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Sample records for bacterial dermatitis staphylococcus

  1. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anna, Bogdali M.; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S....... aureus in atopic dermatitis. Methods: Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B...... were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. Results: We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy...

  2. Decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis: a reason for increasing resistance to antibiotics?

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    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Exacerbation of atopic dermatitis can be associated with bacterial infection. The skin of patients is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in 90% of cases. An attempt has been made to demonstrate that eradication significantly reduces the severity of the disease. Studies indicate the efficacy of topical antibiotics, topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Due to increasing resistance to drugs and the defective antimicrobial peptide profile, decolonization is virtually impossible. Aim : To determine the prevalence of S. aureus colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains to antibiotics, especially fusidic acid and mupirocin. Material and methods : One hundred patients with atopic dermatitis and 50 healthy subjects were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the broth-microdilution method for antibiotics: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, linezolid, lincomycin, mupirocin, tetracycline and vancomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (71% or the anterior nares (67%. In the present study, 10% of isolations represented methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Antibiotics exhibited diverse activities against clinical isolates of S. aureus . Among those tested, the highest rates of resistance were shown for ampicillin – 58.5%, lincomycin – 37.5% and erythromycin – 31.0%. Enhanced resistance levels were expressed to mupirocin (17.5% and fusidic acid (15.5%. Conclusions : According to the increasing rate of resistance and quick recolonization after discontinuation of the treatment, chronic use of topical antibiotics is not recommended and should be limited to exacerbation of atopic dermatitis with clinical signs of bacterial infection.

  3. Nickel allergy and relationship with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdali, Anna M; Anna, Bogdali M; Grazyna, Antoszczyk; Wojciech, Dyga; Aleksander, Obtulowicz; Anna, Bialecka; Andrzej, Kasprowicz; Zofia, Magnowska; Krystyna, Obtulowicz

    2016-01-01

    The increase of nickel air pollution is supposed to frequent side effects of nickel action related to virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with nickel allergy in atopic dermatitis. The goal was to investigate the relationship between nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus in atopic dermatitis. Nickel allergy was confirmed in atopic patients and excluded in healthy volunteers using patch testing. Infection by S. aureus was tested in atopic patients and healthy volunteers by use of API Staph system. The specific IgE for staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B were measured. Secretion of IFN-g, IL-2, IL-13 by PBMC under nickel sulfate and the enterotoxins A and B stimulations were studied with ELISpot. We found the increased number of infections by S. aureus in atopic patients with nickel allergy in comparison to atopic patients and healthy volunteers without nickel allergy. The elevated secretion of IL-2 under nickel sulfate stimulation in vitro was exclusively found in atopic patients with nickel allergy infected by S. aureus. Our data suggest that nickel allergy and infection by S. aureus are linked in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

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    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  5. Bacterial pattern and antibiotic sensitivity in children and adolescents with infected atopic dermatitis

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    Samosir, C. T.; Ruslie, R. H.; Rusli, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic and chronic inflammatory skin disease which affected approximately 20% in children. Bacterial infection is common in AD patients and correlates directly with AD severity. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial skin infection in AD patients and its relation with severity of AD and also to study bacteria in the infected AD and its antibiotic sensitivity. Samples were 86 children and adolescents with an AD in Helvetia Community Health Center Medan from March 2016 until February 2017. Index of SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) was used to evaluate the severity of AD. Lesion and nonlesional skinwere swabbed to take sterile cultures. All bacteria noted and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. Datawere by using Chi-Square and Mann Whitney test with 95% CI and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Fifty-six AD patients (65.1%) were bacterial infected. There was a significant relationship between severity of AD and bacterial infection (p = 0.006). Staphylococcus aureus was the leading bacteria from all degrees of AD severity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureuswas sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate (93.3%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%), and gentamicin (90%), while sensitivity to tetracycline was low (20%).

  6. Comprehensive pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the skin of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiomi; Cho, Otomi; Saito, Chie; Saito, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Sugita, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatologic condition in which erythema and itching develop on areas of the body with sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and chest. The inflammation is evoked directly by oleic acid, which is hydrolyzed from sebum by lipases secreted by skin microorganisms. Although the skin fungal genus, Malassezia, is thought to be the causative agent of SD, analysis of the bacterial microbiota of skin samples of patients with SD is necessary to clarify any association with Malassezia because the skin microbiota comprises diverse bacterial and fungal genera. In the present study, bacterial microbiotas were analyzed at non-lesional and lesional sites of 24 patients with SD by pyrosequencing and qPCR. Principal coordinate analysis revealed clear separation between the microbiota of non-lesional and lesional sites. Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were abundant at both sites. Propionibacterium was abundant at non-lesional sites, whereas Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus predominated at lesional sites; however, the extent of Propionibacterium colonization did not differ significantly between lesional and non-lesional sites according to qPCR. Given that these abundant bacteria hydrolyze sebum, they may also contribute to SD development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial microbiotas of the skin of SD patients. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Neonatal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is not associated with development of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L; Halkjaer, L B; Agner, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus in atopic skin has been associated with exacerbation of eczema. Objectives To investigate a possible association between neonatal colonization with S. aureus and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 3 years of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study...

