at hatch with the viruses rMd5-RM1-LTR, rMd5 BAC parental virus, wild-type strain Md5, or strain RM1 of MDV. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus was attenuated at cell culture passage 40, whereas the rMd5 BAC without RM1 LTR retained its pathogenicity at cell culture passage 40. Using polymerase chain analysis, the RM1 LTR insert was detected in MDV isolated from buffy coat cells collected from chickens inoculated with rMd5-RM1-LTR, but only at 1 week post inoculation. The data suggest that the presence of the RM1 LTR insert within MDV genome for 1 week post inoculation with virus at hatch is sufficient to cause a reduction in pathogenicity of strain Md5 of MDV.

  11. Artificially inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejoong; Mays, Jody; Fadly, Aly; Silva, Robert F

    2011-06-01

    Researchers reported that co-cultivating the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in an REV long terminal repeat (LTR) being inserted into the internal repeat short (IRS) region of JM/102W. When the resulting recombinant virus was serially passed in cell culture, the initial LTR was duplicated and a second LTR spontaneously appeared in the terminal repeat short (TRS) region of the MDV genome. The virus, designated RM1, was significantly attenuated but still induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy (Isfort et al. PNAS 89:991-995). To determine whether the altered phenotype was due solely to the LTR, we cloned the LTR from the RM1 IRS region and inserted it into the IRS region of a very virulent bacterial artificial clone (BAC) of the Md5 strain of MDV, which we designated rMd5-RM1-LTR. During blind passage in duck embryo fibroblast cultures, the initial LTR in the rMd5-RM1-LTR was also duplicated, with LTRs appearing in both IRS and TRS regions of the MDV genome. The inserted LTR sequences and transcripts associated with the MDV open reading frames MDV085, MDV086, SORF2, US1, and US10 were molecularly characterized. The parental Md5 BAC contains a family of transcripts of 3, 2, and 1 kb that all terminate at the end of the US10 gene. The rMd5-RM1-LTR and RM1 viruses both express an additional 4 kb transcript that originates in the LTR and also terminates after US10. Collectively, the data suggest that our engineered rMd5-RM1-LTR virus very closely resembles the RM1 virus in its structure and transcription patterns.

  12. Breath test for differential diagnosis between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel disease: An observation on non-absorbable antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) among patients with an earlier diagnosis of irritable bowel disease (IBS) in our geographical area, and to collect information on the use of locally acting non-absorbable antibiotics in the management of SIBO.METHODS: A non-interventional study was conducted in 73 consecutive patients with a symptom-based diagnosis..RESULTS: When the patients underwent a "breath test", 33 (45.2%) showed the presence of a SIBO. After treatment with rifaximin 1200 mg/d for seven days in 32 patients, 19 (59.4%) showed a negative "breath test" one week later as well as a significant reduction of symptoms, thus confirming the relationship between SIBO and many of the symptoms claimed by patients. In the other 13 patients, "breath test" remained positive,and a further cycle of treatment with ciprofloxacin 500mg/d was given for 7 additional days, resulting in a negative "breath test" in one atient only.CONCLUSION: (1) about half of the patients with a symptomatic diagnosis of IBS have actually SIBO, which is responsible for most of the symptoms attributed to IBS; (2) only a "breath test" with lactulose (or with glucose in subjects with an intolerance to lactose) can provide a differential diagnosis between IBS and SIBO,with almost identical symptoms; and (3) the use of non-absorbable antibiotics may be useful to reduce the degree of SIBO and related symptoms; it must be accompanied, however, by the correction of the wrong alimentary habits underlying SIBO.

  13. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheat, Doung

    2016-01-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005–2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10–12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province. PMID:27627758

  14. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  15. 5.3 Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930229 A study on the count of living BCGbacilli using BL and Fs methods.ZHANGJiguang (张继光),et al.Shanghai TuberculControl Center,200031.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(6):325—327.Counting of living BCG bacilli is an importantindicator for survellance of BCG quality.Presently the method of CFU recommended byWHO is still widely used.This study employsrapid bioluminescent trchnique which measuersATP in the BCG and the fluorescent staining

  16. 5.3.Bacterial disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920038 Clinical effect and laboratoryobservation of ofloxacin in the treatment oftyphoid fever,bacillary dysentery and gonor-rhea.ZOU Qiyuan (邹启园),et al.Dept InfectDis,1st Affil Hosp,Chongqing Med Univ,630042.Chin J Intern Med 1991;30 (9):572-574

  17. 国内木薯病害普查及细菌性萎蔫病安全性评估%General Survey on Cassava Diseases and Safety Assessment of Cassava Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超萍; 时涛; 刘先宝; 蔡吉苗; 裴月令; 黄贵修

    2011-01-01

    2007~2010年,对广西、海南、云南等木薯主产区进行病害普查.结果发现,至今危害国内木薯的主要病害有7种,包括真菌病害6种[褐斑病(Cercosporidium henningsii)、炭疽病(colletotrichum gloeosPorioides)、离孺孢叶斑病(Bipolaris setariae)、棒孢霉叶斑病(Corynespora cassiicola)、白点病(phaeoramularia manihotis)和萎蔫叶斑病(Cercospora vicosae)],细菌病害1种[细菌性萎蔫病(Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis)],其中离孺孢叶斑病和棒孢霉叶斑病为新发病害;7种病害中褐斑病和细菌性萎蔫病发生面积最大,危害最为严重.风险评估结果表明,细菌性萎蔫病菌为高度危险性有害生物.%During 2007 to 2010, cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz)diseases survey was conducted in Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan, the main cassava planting areas of China. The results showed that only seven diseases, six fungal diseases and one bacterial disease, were found. The cassava brown leaf spot caused by Cercosporidium henningsii and the bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv Manihotis prevailed in most cassava planting areas and caused serious damage. The safety assessment indicated that the cassava bacterial blight was a high risk disease. At present, cassava diseases are becoming one of the most important limiting factors for the development of cassava industry and would have a very serious,potential economic risk on correlative industry and the ecology of the tropic area.

  18. Correlates of Bacterial Ulcers and Acute HSV-2 Infection among Men with Genital Ulcer Disease in South Africa: Age, Recent Sexual Behaviors, and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Lewis, David A.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Data from baseline surveys and STI/HIV laboratory tests (n=615 men) were used to examine correlates of bacterial ulcers (Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, or Chlamydia trachomatis L1–L3 detected in ulcer) and acute HSV-2 ulcers (HSV-2 positive ulcer specimen, HSV-2 sero-negative, and negative for bacterial pathogens) vs. recurrent HSV-2 ulcers (sero-positive), separately. Compared to men with recurrent HSV-2 ulcers, men with bacterial ulcers had larger ulcers but were less likely to be HIV-positive whereas men with acute HSV-2 ulcers were younger with fewer partners. Acute HIV was higher among men with bacterial and acute HSV-2 ulcers; the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:28217702

  19. Correlates of Bacterial Ulcers and Acute HSV-2 Infection among Men with Genital Ulcer Disease in South Africa: Age, Recent Sexual Behaviors, and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Lewis, David A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Data from baseline surveys and STI/HIV laboratory tests (n=615 men) were used to examine correlates of bacterial ulcers (Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, or Chlamydia trachomatis L1-L3 detected in ulcer) and acute HSV-2 ulcers (HSV-2 positive ulcer specimen, HSV-2 sero-negative, and negative for bacterial pathogens) vs. recurrent HSV-2 ulcers (sero-positive), separately. Compared to men with recurrent HSV-2 ulcers, men with bacterial ulcers had larger ulcers but were less likely to be HIV-positive whereas men with acute HSV-2 ulcers were younger with fewer partners. Acute HIV was higher among men with bacterial and acute HSV-2 ulcers; the difference was not statistically significant.

  20. 植物内生菌对柑橘溃疡病的生物防治作用及应用前景%Biological Control Effect of Plant Endophyte on Citrus Bacterial Canker Disease and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玲莉; 匡全; 王彦波

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the disease -resistant mechanism and biological control effect of plant endophyte, discussed the mechanism and superiority of plant endophyte in the control of citrus bacterial canker disease, and looked forward its application in the biological control.%从植物内生菌的抗病机理及生物防治病害作用方面综述了利用植物内生菌防治柑橘溃疡病的机理与优势,并对其生物防治应用前景进行了展望.

  1. Bacterial canker resistance in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) is the pathogen causing bacterial  canker in tomato. The disease was described for the first time in 1910 in Michigan, USA. Cmmis considered the most harmful bacteria threatening tomato. Disease transmission occurs via seed and symptoms become visible at least 20 days after infection. Due to its complex strategy and transmission, Cmm is under quarantine regulation in EU and other countries. There is no method to stop disease progress i...

  2. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6003 E-mail: npin-info@cdc.gov American Sexual Health Association (ASHA) P. O. Box 13827 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827 1-800-783-9877 Sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015 . MMWR, 64(RR-3) (2015). Hillier S and ...

  3. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications How do health care providers diagnose bacterial vaginosis (BV)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... menstruating. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Bacterial vaginosis: CDC fact sheet . Retrieved May 10, 2012, from ...

  4. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  5. Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  6. Agentes bacterianos de enfermedad diarreica aguda en el Hospital Infantil de Cartagena Bacterial etiology of acute diarrheal disease at a hospital for children in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora De La Hoz

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad diarreica aguda causa en la Población de Colombia un elevado índice de morbimortalidad. Como contribución al conocimiento de su etiología se estudiaron, de mayo a septiembre de 1991, 110 muestras de heces diarreicas de igual número de niños hasta de 5 años, que acudieron al Hospital Infantil de Cartagena. Para el aislamiento e Identificación de las bacterias enteropatógenas se usaron medios de cultivos convencionales y modificados y se realizaron pruebas bioquímicas y tipificación con antisueros específicos. Se aislaron 111 cepas de bacterias enteropatógenas: 62 pacientes (56.4% tenían una sola cepa; en 14 (12.7% se hallaron 2 cepas por paciente; en 7 (6.4% tres cepas por paciente y los restantes 27 (24.5% fueron negativos. El agente más frecuente fue Escherichia coli ente. ropatógena (ECEP (51 cepas; 45.9%; le siguieron Shigella spp. (17 cepas; 15.3%, Vibrio cholerae (17 cepas; 15.3%, Salmonella spp. (15 cepas; 13.5% y Aeromonas hydrophila (11 cepas; 10%. No se hallaron Yersinia enterocolitica nl Campylobacter spp.. Esta publicación contiene los primeros aislamientos de V. cholerae a partir de heces de pacientes que acudieron al Hospital Infantil de Cartagena. SI se realizan rutinariamente coprocultivos y se aplican métodos más sensibles y específicos para aislar e identificar las bacterias enteropatógenas, se podrá definir con mayor exactitud su papel etiológico y epidemiológico en la enfermedad diarreica aguda en nuestra población infantil.

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD causes a high morbidity and mortality among Colombian population. One hundred and ten stool specimens from patients with diarrhea 0-5 years old who attended the Hospital for Children in Cartagena from May through September 1991 were studied in order to detect the bacterial etiological agents. Conventional, selective and modified culture media were employed. Stereotyping

  7. Bacterial vaginosis -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000687.htm Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... to back after you use the bathroom. Preventing Bacterial Vaginosis You can help prevent bacterial vaginosis by: Not ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Bacterial vaginosis (also called BV or vaginitis) is an infection ...

  9. 防治叶菜病虫害型生物菌肥生产技术%Production Technology of Biological Bacterial Fertilizer for Prevention and Cure of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests of Leaf Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德印; 王刚; 郑曙光

    2015-01-01

    针对农业生产中大量使用农药、化肥所导致的食品安全和环境污染问题,开发了防治叶菜病虫害型生物菌肥生产工艺,并介绍了菌种选择及生产技术指标等。防治叶菜病虫害型生物菌肥是在传统的叶菜专用菌肥中添加枯草芽孢杆菌和苏云金芽孢杆菌,不仅可有效防治叶菜病虫害,还利于培肥地力、提高叶菜产量和品质。%In connection with problems of food safety and environmental pollution caused by pesticide and fertilizer widely used in agriculture production,the production technology of biological bacterial fertilizer for prevention and cure of plant diseases and insect pests of leaf vegetables is researched and developed,and the strain selection and production technical indexes are introduced. The biological bacterial fertilizer for prevention and cure of plant diseases and insect pests of leaf vegetables is produced by adding bacillus subtilis and bacillus thuringlensis to traditional special bacterial fertilizer for leaf vegetables,it can not only effectively prevent and cure plant diseases and insect pests of leaf vegetables,but also benefit raising soil fertility,promoting yield and quality of leaf vegetables.

  10. Bacterial Tracheitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The war against infectious diseases -- medicine versus microbes -- has been holding steady... More News Tweets by Merck and the Merck Manuals Merck & ...

  11. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  12. Bacterial adherence in otitis media: Determination of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in the submucosal glands and surface epithelium of the normal and diseased Eustachian tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Friis, M; Mikkelsen, H B

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common childhood infection caused by bacteria. The pathogenesis of AOM implicates initial adherence of a pathogen to the nasopharyngeal epithelium, which is followed by bacterial colonization of the middle ear cavity through the Eustachian tube. N......-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is an important constituent of mucins and GalNAc containing sugar residues seem to be essential for initial adherence of respiratory bacteria to the surface of epithelial cells....

  13. Extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, J E

    1979-08-01

    Bacterial endocarditis is an elusive disease that challenges clinicians' diagnostic capabilities. Because it can present with various combinations of extravalvular signs and symptoms, the underlying primary disease can go unnoticed.A review of the various extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis suggests three main patterns by which the valvular infection can be obscured. (1) A major clinical event may be so dramatic that subtle evidence of endocarditis is overlooked. The rupture of a mycotic aneurysm may simulate a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a congenital aneurysm. (2) The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may be constitutional complaints easily attributable to a routine, trivial illness. Symptoms of low-grade fever, myalgias, back pain and anorexia may mimic a viral syndrome. (3) Endocarditis poses a difficult diagnostic dilemma when it generates constellations of findings that are classic for other disorders. Complaints of arthritis and arthralgias accompanied by hematuria and antinuclear antibody may suggest systemic lupus erythematosus; a renal biopsy study showing diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis may support this diagnosis. The combination of fever, petechiae, altered mental status, thrombocytopenia, azotemia and anemia may promote the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. When the protean guises of bacterial endocarditis create these clinical difficulties, errors in diagnosis occur and appropriate therapy is delayed. Keen awareness of the varied disease presentations will improve success in managing endocarditis by fostering rapid diagnosis and prompt therapy.

  14. Protective efficacy of a recombinant bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek’s disease virus containing a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in poultry characterized by T-cell lymphomas, nerve lesions and mortality. Vaccination is used worldwide to control MD, but increasingly virulent field strains can overcome this protection, d...

  15. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  16. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  17. Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.

  18. Clinical Analysis of 102 Cases of Bacterial Vagina Disease%102例细菌性阴道病的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙玲; 杜德红

    2002-01-01

    @@ 细菌性阴道病(Bacterial vaginosis)是已婚妇女的常见病,与妇科炎性疾病、女性不孕均有密切联系,主要通过性生活传播,夫妻双方要同时治疗.本文收集了102例细菌性阴道病,并进行回顾性分析,主要探讨其与妇科炎性疾病及不孕症的关系.

  19. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  20. Epigenetics and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierne, Hélène; Hamon, Mélanie; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate expression of the genome to generate various cell types during development or orchestrate cellular responses to external stimuli. Recent studies highlight that bacteria can affect the chromatin structure and transcriptional program of host cells by influencing diverse epigenetic factors (i.e., histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin-associated complexes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing factors). In this article, we first review the molecular bases of the epigenetic language and then describe the current state of research regarding how bacteria can alter epigenetic marks and machineries. Bacterial-induced epigenetic deregulations may affect host cell function either to promote host defense or to allow pathogen persistence. Thus, pathogenic bacteria can be considered as potential epimutagens able to reshape the epigenome. Their effects might generate specific, long-lasting imprints on host cells, leading to a memory of infection that influences immunity and might be at the origin of unexplained diseases.

  1. 不同香蕉枯萎病区土壤细菌群落多样性%Diversity of soil bacterial community in banana orchards infected with wilt disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 黄霄; 刘小玉; 周登博; 谭昕; 高祝芬; 张锡炎; 戚春林

    2013-01-01

    Six soil samples including 3 wilt disease-infected samples and 3 disease-free samples were collected from the banana orchards in 3 areas in Lingao County,Hainan Province of South China.The soil physical and chemical properties were determined by conventional methods,and the diversity of soil bacterial community was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).Then,the relationships between the soil bacterial community composition and the soil physical and chemical properties were investigated.In the same areas,most of the soil physical and chemical properties were poorer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards,with the most obvious difference in soil available P content and pH.The T-RFLP analysis showed the diversity of soil bacterial community was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.The lengths of the dominant T-RFs in the 3 areas were 144,147 and 233 bp,respectively.Through the comparison with phylogenetic assignment tool,it was deduced that the dominant species in the 3 areas were Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus and Eubacterium ruminantium.The distribution of most T-RFs was related to the soil alkaline hydrolyzable N,available K,available P and water content,and the relative abundance of most T-RFs was richer in disease-infected than in disease-free banana orchards.%分别采集海南省临高县3个地区的香蕉枯萎病发病土壤与健康土壤样品共6份,采用常规方法测定土壤理化性质,以末端限制性片段多态性分析(T-RFLP)技术研究不同地区发病与健康土壤微生物的多样性,并分析土壤微生物群落结构与土壤因子的关系.结果表明:同一地区发病蕉园土壤的大部分理化性质指标低于健康蕉园,以pH、有效P含量的差异最显著;T-RFLP结果表明供试蕉园发病土壤的细菌多样性比健康土壤丰富;3个地区的优势种分别为片段长度为144、147与233 bp的T-RFs,通过系统发

  2. Anemia of chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS , hepatitis B or hepatitis ... disease Crohn disease Erythropoietin test Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Osteomyelitis Rheumatic fever Ulcerative colitis Review Date 2/1/ ...