  8. Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in impetigo contagiosa and secondarily infected atopic dermatitis.

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    Alsterholm, Mikael; Flytström, Ingela; Bergbrant, Ing-Marie; Faergemann, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Fusidic acid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (FRSA) has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks of impetigo and its emergence has been associated with increased use of topical fusidic acid. The frequency of FRSA in atopic dermatitis (AD) has been less extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial spectrum and frequency of FRSA in patients with impetigo or secondarily infected AD. A prospective study in our clinic in 2004 to 2008 included 38 patients with impetigo and 37 with secondarily infected AD. S. aureus was the predominant finding in all groups (bullous impetigo 92% (12/13), impetigo 76% (19/25) and secondarily infected AD 89% (33/37)). Seventy-five percent of S. aureus were fusidic acid resistant in bullous impetigo, 32% in impetigo and 6.1% in secondarily infected AD (bullous impetigo vs. AD p impetigo vs. AD p impetigo or secondarily infected AD seen at the clinic during the first and last year of the prospective study. In the first year 33% (19/58) of the S. aureus isolates were fusidic acid-resistant in impetigo and 12% (5/43) in secondarily infected AD (p impetigo and 2.2% (1/45) for AD (p impetigo than in AD. FRSA levels were persistently low in AD. Continued restrictive use of topical fusidic acid is advised to limit an increase in FRSA levels in dermatology patients.

  9. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

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    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans Bredsted; Andersen, KE; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    SCORAD value. In 11 of 12 cases with two different clones co-colonizing a child the clones belonged to the same agr group. In conclusion, this limited group of children with atopic dermatitis showed highly variable colonization patterns of S. aureus, and communication between strains by use of agr......A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the clonal dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection during 1 y in children with atopic dermatitis, and to correlate specific clones, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and production of virulence factors with eczema......, toxins, and were assigned to agr groups. S. aureus colonization patterns ranged from rare colonization over transient colonization to persistent colonization by a single clone or a dynamic exchange of up to five clones. Production of no single virulence factor including superantigens and toxins...

  11. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the clonal dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection during 1 y in children with atopic dermatitis, and to correlate specific clones, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and production of virulence factors with eczema......, toxins, and were assigned to agr groups. S. aureus colonization patterns ranged from rare colonization over transient colonization to persistent colonization by a single clone or a dynamic exchange of up to five clones. Production of no single virulence factor including superantigens and toxins...

  13. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

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    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  14. Bioactive Constituent of Notopterygii Rhizoma, Falcarindiol having Antibacterial Activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hideaki, MATSUDA; Noriko, SATO; Masashi, TOKUNAGA; Shunsuke, NARUTO; Michinori, KUBO; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University

    2002-01-01

    The extract of Notopterygii Rhizoma (rhizomes of Notopterygium incisum TING) showed remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis (SAAD). Activity guided chromatography of the hex-ane extract led to the isolation of two active compounds, falcarindiol (1) and phenethyl ferulate (2). The activity of 1 was superior to that of 2.

  15. Increasing rate of daptomycin non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus , including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted. Aim : To evaluate the susceptibility profile to daptomycin among S. aureus strains isloted from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Another point was to correlate the results obtained by broth microdilution method and Etest, which is commonly applied in clinical setting. Material and methods : One hundred patients with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using broth-microdilution (BMD and Etests for daptomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (73% or the anterior nares (75%. Six of the 100 nasal swabs (6% and 5 of the 100 skin swabs (5% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A total of 81 of 148 (54.7% daptomycin non-susceptible isolates of S. aureus were identified by BMD. Only 19 of 81 were also classified as non-susceptible by Etest. Conclusions : Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the possibility of the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility (or increase in minimal inhibitory concentration during prolonged therapy and closely monitor the susceptibility of persisting isolates that might be recovered during therapy.

  16. HighStaphylococcus epidermidisColonization and Impaired Permeability Barrier in Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis.