  3. IgG4-related pleural disease diagnosed by a re-evaluation of chronic bilateral pleuritis in a patient who experienced occasional acute left bacterial pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yasuo, Masanori; Kobayashi, Orie; Tsushima, Kenji; Ito, Michiko; Urushihata, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Uehara, Takeshi; Kawakami, Satoshi; Hamano, Hideaki; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kubo, Keishi

    2011-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with cryptogenic chronic bilateral lymphoplasmacytic pleuritis, diagnosed based on left parietal pleural biopsy specimens obtained by pleuroscopy, developed acute left bacterial pleuritis. The left pleural effusion was neutrophil dominant, however, the right pleural effusion showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Laboratory examinations revealed that his serum IgG4 concentration was increased, with a higher level of IgG4 in the right pleural effusion. Re-evaluation of the previous biopsy specimens using an immunostaining method revealed numerous IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrations with IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells at 85.4%. Accordingly, the new diagnosis of this patient was considered to be chronic bilateral IgG4-related pleuritis.

  4. The causes of relapse of bacterial vaginal disease and the effects of vaginal micro ecological evaluation index on the treat-ment of bacterial vaginal disease%细菌性阴道病复发原因及阴道微生态评价指标对治疗细菌性阴道病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of elapse of bacterial vaginal disease(BV)and the effects of vaginal micro ecological evaluation index on the treatment of vaginal bacterial disease(BV). Methods The 170 cases diagnosed with BV through clinical symptoms,signs and the results of bacteriological examinations from January 2013 to June 2014 were selected and randomly divided into two groups according to the order of admission. Patients in the control group were treated until the symp-toms disappeared and the medicine was withdrawn until Amsel appeared normal. The patients in the observation group were trea-ted until the intensity of the vagina bacterium group reached degree Ⅱ - Ⅲ and Lactobacillus was obvious(the concentration of H2 O2 ﹥ 2 nmol/ ml),based on the therapy of the control group. After 6 months of follow - up,the recurrence rate was compared between the two groups ,the clinical data of relapsing patients were retrospectively analyzed and the reasons of recurrence of BV were summarized. Results The recurrence rate( 14. 12% ) in the observation group was significantly lower than that (55. 29% ,χ2 = 31. 799,P = 0. 000)of the control group. In 170 cases of patients with BV,59 cases showed recurrence,ac-counting for 34. 71% . The results single factor analysis suggested that age,degree of education and the history of abortion were not the risk factors of recurrence(P ﹥ 0. 05). But logistic multi factors analysis suggested that the way of underwear changed and times,times of sexual life,way of bathing and pads used in the non menstrual were the main risk factors(P ﹤ 0. 05). Multivari-ate logistic analysis showed that the underwear washed with other clothes,bathtub,the frequency of sexual life(more than 3 times per week),pads used in non menstrual were independent risk factors for recurrence of BV(P ﹤ 0. 05). But the times of underwear changed(less than 4 times per week)were the independent risk factor(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion The vaginal micro

  5. Bacterial and parasitic zoonoses of exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J

    2009-09-01

    Zoonoses are estimated to make up to 75% of today's emerging infectious diseases. Many of these diseases are carried and transmitted by exotic pets and wildlife. Exotic animal practitioners must be aware of these risks not only to protect their health but also to safeguard the health of staff and clients. This article reviews selected bacterial and parasitic zoonoses associated with exotic animals.

  6. Incidence of Bacterial Disease and Yield of Broccoli as Influenced by Different Rain Protectors and Varieties during the Rainy Season in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karistsapol Nooprom

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is mainly focused on evaluating the effects of different rain protectors and broccoli varieties to find out whether rain protector and variety is suitable or not for broccoli production during rainy season. Broccoli was experimented at Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Study revealed that broccoli growing under plastic sheet and green shade net had lower incidence of soft rot disease (1.62 and 3.75%, respectively than those grown in open field (13.33% while their growing under plastic sheet (1.50% had lower incidence of black rot disease than those grown under green shade net and open field (18.75 and 32.88%, respectively. All broccoli varieties were found to be statistically different in their response towards soft rot and black rot diseases. However, the Top Green had the highest diseases incidence (8.33 and 21.08%, respectively while the Yok Kheo had the lowest diseases incidence (4.62 and 0.00%, respectively. The highest total yield was obtained from the Yok Kheo when those grown under plastic sheet (13.48 t/ha while the Top Green had lowest yield when those grown in open field (3.94 t/ha. Therefore, the most suitable method for broccoli production during rainy season in southern Thailand was to grow under plastic sheet and green shade net by using the three varieties of broccoli.

  7. Evaluation of tomato rootstocks and its use to control bacterial wilt diseaseAvaliação de porta-enxertos de tomateiro e o uso da enxertia no controle da murcha bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants are susceptible to bacterial wilting, which causes production losses varying from 10 to 100 %. A method for controlling this disease is the use of grafting on resistant rootstocks. This work had the objective of evaluating tomato genotypes for the resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and the grafting technique as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control in the region of Recôncavo Baiano, Brazil. To evaluate the resistance to R. solanacearum, four local genotypes, collected in different regions of Bahia, the cv. Santa Clara as a susceptible treatment, and the Hawaii 7996 (H7996, as a resistant treatment were studied. For the evaluation of grafting method for control of bacterial wilt, the H7996 was used as rootstock, and the cvs. Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada, and Débora Plus were used as the scion plants. Both experiments were evaluated in an area infested with R. solanacearum, for a period of 65 days for the selection of the rootstocks and 45 days for the evaluation of the grafting method. Only the H7996 can be recommended as a R. solanacearum resistant rootstock. The other genotypes showed susceptibility to the pathogen. The grafting on the H7996 did not show incompatibility with the scion tomato cultivars tested and reached 100 % control of the bacterial wilt disease, for all treatments, suggesting that this method can be used as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control, allowing the production of susceptible tomato cultivars in areas infested with R. solanacearum A suscetibilidade do tomateiro à murcha bacteriana (Ralstonia solanacearum causa perdas que vão de 10 a 100 % na produção e uma das alternativas de controle que vem sendo utilizada é a enxertia com porta-enxerto resistente. Este trabalho teve o objetivo avaliar genótipos de tomateiro quanto à resistência a R. solanacearum e a enxertia como alternativa para o controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Para avalia

  8. Emerging bacterial pathogens: the past and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouga, M; Greub, G

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1950s, medical communities have been facing with emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and emerging pathogens are now considered to be a major microbiologic public health threat. In this review, we focus on bacterial emerging diseases and explore factors involved in their emergence as well as future challenges. We identified 26 major emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of bacterial origin; most of them originated either from an animal and are considered to be zoonoses or from water sources. Major contributing factors in the emergence of these bacterial infections are: (1) development of new diagnostic tools, such as improvements in culture methods, development of molecular techniques and implementation of mass spectrometry in microbiology; (2) increase in human exposure to bacterial pathogens as a result of sociodemographic and environmental changes; and (3) emergence of more virulent bacterial strains and opportunistic infections, especially affecting immunocompromised populations. A precise definition of their implications in human disease is challenging and requires the comprehensive integration of microbiological, clinical and epidemiologic aspects as well as the use of experimental models. It is now urgent to allocate financial resources to gather international data to provide a better understanding of the clinical relevance of these waterborne and zoonotic emerging diseases.

  9. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, D; Birtles, R J; Montoya, M; Perez, E; Tissot-Dupont, H; Roux, V; Guerra, H

    1999-08-01

    Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.

  10. Marker-assisted improvement of the elite restorer line of rice, RPHR-1005 for resistance against bacterial blight and blast diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. ABHILASH KUMAR; C. H. BALACHIRANJEEVI; S. BHASKAR NAIK; R. RAMBABU; G. REKHA; G. HARIKA; S. K. HAJIRA; K. PRANATHI; S. VIJAY; M. ANILA; H. K. MAHADEVASWAMY; M. KOUSIK; A. YUGANDER; J. ARUNA; A. S. HARI PRASAD; M. S. MADHAV; G. S. LAHA; S. M. BALACHANDRAN; M. S. PRASAD; V. RAVINDRA BABU; R. M. SUNDARAM

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to improve the RPHR-1005, a stable restorer line of the popular medium slender grain type rice hybrid, DRRH-3 for bacterial blight (BB) and blast resistance through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Twomajor BB resistance genes, Xa21 and Xa33 and a major blast resistance gene, Pi2 were transferred to RPHR-1005 as two individual crosses. Foreground selection for Xa21, Xa33, Pi2, Rf3 and Rf4 was done by using gene-specific functional markers, while 59 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers polymorphic between the donors and recipient parents were used to select the best plant possessing target resistance genes at each backcross generation. Backcrossing was continued till BC₂F₂ and a promising homozygous backcross derived line possessing Xa21 + Pi2 and another possessing Xa33 were intercrossed to stack the target resistance genes into the genetic background of RPHR-1005. At ICF4, 10 promising lines possessing three resistance genes in homozygous condition along with fine-grain type, complete fertility restoration, better panicle exertion and taller plant type (compared to RPHR-1005) were identified.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis of bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout reveals the potential of a hybrid approach between genomic selection and marker assisted selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) simultaneously incorporates dense SNP marker genotypes with phenotypic data from related animals to predict animal-specific genomic breeding value (GEBV), which circumvents the need to measure the disease phenotype in potential breeders. Marker assisted selection (MAS) involv...

  12. Seed transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in periwinkle and dodder resulted in low bacterial titer and very mild disease in periwinkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the most widely-distributed of three species of Liberibacter that are associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus worldwide. In addition to citrus, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) and dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) are two experime...

  13. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-cultivation of strain JM/102W of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named RM1 strain of MDV; a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity, but induced severe bursal an...

  14. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  15. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  16. Incidence of Bacterial Disease and Yield of Broccoli as Influenced by Different Rain Protectors and Varieties during the Rainy Season in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Karistsapol Nooprom; Quanchit Santipracha

    2014-01-01

    This study is mainly focused on evaluating the effects of different rain protectors and broccoli varieties to find out whether rain protector and variety is suitable or not for broccoli production during rainy season. Broccoli was experimented at Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, southern Thailand. Study revealed that broccoli growing under plastic sheet and green shade net had lower incidence of soft rot disease (1.62 and 3.75%, respectively) than those grown in open field (13...

  17. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  18. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  19. Conjuntivite bacteriana secundária à doença dentária em chinchilas (Chinchilla lanigera Bacterial conjunctivitis secondary to dental disease in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Barbosa Lucena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available São relatados três casos de conjuntivite bacteriana associada à doença dentária grave em chinchilas. Todas as chinchilas afetadas tinham histórico de emagrecimento, hipersalivação e epífora, que progrediu para exsudação ocular purulenta. Durante a necropsia, foi constatado marcado alongamento da coroa clínica dos incisivos e molares, e crescimento do ápice dentário, causando deformação óssea e compressão do canal lacrimal. Histologicamente, observou-se infiltrado de neutrófilos na conjuntiva e pálpebras. Cultivo microbiológico do exsudato ocular revelou crescimento de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva . Uma compressão do canal lacrimal pelo crescimento dentário excessivo impediu a drenagem das lágrimas, resultando em epífora. Esse é um importante fator predisponente para infecção bacteriana ocular em chinchilas.Three cases of bacterial conjunctivitis associated with severe dental disease in chinchillas are described. All affected chinchillas had a history of weight loss, ptyalism, and epiphora which progressed to suppurative ocular exsudation. At necropsy incisor and molar teeth revealed marked elongation of the clinical crown and overgrowth of the dental apexes resulting in deformation of the tear ducts. Histologically, there was neutrophilic infiltrate in the conjunctiva and eyelid skin. Microbiological culture carried out in samples from the ocular exsudate yielded Staphylococcus coagulase-positive. Compression of the lacrimal duct by dental overgrowth compromised tear draining and resulting in epiphora. This is a major predisposing factor inducing bacterial ocular infection in chinchillas.

  20. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  1. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  2. Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Carrión, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is a disease resulting from the association of morphological alterations of the heart and bacteraemia originating from different sources that at times can be indiscernible (infectious endocarditis). It is classified on the basis of the morphological alteration involved, depending on the clinical manifestations and course of illness, which varies according to the causative microorganism and host conditions (for example, it is characteristic in I.V. drug users). The most common microorganisms involved are: Streptococcus viridans (55%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Enterococcus (6%) and HACEK bacteria (corresponding to the initials: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella), although on occasions it can also be caused by fungi. The oral microbiological flora plays a very important role in the aetiopathogenesis of BE, given that the condition may be of oral or dental origin. This paper will deal with the prevention of said bacteraemia. Prophylaxis will be undertaken using amoxicillin or clindamycin according to action protocols, with special emphasis placed on oral hygiene in patients with structural defects of the heart.

  3. 77 FR 59929 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients with chronic obstructive... Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis-- Developing Antimicrobial Drugs for Treatment'' published in... Chronic Bronchitis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Developing Antimicrobial...

  4. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED IN AN OUTBREAK ON BACTERIAL DISEASE OF CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS%草鱼的一种急性细菌性传染病病原的分离鉴定及致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 郭慧芝; 焦冉; 张书环; 刘志新; 姚卫建; 聂品

    2011-01-01

    草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的细菌性疾病是草鱼人工养殖过程中经常出现的疾病.文章对河南一草鱼养殖场2009 年8 月出现的暴发性细菌性传染病进行了研究.该渔场饲养的草鱼成鱼和鱼苗出现了体表溃烂、局部出血,肠系膜充血、出血,腹腔积水等症状,并大量死亡.从濒死草鱼的内脏中分离到3 株细菌,经形态学、生理生化特性及16S rDNA 序列分析,鉴定为霍乱弧菌(Vibrio cholerae)、嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonashydrophila)和柱状黄杆菌(Flavobacterium columnare).其中,从患病鱼苗体内分离到霍乱弧菌; 从成鱼分离到嗜水气单胞菌和柱状黄杆菌.回归试验证明3 株细菌均能使草鱼致死,其中霍乱弧菌和嗜水气单胞菌对草鱼的半数致死量(LD50)分别是0.15×104 cfu/g 和0.96×103 cfu/g.从草鱼中分离到致病性霍乱弧菌是首次报道.药敏试验表明,在所试的17 种抗生素中,霍乱弧菌仅对利福平、左旋氧氟沙星、链霉素、奥复星、庆大霉素等5 种抗生素敏感; 嗜水气单胞菌仅对菌必治、奥复星、庆大霉素等3 种抗生素敏感; 而柱状黄杆菌则对其中的氨苄青霉素、利福平、左旋氧氟沙星等10 种抗生素均敏感.%The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is very important in aquaculture in China. However, the grass carp is often infected with bacterial diseases, resulting in huge economic losses in recent years. This paper reported an acute haemorrhagic disease of Ctenopharyngodon idellus in Henan Province, China. The typical symptoms of the disease included decay of dorsal and caudal fins, congestion and hemorrhage in skin, muscle and intestine and ascites.The aim of this research was to isolate the pathogens of bacterial haemorrhagic disease in grass carp and to determine their LD50 in grass carp, and also to identify the sensitivity to antibiotics. The pathogen were isolated from gill, liver, spleen, kidney and ascites of infected grass

  6. BACTERIAL DESEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available With development of the fish culturing in the sea, the interest in their health also increased. The reason for this are diseases or rather mortality that occur in such controlled cultures and cause great economic losses. By growing large quantities of fish in rather small species, natural conditions are changed, so fish is more sensitive and prone to infection agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites. Besides, a large fish density in the cultural process accelerates spreading if the diseases, but also enables a better perception of them. In wild populations sick specimen very quickly become predator’s prey, witch makes it difficult to note any pathological changes in such fish. There are lots of articles on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases nowdays, but this work deals exclusively with bacterial deseases that occur in the controlled sea cultures (vibriosis, furunculosis, pastherelosis, nocardiosis, mycobaceriosis, edwardsielosis, yersiniosis, deseases caused by bacteria of genera Flexibacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Streptococus and bacteria nephryithis. Yet, the knowledge of these deseases vary, depending on wether a fish species is being cultured for a longer period of time or is only being introduced in the controlled culture.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  8. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  9. FDA Approved Registration of Erythromycin for Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Juvenile and Adult Chinook Salmon : Annual Report, Reporting Period March 10, 1989 to March 9, 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, Christine A.

    1991-04-01

    Erythromycin is a therapeutic substance useful against bacterial kidney disease in salmon. In 1989 we began a multi year project to learn more about erythromycin applied to juvenile and adult salmon, with the goal of achieving registration of erythromycin with the US Food and Drug Administration. To begin the study, we studied the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin administered to both adult and juvenile chinook salmon. We monitored blood plasmas time curves from individual adult fish injected with two forms of injectable erythromycin using one of three routes of administration. In addition, we began experiments to evaluate hatchery applications of erythromycin to individually marked adult salmon, and we recovered blood tissues from these fish at the time of spawning. To determine how to use erythromycin in juvenile salmon, we evaluated the adsorption and elimination of erythromycin applied arterially and orally to individual juvenile fish. In feeding trials we determined the palatability to juvenile chinook salmon of feed made with one of two different carriers for erythromycin thiocyanate. 35 refs., 4 figs. , 3 tabs.