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    An, Qian; Sun, Meng; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Zhai, Jin-Long; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Song, Bing; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2017-07-20

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [-] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [-] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [-] SD [-] group, n = 16). In the second phase, we enrolled another cohort of HIV (-) SD (+) patients who applied topical fusidic acid (n = 15), tacrolimus (n = 16), or moisturizer (n = 12). Changes in the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI), TEWL, and Staphylococcus density were evaluated 2 weeks later. Comparisons of each index were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference method. The level of TEWL was greater through lesional sites in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (-) and HIV (-) SD (-) groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.873-47.071, P < 0.001 and 95% CI: 28.755-55.936, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of CFU of Staphylococcus was greater in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (-) and HIV (-) SD (-) groups (95% CI: 37.487-142.744, P = 0.001 and 95% CI: 54.936-156.400, P < 0.001, respectively). TEWL was significantly more improved in patients treated with tacrolimus and fusidic acid than that in those treated with moisturizers (95% CI: 7.560-38.987, P = 0.004 and 95% CI: 4.659-37.619, P = 0.011, respectively). Topical tacrolimus and fusidic

  17. Staphylococcus sciuri associated to subcutaneous abscess and dermatitis in ICR mouse

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    K. Kengkoom

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Subcutaneous mass was found in ICR mouse during daily health observation in the breeding colony of the National Laboratory Animal Center, Mahidol University, Thailand. The animal was subsequently culled and humanely sacrificed due to the institutional preventive medicine policy. Microbiological and histopathological studies were performed for definitive diagnosis. The results described that the case was subcutaneous abscess and chronic dermatitis in association with Staphylococcus sciuri infection without epizootic and mortality. This was determined as the first reported case in Thailand occurring in mouse. Reproductive stress and abrasion skin wound may be the predisposing factors. Although pathogenic staphylococci in laboratory animals are limited to S. aureus and S. xylosus, S. sciuri opportunistic properties, natural history, and heterogeneity should not be forgotten.

  18. Emergence of multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two patients with atopic dermatitis requiring linezolid treatment.

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    Rosa, Jaime S; Ross, Lawrence A; Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    We report two patients with atopic dermatitis who developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections resistant to clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole requiring repeated linezolid treatment. For one patient and family members who received an aggressive regimen of staphylococcal decolonization, including intranasal mupirocin, dilute bleach baths, and bleach cleansing of household items and surfaces, subsequent culture results demonstrated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus colonization and infection. These findings underscore the challenges presented by multiresistant MRSA infections in children with atopic dermatitis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The complex biology and contribution of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis, current and future therapies.

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    Hepburn, L; Hijnen, D J; Sellman, B R; Mustelin, T; Sleeman, M A; May, R D; Strickland, I

    2017-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of U.K. children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitization, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection. Staphylococcus aureus generates exoproteins that enable invasion and dissemination within the host skin but can also damage the skin and activate the host immune system. Antibiotics are often used by dermatologists to aid clearance of S. aureus; however, these are becoming less effective and chronic usage is discouraged with the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. New ways to target S. aureus using monoclonal antibodies and vaccines are now being developed. This review will attempt to evaluate the key biology of S. aureus, current treatment of S. aureus infections in AD and recent advances in developing new anti-S. aureus therapies that have potential in severe AD. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. An Important Role of α-Hemolysin in Extracellular Vesicles on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Byul; Min, Taek-Ki; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hye; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Lee, Byung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Jee, Young-Koo; Pyun, Bok-Yang; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Skin barrier disruption and dermal inflammation are key phenotypes of atopic dermatitis (AD). Staphylococcus aureus secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are involved in AD pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of EVs-associated α-hemolysin derived from S. aureus in AD pathogenesis. α-hemolysin production from S. aureus was detected using western blot analyses. The cytotoxic activity of α-hemolysin on HaCaT keratinocytes was evaluated by measuring cell viability after treating cell...

  1. Extracellular vesicles derived from Staphylococcus aureus induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S-W; Kim, M-R; Lee, E-Y; Kim, J H; Kim, Y-S; Jeon, S G; Yang, J-M; Lee, B-J; Pyun, B-Y; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we found that Staphylococcus aureus produces extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain pathogenic proteins. Although S. aureus infection has been linked with atopic dermatitis (AD), the identities of the causative agents from S. aureus are controversial. We evaluated whether S. aureus-derived EV are causally related to the pathogenesis of AD. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by the ultracentrifugation of S. aureus culture media. The EV were applied three times per week to tape-stripped mouse skin. Inflammation and immune dysfunction were evaluated 48 h after the final application in hairless mice. Extracellular vesicles-specific IgE levels were measured by ELISA in AD patients and healthy subjects. The in vitro application of S. aureus EV increased the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and eotaxin) by dermal fibroblasts. The in vivo application of S. aureus EV after tape stripping caused epidermal thickening with infiltration of the dermis by mast cells and eosinophils in mice. These changes were associated with the enhanced cutaneous production of IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and IL-17. Interestingly, the serum levels of S. aureus EV-specific IgE were significantly increased in AD patients relative to healthy subjects. These results indicate that S. aureus EV induce AD-like inflammation in the skin and that S. aureus-derived EV are a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Clarifying the transmission route of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing the skin in early childhood atopic dermatitis.