  10. Bacterial microbiome of lungs in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Marc A; Hogg, James C; Sin, Don D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death in the world. Although smoking is the main risk factor for this disease, only a minority of smokers develop COPD. Why this happens is largely unknown. Recent discoveries by the human microbiome project have shed new light on the importance and richness of the bacterial microbiota at different body sites in human beings. The microbiota plays a particularly important role in the development and functional integrity of the immune system. Shifts or perturbations in the microbiota can lead to disease. COPD is in part mediated by dysregulated immune responses to cigarette smoke and other environmental insults. Although traditionally the lung has been viewed as a sterile organ, by using highly sensitive genomic techniques, recent reports have identified diverse bacterial communities in the human lung that may change in COPD. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the lung microbiota in COPD and its potential implications for pathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriani, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and occurs when bacteria invade the subarachnoid space. The meninges are the protective membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease because the proximity of the infection to the brai

  12. Corticosteroids for acute adult bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van de Beek

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in adults is a severe disease, with high fatality and morbidity rates. Experimental studies showed that the inflammatory response in the subarachnoid space is associated with unfavorable outcome. In these experiments, corticosteroids, and in particular dexamethasone, were able t

  13. Bacterial proteases: targets for diagnostics and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteases are essential for the proliferation and growth of bacteria, and are also known to contribute to bacterial virulence. This makes them interesting candidates as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for infectious diseases. In this review, the authors discuss the most recent developments and po

  14. 不同分期的慢性肾病并发细菌性肺炎的患者降钙素原的表达差异分析%The Analysis of Difference Expression of Procalcitonin in Patients with Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Complicating with Bacterial Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较慢性肾病( chronic kidney disease,CKD)并发细菌性肺炎患者( bacterial pneumonia,BP)﹑BP患者以及CKD患者的降钙素( procalcitonin,PCT)表达差异,探讨CKD患者的PCT的基础水平及CKD病程对PCT表达水平的影响。方法回顾性分析并比较CKD、BP、CKD并发BP患者PCT的表达水平,不同慢性肾衰竭分期合并细菌性肺炎患者PCT的表达差异。结果 CKD并发BP组与BP组感染细菌类型差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。 CKD并发BP患者﹑CKD﹑BP患者血清PCT表达差异明显,且明显高于PCT对于细菌感染的阳性临界值0.1ng/mL。 CKD并发BP组与CKD组中的组内PCT表达差异有统计学意义(P0. 05 ); patients with chronic nephropathy complicating bacterial pneumonia, chronic kidney disease, bacterial pneumonia patients serum PCT expression is obviously different,and significantly higher than that of PCT for positive critical value of 0. 1ng/ml bacteriainfection. The expression of PCT 3 CDK compliacting with bacterial pneumonia in patients with chronic ne-phropathy group within the groupdifferences are significant ( P<0. 01 ) . Chronic nephropathy group bacterial pneumonia group, there are differences in the expression level of PCT CKD2period,and the highest expression level in the CKD5 period,chronicne-phropathy group have the same performance. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease on the expression of PCT had a certain influ-ence;chronic kidney disease in patients with bacterial pneumonia,previousPCT diagnosis of bacterial infection of the critical value of the need for appropriate consider raising,avoid excessive use of antibiotics.

  15. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  16. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  17. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  18. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  19. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  20. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing....... These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  1. Glucocorticosteroids: as Adjuvant Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WONDIM MELKAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs, synthetic analogues of the natural steroid hormones, are well known for their antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in the periphery. They are widely and successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and transplant rejection. Nowadays, GCs are claimed to have a beneficial role being as adjunct therapy in various infections. Different studies have been conducted to investigate their use as adjuvant therapy for different bacterial infection. This review, therefore, summarizes various bacterial infections for which glucocorticoids are reported to be used as adjuvant therapy, strategies for administration of glucocorticoids, and challenges of using glucocorticoids as adjuvant therapy.

  2. Bacterial microbiome of lungs in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze MA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc A Sze,1 James C Hogg,2 Don D Sin1 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart-Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third leading cause of death in the world. Although smoking is the main risk factor for this disease, only a minority of smokers develop COPD. Why this happens is largely unknown. Recent discoveries by the human microbiome project have shed new light on the importance and richness of the bacterial microbiota at different body sites in human beings. The microbiota plays a particularly important role in the development and functional integrity of the immune system. Shifts or perturbations in the microbiota can lead to disease. COPD is in part mediated by dysregulated immune responses to cigarette smoke and other environmental insults. Although traditionally the lung has been viewed as a sterile organ, by using highly sensitive genomic techniques, recent reports have identified diverse bacterial communities in the human lung that may change in COPD. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the lung microbiota in COPD and its potential implications for pathogenesis of the disease. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bacterial microbiome, lungs

  3. The bacterial lipocalins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R E

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalins were once regarded as a eukaryotic protein family, but new members have been recently discovered in bacteria. The first bacterial lipocalin (Blc) was identified in Escherichia coli as an outer membrane lipoprotein expressed under conditions of environmental stress. Blc is distinguished from most lipocalins by the absence of intramolecular disulfide bonds, but the presence of a membrane anchor is shared with two of its closest homologues, apolipoprotein D and lazarillo. Several common features of the membrane-anchored lipocalins suggest that each may play an important role in membrane biogenesis and repair. Additionally, Blc proteins are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and in the activation of immunity. Recent genome sequencing efforts reveal the existence of at least 20 bacterial lipocalins. The lipocalins appear to have originated in Gram-negative bacteria and were probably transferred horizontally to eukaryotes from the endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion. The genome sequences also reveal that some bacterial lipocalins exhibit disulfide bonds and alternative modes of subcellular localization, which include targeting to the periplasmic space, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cytosol. The relationships between bacterial lipocalin structure and function further illuminate the common biochemistry of bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  4. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After

  5. Photoinactivation of major bacterial pathogens in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyong Jin Roh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant increases in the bacterial resistance to various antibiotics have been found in fish farms. Non-antibiotic therapies for infectious diseases in aquaculture are needed. In recent years, light-emitting diode technology has been applied to the inactivation of pathogens, especially those affecting humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blue light (wavelengths 405 and 465 nm on seven major bacterial pathogens that affect fish and shellfish important in aquaculture. Results We successfully demonstrate inactivation activity of a 405/465-nm LED on selected bacterial pathogens. Although some bacteria were not fully inactivated by the 465-nm light, the 405-nm light had a bactericidal effect against all seven pathogens, indicating that blue light can be effective without the addition of a photosensitizer. Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio anguillarum, and Edwardsiella tarda were the most susceptible to the 405-nm light (36.1, 41.2, and 68.4 J cm−2, respectively, produced one log reduction in the bacterial populations, whereas Streptococcus parauberis was the least susceptible (153.8 J cm−2 per one log reduction. In general, optical density (OD values indicated that higher bacterial densities were associated with lower inactivating efficacy, with the exception of P. damselae and Vibrio harveyi. In conclusion, growth of the bacterial fish and shellfish pathogens evaluated in this study was inactivated by exposure to either the 405- or 465-nm light. In addition, inactivation was dependent on exposure time. Conclusions This study presents that blue LED has potentially alternative therapy for treating fish and shellfish bacterial pathogens. It has great advantages in aspect of eco-friendly treating methods differed from antimicrobial methods.

  6. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zaccherini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections represent a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis carrying a significantly greater risk of morbidity and mortality as compared to that observed in non-cirrhotic patients. Such unfavourable prognosis is related to the systemic complications (liver and renal failure, shock, coagulopathy, multiple organ failure induced by a series of pro-inflammatory and immunological systems which are activated by bacteria and their pathogenetic products.The epidemiology of bacterial infections in cirrhosis has changed in the last years with a marked increase of Gram+ infections and the emergence of multi-resistant bacteria.The severity of liver disease represents the major clinical factor predisposing to bacterial infections, which are asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic at presentation in almost half of the cases. Aim of this review is to summarise the clinical and therapeutic aspects of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. The most common sites of infection are the urinary tract, ascites, blood, lungs and soft tissues.Beside antibiotics, it has been proposed the administration of human albumin to prevent the development of renal failure in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and, more recently, the use of hydrocortisone to treat cirrhotic patients with septic shock.

  7. Isolation, identification and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacterial strain from exophthalmic disease in giant gourami Osphronemas goramy%长丝鲈“突眼病”病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振国; 姜巨峰; 孙志景; 郝爽; 吴会民; 冯守明

    2014-01-01

    A dominant bacterium CSL1 was isolated from kidney of giant gourami Osphronemas goramy with exoph-thalmic disease, and artificial infection, morphological and physiological, and chemical experiments were carried out by intraperitoneal injection and immersion. The intraperitoneal injection of the bacterium(0. 2 mL of bacterium, 1í108 cfu/mL) showed 66. 7% mortality in the tested giant gourami, immersion of the injured fish with the bacteri-um(1í108 cfu/mL) led to 100% mortality, and 0 mortality, and the same symptoms as the naturally infected giant gourami were found in the immersion of the fish with the bacterium(1í108 cfu/mL). The bacterial morphology, physiology and biochemistry assays revealed that the isolated bacterium was preliminarily determined to be Aero-monas caviae. The 16S rRNA gene was cloned, sequenced and analyzed in the bacterium by a molecular method. Blast and phylogenetic tree showed that 16S rRNA gene shared high similarity with its counterpart of A. caviae found in GenBank, indicating that the bacterium isolated was a strain of A. caviae. The drug sensitivity test showed that the isolated bacterium was highly sensitive to eight kinds of antibiotics including levofloxacin, norfloxacin, enroflox-acin, ofloxacin, gentamycin, namycin, tobramycin, and pipemidic acid, intermediate sensitive to azithromycin, neomycina, and doxycycline, and resistant to eight kinds of antibiotics including novobiocin, nalidixin, ampicillin, penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfamethoxazole. The findings indicated that the patho-genic bacterium of exophthalmic disease in giant gourami was A. caviae, and provided reference to preventing and curing the disease, gentamicin being a reference drug for treating the cultured fish related diseases caused by A. caviae.%从患“突眼病冶长丝鲈Osphronemas goramy肾脏中分离到1株优势菌CSL1,分别以腹腔注射、划伤浸泡和直接浸泡3种方式进行人工回归感

  8. Primary study on the resistance to bacterial blight (X. oryzae) in Cecropin B gene transgenic rices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAZhihua; HUANGDanian; XUERui; WANGXiaoling; GAOZhenya

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) is one of the major diseases to rice. Antibacterial Cecropin B gene has been cloned and transformed into rice. We studied the resistance to bacterial blight in Cecropin B gene tronsgenic rices.

  9. Bacterial glycosyltransferase toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Mono-glycosylation of host proteins is a common mechanism by which bacterial protein toxins manipulate cellular functions of eukaryotic target host cells. Prototypic for this group of glycosyltransferase toxins are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which modify guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the Rho family. However, toxin-induced glycosylation is not restricted to the Clostridia. Various types of bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Photorhabdus and Legionella species produce glycosyltransferase toxins. Recent studies discovered novel unexpected variations in host protein targets and amino acid acceptors of toxin-catalysed glycosylation. These findings open new perspectives in toxin as well as in carbohydrate research.

  10. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  11. Detection of a pathogen shift among the pectolytic bacterial pathogens of potato in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial tuber soft rot, aerial stem rot and blackleg are significant diseases of potatoes in Washington State. These diseases are caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, and Dickeya chrysanthemi, all characterized by the ability to produce pectolytic ...

  12. Prevention and Management of Bacterial Infections in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Taneja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cirrhosis of liver are at risk of developing serious bacterial infections due to altered immune defenses. Despite the widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics, bacterial infection is responsible for up to a quarter of the deaths of patients with liver disease. Cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleed have a considerably higher incidence of bacterial infections particularly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. High index of suspicion is required to identify infections at an early stage in the absence of classical signs and symptoms. Energetic use of antibacterial treatment and supportive care has decreased the morbidity and mortality over the years; however, use of antibiotics has to be judicious, as their indiscriminate use can lead to antibiotic resistance with potentially disastrous consequences. Preventive strategies are still in evolution and involve use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and spontaneous bacterial infections and selective decontamination of the gut and oropharynx.

  13. Insights from genomics into bacterial pathogen populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens impose a heavy burden of disease on human populations worldwide. The gravest threats are posed by highly virulent respiratory pathogens, enteric pathogens, and HIV-associated infections. Tuberculosis alone is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people annually. Treatment options for bacterial pathogens are being steadily eroded by the evolution and spread of drug resistance. However, population-level whole genome sequencing offers new hope in the fight against pathogenic bacteria. By providing insights into bacterial evolution and disease etiology, these approaches pave the way for novel interventions and therapeutic targets. Sequencing populations of bacteria across the whole genome provides unprecedented resolution to investigate (i within-host evolution, (ii transmission history, and (iii population structure. Moreover, advances in rapid benchtop sequencing herald a new era of real-time genomics in which sequencing and analysis can be deployed within hours in response to rapidly changing public health emergencies. The purpose of this review is to highlight the transformative effect of population genomics on bacteriology, and to consider the prospects for answering abiding questions such as why bacteria cause disease.

  14. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  15. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  16. Bacterial assays for recombinagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G R

    1992-12-01

    Two principal strategies have been used for studying recombinagenic effects of chemicals and radiation in bacteria: (1) measurement of homologous recombination involving defined alleles in a partially diploid strain, and (2) measurement of the formation and loss of genetic duplications in the bacterial chromosome. In the former category, most methods involve one allele in the bacterial chromosome and another in a plasmid, but it is also possible to detect recombination between two chromosomal alleles or between two extrachromosomal alleles. This review summarizes methods that use each of these approaches for detecting recombination and tabulates data on agents that have been found to be recombinagenic in bacteria. The assays are discussed with respect to their effectiveness in testing for recombinagens and their potential for elucidating mechanisms underlying recombinagenic effects.

  17. A Dangerous Disease on Watermelon and Muskmelon —— Bacterial Fruit Blotch%西瓜甜瓜危险性病害 --细菌性果腐病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王叶筠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 细菌性果腐病(Bacterial Fruit Blotch,简称BFB)由 Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Willems et al 引起,是西瓜、甜瓜的1种危险性新细菌病害,是国际规定的检疫性有害生物之一.

  18. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  19. Modelling bacterial speciation

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A central problem in understanding bacterial speciation is how clusters of closely related strains emerge and persist in the face of recombination. We use a neutral Fisher–Wright model in which genotypes, defined by the alleles at 140 house-keeping loci, change in each generation by mutation or recombination, and examine conditions in which an initially uniform population gives rise to resolved clusters. Where recombination occurs at equal frequency between all members of the population, we o...

  20. Investigation of septins using infection by bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokowski, S; Mostowy, S

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the host cytoskeleton during infection by bacterial pathogens has significantly contributed to our understanding of cell biology and host defense. Work has shown that septins are recruited to the phagocytic cup as collarlike structures and enable bacterial entry into host cells. In the cytosol, septins can entrap actin-polymerizing bacteria in cage-like structures for targeting to autophagy, a highly conserved intracellular degradation process. In this chapter, we describe methods to investigate septin assembly and function during infection by bacterial pathogens. Use of these methods can lead to in-depth understanding of septin biology and suggest therapeutic approaches to combat infectious disease.

  1. Bacterial microcompartments and the modular construction of microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Erbilgin, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are protein-bound organelles predicted to be present across 23 bacterial phyla. BMCs facilitate carbon fixation as well as the aerobic and anaerobic catabolism of a variety of organic compounds. These functions have been linked to ecological nutrient cycling, symbiosis, pathogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. Within bacterial cells, BMCs are metabolic modules that can be further dissociated into their constituent structural and functional protein domains. Viewing BMCs as genetic, structural, functional, and evolutionary modules provides a framework for understanding both BMC-mediated metabolism and for adapting their architectures for applications in synthetic biology.

  2. Management of select bacterial and parasitic conditions of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Michelle; Ponder, Julia; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Arent, Lori; Bueno Padilla, Irene; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Redig, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Raptors are susceptible to a broad array of established and emerging bacterial and parasitic diseases, including babesiosis, chlamydiosis, clostridiosis, coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, malaria, mycobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, and pododermatitis. Many of these conditions are opportunistic and can be easily managed or averted with proper preventive measures related to captive management, husbandry and diet, and veterinary care. Once infected, treatment must be prompt, appropriate, and judicious. This article examines the significance, diagnosis, management, and prevention of select bacterial and parasitic pathogens of raptors.

  3. A NEW APPROACH TO BACTERIAL VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENBERG, L

    1963-08-31

    Immunizing antigens against only 10 bacterial diseases-cholera, diphtheria, paratyphoid, pertussis, plague, scarlet fever, staphylococcal disease, tetanus, tuberculosis and typhoid-have been licensed for sale in Canada and the United States. Convincing evidence of efficacy is available for only four of these-diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and pertussis and typhoid vaccines.The principles which determine the efficacy of different immunizing antigens are not always the same. Toxoids, for example, stimulate the formation of antitoxin-producing mechanisms which can neutralize toxins produced by invading organisms, thereby rendering them harmless. Conversely, vaccines stimulate the formation of antibacterial mechanisms which stop the growth of organisms before they can produce disease.Use of enzyme-lysed vaccines for prevention of staphylococcal disease represents a new approach in vaccine research. Animal tests have shown lysed vaccines to be 10 to 100 times less toxic, and about eight times more effective, than whole bacterial vaccines. Studies with lysed vaccines for other diseases are now in progress.

  4. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  5. Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA tag reveals bacterial community development in the rhizosphere of apple nurseries at a replant disease site and a new planting site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant and a new planting site (NewPlant in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil and from the new planting site (NewSoil was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant. More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.

  6. Análise microbiológica da placa bacteriana da doença periodontal em cães e o efeito da antibioticoterapia sobre ela Microbiological analysis of bacterial plaque of periodontal disease on dogs and effects of antibioticotherapy on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Alves da Fonseca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a microbiota da placa bacteriana subgengival de cães com doença periodontal (DP e estabelecer o efeito da antibioticoterapia. Avaliaram-se 20 cães com graus variados de DP e coletaram-se amostras da placa bacteriana subgengival antes e após antibioticoterapia. Preconizou-se antibioticoterapia distinta em dois grupos, com 10 animais cada: clindamicina (G1 e metronidazol + espiramicina (G2. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano subgengival na maioria dos cães com DP e correlação entre a severidade da DP e a idade dos animais. Houve redução significativa no crescimento bacteriano após a antibioticoterapia e o antibiograma demonstrou maior sensibilidade à clindamicina, seguido da espiramicina; todos os microrganismos foram resistentes ao metronidazol.The objective was to determine microbiote of the subgingival bacterial plaque of dogs with periodontal disease (PD and establish the effect of antibioticotherapy on its reduction. Twenty dogs with varied stages of PD were evaluated and samples of their subgingival bacterial plaque were collected. Distinct antibiotic protocols were used in two groups with ten animals each: clindamycin (G1 and metronidazole + espiramycin (G2. New subgingival samples were collected 15 days after antibiotic therapy started. There were observed subgingival bacterial culture on most dogs with PD and correlation between severity of PD and age. There was reduction of bacterial growth in 20% of the samples after treatment and antibiogram showed higher sensibility to clindamycin, followed by espiramycin - all microorganisms were resistant to metronidazole.