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    Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jee Young; Song, Chang Hyun; Kim, Jun Young; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hae Sook; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Won Jeong; Kim, Do Won

    2012-12-01

    We previously found that skin-colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in early childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) originates predominantly from the patient's nose, whereas maternal transmission did not contribute substantially to colonization. To investigate the transmission route and definitive source of skin-colonizing S aureus in early childhood AD. A total of 527 children and 32 healthy teachers from 2 kindergartens and 1 elementary school were included in the study. Children were screened for AD and categorized into 3 groups (AD, borderline, and healthy). Samples were collected from 5 to 6 different body sites, including the skin, subungual spaces, and anterior nares. The identity of colonies apparent on mannitol salt agar plates was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. The genotypic composition of cultured isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and analyzed with a dendrogram. The total colonization rate was higher in the AD group (34.6%) than in the borderline (21.1%) and healthy groups (25.4%). In the AD group, S aureus was more frequently cultured from the subungual areas (30.8%) than the anterior nares (19.2%). To assess self-contamination or recolonization, dendrogram analysis revealed that most isolate pairs (22/23) had the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. As with the anterior nares, the subungual spaces are important reservoir of skin-colonizing S aureus in early childhood AD. The transmission route for self-contamination or recolonization of S aureus appears to be from children's anterior nares to the skin through their own fingers. Child-to-child and/or teacher-to-child transmission in a classroom do not seem to be definite routes of S aureus transmission. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus with fatal exudative dermatitis in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R; Davison, N J; Kearns, A M; Pichon, B; Hudson, L O; Koylass, M; Blackett, T; Butler, H; Rasigade, J P; Whatmore, A M

    2013-03-23

    Fatal exudative dermatitis (FED) is a recently described condition affecting red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) on the Isle of Wight and Jersey (Simpson et al., 2010a). Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in cases of FED were characterised by molecular and phenotypic approaches. The strains were found to belong to a single MLST clonal complex (CC49) representing either ST49 or a novel single locus variant thereof (ST1957), were closely related by other molecular typing approaches, and all possessed the leukotoxin M encoding gene (lukM). In contrast S. aureus was either not isolated from none-FED cases or belonged to distinct and diverse molecular types that, with one exception, did not encode lukM. All isolates from FED cases were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, including penicillin, and all proved negative for mecA and mecC as well as 14 other staphylococcal toxin genes. As all squirrels affected by FED were infected with S. aureus of the same lineage and encoded the lukM gene, it is possible that strains of this lineage may be involved in the pathogenesis of the dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nasopharyngeal co-colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is bacterial genotype independent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, D.C.; Bogaert, D.; Gorkink, R.F.; Peeters, J.K.; Moorhouse, M.J.; Ott, A.; Leeuwen, W.B. van; Simons, G.; Verbrugh, H.A.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Belkum, A. van

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial interference between Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx has been observed during colonization, which might have important clinical implications for the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in young children. This study aimed to determine

  5. The Pathogenetic Effect of Natural and Bacterial Toxins on Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Duck; Pak, Sok Cheon; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic skin disease that is associated with chronic, recurrent eczematous and pruritic lesions at the flexural folds caused by interacting factors related to environmental and immune system changes. AD results in dry skin, and immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic reactions to foods and environmental allergens. While steroids and anti-histamines temporarily relieve the symptoms of AD, the possibility of side effects from pharmacological interventions remains. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms for AD have not been clarified. A study of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) established the role of its toxins in the pathogenesis of AD. Approximately 90% of patients with AD experience S. aureus colonization and up to 50%–60% of the colonizing S. aureus is toxin-producing. Any damage to the protective skin barrier allows for the entry of invading allergens and pathogens that further drive the pathogenesis of AD. Some natural toxins (or their components) that have therapeutic effects on AD have been studied. In addition, recent studies on inflammasomes as one component of the innate immune system have been carried out. Additionally, studies on the close relationship between the activation of inflammasomes and toxins in AD have been reported. This review highlights the literature that discusses the pathogenesis of AD, the role of toxins in AD, and the positive and negative effects of toxins on AD. Lastly, suggestions are made regarding the role of inflammasomes in AD. PMID:28025545