  7. Role of serum procalcitonin level in early diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in children, a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Serum PCT is an important biomarker for prompt diagnosis of bacterial infection and a sensitive indicator to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonia. Evaluating serum PCT levels helps in early use of antibiotic therapy and prognosis of underlying disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1518-1521

  8. Bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.

  9. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    This PhD project was carried out as part of the Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) project, funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research (grant number 2104-08-0012). The environment is contaminated with various xenobiotic compounds e.g. pesticides......D student, to construct fungal-bacterial consortia in order to potentially stimulate pesticide degradation thereby increasing the chance of successful bioaugmentation. The results of the project are reported in three article manuscripts, included in this thesis. In manuscript I, the mineralization of 2...

  10. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte;

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  11. Bacterial Toxins as Pathogen Weapons Against Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Ana; Cabanes, Didier; Sousa, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favor microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signaling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.

  12. Bacterial toxins as pathogen weapons against phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana edo Vale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.

  13. Development of diagnosis and therapy of bacterial infection in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%细菌感染在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期的诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国辉; 李其皓

    2010-01-01

    细菌感染足引起慢性阻塞性肺疾病加重的主要原因,在诊断其是否由细菌感染引起时,在提高病原学检查的手段和技术的同时,同样对血清学相关指标进行检查并综合分析,也可以为细菌感染提供一定的证据,从而更好的指导抗生素在临床的使用.%Bacterial infection is the main reason that exacerbates the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).In diagnosing whether the disease is due to bacterial infection,on one hand improvement can be made on the means and skill of etiological examination,on the other hand,the serological related indexes can be measured and then analyzed together,in turn the evidence can prove its existence,and thus guides the clinicians to better use the antibiotics.

  14. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  15. Arginine Metabolism in Bacterial Pathogenesis and Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance to infectious diseases is a significant global concern for health care organizations; along with aging populations and increasing cancer rates, it represents a great burden for government healthcare systems. Therefore, the development of therapies against bacterial infection and cancer is an important strategy for healthcare research. Pathogenic bacteria and cancer have developed a broad range of sophisticated strategies to survive or propagate inside a host and cause infection or spread disease. Bacteria can employ their own metabolism pathways to obtain nutrients from the host cells in order to survive. Similarly, cancer cells can dysregulate normal human cell metabolic pathways so that they can grow and spread. One common feature of the adaption and disruption of metabolic pathways observed in bacterial and cancer cell growth is amino acid pathways; these have recently been targeted as a novel approach to manage bacterial infections and cancer therapy. In particular, arginine metabolism has been illustrated to be important not only for bacterial pathogenesis but also for cancer therapy. Therefore, greater insights into arginine metabolism of pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells would provide possible targets for controlling of bacterial infection and cancer treatment. This review will summarize the recent progress on the relationship of arginine metabolism with bacterial pathogenesis and cancer therapy, with a particular focus on arginase and arginine deiminase pathways of arginine catabolism.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in children with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Mamishi, S; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Khotaei, G; Daneshjou, K; Hashemi, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prognosis of bacterial meningitis has been improved by the influence of antibiotics, this disease is still one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Rapid differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, and the need for immediate antibiotic treatment in the former, is crucial in the prognosis of these patients. Ferritin is one of the most sensitive biochemical markers investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in differentiating bacterial and viral meningitis in the paediatric setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, during 2008 and 2009. According to the inclusion criteria, CSF samples from 42 patients with suspected meningitis were obtained and divided into two meningitis groups, bacterial (n = 18) and viral (n = 24). Ferritin and other routine determinants (i.e., leucocytes, protein and glucose) were compared between the two groups. Ferritin concentration in the bacterial meningitis group was 106.39 +/- 86.96 ng/dL, which was considerably higher than in the viral meningitis group (10.17 +/- 14.09, P meningitis group and showed a positive correlation with CSF ferritin. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSF ferritin concentration is an accurate test for the early differentiation of bacterial and aseptic meningitis; however, further investigation on a larger cohort of patients is required to confirm this finding.

  17. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (pbacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  18. [Condition of periodontal tissue in women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Shul'zhenko, A D; Krutikova, E I

    2014-12-01

    Cross colonization of open cavities of human body has little been studied in contemporary medicine. There in no practical recommendations as for management of dental patients with urogenital tract microflora disorder. The paper presents the findings of clinical features of periodontium tissues in women with bacterial vaginosis correlated with bacteriological estimation of oral cavity and vagina, number of sexual partners. Interpretation of amine test of oral and vaginal fluids has been provided for the first time. Chronic generalized inflammatory and inflammatory-dystrophic periodontal diseases of different severity have been detected in all female patients with gynecological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is atypical representative of oral cavity microflora, has been detected by the PCR method in bacterial vaginosis both in vagina and oral cavity. The major markers of bacterial vaginosis have been also detected in oral cavity in women with this pathology.

  19. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. PMID:26345407

  20. Viral-bacterial interactions in acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2012-12-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a polymicrobial disease, which usually occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI). While respiratory viruses alone may cause viral AOM, they increase the risk of bacterial middle ear infection and worsen clinical outcomes of bacterial AOM. URI viruses alter Eustachian tube (ET) function via decreased mucociliary action, altered mucus secretion and increased expression of inflammatory mediators among other mechanisms. Transient reduction in protective functions of the ET allows colonizing bacteria of the nasopharynx to ascend into the middle ear and cause AOM. Advances in research help us to better understand the host responses to viral URI, the mechanisms of viral-bacterial interactions in the nasopharynx and the development of AOM. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding viral-bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical course of AOM. We focus on the common respiratory viruses and their established role in AOM.

  1. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  2. [Main bacterial groups in banana soil under rotated and continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xian; Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Chao; Bai, Ting-Ting; Li, Hua-Ping

    2011-06-01

    Banana wilt is the main disease in banana production, while banana-leek rotation can effectively control the occurrence of the disease. In order to understand the variations of soil bacterial groups under banana-leek rotation and banana continuous cropping, soil samples under these two cropping systems were collected to extract crude DNA, and the bacterial 16S rDNA in V3 region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were then separated by DGGE, and the main different bands were sequenced and compared with the records of NCBI to identify the germs. Under banana-leek rotation, soil bacterial diversity was richer, and the main bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria; while under banana continuous cropping, the soil bacterial diversity was somewhat decreased, and the main bacterial groups were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi.

  3. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates: Still fabulous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możejko-Ciesielska, Justyna; Kiewisz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under limited growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon sources. They have been developed as biomaterials with unique properties for the past many years being considered as a potential substitute for conventional non-degradable plastics. Due to the increasing concern towards global climate change, depleting petroleum resource and problems with an utilization of a growing number of synthetic plastics, PHAs have gained much more attention from industry and research. These environmentally friendly microbial polymers have great potential in biomedical, agricultural, and industrial applications. However, their production on a large scale is still limited. This paper describes the backgrounds of PHAs and discussed the current state of knowledge on the polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ability of bacteria to convert different carbon sources to PHAs, the opportunities and challenges of their introduction to global market as valuable renewable products have been also discussed.

  4. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  5. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scleroderma . Immunodeficiency such as AIDS or immunoglobulin deficiency. Short bowel syndrome caused by surgical removal of the small intestine. ... obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Liver disease Osteoporosis - overview Short bowel syndrome Toxic megacolon Vagina Review Date 5/11/2016 ...

  6. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  7. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F‧-positive and F‧-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F‧-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.

  8. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jodi L.; Ritschdorff, Eric T.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria communicate via short-range physical and chemical signals, interactions known to mediate quorum sensing, sporulation, and other adaptive phenotypes. Although most in vitro studies examine bacterial properties averaged over large populations, the levels of key molecular determinants of bacterial fitness and pathogenicity (e.g., oxygen, quorum-sensing signals) may vary over micrometer scales within small, dense cellular aggregates believed to play key roles in disease transmission. A detailed understanding of how cell–cell interactions contribute to pathogenicity in natural, complex environments will require a new level of control in constructing more relevant cellular models for assessing bacterial phenotypes. Here, we describe a microscopic three-dimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating colonies. In this laser-based lithographic technique, microscopic containers are formed around selected bacteria suspended in gelatin via focal cross-linking of polypeptide molecules. After excess reagent is removed, trapped bacteria are localized within sealed cavities formed by the cross-linked gelatin, a highly porous material that supports rapid growth of fully enclosed cellular populations and readily transmits numerous biologically active species, including polypeptides, antibiotics, and quorum-sensing signals. Using this approach, we show that a picoliter-volume aggregate of Staphylococcus aureus can display substantial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by enclosure within a shell composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:24101503

  9. Current concept on the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease-crosstalk between genetic and microbial factors: Pathogenic bacteria and altered bacterial sensing or changes in mucosal integrity take "toll"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Simon Fischer; Laszlo Lakatos; Istvan Gal; Janos Papp

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)is only partially understood. Various environmental and host (e.g. genetic-, epithelial-, immune and nonimmune) factors are involved. It is a multifactorial polygenic disease with probable genetic heterogeneity.Some genes are associated with IBD itself, while others increase the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) or are associated with disease location and/or behaviour. This review addresses recent advances in the genetics of IBD. The article discusses the current information on the crosstalk between microbial and genetic factors (e.g. NOD2/CARD15, SLC22A46A5 and DLG5). The genetic data acquired in recent years help in understanding the pathogenesis of IBD and can identify a number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention.In the future, genetics may help more accurately diagnose and predict disease course in IBD.

  10. Bacterial foodborne infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Nicole M; Podczervinski, Sara; Jordan, Kim; Stednick, Zach; Butler-Wu, Susan; McMillen, Kerry; Pergam, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever are common among patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but such symptoms are also typical with foodborne infections. The burden of disease caused by foodborne infections in patients undergoing HCT is unknown. We sought to describe bacterial foodborne infection incidence after transplantation within a single-center population of HCT recipients. All HCT recipients who underwent transplantation from 2001 through 2011 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington were followed for 1 year after transplantation. Data were collected retrospectively using center databases, which include information from transplantation, on-site examinations, outside records, and collected laboratory data. Patients were considered to have a bacterial foodborne infection if Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Vibrio species, or Yersinia species were isolated in culture within 1 year after transplantation. Nonfoodborne infections with these agents and patients with pre-existing bacterial foodborne infection (within 30 days of transplantation) were excluded from analyses. A total of 12 of 4069 (.3%) patients developed a bacterial foodborne infection within 1 year after transplantation. Patients with infections had a median age at transplantation of 50.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35 to 57), and the majority were adults ≥18 years of age (9 of 12 [75%]), male gender (8 of 12 [67%]) and had allogeneic transplantation (8 of 12 [67%]). Infectious episodes occurred at an incidence rate of 1.0 per 100,000 patient-days (95% confidence interval, .5 to 1.7) and at a median of 50.5 days after transplantation (IQR, 26 to 58.5). The most frequent pathogen detected was C. jejuni/coli (5 of 12 [42%]) followed by Yersinia (3 of 12 [25%]), although Salmonella (2 of 12 [17%]) and Listeria (2 of 12 [17%]) showed equal frequencies; no cases of Shigella

  11. Diagnosis of bacterial hepatic abscess by CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Lin Wang; Xue-Jun Guo; Shui-Bo Qiu; Yi Lei; Zhi-Dong Yuan; Han-Bin Dong; Hui-An Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial hepatic abscess usually is acute and progressive, often resulting in sepsis, impairment of liver function and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The mortality rate was as high as 80%in the past. For the purpose of early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease, we probed the imaging manifestations and their characteristics in bacterial hepatic abscesses by CT scan. METHODS:Twenty-four lesions from 21 patients with bacterial hepatic abscesses that were conifrmed by clinical features, puncture and culture were reviewed for CT manifestations. Fourteen patients were male and 7 were female, with an average age of 56.2 years. All lesions underwent CT plain scan and three-phase enhanced scan and 15 patients underwent delayed-phase imaging. Three senior radiologists read the iflms in accordance with a standard. RESULTS: Among 24 lesions, 18 (75%) were situated in the right liver with diameters of 1.4-9.3 cm (average 4.5 cm). Nineteen (79.2%) lesions were round or sub-round in shape, and 22 (91.7%) had smooth, uninterrupted and sharp edges. All lesions showed low attenuation of less than 20 Hu. Twenty-two enhanced lesions (91.7%) had rim-shaped enhancement in the abscess wall, and 13 (54.2%) showed single or double-ring signs. Eighteen (75%) displayed honeycomb-like, grid-like or strip-like enhancement. Eighteen (75%) were regionally enhanced in the surroundings or upper or lower layers. Only 2 (8.3%) displayed a gas-liquid surface sign. CONCLUSIONS:  The CT ifndings of bacterial hepatic abscess are usually typical, and the diagnosis of the abscess is not dififcult. To precisely diagnose atypical cases, it is necessary to combine CT with clinical observations and follow-up.

  12. Tinidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R Armstrong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola R Armstrong1, Janet D Wilson21Department of Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health, Trinity Centre, Bradford, UK; 2The Centre for Sexual Health, The General Infirmary at Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the commonest cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. Oral metronidazole has long been established as an effective therapy in the treatment of BV. However, adverse effects due to metronidazole are frequent and this may lead to problems with adherence to a 7-day course of treatment and subsequently result in treatment failure. Oral tinidazole has been used to treat bacterial vaginosis for over 25 years but in a number of different dosage regimens. Placebo controlled trials have consistently shown increases in cure rate with tinidazole. Longer courses of treatment (eg, 1 g daily for 5 days appear to be more effective than a 2 g oral single dose. Comparative studies suggest that oral tinidazole is equivalent to oral metronidazole, intravaginal clindamycin cream, and intravaginal metronidazole tablets, in efficacy in treating BV. However, tinidazole has a more favorable side effect profile than oral metronidazole notably with better gastrointestinal tolerability and less metallic taste. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with high rates of recurrence and appropriate management of such recurrences can prove difficult. Recurrent BV has been linked with persistence of Gardnerella vaginalis after treatment; however the clinical implications of the possible greater activity of tinidazole against G. vaginalis are not yet clear. Repeated courses of oral metronidazole may be poorly tolerated and an alternative but equally effective treatment that is better tolerated may be preferable. In comparison to oral metronidazole, cost is clearly an issue as oral metronidazole is considerably cheaper and available in generic form. However where avoidance of oral metronidazole is necessary because of side effects, oral

  13. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial streak and hacterial blight in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJianlong; WANGHanrong; LINYi; XIYongan

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial streak(BS) caused by Xanthomonas campesiris pv. oryzicola bas become one of the major diseases in southbern rice areas.Up to date, tbere are few reports on the inheritance of resistance to BS and its relationsbip with the resistance to bacterial blight(BB).

  14. Bacterial cancer of plum trees (prunus domestica), caused by pseudomonas syringae pathovars, in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Meijer, H.; Maas, F.M.; Bruine, de A.; Vink, P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bacterial canker in plum trees (Prunus domestica) is a serious and recent problem in plum production. Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) and pv. morsprunorum (Psm), is a serious disease of stone fruit, and occurs in all major stone fruit producing

  15. Bithionol blocks pathogenicity of bacterial toxins, ricin, and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease pathways form overlapping networks, and hub proteins represent attractive targets for broad-spectrum drugs. Using bacterial toxins as a proof of concept, we describe a new approach of discovering broad-spectrum therapies capable of inhibiting host proteins that mediate multiple pathogenic pa...

  16. Dexamethasone in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van de Beek; J. de Gans

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis in adults is a severe disease with high fatality and morbidity rates. Experimental studies have shown that the inflammatory response in the subarachnoid space is associated with an unfavourable outcome. In these experiments, corticosteroids, and in particular dexamethasone, were

  17. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  18. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  19. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  20. Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2013-12-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB = 8, MB = 19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep.

  1. Bacterial degradation of aminopyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, H; Blecher, R; Wegst, W; Eberspaecher, J; Lingens, F

    1981-11-01

    1. Four strains of bacteria growing with aminopyrine as sole source of carbon were isolated from soil and were identified as strains of Phenylobacterium immobilis. 2. Strain M13 and strain E, the type species of Phenylobacterium immobilis (DSM 1986), which had been isolated by enrichment with chloridazon (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-2H-pyridazin-3-one) were used to investigate the bacterial degradation of aminopyrine. 3. Three metabolites were isolated and identified as: 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-4,6-cyc lohexadien-1-yl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one, 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-3H-pyrazol-3 -one and 4-(dimethylamino)-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one. 4. An enzyme extract from cells of strain m13 was shown to further metabolize the catechol derivative of aminopyrine, with the formation of 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. 5. Results indicate that the benzene ring of aminopyrine is the principal site of microbial metabolism.

  2. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  3. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  4. Development of resistant tomato population with bacterial canker resistance genes from interspecific hybrids by the support of embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin KABAŞ; Esin ARI; Sinan ZENGİN; Hülya İLBİ; AYSAN, Yeşim; Asu OĞUZ

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial canker is one of the most important diseases causing economic yield loss in tomato production areas in the world. The best way to control for this disease is to use resistant varieties. However, there are few studies on variety breeding studies of this disease compared with other disease resistant breeding studies. In this study we aimed to improve inbred lines carrying bacterial canker resistance genes to use in the breeding of resistant varieties. Susceptible inbred line AK1 (S. e...