  6. Adjuvant treatment with the bacterial lysate (OM-85 improves management of atopic dermatitis: A randomized study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bodemer

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend.This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®, in the treatment of established AD in children.Children aged 6 months to 7 years, with confirmed AD diagnosis, were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive, in addition to conventional treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, 3.5mg of the bacterial extract OM-85 or placebo daily for 9 months. The primary end-point was the difference between groups in the occurrence of new flares (NF during the study period, evaluated by Hazard Ratio (HR derived from conditional Cox proportional hazard regression models accounting for repeated events.Among the 179 randomized children, 170 were analysed, 88 in the OM-85 and 82 in the placebo group. As expected most children in both treatment groups experienced at least 1 NF during the study period (75 (85% patients in the OM-85 group and 72 (88% in the placebo group. Patients treated with OM-85 as adjuvant therapy had significantly fewer and delayed NFs (HR of repeated flares = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.67-0.96, also when potential confounding factors, as family history of atopy and corticosteroids use, were taken into account (HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.98. No major side effect was reported, with comparable and good tolerability for OM-85 and placebo.Results show an adjuvant therapeutic effect of a well standardized bacterial lysate OM-85 on established AD.

  7. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in

  8. An important role of α-hemolysin in extracellular vesicles on the development of atopic dermatitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Hong

    Full Text Available Skin barrier disruption and dermal inflammation are key phenotypes of atopic dermatitis (AD. Staphylococcus aureus secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are involved in AD pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of EVs-associated α-hemolysin derived from S. aureus in AD pathogenesis. α-hemolysin production from S. aureus was detected using western blot analyses. The cytotoxic activity of α-hemolysin on HaCaT keratinocytes was evaluated by measuring cell viability after treating cells with soluble and EVs-associated α-hemolysin. To determine the type of cell death, HaCaT keratinocytes were stained with annexin V and 7-AAD. The in vivo effects of α-hemolysin were evaluated by application of soluble and EV-associated α-hemolysin on the mouse skin. The present study showed that increased α-hemolysin was produced by S. aureus colonized on AD patients compared to healthy subjects. α-hemolysin production was also related to AD severity. In addition, EV-associated α-hemolysin was more cytotoxic to HaCaT keratinocytes than soluble α-hemolysin, and α-hemolysin-negative EVs did not induce keratinocyte death. EV-associated α-hemolysin induced necrosis, but soluble α-hemolysin induced apoptosis of keratinocytes. In vivo, skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia were induced by soluble and EV-associated α-hemolysin. However, AD-like dermal inflammation was only caused by EV-associated α-hemolysin. Moreover, neither skin barrier disruption nor AD-like skin inflammation was induced by α-hemolysin-negative EVs. Taken together, α-Hemolysin secreted from S. aureus, particularly the EV-associated form, induces both skin barrier disruption and AD-like skin inflammation, suggesting that EV-associated α-hemolysin is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD.

  9. An important role of α-hemolysin in extracellular vesicles on the development of atopic dermatitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Byul; Min, Taek-Ki; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hye; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Lee, Byung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Jee, Young-Koo; Pyun, Bok-Yang; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Skin barrier disruption and dermal inflammation are key phenotypes of atopic dermatitis (AD). Staphylococcus aureus secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are involved in AD pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of EVs-associated α-hemolysin derived from S. aureus in AD pathogenesis. α-hemolysin production from S. aureus was detected using western blot analyses. The cytotoxic activity of α-hemolysin on HaCaT keratinocytes was evaluated by measuring cell viability after treating cells with soluble and EVs-associated α-hemolysin. To determine the type of cell death, HaCaT keratinocytes were stained with annexin V and 7-AAD. The in vivo effects of α-hemolysin were evaluated by application of soluble and EV-associated α-hemolysin on the mouse skin. The present study showed that increased α-hemolysin was produced by S. aureus colonized on AD patients compared to healthy subjects. α-hemolysin production was also related to AD severity. In addition, EV-associated α-hemolysin was more cytotoxic to HaCaT keratinocytes than soluble α-hemolysin, and α-hemolysin-negative EVs did not induce keratinocyte death. EV-associated α-hemolysin induced necrosis, but soluble α-hemolysin induced apoptosis of keratinocytes. In vivo, skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia were induced by soluble and EV-associated α-hemolysin. However, AD-like dermal inflammation was only caused by EV-associated α-hemolysin. Moreover, neither skin barrier disruption nor AD-like skin inflammation was induced by α-hemolysin-negative EVs. Taken together, α-Hemolysin secreted from S. aureus, particularly the EV-associated form, induces both skin barrier disruption and AD-like skin inflammation, suggesting that EV-associated α-hemolysin is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD.

  10. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Caitlin C; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Haydel, Shelley E

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7  days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections.

  11. New perspectives on dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: lessons we learned from bacterial and fungal skin microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Luciana Campos

    2017-06-01

    The human body is inhabited by complex microbial communities, which positively impact different aspects of our health, and might also be related to the development of diseases. Progress in technologies, particularly sequencing methods and bioinformatics tools, has been crucial for the advances in this field. Microbial communities from skin can modulate immune response and protect the host against pathogens, and there are also data supporting their association with several skin conditions; including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. For decades, they have been thought to be related to Malassezia yeasts; however, the microbial role has not been elucidated, and their etiology remains poorly understood. This review discusses the recent findings in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis and their relation to the skin microbiota. Data provided new perceptions to aid in the understanding of these skin disorders, broadening our view of their etiology and the possible roles of microbial communities in symptom development.

  12. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  13. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations.

  14. [A case of pulmonary-limited Wegener granulomatosis mimicking bacterial pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Motoi; Miwa, Seiichi; Suda, Takafumi; Shirai, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-04-01

    A 56-year-old woman who had suffered from systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome was admitted complaining of persistent cough. Chest X-ray films showed an infiltrative shadow in the right middle lung field. Her serum PR3-ANCA titer was high, and granulomatous inflammation with Langhans giant cell was noted in a transbronchial biopsy specimen. About 3 months later, purulent sputum and high grade fever developed, with a new infiltrative shadow in the left upper lung field noted on a chest X-ray film. We treated her based on a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but her condition did not improve. We finally gave her a diagnosis of pulmonary-limited Wegener's granulomatosis. Her condition improved with the administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. We report a case of pulmonary-limited Wegener granulomatosis which mimicked bacterial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This case suggests that Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered on encountering pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. A Study into Digital Dermatitis Transmission and Bacterial Associated Pathological Changes Involved in the Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, Nynne; Boye, Mette; Ekstrøm, C.

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to monitor transmission of digital dermatitis under experimental conditions between naive heifers and affected animals, to monitor the changes in clinical appearance, microbial colonisation of the skin as lesions progressed and to apply a q-PCR for the detection of Treponema spp. in faecal...... for Treponema spp. and one sample were positive for Dichelobacter nodosus. Colonization of healthy skin could not be identified in this study. There was no significant relation between clinical scoring of the lesions and histopathological score and the presence of Treponema spp. There were however a significant...... relation between the prevalence of Treponema spp. in the skin and severity of changes in epidermis and dermis. By qPCR all the healthy heifers were found to excrete Treponema spp. in their faeces....

  16. The role of antiseptic agents in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Van Bever, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The skin of individuals with atopic dermatitis has a susceptibility to be colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. This has been associated with increased frequency and severity of exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the use of antiseptic agents to target primary bacterial colonization and infection. Antiseptic agents have been found to be better tolerated and less likely to induce bacterial resistance as compared to antibiotics. There is also a wide variety of antiseptic agents available. The efficacy of antiseptic agents has yet to be established as the studies reviewed previously have been small and of suboptimal quality. This review discusses the rationale behind targeting S. aureus with antiseptic agents and presents findings from a review of studies assessing the efficacy of antiseptics in atopic dermatitis in the last five years. Four studies were found, including a bleach bath study which has already been reviewed elsewhere. The remaining 3 studies assessed the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite containing cleansing body wash, sodium hypochlorite baths and 1% triclosan in leave on emollient. These studies suggested some benefit for the inclusion of antiseptic use with the mainstay management of atopic dermatitis, including a potential steroid sparring effect. However, there are many limitations to these studies which therefore warrant further investigation on the impact of antiseptic use in atopic dermatitis.

  17. Ceftaroline Fosamil for the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Secondary to Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Jose A.; Maggiore, Christy R.; Cole, Phillip; Smith, Alexander; Jandourek, Alena; Friedland, H. David

    2014-01-01

    Background The Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro? Utilization Registry is designed to collect information on the clinical use of ceftaroline fosamil in the Unites States. This report presents data on the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) secondary to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Methods Patients diagnosed with ABSSSI or CABP were identified through sequential review of rando...