  5. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  6. Emerging Roles of Toxin-Antitoxin Modules in Bacterial Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kędzierska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA cassettes are encoded widely by bacteria. The modules typically comprise a protein toxin and protein or RNA antitoxin that sequesters the toxin factor. Toxin activation in response to environmental cues or other stresses promotes a dampening of metabolism, most notably protein translation, which permits survival until conditions improve. Emerging evidence also implicates TAs in bacterial pathogenicity. Bacterial persistence involves entry into a transient semi-dormant state in which cells survive unfavorable conditions including killing by antibiotics, which is a significant clinical problem. TA complexes play a fundamental role in inducing persistence by downregulating cellular metabolism. Bacterial biofilms are important in numerous chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and cause serious therapeutic problems due to their multidrug tolerance and resistance to host immune system actions. Multiple TAs influence biofilm formation through a network of interactions with other factors that mediate biofilm production and maintenance. Moreover, in view of their emerging contributions to bacterial virulence, TAs are potential targets for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches that are required urgently in an era of expanding antibiotic resistance. This review summarizes the emerging evidence that implicates TAs in the virulence profiles of a diverse range of key bacterial pathogens that trigger serious human disease.

  7. Perfil epidemiológico de mulheres com vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, em São Paulo, SP Epidemiological profile of women with bacterial vaginosis treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa d´Andretta Tanaka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A vaginose bacteriana é doença de grande relevância devido à sua alta prevalência e suas complicações obstétricas e ginecológicas. OBJETIVO - Descrever o perfil epidemiológico das pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana, atendidas em um ambulatório de São Paulo, segundo variáveis de interesse social, demográfico e clínico. MÉTODOS - Estudo transversal descritivo, baseado nos prontuários de 658 mulheres atendidas de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2004. Foram coletadas as seguintes informações: idade, cor, estado civil, procedência, grau de escolaridade, preferência sexual, número de parceiros e presença de doença sexualmente transmissível associada. RESULTADOS - A prevalência encontrada foi de 29%. Com relação ao perfil da mulher com vaginose bacteriana, observou-se maior ocorrência em jovens entre 10 e 19 anos (40%, negras (37,1%, viúvas (62,5%, com segundo grau incompleto (39,5%, heterossexuais (29,5%, com dois ou mais parceiros sexuais nos últimos 30 dias (50% e nos últimos cinco anos (32,3%. A associação com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, concomitante, foi encontrada em 31,9% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO - A distribuição dos casos segundo faixa etária, raça, número de parceiros sexuais e associação com outras doenças encontradas nas pacientes com diagnóstico de vaginose bacteriana foi semelhante aos dados encontrados na literatura. A ocorrência está dentro dos limites descritos (10 e 36%.BACKGROUND- Bacterial vaginosis is an important disease on account of its high prevalence as well as the obstetrical and gynecological complications. OBJECTIVE- To present an epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis seen at an outpatient clinic in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, described according to socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS- A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed by collecting data from the medical records of 658

  8. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  9. Disease: H00314 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 74-86 (2009) PMID:12150701 (drug) Foster C, Nadel S New therapies and vaccines for bacterial meningitis. Exp...d prevention of meningococcal disease: a critical appraisal of vaccine policies.

  10. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissi M Hewitt

    Full Text Available People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples. 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils. There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009.

  11. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Development Research for Bacterial Diseases; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... The workshop will address antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology of... Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Antimicrobial Products, 10903...

  12. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  13. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ∼1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segrega...

  14. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    phosphorylation. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in bacteria is particular with respect to very low occupancy of phosphorylation sites in vivo; this has represented a major challenge for detection techniques. Only the recent breakthroughs in gel-free high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the systematic...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  15. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ethan E.; Manna, Dipankar; Mettetal, Michael R; May, Rhea M.; Dannemiller, Elisa M; Chung, Kenneth K.; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additiv...

  16. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease A A A What's in this ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  18. Dietary Fatty Acids and Immune Response to Food-Borne Bacterial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable effects on bacterial clearance and disease outcome through suppression or activation of immune responses. Therefore, we have chosen to review research across experimental models and food sources on the effec...

  19. Cochlear ossification in patients with profound hearing loss following bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye-Thomasen, Per; Dam, Mikkel Seidelin; Omland, Silje Haukali;

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification.......Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification....

  20. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of postmortem bacterial migration using culturing and real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J; Vuento, Risto; Aittoniemi, Janne; Pessi, Tanja

    2013-07-01

    Postmortem bacteriology can be a valuable tool for evaluating deaths due to bacterial infection or for researching the involvement of bacteria in various diseases. In this study, time-dependent postmortem bacterial migration into liver, mesenteric lymph node, pericardial fluid, portal, and peripheral vein was analyzed in 33 autopsy cases by bacterial culturing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). None suffered or died from bacterial infection. According to culturing, pericardial fluid and liver were the most sterile samples up to 5 days postmortem. In these samples, multigrowth and staphylococci were not or rarely detected. RT-qPCR was more sensitive and showed higher bacterial positivity in all samples. Relative amounts of intestinal bacterial DNA (bifidobacteria, bacteroides, enterobacter, clostridia) increased with time. Sterility of blood samples was low during the studied time periods (1-7 days). The best postmortem microbiological sampling sites were pericardial fluid and liver up to 5 days after death.

  2. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing...... the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray...... component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels...

  3. Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, D.S.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Souza, M.T.; Marques, A.; Ribeiro, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the presen

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Bacterial Meningitis in the Paediatric Population: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Tacon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency which, despite advances in medical management, still has a significant morbidity and mortality. Over recent decades new vaccines have led to a change in epidemiology of the disease; however, it remains a condition that requires a high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early management in the emergency department. New laboratory techniques and clinical tools are aiding the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, yet some controversies still exist in its management. This paper outlines the changing epidemiology of the disease, current diagnostic techniques as well as controversies and advances in the management of bacterial meningitis in the paediatric population.

  5. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.

  6. Bacterial resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; Jansen, Arina; Coetzee, Marisa; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Control of bacterial diseases has, for many years, been dependent on the use of antibiotics. Due to the high levels of efficacy of antibiotics in the past other disease control options have, to a large extent, been neglected. Mankind is now facing an increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. In an effort to retain some antibiotics for human use, there are moves afoot to limit or even ban the use of antibiotics in animal production. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters have been banned in the European Union and the USA. The potential ban on the use of antibiotics to treat diseases in production animals creates a dilemma for man-suffer significant problem with bacterial infection or suffer from a severe shortage of food! There are other options for the control of bacterial diseases. These include vaccine development, bacteriophage therapy, and improved biosecurity. Vaccine development against bacterial pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens, is often very challenging, as in many cases the molecular basis of the virulence is not always clearly understood. This is particularly true for Escherichia coli. Biosecurity (disinfection) has been a highly neglected area in disease control. With the ever-increasing problems with antibiotic resistance-the focus should return to improvements in biosecurity. As with antibiotics, bacteria also have mechanisms for resistance to disinfectants. To ensure that we do not replace one set of problems (increasing antibiotic resistance) with another (increasing resistance to disinfectants) we need to fully understand the modes of action of disinfectants and how the bacteria develop resistance to these disinfectants. Molecular studies have been undertaken to relate the presence of QAC resistance genes in bacteria to their levels of sensitivity to different generations of QAC-based products. The mode of action of QAC on bacteria has been studied using NanoSAM technology, where it was revealed that the QAC causes disruption

  7. Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A; Coaker, Gitta

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system comprises extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance.

  8. Predictive Value of Decoy Receptor 3 in Postoperative Nosocomial Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Juan Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3 levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001. A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  9. New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.

  10. Bacterial carbonatogenesis; La carbonatogenese bacterienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanier, S. [Angers Univ., 49 (France). Faculte des Sciences; Le Metayer-Levrel, G.; Perthuisot, J.P. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France). Laboratoire de Biogeologie, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques

    1998-12-31

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The `passive` carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The `active` carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author) 43 refs.

  11. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dingsdag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049 than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004, Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5 relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3. Conclusion: Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies.

  12. Bacteriophage functional genomics and its role in bacterial pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Jochen; Fouts, Derrick E; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2013-07-01

    Emerging and reemerging bacterial infectious diseases are a major public health concern worldwide. The role of bacteriophages in the emergence of novel bacterial pathogens by horizontal gene transfer was highlighted by the May 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks that originated in Germany and spread to other European countries. This outbreak also highlighted the pivotal role played by recent advances in functional genomics in rapidly deciphering the virulence mechanism elicited by this novel pathogen and developing rapid diagnostics and therapeutics. However, despite a steady increase in the number of phage sequences in the public databases, boosted by the next-generation sequencing technologies, few functional genomics studies of bacteriophages have been conducted. Our definition of 'functional genomics' encompasses a range of aspects: phage genome sequencing, annotation and ascribing functions to phage genes, prophage identification in bacterial sequences, elucidating the events in various stages of phage life cycle using genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, defining the mechanisms of host takeover including specific bacterial-phage protein interactions and identifying virulence and other adaptive features encoded by phages and finally, using prophage genomic information for bacterial detection/diagnostics. Given the breadth and depth of this definition and the fact that some of these aspects (especially phage-encoded virulence/adaptive features) have been treated extensively in other reviews, we restrict our focus only on certain aspects. These include phage genome sequencing and annotation, identification of prophages in bacterial sequences and genetic characterization of phages, functional genomics of the infection process and finally, bacterial identification using genomic information.

  13. Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I Diaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing has accelerated knowledge on the oral microbiome. While the bacterial component of oral communities has been extensively characterized, the role of the fungal microbiota in the oral cavity is largely unknown. Interactions among fungi and bacteria are likely to influence oral health as exemplified by the synergistic relationship between Candida albicans and oral streptococci. In this perspective, we discuss the current state of the field of fungal-bacterial interactions in the context of the oral cavity. We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression. Such studies need to be coupled with investigations using disease-relevant models to mechanistically test the associations observed in humans and eventually identify fungal-bacterial interactions that could serve as preventive or therapeutic targets for oral diseases.

  14. Fungal-bacterial interactions and their relevance to oral health: linking the clinic and the bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia I; Strausbaugh, Linda D; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has accelerated knowledge on the oral microbiome. While the bacterial component of oral communities has been extensively characterized, the role of the fungal microbiota in the oral cavity is largely unknown. Interactions among fungi and bacteria are likely to influence oral health as exemplified by the synergistic relationship between Candida albicans and oral streptococci. In this perspective, we discuss the current state of the field of fungal-bacterial interactions in the context of the oral cavity. We highlight the need to conduct longitudinal clinical studies to simultaneously characterize the bacterial and fungal components of the human oral microbiome in health and during disease progression. Such studies need to be coupled with investigations using disease-relevant models to mechanistically test the associations observed in humans and eventually identify fungal-bacterial interactions that could serve as preventive or therapeutic targets for oral diseases.

  15. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  16. Identification of bacterial agents of enteric diseases by multiplex PCR in growing-finishing pigs Identificação de agentes bacterianos de doenças entéricas em suínos por PCR-multiplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Baccaro

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the most common bacterial enteric diseases affecting growing and finishing pigs are porcine proliferative enteritis, porcine intestinal spirochetosis, swine dysentery, and salmonellosis. The diagnosis of these diseases by routine culture techniques is expensive, difficult, time-consuming, and even impossible, in cases of porcine proliferative enteritis. The detection of pathogens by polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive and specific method that can be an useful tool in veterinary diagnosis. Two multiplex PCR (M-PCR assays were tested for simultaneous detection and identification of bacterial agents associated with porcine proliferative enteritis, porcine intestinal spirochetosis, swine dysentery, and salmonellosis in diarrheic fecal samples. The DNA obtained from pure cultures of each bacterial agent or mixed in different combinations and concentrations was amplified by using Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella, or Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae specific M-PCR assays. After electrophoresis in agarose gel and staining, the amplification products indicated the presence of individual or simultaneous amplification of L. intracellularis and Salmonella or B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae specific DNA sequences. After standardization, the M-PCR tests were used to test 541 swine diarrheic fecal samples obtained from different regions in Brazil. The most frequently detected pathogen was Lawsonia intracellularis (13%, followed by Salmonella (4.8%, B. hyodysenteriae (1.4%, B. pilosicoli (1% and their various associations. Results from this study suggest that the two M-PCR assays can be used for specific detection and identification of four important enteric bacterial pathogens alone or in combination.A enterite proliferativa suína, a espiroquetose colônica, a disenteria suína e a salmonelose são as doenças entéricas mais freqüentes em suínos das fases de crescimento e terminação no Brasil. O

  17. Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many rhizospheric bacterial strains possess plant growth-promoting mechanisms. These bacteria can be applied as biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry, enhancing crop yields. Bacterial biofertilizers can improve plant growth through several different mechanisms: (i the synthesis of plant nutrients or phytohormones, which can be absorbed by plants, (ii the mobilization of soil compounds, making them available for the plant to be used as nutrients, (iii the protection of plants under stressful conditions, thereby counteracting the negative impacts of stress, or (iv defense against plant pathogens, reducing plant diseases or death. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR have been used worldwide for many years as biofertilizers, contributing to increasing crop yields and soil fertility and hence having the potential to contribute to more sustainable agriculture and forestry. The technologies for the production and application of bacterial inocula are under constant development and improvement and the bacterial-based biofertilizer market is growing steadily. Nevertheless, the production and application of these products is heterogeneous among the different countries in the world. This review summarizes the main bacterial mechanisms for improving crop yields, reviews the existing technologies for the manufacture and application of beneficial bacteria in the field, and recapitulates the status of the microbe-based inoculants in World Markets.

  18. Insights into bacterial protein glycosylation in human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The study of human microbiota is an emerging research topic. The past efforts have mainly centered on studying the composition and genomic landscape of bacterial species within the targeted communities. The interaction between bacteria and hosts is the pivotal event in the initiation and progression of infectious diseases. There is a great need to identify and characterize the molecules that mediate the bacteria-host interaction. Bacterial surface exposed proteins play an important role in the bacteria- host interaction. Numerous surface proteins are glycosylated, and the glycosylation is crucial for their function in mediating the bacterial interaction with hosts. Here we present an overview of surface glycoproteins from bacteria that inhabit three major mucosal environments across human body: oral, gut and skin. We describe the important enzymes involved in the process of protein glycosylation, and discuss how the process impacts the bacteria-host interaction. Emerging molecular details underlying glycosylation of bacterial surface proteins may lead to new opportunities for designing anti-infective small molecules, and developing novel vaccines in order to treat or prevent bacterial infection.

  19. Clostridium difficile is an autotrophic bacterial pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köpke

    Full Text Available During the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection showed a dramatic increase in incidence and virulence in the Northern hemisphere. This incessantly challenging disease is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial infectious diarrhea and became life-threatening especially among elderly people. It is generally assumed that all human bacterial pathogens are heterotrophic organisms, being either saccharolytic or proteolytic. So far, this has not been questioned as colonization of the human gut gives access to an environment, rich in organic nutrients. Here, we present data that C. difficile (both clinical and rumen isolates is also able to grow on CO2+H2 as sole carbon and energy source, thus representing the first identified autotrophic bacterial pathogen. Comparison of several different strains revealed high conservation of genes for autotrophic growth and showed that the ability to use gas mixtures for growth decreases or is lost upon prolonged culturing under heterotrophic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of C. difficile (heterotrophic growth on various substrates as well as autotrophy could allow the organism in the gut to avoid competition by niche differentiation and contribute to its survival when stressed or in unfavorable conditions that cause death to other bacteria. This may be an important trait for the pathogenicity of C. difficile.

  20. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  1. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Belden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in

  2. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  3. 16S rRNA survey revealed complex bacterial communities and evidence of bacterial interference on human adenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tiantian; Glatt, Dominique Ulrike; Nguyen, Tam Nhu; Allen, Emma Kaitlynn; Early, Stephen V; Sale, Michele; Winther, Birgit; Wu, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Adenoid microbiota plays an important role in the development of various infectious and non-infectious diseases of the upper airways, such as otitis media, adenotonsillitis, rhinosinusitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Studies have suggested that adenoids could act as a potential reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. However, previous bacterial surveys of adenoids were mainly culture based and therefore might only provide an incomplete and potentially biased assessment of the microbial diversity. To develop an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the adenoid microbial communities and test the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis', we carried out a 16S rRNA based, culture-independent survey of bacterial communities on 67 human adenoids removed by surgery. Our survey revealed highly diverse adenoid bacterial communities distinct from those of other body habitats. Despite large interpersonal variations, adenoid microbiota shared a core set of taxa and can be classified into at least five major types based on its bacterial species composition. Our results support the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis' as we found common pathogens of otitis media to be both prevalent and abundant. Co-occurrence analyses revealed evidence consistent with the bacterial interference theory in that multiple common pathogens showed 'non-coexistence' relationships with non-pathogenic members of the commensal microflora.

  4. [Bacterial vaginal fluor in intrauterine contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichter, G E; Nohlen, M; Tauber, P F

    1979-11-01

    Vaginal swabs obtained from 100 IUD-users were examined bacteriologically. Fifty-one women had vaginal discharge and 49 women used as control group had no complaints originating either from the IUD or from the genital tract. In the group of IUD-users with vaginal discharge the number of bacterial isolates was higher and the cultures were more diversified. The nulliparous patients in this group exhibited more anaerobic cultures than the IUD-users without discharge. The significance of vaginal discharge in IUD-users is its function as a pool for pathogenic bacteria which may provoke and/or maintain inflammatory diseases of the female genital tract. IUD-users with vaginal discharge do therefore need not only bacteriologic diagnosis, but also consequent treatment of the discharge.

  5. Bacterial proteins and peptides in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Ananda M; Bernardes, Nuno; Fialho, Arsenio M

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases worldwide. In the last three decades many efforts have been made focused on understanding how cancer grows and responds to drugs. The dominant drug-development paradigm has been the “one drug, one target.” Based on that, the two main targeted therapies developed to combat cancer include the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Development of drug resistance and side effects represent the major limiting factors for their use in cancer treatment. Nowadays, a new paradigm for cancer drug discovery is emerging wherein multi-targeted approaches gain ground in cancer therapy. Therefore, to overcome resistance to therapy, it is clear that a new generation of drugs is urgently needed. Here, regarding the concept of multi-targeted therapy, we discuss the challenges of using bacterial proteins and peptides as a new generation of effective anti-cancer drugs. PMID:24875003

  6. Leaky gut and the liver: A role for bacterial translocation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease,including cirrhosis and its complications.Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections,major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders.Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide,a component of gram-negative bacteria,are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease.Impaired gut epithelial integrity due to alterations in tight junction proteins may be the pathological mechanism underlying bacterial translocation.Preclinical and clinical studies over the last decade have suggested a role for BT in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).Bacterial overgrowth,immune dysfunction,alteration of the luminal factors,and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and its complications.A better understanding of the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events involved in sensing gut-derived microbes will help in the development of means to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases.These may suggest new targets for potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of NASH.Here,we review some of the mechanisms connecting BT and NASH and potential therapeutic developments.

  7. Bacterial otitis media: current vaccine development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Allan W; Kyd, Jennelle

    2003-02-01

    Otitis media is the most common reason for children less than 5 years of age to visit a medical practitioner. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is significant associated morbidity. The most common complication is loss of hearing at a critical stage of the development of speech, language and cognitive abilities in children. The cause and pathogenesis of otitis media is multifactorial. Among the contributing factors, the single most important are viral and bacterial infections. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, para-influenza viruses, enteroviruses and adenovirus are most commonly associated with acute and chronic otitis media. Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly isolated bacteria from the middle ears of children with otitis media. Treatment of otitis media has largely relied on the administration of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. However, attention has recently focused on the development of a vaccine. For a vaccine to be effective against bacterial otitis media, it must, at the very least, contain antigens that induce a protective immune response in the middle ear against the three most common infecting bacteria. Whilst over the past decade there has been significant progress in the development of vaccines against invasive S. pneumoniae disease, these vaccines are less efficacious for otitis media. The search for candidate vaccine antigens for non-typeable H. influenzae are well advanced whilst less progress has been made for M. catarrhalis. No human studies have been conducted for non-typeable H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis and the concept of a tribacterial vaccine remains to be tested in animal models. Only when vaccine antigens are determined and an understanding of the immune responses induced in the middle ear by infection and immunization is gained will the formulation of a tribacterial vaccine against otitis media be possible.

  8. Bacterial Colonization in Hidradenitis Suppurativa/Acne Inversa: A Cross-sectional Study of 50 Patients and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Liakou, Aikaterini I; Bonovas, Stefanos; Seltmann, Holger; Bonitsis, Nikolaos; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Wild, Thomas; Karagiannidis, Ioannis; Zolke-Fischer, Silvia; Langner, Klaus; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-11-24

    It is unclear whether bacterial colonization in hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) comprises a primary cause, triggering factor or secondary phenomenon of the disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, the connection between certain bacterial species, the disease severity and its localization is unknown. Bacterial species were isolated from HS lesions to reveal a potential correlation with localization and disease severity. Ninety swab tests were prospectively obtained from 90 HS lesions of 50 consecutive patients. The material was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The identified species were statistically correlated with Hurley stage and localization of the lesions. The most prevalent isolates were reported. Hurley stage significantly correlated with disease localization. Particular bacterial species were associated with "extended" disease and Hurley III stage with the detection of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and with a higher number of species. The presence of bacterial species is dependent on the local milieu, which correlates with the localization of the disease, its clinical manifestations and its extension.

  9. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations

  10. 噬菌体在动物细菌病防治中的应用研究进展%Advances in the Application of Bacteriophage in the Prevention and Treatment of Animal Bacterial Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋依倩; 齐宇; 王美玲; 徐凤宇

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed the advances in the application of virulent bacteriophages in the animal infectious diseases caused by some common bacteria in breeding industry, such as E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter, V.parahaemolyticus, V.anguillarum and so on.%综述了毒性噬菌体在防治大肠杆菌、沙门菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、弯曲杆菌所致畜禽或实验动物传染病及副溶血弧菌、鳗弧菌、铜绿假单胞菌等所致水产动物传染病中的应用进展,以期为相关领域研究提供参考。

  11. Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent...

  12. Bacterial Cytotoxins Target Rho GTPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Aktories, Klaus

    1998-06-01

    Low molecular mass GTPases of the Rho family, which are involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and in various signal transduction processes, are the eukaryotic targets of bacterial protein toxins. The toxins covalently modify Rho proteins by ADP ribosylation, glucosylation, and deamidation, thereby inactivating and activating the GTPases.

  13. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  14. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-07-04

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods.

  15. Influenza virus induces bacterial and nonbacterial otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kirsty R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Thornton, Ruth; Pedersen, John; Strugnell, Richard A; Wise, Andrew K; Reading, Patrick C; Wijburg, Odilia L

    2011-12-15

    Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common childhood diseases. OM can arise when a viral infection enables bacteria to disseminate from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Here, we provide the first infant murine model for disease. Mice coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus had high bacterial load in the middle ear, middle ear inflammation, and hearing loss. In contrast, mice colonized with S. pneumoniae alone had significantly less bacteria in the ear, minimal hearing loss, and no inflammation. Of interest, infection with influenza virus alone also caused some middle ear inflammation and hearing loss. Overall, this study provides a clinically relevant and easily accessible animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of OM. Moreover, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that influenza virus alone causes middle ear inflammation in infant mice. This inflammation may then play an important role in the development of bacterial OM.

  16. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Caused by Infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vincent F. Tablang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a severe and life-threatening complication in patients with ascites caused by advanced liver disease. The organisms most commonly involved are coliform bacteria and third-generation cephalosporins are the empiric antibiotics of choice. This is an uncommon case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a female patient with liver cirrhosis from autoimmune hepatitis. She did not improve with ceftriaxone and her course was complicated by hepatic encephalopathy, seizures and multi-organ failure. This case emphasizes that a high index of suspicion should be maintained for timely diagnosis and treatment. Listerial peritonitis should be suspected in patients with end-stage liver disease and inadequate response to conventional antibiotics within 48–72 h. Ampicillin/sulbactam should be initiated while awaiting results of ascitic fluid or blood culture.

  17. [Bacterial genomics and metagenomics: clinical applications and medical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, S M; Bertelli, C; Pillonel, T; Schrenzel, J; Greub, G

    2014-11-12

    New sequencing technologies provide in a short time and at low cost high amount of genomic sequences useful for applications such as: a) development of diagnostic PCRs and/or serological tests; b) detection of virulence factors (virulome) or genes/SNPs associated with resistance to antibiotics (resistome) and c) investigation of transmission and dissemination of bacterial pathogens. Thus, bacterial genomics of medical importance is useful to clinical microbiologists, to infectious diseases specialists as well as to epidemiologists. Determining the microbial composition of a sample by metagenomics is another application of new sequencing technologies, useful to understand the impact of bacteria on various non-infectious diseases such as obesity, asthma, or diabetes. Genomics and metagenomics will likely become a specialized diagnostic analysis.

  18. Prostatitis-bacterial - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000395.htm Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis . This is an infection of the prostate gland. ...

  19. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy c

  20. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is up-regulated in bacterial endocarditis and binds to components of vegetations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Hanna; Renner, Marcus; Helmke, Burkhard M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial endocarditis is a frequent infectious cardiac disease, especially in patients with congenital or acquired heart defects. It is characterized by bacterial colonization of the heart valves and the appearance of vegetations consisting of fibrin, blood cells, and bacteria. The gl...

  1. The bacterial lux reporter system: applications in bacterial localisation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Cormac G M

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial production of visible light is a natural phenomenon occurring in marine (Vibrio and Photobacterium) and terrestrial (Photorhabdus) species. The mechanism underpinning light production in these organisms is similar and involves the oxidation of an aldehyde substrate in a reaction catalysed by the bacterial luciferase enzyme. The genes encoding the luciferase and a fatty acid reductase complex which synthesizes the substrate are contained in a single operon (the lux operon). This provides a useful reporter system as cloning the operon into a recipient host bacterium will generate visible light without the requirement to add exogenous substrate. The light can be detected in vivo in the living animal using a sensitive detection system and is therefore ideally suited to bioluminescence imaging protocols. The system has therefore been widely used to track bacteria during infection or colonisation of the host. As bacteria are currently being examined as bactofection vectors for gene delivery, particularly to tumour tissue, the use of bioluminescence imaging offers a powerful means to investigate vector amplification in situ. The implications of this technology for bacterial localization, tumour targeting and gene transfer (bactofection) studies are discussed.

  2. Bacterial Human Virulence Genes across Diverse Habitats As Assessed by In silico Analysis of Environmental Metagenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Ditte A; Hendriksen, Niels B; Kilian, Mogens;

    2016-01-01

    and glacial ice. Homologs to 16 bacterial human virulence genes, involved in urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal diseases, skin diseases, and wound and systemic infections, showed global ubiquity. A principal component analysis did not demonstrate clear trends across the metagenomes with respect...

  3. THE APPLICATION ON DNA-BASED METHODS IN DETECTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA FOR BACTERIAL FOODBORNE DISEASE%核酸检测技术在细菌性食源疾病检测中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄薇; 鞠勇; 孟建彤; 赵翔; 唐晓旻; 王宏; 李佳; 徐冬蕾; 白艳; 罗霞; 梁莹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]初步探讨常规PCR、荧光PCR、PCR产物测序及脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)等核酸检测技术在常见细菌性食源疾病病原菌检测中的应用.[方法]用常规PCR、荧光PCR直接检测经选择性增菌培养的沙门菌和志贺菌,测定PCR扩增产物序列以确定瘸原菌种类,用限制性内切酶Xba Ⅰ和Spe Ⅰ对分离菌株进行PFGE分析.[结果]常规PCR、荧光PCR方法在两份腹泻病人样本中均检出沙门菌,结果与培养法一致.二者未在皮蛋中检出沙门菌,而培养法在市售皮蛋中检出沙门菌.检测时间分别为PCR 16 h、荧光PCR 14 h、PCR产物直接测序19 h,较培养法缩短4 d.来源不同的3株分离菌Xba Ⅰ和Spe Ⅰ酶切图谱完全一致(相似度为100%).[结论]应用常规PCR、荧光PCR可准确、及时检出腹泻病人样本中的沙门菌和志贺菌,有望用于食物中毒的快速检测.但在检测食品和环境样本时需适当延长增菌培养时间.在从农田到餐桌的食品供应链中,PFGE可对疾病暴发进行早期识别并协助对病原菌及其传播途径的溯源,有助于食物中毒的预防.%[Objective]To explore the application of PCR、 real-time PCR, PCR products sequencing and pulsed-field gel electyophoresis (PFGE) in detection of pathogenic bacteria for food-bome disease, [Methods]PCR and real-time PCR technique were applied to detect Salmonella and Shigella from the selective enrichment cultivation, and the sequence analysis were also conducted for the PCR products.Isolated strains were digested by restriction endonucleases Xba I and Spe I, and were analyzed by PFGE.[Results]Two samples from diarrheic patients were Salmonella positive by PCR and real-time PCR detection, which was in accordance with that of the traditional method.PCR and real-time PCR technique failed to detect Salmonella from preserved egg, while traditional method detected Salmonella.The detection time of PCR, real-time PCR and PCR products sequencing were 16

  4. Advanced research on bacterial intestinal infectious diseases vaccine’ s serological evalution%细菌性肠道传染病疫苗血清学评价研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方侃; 方红春(综述); 赵志强; 谢贵林(审校)

    2014-01-01

    The infection mechanism of dysentery, typhoid, paratyphoid and cholera is similar. They can all induce intesti-nal mucosal immune response. Analysing the mucosal immune antibody level is the traditional evaluation method of these vaccines. However, with the in-depth study of the infection mechanism and the study on the relationship between the muco-sal immune antibody level and serum immune antibody level, people evaluate the effectiveness of corresponding vaccine through determining serum antibody. In this paper, the mechanism of infection of the diseases above and serological evalua-tion methods were reviewed.%对于痢疾、伤寒、副伤寒和霍乱等肠道致病菌引起的肠道传染性疾病,其感染途径相同,感染机制相似,均能诱发肠道局部黏膜免疫反应。预防上述几种传染性疾病的疫苗,传统的评价方法是分析其肠黏膜分泌型IgA抗体水平。随着对上述几种肠道传染性疾病免疫学机制以及对感染者血清抗体水平与其肠黏膜抗体水平之间关系的深入研究,评价疫苗效力的方法逐渐改为测定血清抗体。对上述几种传染性疾病的感染机制以及血清学评价方法进行了综述。

  5. Distribution of Triplet Separators in Bacterial Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rui; ZHENG Wei-Mou

    2001-01-01

    Distributions of triplet separator lengths for two bacterial complete genomes are analyzed. The theoretical distributions for the independent random sequence and the first-order Markov chain are derived and compared with the distributions of the bacterial genomes. A prominent double band structure, which does not exist in the theoretical distributions, is observed in the bacterial distributions for most triplets.``

  6. Bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared at Danish freshwater farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout....... psychrophilum isolates showed resistance to oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline. No antibiotic resistant isolates were found among Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida.......During a 2-year period, bacterial fish pathogens were monitored on five rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykirs (Walbaum), freshwater farms in Denmark. A total of 1206 fish were examined and 361 bacterial isolates were identified phenotypically. Enteric redmouth disease, furunculosis and rainbow trout...... of fry and larger fish. All isolates of F. psychrophilum showed proteolytic activities; however, a few isolates, belonging to serotype Fp(T) did not degrade elastin and were not associated with mortality. Increasing resistance problems to oxytetracycline were demonstrated. More than half of the F...

  7. Review: phage therapy: a modern tool to control bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  8. 沼液中几种抗生素的检测与樱花细菌性穿孔病防效研究%Detection of Antibiotics in Biogas Slurry and Study on its Control Effect on Cherry Blossom Bacterial Shot Hole Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂莹; 曾晓楠

    2014-01-01

    In order to find out the control mechanism of biogas slurry to plant diseases, the study determined the contents of antibiotics existed in biogas slurry with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then observed its prevention and control effect on cherry blossom bacterial shot-hole disease. Results showed that antibiotics existed in biogas slurry included oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) with amount of 0.08347 mg/L, 0.04907 mg/L and 0.04229 mg/L respectively. The prevention and control effects indicated that application of biogas slurry for 4 times in Summer resulted in a similar efficiency as that of streptomycin, which is a common pesticide. But the efficiency was not good when biogas slurry was applied less than 3 times.%为探索沼液防治植物病害的机理,利用高效液相色谱检测沼液中几种抗生素的含量,并对樱花细菌性穿孔病防效进行研究。检测结果表明,抗生素含量分别为:土霉素(OTC)0.08347 mg/L、四环素(TC)0.04907 mg/L、金霉素(CTC)0.04229 mg/L。防效试验结果表明:沼液4次以上的连续叶面喷施与细菌性病害防治的常用农药链霉素效果相当,但3次以下的喷施防效不理想。

  9. Changes in Vaginal Bacterial Concentrations with Intravaginal Metronidazole Therapy for Bacterial Vaginosis as Assessed by Quantitative PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, David N.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined. We describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for BV. Vaginal swabs were collected from women with BV diagnosed using Amsel clinical criteria, and vaginal fluid was assessed by Gram stain to generate Nugent scores. Follow-up swabs were collected 1 month after a 5-day course of vaginal 0.75% metronidazole gel and analyzed for 24 subjects with cured BV and 24 subjects with persistent BV. Changes in bacterial concentrations were measured using eight bacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assays. DNA from several fastidious BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) were present at high concentrations in the vagina prior to treatment. Successful antibiotic therapy resulted in 3- to 4-log reductions in median bacterial loads of BVAB1 (P = 0.02), BVAB2 (P = 0.0004), BVAB3 (P = 0.03), a Megasphaera-like bacterium (P < 0.0001), Atopobium species (P < 0.0001), Leptotrichia/Sneathia species (P = 0.0002), and Gardnerella vaginalis (P < 0.0001). Median posttreatment bacterial levels did not change significantly in subjects with persistent BV except for a decline in levels of BVAB3. The presence or absence of BV is reflected by vaginal concentrations of BV-associated bacteria such as BVAB1, BVAB2, Leptotrichia/Sneathia species, Atopobium species, Gardnerella vaginalis, and a Megasphaera-like bacterium, suggesting that these bacteria play an important role in BV pathogenesis and may be suitable markers of disease and treatment response. PMID:19144794

  10. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Scott Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn isolated from an AD brain (96-41. In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1-4 months post-infection (pi. Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3 had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology.

  11. ldentification and Control Methods of Eggplant Bacterial Wilt, Soft Rot, Necrotic Leaf Spot, Mo-saic Virus, Root-knot Ne-matode Disease, Sun-scald, Leaf Scorch and Dehiscent Fruit%茄子青枯病、软腐病、细菌性褐斑病、病毒病、根结线虫病、日灼病、叶烧病和裂果的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丹丹; 张杨林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了茄子青枯病、软腐病、细菌性褐斑病、病毒病、根结线虫病、日灼病、叶烧病和裂果的危害症状、发病特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面总结了各病害的综合防治方法。%The symptom and disease characteristics of eggplant bacterial wilt, soft rot, necrotic leaf spot, mosaic virus, root-knot nematode disease, sunscald, leaf scorch and dehiscent fruit were in-troduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which con-tained measures of agricultural control, chemical control and so on.

  12. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacterial RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Hong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available RNAs have diverse structures that include bulges and internal loops able to form tertiary contacts or serve as ligand binding sites. The recent increase in structural and functional information related to RNAs has put them in the limelight as a drug target for small molecule therapy. In addition, the recognition of the marked difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNA has led to the development of antibiotics that specifically target bacterial rRNA, reduce protein translation and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. To facilitate the development of new antibiotics targeting RNA, we here review the literature concerning such antibiotics, mRNA, riboswitch and tRNA and the key methodologies used for their screening.