  18. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; Santos, K.R.N. dos

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD

  19. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, F.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Abad, E.D. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lyra, Y.C. [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M. [Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, D.C. [Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (Microbial Ecology), Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Programa de Pós Graduação em Odontologia, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, K.R.N. dos [Departamento de Microbiologia Médica, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-08

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD.

  20. Live Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial soluble factors induce different transcriptional responses in human airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreilhon, Chimène; Gras, Delphine; Hologne, Coralie; Bajolet, Odile; Cottrez, Françoise; Magnone, Virginie; Merten, Marc; Groux, Hervé; Puchelle, Edith; Barbry, Pascal

    2005-02-10

    To characterize the response of respiratory epithelium to infection by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), human airway cells were incubated for 1 to 24 h with a supernatant of a S. aureus culture (bacterial supernatant), then profiled with a pangenomic DNA microarray. Because an upregulation of many genes was noticed around 3 h, three independent approaches were then used to characterize the host response to a 3-h contact either with bacterial supernatant or with live bacteria: 1) a DNA microarray containing 4,200 sequence-verified probes, 2) a semiquantitative RT-PCR with a set of 537 pairs of validated primers, or 3) ELISA assay of IL-8, IL-6, TNFalpha, and PGE(2). Among others, Fos, Jun, and EGR-1 were upregulated by the bacterial supernatant and by live bacteria. Increased expression of bhlhb2 and Mig-6, promoter regions which harbor HIF responding elements, was explained by an increased expression of the HIF-1alpha protein. Activation of the inducible form of cyclooxygenase, COX-2, and of the interleukins IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8, as well as of the NF-kappaB pathway, was observed preferentially in cells in contact with bacterial supernatant. Early infection was characterized by an upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes and a downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes. This correlated with a necrotic, rather than apoptotic cell death. Overall, this first global description of an airway epithelial infection by S. aureus demonstrates a larger global response to bacterial supernatant (in term of altered genes and variation factors) than to exponentially growing live bacteria.

  1. Bacterial delivery of Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin causes regression and necrosis in murine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jean, Adam T; Swofford, Charles A; Panteli, Jan T; Brentzel, Zachary J; Forbes, Neil S

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial therapies, designed to manufacture therapeutic proteins directly within tumors, could eliminate cancers that are resistant to other therapies. To be effective, a payload protein must be secreted, diffuse through tissue, and efficiently kill cancer cells. To date, these properties have not been shown for a single protein. The gene for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin (SAH), a pore-forming protein, was cloned into Escherichia coli. These bacteria were injected into tumor-bearing mice and volume was measured over time. The location of SAH relative to necrosis and bacterial colonies was determined by immunohistochemistry. In culture, SAH was released and killed 93% of cancer cells in 24 hours. Injection of SAH-producing bacteria reduced viable tissue to 9% of the original tumor volume. By inducing cell death, SAH moved the boundary of necrosis toward the tumor edge. SAH diffused 6.8 ± 0.3 µm into tissue, which increased the volume of affected tissue from 48.6 to 3,120 µm(3). A mathematical model of molecular transport predicted that SAH efficacy is primarily dependent on colony size and the rate of protein production. As a payload protein, SAH will enable effective bacterial therapy because of its ability to diffuse in tissue, kill cells, and expand tumor necrosis.

  2. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  3. Characterization of CRISPR-Cas system in clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis strains revealed its potential association with bacterial infection sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiuchun; Xie, Xiaolei; Yin, Kequan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered as a major cause of nosocomial infections, bringing an immense burden to healthcare systems. Virulent phages have been confirmed to be efficient in combating the pathogen, but the prensence of CRISPR-Cas system, which is a bacterial immune system eliminating...

  4. Development of a multicomponent Staphylococcus aureus vaccine designed to counter multiple bacterial virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annaliesa S.; Miller, Alita A.; Donald, Robert G.K.; Scully, Ingrid L.; Nanra, Jasdeep S.; Cooper, David; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease in hospitalized patients. Despite increasingly rigorous infection control guidelines, the prevalence and corresponding negative impact of S. aureus infections remain considerable. Difficulties in controlling S. aureus infections as well as the associated treatment costs are exacerbated by increasing rates of resistance to available antibiotics. Despite ongoing efforts over the past 20 years, no licensed S. aureus vaccine is currently available. However, learnings from past clinical failures of vaccine candidates and a better understanding of the immunopathology of S. aureus colonization and infection have aided in the design of new vaccine candidates based on multiple important bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. This review outlines important considerations in designing a vaccine for the prevention of S. aureus disease in healthcare settings. PMID:22922765

  5. Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus in Atopic Dermatitis by Using the BD Max StaphSR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Park, Kui Young; Jin, Taewon; Kim, Ju Hee; Seo, Seong Jun