  13. Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N; Sivasubramanian, S

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a "wireless" version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by "nanowires". The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.

  14. Bacterial survival in Martian conditions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe Galletta; Giulio Bertoloni; Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We shortly discuss the observable consequences of the two hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth and Mars: the Lithopanspermia (Mars to Earth or viceversa) and the origin from a unique progenitor, that for Earth is called LUCA (the LUCA hypothesis). To test the possibility that some lifeforms similar to the terrestrial ones may survive on Mars, we designed and built two simulators of Martian environments where to perform experiments with different bacterial strains: LISA and mini-LISA. Our LISA environmental chambers can reproduce the conditions of many Martian locations near the surface trough changes of temperature, pressure, UV fluence and atmospheric composition. Both simulators are open to collaboration with other laboratories interested in performing experiments on many kind of samples (biological, minerals, electronic) in situations similar to that of the red planet. Inside LISA we have studied the survival of several bacterial strains and endospores. We verified that the UV light is the major re...

  15. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation.

  16. Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

  17. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  18. Bioorganic fertilizer enhances soil suppressive capacity against bacterial wilt of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Shuangri; Chai, Rushan; Huang, Weiqing; Liu, Xingxing; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most destructive soil-borne diseases. Many strategies have been taken to improve soil suppressiveness against this destructive disease, but limited success has been achieved. In this study, a novel bioorganic fertilizer revealed a higher suppressive ability against bacterial wilt compared with several soil management methods in the field over four growing seasons from March 2011 to July 2013. The application of the bioorganic fertilizer significantly (Pfertilizer increased soil pH value, electric conductivity, organic carbon, NH4+-N, NO3--N and available K content, microbial activities and microbial biomass carbon content, which were positively related with soil suppressiveness. Bacterial and actinomycete populations assessed using classical plate counts were highest, whereas R. solanacearum and fungal populations were lowest in soil applied with the bioorganic fertilizer. Microbial community diversity and richness were assessed using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis profile analysis. The soil treated with the bioorganic fertilizer exhibited higher bacterial community diversity but lower fungal community diversity. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community diversity and richness negatively related with bacterial wilt suppressiveness, while fungal community richness positively correlated with R. solanacearum population. We concluded that the alteration of soil physicochemical and biological properties in soil treated with the bioorganic fertilizer induced the soil suppressiveness against tomato bacterial wilt.

  19. Bacterial Interstitial Nephritis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bobadilla Chang, Fernando; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Villanueva, Dolores; Departamento de Ciencias Dinámicas Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnosis approach to urinary tract infections in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records from 103 children with diagnosis of interstitial bacterial nephritis were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was supported by the dramatic involvement of renal parenquima, which is not addressed as "urinary tract infection". RESULTS: From all 103 patients, 49 were 2-years-old or younger, 33 were between 2 and 5-years-old, and 21 were between 6 to 10. Clinical picture inc...

  20. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  1. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Menendez; Paula Garcia-Fraile; Raul Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, mean...

  2. Bacterial motility on abiotic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gibiansky, Maxsim

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured microbial communities which are widespread both in nature and in clinical settings. When organized into a biofilm, bacteria are extremely resistant to many forms of stress, including a greatly heightened antibiotic resistance. In the early stages of biofilm formation on an abiotic surface, many bacteria make use of their motility to explore the surface, finding areas of high nutrition or other bacteria to form microcolonies. They use motility appendages, incl...

  3. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute bacterial meningitis are often treated with sympathomimetics to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). We studied the influence of such therapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF). DESIGN: Prospective physiologic trial. SETTING: The Department of Infectious...... Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: Sixteen adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis. INTERVENTION: Infusion of norepinephrine to increase MAP. MEASUREMENTS: During a rise in MAP induced by norepinephrine infusion, we measured relative changes in CBF by transcranial Doppler...... bacterial meningitis, CBF autoregulation is impaired. With recovery from meningitis, the cerebral vasculature regains the ability to maintain cerebral perfusion at a constant level despite variations in MAP....

  4. Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS.

  5. Swiftly Decreasing Cerebrospinal Fluid Cathelicidin Concentration Predicts Improved Outcome in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, Okko; Helve, Otto; Roine, Irmeli; Andersson, Sture; Fernández, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula

    2016-06-01

    We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis on admission and during antimicrobial treatment. CSF cathelicidin concentrations on admission correlated with CSF white cell counts and protein levels but not with bacterial etiology. A greater decrease in the concentration in response to treatment was associated with a better outcome. Since the CSF cathelicidin concentration reflects the degree of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, it may be used as a novel biomarker in childhood bacterial meningitis. An early decrease during treatment likely signals more rapid mitigation of the disease process and thus a better outcome.

  6. Pharmacological inhibition of quorum sensing for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentzer, Morten; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. A major concern with this approach is the frequently observed development of resistance to antimicrobial compounds. The discovery of bacterial-communication systems (quorum-sensing...... mechanisms and potential antipathogenic drugs that specifically target quorum-sensing systems in a manner unlikely to pose a selective pressure for the development of resistant mutants....

  7. Genomics, evolution, and crystal structure of a new family of bacterial spore kinases

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial spore formation is a complex process of fundamental relevance to biology and human disease. The spore coat structure is complex and poorly understood, and the roles of many of the protein components remain unclear. We describe a new family of spore coat proteins, the bacterial spore kinases (BSKs), and the first crystal structure of a BSK, YtaA (CotI) from Bacillus subtilis. BSKs are widely distributed in spore-forming Bacillus and Clostridium species, and have a dynamic evolutionar...

  8. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    OpenAIRE

    Naseerud Din; Musharaf Ahmad; Muhammad Siddique; Asad Ali; Ishrat Naz; Najeeb Ullah; Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were asse...

  9. From Environment to Man: Genome Evolution and Adaptation of Human Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle Jumas-Bilak; Hélène Marchandin; Brigitte Lamy; Anne Lotthé; Fabien Aujoulat; Frédéric Roger; Alice Bourdier

    2012-01-01

    Environment is recognized as a huge reservoir for bacterial species and a source of human pathogens. Some environmental bacteria have an extraordinary range of activities that include promotion of plant growth or disease, breakdown of pollutants, production of original biomolecules, but also multidrug resistance and human pathogenicity. The versatility of bacterial life-style involves adaptation to various niches. Adaptation to both open environment and human specific niches is a major challe...

  10. Pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients and antibiotic therapy: a tool for the health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Henrique Douglas M.; Falcão-Silva,Vivyanne S.; Gonçalves, Gregório Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common and best known genetic disease involving a defect in transepithelial Cl- transport by mutations in the CF gene on chromosome 7, which codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR). The most serious symptoms are observed in the lungs, augmenting the risk of bacterial infection. The objective of this review was to describe the bacterial pathogens colonizing patients with cystic fibrosis. A systematic search was conducted usin...

  11. Cytochemical Differences in Bacterial Glycocalyx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hannig, Matthias; Pelz, Klaus; Stoiber, Walter

    2005-02-01

    To examine new cytochemical aspects of the bacterial adhesion, a strain 41452/01 of the oral commensal Streptococcus sanguis and a wild strain of Staphylococcus aureus were grown with and without sucrose supplementation for 6 days. Osmiumtetraoxyde (OsO4), uranyl acetate (UA), ruthenium red (RR), cupromeronic blue (CB) staining with critical electrolytic concentrations (CECs), and the tannic acid-metal salt technique (TAMST) were applied for electron microscopy. Cytochemically, only RR-positive fimbriae in S. sanguis were visualized. By contrast, some types of fimbriae staining were observed in S. aureus glycocalyx: RR-positive, OsO4-positive, tannophilic and CB-positive with ceasing point at 0.3 M MgCl2. The CB staining with CEC, used for the first time for visualization of glycoproteins of bacterial glycocalyx, also reveals intacellular CB-positive substances-probably the monomeric molecules, that is, subunits forming the fimbriae via extracellular assembly. Thus, glycosylated components of the biofilm matrix can be reliably related to single cells. The visualization of intracellular components by CB with CEC enables clear distinction between S. aureus and other bacteria, which do not produce CB-positive substances. The small quantities of tannophilic substances found in S. aureus makes the use of TAMST for the same purpose difficult. The present work protocol enables, for the first time, a partial cytochemical differentiation of the bacterial glycocalyx.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  13. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  14. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  15. Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes: Principles and Insights into Pathogenesis and Development of Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Donkor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of bacterial diseases on public health has become enormous, and is partly due to the increasing trend of antibiotic resistance displayed by bacterial pathogens. Sequencing of bacterial genomes has significantly improved our understanding about the biology of many bacterial pathogens as well as identification of novel antibiotic targets. Since the advent of genome sequencing two decades ago, about 1,800 bacterial genomes have been fully sequenced and these include important aetiological agents such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Very recently, there has been an explosion of bacterial genome data and is due to the development of next generation sequencing technologies, which are evolving so rapidly. Indeed, the field of microbial genomics is advancing at a very fast rate and it is difficult for researchers to be abreast with the new developments. This highlights the need for regular updates in microbial genomics through comprehensive reviews. This review paper seeks to provide an update on bacterial genome sequencing generally, and to analyze insights gained from sequencing in two areas, including bacterial pathogenesis and the development of antibiotics.

  16. Control of intestinal bacterial proliferation in regulation of lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portal-Celhay Cynthia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A powerful approach to understanding complex processes such as aging is to use model organisms amenable to genetic manipulation, and to seek relevant phenotypes to measure. Caenorhabditis elegans is particularly suited to studies of aging, since numerous single-gene mutations have been identified that affect its lifespan; it possesses an innate immune system employing evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways affecting longevity. As worms age, bacteria accumulate in the intestinal tract. However, quantitative relationships between worm genotype, lifespan, and intestinal lumen bacterial load have not been examined. We hypothesized that gut immunity is less efficient in older animals, leading to enhanced bacterial accumulation, reducing longevity. To address this question, we evaluated the ability of worms to control bacterial accumulation as a functional marker of intestinal immunity. Results We show that as adult worms age, several C. elegans genotypes show diminished capacity to control intestinal bacterial accumulation. We provide evidence that intestinal bacterial load, regulated by gut immunity, is an important causative factor of lifespan determination; the effects are specified by bacterial strain, worm genotype, and biologic age, all acting in concert. Conclusions In total, these studies focus attention on the worm intestine as a locus that influences longevity in the presence of an accumulating bacterial population. Further studies defining the interplay between bacterial species and host immunity in C. elegans may provide insights into the general mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases.

  17. Pathogenic reaction of some introduced rice cultivars (lines) to seven pathotypes of bacterial blight in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYing; ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) is a major rice disease in China. 138 introduced cultivars (lines) were tested on pathogenicity with seven pathotypes of BB at CNRRI Experiment Station during Apt-Oct,1991.

  18. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  19. Update and actual trends on bacterial infections following liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Luis del Pozo

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in effective antimicrobial prophylactic strategies have led to a decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections in liver transplant recipients.However, morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases remain as major problems. Bacterial infections occurring early after transplant are mainly related to the technical aspects of the procedure. By contrast,after the first postoperative days and beyond, the nature and variety of infectious complications change.Opportunistic bacterial infections are uncommon after 6 mo in patients receiving stable and reduced maintenance doses of immunosuppression with good graft function and little is documented about these cases in the literature. Transplant recipients may be more susceptible to some pathogens, such as the Nocardia species, Legionella species, Listeria monocytogenes , Mycoplasma species, Salmonella species or Rhodococcus equi. Respiratory infections due to capsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza, can be lifethreatening if not promptly treated in this population.These late bacterial infections may be very difficult to recognize and treat in this population. In this article,we review what has been described in the literature with regards to late bacterial infections following liver transplantation.

  20. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts in bovine pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstrup, C C; Pedersen, H G; Jensen, T K; Agerholm, J S

    2017-04-15

    Pyometra is a common disease of cattle that causes infertility and thereby financial losses to the cattle industry. Bacteria involved in the development and progression of pyometra have been investigated by microbial culture but their tissue invading abilities, which is an important aspect of bacterial pathogenicity and development of lesions, have not been investigated. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts was studied in 21 cows diagnosed with pyometra at the time of slaughter by applying fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes and the overall bacterial domain Bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum and P. levii were found to invade the endometrium, especially if the endometrium was ulcerated, and penetrated deep into the lamina propria. These species co-localized within the tissue thus indicating a synergism. Trueperella pyogenes did not invade the uterine tissue. In addition to endometrial lesions, most cows with pyometra also had salpingitis but without significant bacterial invasion of the oviductal wall.

  1. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

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    Hendaus MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1 Fatima A Jomha,2 Ahmed H Alhammadi3 1Department of Pediatrics, Academic General Pediatrics Division, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 3Department of Pediatrics, Academic General Pediatrics Division, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. Keywords: bacteria, infection, risk, virus

  2. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

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    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  3. Exploring anti-bacterial compounds against intracellular Legionella.

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    Christopher F Harrison

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous fresh-water bacterium which reproduces within its erstwhile predators, environmental amoeba, by subverting the normal pathway of phagocytosis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms which confer resistance to amoeba are apparently conserved and also allow replication within macrophages. Thus, L. pneumophila can act as an 'accidental' human pathogen and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. The intracellular localisation of L. pneumophila protects it from some antibiotics, and this fact must be taken into account to develop new anti-bacterial compounds. In addition, the intracellular lifestyle of L. pneumophila may render the bacteria susceptible to compounds diminishing bacterial virulence and decreasing intracellular survival and replication of this pathogen. The development of a single infection cycle intracellular replication assay using GFP-producing L. pneumophila and Acanthamoebacastellanii amoeba is reported here. This fluorescence-based assay allows for continuous monitoring of intracellular replication rates, revealing the effect of bacterial gene deletions or drug treatment. To examine how perturbations of the host cell affect L. pneumophila replication, several known host-targeting compounds were tested, including modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle scission and Ras GTPase localisation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrealized potential antibiotic property of the β-lactone-based Ras depalmitoylation inhibitor palmostatin M, but not the closely related inhibitor palmostatin B. Further characterisation indicated that this compound caused specific growth inhibition of Legionella and Mycobacterium species, suggesting that it may act on a common bacterial target.

  4. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  5. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  6. Etiología bacteriana de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda durante un período de vigilancia epidemiológica y de laboratorio para el diagnóstico del cólera (junio 1° agosto 1° de 1991 Bacterial etiology of acute diarrheal disease during and epidemiological surveillance for cholera in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montoya

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio 12 y agosto 12 de 1991, esperando la aparición de los primeros casos de cólera en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, se estudiaron 50 pacientes con enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA, en su mayoría adultos. Se les practicaron coprocultivo y una encuesta clínica. Se Identificaron en orden de frecuencia Aeromonas hydrophlia en 11 pacientes (22%, Vibrio cholerae en 9 (18%, Shigelia spp en 3 (6% y Escherichia col/ enteropatógeno y Salmonella spp en un paciente cada uno. En 25 pacientes (50% no se logró aislar ninguno de los agentes bacteria nos Investigados. Los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron: vómito 62%, fiebre 26% y calambres 22%; hubo deshidratación grado III en 24 pacientes (48%. Una paciente falleció. Este es el primer trabajo que revela en nuestro medio la Aeromonas hydrophlia como causa frecuente de EDA en adultos. En futuros trabajos sobre esta enfem1edad se debe incluir la búsqueda de otros agentes bacterianos y vírales.

    During the epidemiological surveillance for the first cholera cases In the Department of Antioquia (Colombia, 50 patients with acute diarrheal disease (ADD were studied between June 12 and August 12, 1991. Stool cultures and a complete clinical survey were performed In all patients, most of whom were adults. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified In 11 patients (22%, Vibrio cholerae in 9 (18%, Shigella spp In 3 (6% and enteropathogenic E. coliand Salmonella spp in 1 patient each (2%. No bacterial agent could be identified in 25 patients (50%. The most frequent clinical features were vomit In 62%, fever In 26%, cramps In 22% and grade III dehydration in 48% of the cases. One patient died. ADD can be severe, even lethal; Its clinical features can be very similar regardless of the etiology. The search for other bacterial and viral agents should be Included In future studies. Aeromonas hydrophila is reported here for the first

  7. Bacterial adhesion and biofilms on surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Roger Garrett; Manmohan Bhakoo; Zhibing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in industry and in the domicile,and much research has been done for deeper understanding of the processes involved.A generic biological model of bacterial adhesion and population growth called the bacterial biofilm growth cycle,has been described and modified many times.The biofilm growth cycle encompasses bacterial adhesion at all levels,starting with the initial physical attraction of bacteria to a substrate,and ending with the eventual liberation of cell dusters from the biofilm matrix.When describing bacterial adhesion one is simply describing one or more stages of biofilm development,neglecting the fact that the population may not reach maturity.This article provides an overview of bacterial adhesion.cites examples of how bac-terial adhesion affects industry and summarises methods and instrumentation used to improve our understanding of the adhesive prop-erties of bacteria.

  8. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  9. Investigation of bacterial microbiota and risk factors in dogs with external ocular diseases from Bandeirantes, Paraná State, BrazilInvestigação da microbiota bacteriana e associações de risco em cães com afecções oculares externas atendidos em Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luis Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of the bacterial etiology of the external ocular diseases and sensitivity to antimicrobials, 38 dogs with external ocular diseases, unilateral or bilateral, and 120 dogs without ocular diseases (control group, were studied between 08/2008 and 07/2009 in the Veterinary Hospital of North Paraná State University, Brazil. The collected samples of the inferior conjunctival sac were incubated at 37ºC in an aerobic environment, in blood agar and MacConkey agar, for 120 hours. After the presumptive identification, the bacterial species were identified by the systems APISTAPH (bio- Merieux, Incorporation, API 20 STREP (bio-Merieux, Incorporation and BACTRAY (Laborclin, Ltd. and incubated in Mueller-Hinton agar with antimicrobials disks, for sensitivity determination. For the risk factors, the owners answered a questionnaire with epidemiological variables. There was microorganism growth in 46 (73.02% samples, with isolation of one microorganism in 42 samples and two microorganisms in four. Gram-positive bacteria corresponded to 76% of the isolated, Gramnegative 20% and yeasts fungi 4%. Staphylococcus spp totalized 66% of isolated, with S. aureus (24% and S. intermedius (24% the most prevalent. With the exception of S. intermedius (91.67% and S. epidermidis (66.67%, the isolated bacterial species presented 100% resistance to the sulfonamide. The S. aureus isolated presented 91,67% sensitivity to chloranphenicol, tobramycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and the same percentile of resistance to tetracycline. The S. intermedius presented 100% sensitivity to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and 91,67% to gentamicin and 75% resistance to tetracycline and ceftriaxone. The associations of risk for external ocular diseases were clinical returns (OR=59,50, 7,29Para a determinação da etiologia bacteriana das afecções oculares externas e perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos, 38 cães com doenças oculares externas, unilaterais ou

  10. Muramyl dipeptide responsive pathways in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Rogler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is one of main disease entities under the umbrella term chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of CD involves alterations in genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors. This review is devoted to the role of the bacterial wall compound muramyl dipeptide (MDP...

  11. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  12. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  13. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations

  14. Bacteriophage-encoded shiga toxin gene in atypical bacterial host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Veronica

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination from fecal bacteria in recreational waters is a major health concern since bacteria capable of causing human disease can be found in animal feces. The Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California is a beach prone to closures due to high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB. A potential source of these FIB could be the canine feces left behind by owners who do not clean up after their pets. We tested this hypothesis by screening the DNA isolated from canine feces for the bacteriophage-encoded stx gene normally found in the virulent strains of the fecal bacterium Escherichia coli. Results Twenty canine fecal samples were collected, processed for total and bacterial fraction DNA, and screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in the total and bacterial fraction DNA of one fecal sample. Bacterial isolates were then cultivated from the stx-positive fecal sample. Eighty nine of these canine fecal bacterial isolates were screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in five of these isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene PCR products from the canine fecal bacterial isolates indicated that they were Enterococcus and not E. coli. Conclusions The bacteriophage-encoded stx gene was found in multiple species of bacteria cultivated from canine fecal samples gathered at the shoreline of the Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California. The canine fecal bacteria carrying the stx gene were not the typical E. coli host and were instead identified through phylogenetic analyses as Enterococcus. This suggests a large degree of horizontal gene transfer of exotoxin genes in recreational waters.

  15. Subgingival bacterial colonization profiles correlate with gingival tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handfield Martin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the microbiota of the periodontal pocket. We investigated the association between subgingival bacterial profiles and gene expression patterns in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. A total of 120 patients undergoing periodontal surgery contributed with a minimum of two interproximal gingival papillae (range 2-4 from a maxillary posterior region. Prior to tissue harvesting, subgingival plaque samples were collected from the mesial and distal aspects of each tissue sample. Gingival tissue RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with whole-genome microarrays (310 in total. Plaque samples were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridizations with respect to 11 bacterial species. Random effects linear regression models considered bacterial levels as exposure and expression profiles as outcome variables. Gene Ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results Wide inter-species variation was noted in the number of differentially expressed gingival tissue genes according to subgingival bacterial levels: Using a Bonferroni correction (p -7, 9,392 probe sets were differentially associated with levels of Tannerella forsythia, 8,537 with Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6,460 with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 506 with Eikenella corrodens and only 8 with Actinomyces naeslundii. Cluster analysis identified commonalities and differences among tissue gene expression patterns differentially regulated according to bacterial levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the microbial content of the periodontal pocket is a determinant of gene expression in the gingival tissues and provide new insights into the differential ability of periodontal species to elicit a local host response.

  16. The hematology of bacterial infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, A; Palko, J; Milner, R; Akenzua, G I

    1976-06-01

    A series of premature infants was studied for the presence of bacterial infection. On the basis of clinical evidence and bacteriological studies, they were divided into three groups in which sepsis was considered to be proven, possible, or unlikely. Band neutrophil counts were elevated most frequently in the "sepsis-proven" group and the elevation occurred usually within 24 hours of onset of signs of disease. Qualitative changes in neutrophils (Döhle bodies, toxic granulation, and vacuolization) were more frequent in the sepsis-proven group and, together with the band count, provided valuable techniques for the diagnosis of bacterial infections. Thrombocytopenia occurred frequently in the sepsis-proven group and seemed to result from increased utilization or destruction of platelets rather than failure of production. In such cases, evidence of intravascular coagulation was minimal and it was concluded that thrombocytopenia had resulted from a direct effect of the bacteria or its products on platelets and/or endothelium.

  17. Unraveling Plant Responses to Bacterial Pathogens through Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zimaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic bacteria cause diseases in important crops and seriously and negatively impact agricultural production. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants resist bacterial infection at the stage of the basal immune response or mount a successful specific R-dependent defense response is crucial since a better understanding of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches to crops with increased biotic resistance. In recent years, proteomics has been used to gain in-depth understanding of many aspects of the host defense against pathogens and has allowed monitoring differences in abundance of proteins as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational processes, protein activation/inactivation, and turnover. Proteomics also offers a window to study protein trafficking and routes of communication between organelles. Here, we summarize and discuss current progress in proteomics of the basal and specific host defense responses elicited by bacterial pathogens.

  18. Unraveling plant responses to bacterial pathogens through proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2011-11-03

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause diseases in important crops and seriously and negatively impact agricultural production. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which plants resist bacterial infection at the stage of the basal immune response or mount a successful specific R-dependent defense response is crucial since a better understanding of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches to crops with increased biotic resistance. In recent years, proteomics has been used to gain in-depth understanding of many aspects of the host defense against pathogens and has allowed monitoring differences in abundance of proteins as well as posttranscriptional and posttranslational processes, protein activation/inactivation, and turnover. Proteomics also offers a window to study protein trafficking and routes of communication between organelles. Here, we summarize and discuss current progress in proteomics of the basal and specific host defense responses elicited by bacterial pathogens. Copyright 2011 Tamara Zimaro et al.

  19. The pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein is an intra-species bacterial adhesin that promotes bacterial aggregation in vivo and in biofilms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, C.J.; Shivshankar, P.; Stol, K.; Trakhtenbroit, S.; Sullam, P.M.; Sauer, K.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Orihuela, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a pathogenicity island encoded adhesin that has been positively correlated with the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease. Previous studies have shown that PsrP mediates bacterial attachment to Keratin 10 (K10) on the surf

  20. Bacterial biota in reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiheng Pei; Liying Yang; Richard M Peek; Jr Steven M Levine; David T Pride; Martin J Blaser

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify the bacterial flora in conditions such as Barrett's esophagus and reflux esophagitis to determine if they are similar to normal esophageal flora.METHODS: Using broad-range 16S rDNA PCR,esophageal biopsies were examined from 24 patients [9with normal esophageal mucosa, 12 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 3 with Barrett's esophagus].Two separate broad-range PCR reactions were performed for each patient, and the resulting products were cloned.In one patient with Barrett's esophagus, g9 PCR clones were analyzed.RESULTS: Two separate clones were recovered from each patient (total = 48), representing 24 different species, with 14 species homologous to known bacteria,5 homologous to unidentified bacteria, and 5 were not homologous (<97% identity) to any known bacterial 16S rDNA sequences. Seventeen species were found in the reflux esophagitis patients, 5 in the Barrett's esophagus patients, and 10 in normal esophagus patients.Further analysis concentrating on a single biopsy from an individual with Barrett's esophagus revealed the presence of 21. distinct bacterial species. Members of four phyla were represented, including Bacteroidetes,Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria.Microscopic examination of each biopsy demonstrated bacteria in intimate association with the distal esophageal epithelium, suggesting that the presence of these bacteria is not transitory.CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence for a complex, residential bacterial population in esophageal reflux-related disorders. While much of this biota is present in the normal esophagus, more detailed comparisons may help identify potential disease associations.

  1. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Movahedian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI broth according to standard method. From the 1680 neonates 36% had positive blood culture for Pseudomans aeruginosa, 20.7% for Coagulase negative Staphylococci, and 17% for Klebsiella spp. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 72.1% of all positive cultures. The overall mortality rate was 19.8% (22 /111 of whom 63.6% (14 /22 were preterm. Pseudomona aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. showed a high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin as well as third generation cephalosporins. Continued local surveillance studies are urged to monitor emerging antimicrobial resistance and to guide interventions to minimize its occurrence.

  2. Bioinformatic Comparison of Bacterial Secretomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catharine Song; Aseem Kumar; Mazen Saleh

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increasing number of completed bacterial genomes provides a good op-portunity to compare their proteomes. This study was undertaken to specifically compare and contrast their secretomes-the fraction of the proteome with pre-dicted N-terminal signal sequences, both type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ. A total of 176 theoreti-cal bacterial proteomes were examined using the ExProt program. Compared with the Gram-positives, the Gram-negative bacteria were found, on average, to con-tain a larger number of potential Sec-dependent sequences. In the Gram-negative bacteria but not in the others, there was a positive correlation between proteome size and secretome size, while there was no correlation between secretome size and pathogenicity. Within the Gram-negative bacteria, intracellular pathogens were found to have the smallest secretomes. However, the secretomes of certain bacte-ria did not fit into the observed pattern. Specifically, the secretome of Borrelia burgdoferi has an unusually large number of putative lipoproteins, and the signal peptides of mycoplasmas show closer sequence similarity to those of the Gram-negative bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that even for a theoretical minimal genome of 300 open reading frames, a fraction of this gene pool (up to a maximum of 20%) may code for proteins with Sec-dependent signal sequences.

  3. Bacterial pericarditis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole LeBlanc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Oregon State University cardiology service for suspected pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade was documented and pericardiocentesis yielded purulent fluid with cytologic results supportive of bacterial pericarditis. The microbial population consisted of Pasteurella multocida, Actinomyces canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species. Conservative management was elected consisting of intravenous antibiotic therapy with ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium and metronidazole for 48 h followed by 4 weeks of oral antibiotics. Re-examination 3 months after the initial incident indicated no recurrence of effusion and the cat remained free of clinical signs 2 years after presentation. Relevance and novel information Bacterial pericarditis is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in cats. Growth of P multocida, A canis, Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species has not previously been documented in feline septic pericarditis. Conservative management with broad-spectrum antibiotics may be considered when further diagnostic imaging or exploratory surgery to search for a primary nidus of infection is not feasible or elected.

  4. Interaction between resource identity and bacterial community composition regulates bacterial respiration in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. F. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Resource identity and composition structure bacterial community, which in turn determines the magnitude of bacterial processes and ecological services. However, the complex interaction between resource identity and bacterial community composition (BCC has been poorly understood so far. Using aquatic microcosms, we tested whether and how resource identity interacts with BCC in regulating bacterial respiration and bacterial functional diversity. Different aquatic macrophyte leachates were used as different carbon resources while BCC was manipulated through successional changes of bacterial populations in batch cultures. We observed that the same BCC treatment respired differently on each carbon resource; these resources also supported different amounts of bacterial functional diversity. There was no clear linear pattern of bacterial respiration in relation to time succession of bacterial communities in all leachates, i.e. differences on bacterial respiration between different BCC were rather idiosyncratic. Resource identity regulated the magnitude of respiration of each BCC, e.g. Ultricularia foliosa leachate sustained the greatest bacterial functional diversity and lowest rates of bacterial respiration in all BCC. We conclude that both resource identity and the BCC interact affecting the pattern and the magnitude of bacterial respiration in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. The murine lung microbiome in relation to the intestinal and vaginal bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth K.; Roggenbuck, Michael; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma.......Background This work provides the first description of the bacterial population of the lung microbiota in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the lung microbiome in mice, the most used animal model for inflammatory lung diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma....

  6. Forensic identification using skin bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    FIERER Noah; Lauber, Christian L.; Zhou, Nick; McDonald, Daniel; Costello, Elizabeth K.; Knight, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the diversity of skin-associated bacterial communities is far higher than previously recognized, with a high degree of interindividual variability in the composition of bacterial communities. Given that skin bacterial communities are personalized, we hypothesized that we could use the residual skin bacteria left on objects for forensic identification, matching the bacteria on the object to the skin-associated bacteria of the individual who touched the object....

  7. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  8. In vivo bacterial morphogenetic protein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, R.; den Blaauwen, T.; Meghea, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will discuss none-invasive techniques that are widely used to study protein-protein interactions. As an example, their application in exploring interactions between proteins involved in bacterial cell division will be evaluated. First, bacterial morphology and cell division of the rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli will be introduced. Next, three bacterial two-hybrid methods and three Förster resonance energy transfer detection methods that are frequently applied to detect int...

  9. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardian Susilo Addy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (ϕRSSKD1 and ϕRSSKD2, which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid.

  10. Bacterial contamination of hospital physicians' stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Kereveur, A; Durand, D; Gonot, J; Goldstein, F; Mainardi, J L; Acar, J; Carlet, J

    1999-09-01

    Because stethoscopes might be potential vectors of nosocomial infections, this study, conducted in a 450-bed general hospital, was devised to evaluate the bacterial contamination of stethoscopes; bacterial survival on stethoscope membranes; the kinetics of the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes during clinical use; and the efficacy of 70% alcohol or liquid soap for membrane disinfection. Among the 355 stethoscopes tested, 234 carried > or =2 different bacterial species; 31 carried potentially pathogenic bacteria. Although some bacteria deposited onto membranes could survive 6 to 18 hours, none survived after disinfection.

  11. Bacterial Nanocellulose as a Microbiological Derived Nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisławska A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC is a nanofibrilar polymer produced by strains such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, one of the best bacterial species which given the highest efficiency in cellulose production. Bacterial cellulose is a biomaterial having unique properties such as: chemical purity, good mechanical strength, high flexibility, high absorbency, possibility of forming any shape and size and many others. Such a large number of advantages contributes to the widespread use of the BNC in food technology, paper, electronic industry, but also the architecture in use. However, the greatest hopes are using the BNC in medicine. This text contains information about bacterial nanocellulose, its specific mechanical and biological properties and current applications.

  12. Mass spectrometry-based bacterial proteomics: focus on dermatological associated microbial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef eSoufi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of human skin acts as a natural habitat for various bacterial species that function in a commensal and symbiotic fashion. In a healthy individual, bacterial flora serves to protect the host. Under certain conditions such as minor trauma, impaired host immunity, or environmental factors, the risk of developing skin infections is increased. Although a large majority of bacterial associated skin infections are common, a portion can potentially manifest into clinically significant morbidity. For example, Gram positive species that typically reside on the skin such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can cause numerous epidermal (impetigo, ecthyma and dermal (cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, erysipelas skin infections. Moreover, the increasing incidence of bacterial antibiotic resistance represents a serious challenge to modern medicine and threatens the health care system. Therefore, it is critical to develop tools and strategies that can allow us to better elucidate the nature and mechanism of bacterial virulence. To this end, mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics has been revolutionizing biomedical research, and has positively impacted the microbiology field. Advances in MS technologies have paved the way for numerous bacterial proteomes and their respective post translational modifications (PTMs to be accurately identified and quantified in a high throughput and robust fashion. This technological platform offers critical information with regards to signal transduction, adherence, and microbial-host interactions associated with bacterial pathogenesis. This mini-review serves to highlight the current progress proteomics has contributed towards the understanding of bacteria that are associated with skin related diseases, infections, and antibiotic resistance.

  13. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  14. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  15. Enterobacter spp.: A new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAPHAT; Kawicha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou,Zhejiang province of China.The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test,electron microscope observation,hypersensitive reaction,Koch’s postulates,physiological and biochemical test,biolog,fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs),enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR),16s rRNA sequences analysis,and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains.This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp.in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus.The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter.

  16. Molecular detection of bacterial pathogens using microparticle enhanced double-stranded DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Reza; Mach, Kathleen E; Mohan, Ruchika; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2011-08-15

    Rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens is essential toward clinical management of infectious diseases. Traditional approaches for pathogen detection, however, often require time-intensive bacterial culture and amplification procedures. Herein, a microparticle enhanced double-stranded DNA probe is demonstrated for rapid species-specific detection of bacterial 16S rRNA. In this molecular assay, the binding of the target sequence to the fluorophore conjugated probe thermodynamically displaces the quencher probe and allows the fluorophore to fluoresce. By incorporation of streptavidin-coated microparticles to localize the biotinylated probes, the sensitivity of the assay can be improved by 3 orders of magnitude. The limit of detection of the assay is as few as eight bacteria without target amplification and is highly specific against other common pathogens. Its applicability toward clinical diagnostics is demonstrated by directly identifying bacterial pathogens in urine samples from patients with urinary tract infections.

  17. [Advances in the progress of anti-bacterial biofilms properties of acetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinxin; Jin, Zhenghua; Chen, Xinxin; Yu, Jia'ao

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial biofilms are considered to be the hindrance in the treatment of chronic wound, because of their tolerance toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They also have strong ability to escape from the host immune attack. Acetic acid, as a kind of organic weak acid, can disturb the biofilms by freely diffusing through the bacterial biofilms and bacterial cell membrane structure. Then the acid dissociates to release the hydrogen ions, leading to the disorder of the acid-base imbalance, change of protein conformation, and the degradation of the DNA within the membranes. This paper reviews the literature on the characteristics and treatment strategies of the bacterial biofilms and the acetic acid intervention on them, so as to demonstrate the roles acetic acid may play in the treatment of chronic wound, and thus provide a convincing treatment strategy for this kind of disease.

  18. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  19. Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri

  20. Autophagy in Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. S. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy exerts a homeostatic function that promotes cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can interact with other vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms, and thereby potentially influence disease pathogenesis. Macrophages deficient in autophagic proteins display enhanced caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production and the activation of the inflammasome. Autophagy provides a functional role in infectious diseases and sepsis by promoting intracellular bacterial clearance. Mutations in autophagy-related genes, leading to loss of autophagic function, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases that involve inflammation, including cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with inflammation.