    2017-07-01

    Eczematous lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients are known to be a source of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) transmission and might be a reservoir for community-associated methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA). The BD Max StaphSR (BD-SR) is a fully automated, multiplex real-time PCR assay for the direct detection and differentiation of SA and MRSA from nasal swab samples. We evaluated the detection rates of SA and MRSA from skin lesions of outpatients with AD using the BD-SR assay, and determined the usefulness of the BD-SR assay. A total of 244 skin swab samples (skin lesions of 213 outpatients with AD and normal skin of 31 healthy controls) were tested directly by using the BD-SR assay. Of the 213 samples from patients with AD, 69 (32.4%) were positive for SA, 6 (8.7%) of which were positive for MRSA. Only 1 (3.2%) of 31 samples from healthy controls was positive for SA. The BD-SR assay is effective for the rapid detection of SA and MRSA from skin swab samples, which can provide important information for managing patients with AD and preventing the spread of MRSA. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  6. Microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Claire E; McShane, Diana B; Gilligan, Peter H; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with drastic impacts on pediatric health. The pathogenesis of this common disease is not well understood, and the complex role of the skin microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of atopic dermatitis is being elucidated. Skin commensal organisms promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens. Alterations in the skin microbiome may lead to increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis progression. Despite the evidence for their important role, probiotics have not been deemed efficacious for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, although studies suggest that probiotics may be effective at preventing the development of atopic dermatitis when given to young infants. This review will cover the most recent published work on the microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease with early onset and with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20%. The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but the recent discovery of filaggrin mutations holds promise that the progression of atopic dermatitis to asthma in later childhood...... may be halted. Atopic dermatitis is not always easily manageable and every physician should be familiar with the fundamental aspects of treatment. This paper gives an overview of the natural history, clinical features, and treatment of atopic dermatitis....

  8. Successful Treatment of Chronic Staphylococcus aureus-Related Dermatoses with the Topical Endolysin Staphefekt SA.100: A Report of 3 Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); van Doorn, M.B. (Martijn B.); S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus plays an important role in skin and soft tissue infections and contributes to the pathophysiology of complex skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. Bacterial resistance against commonly used antibiotics has increased considerably in the last decades demanding

  9. The effect of iatrogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis intercellar adhesion operon on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianhua, Ye; Yunchao, Huang; Guangqiang, Zhao; Kun, Yang; Xing, Liu; Fengli, Guo

    2014-12-01

    The intercellular adhesion gene (ica) of Staphylococcus epidermidis is a key factor for bacterial aggregation. This study explored the effect of ica on the formation of bacterial biofilm on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces. Genes related to bacterial biofilm formation, including 16S rRNA, autolysin (atlE), fibrinogen binding protein gene (fbe), and ica were identified and sequenced from 112 clinical isolates of iatrogenic S. epidermidis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Based on the sequencing result, ica operon-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) and ica operon-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains were separated and co-cultivated with PVC material. After 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h of co-culture, the thickness of the bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on the PVC surface were measured under the confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope. The positive rate of S. epidermidis-specific 16SrRNA in 112 iatrogenic strains was 100% (112/112). The genotype of ica-positive (icaADB+/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 57.1% (64/112), and genotype of ica-negative (icaADB-/atlE+/fbe+) strains accounted for 37.5% (42/112). During 30 h of co-culture, no obvious bacterial biofilm formed on the surface of PVC in the ica-positive group, however, mature bacterial biofilm structure formed after 24 h. For all time points, thickness of bacterial biofilm and quantity of bacterial colony on PVC surfaces in the ica operon-positive group were significantly higher than those in ica operon-negative group (poperon-negative and ica operon-positive strains. The ica operon plays an important role in bacterial biofilm formation and bacterial multiplication on PVC material.

  10. Atopiform dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to introduce the term 'atopiform dermatitis' to describe patients who have dermatitis with many of the characteristics of true atopic dermatitis, but who are not atopic. Atopy should be defined as the genetically determined and environmentally influenced syndrome in which the primary

  11. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined.

  12. Atopic dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieber, Thomas; Leung, Donald Y. M

    2002-01-01

    ... strategies. The book is divided into several parts to make a clear presentation of the various aspects of this disease. Part I examines the impact of atopic dermatitis, addressing the epidemiological, psychological, and socioeconomic effects of this disease. A distinction is also made between allergic vs. non-allergic atopic dermatitis. ...

  13. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are advisable, particularly as they are cheap and easy to perform. PMID:24265940

  14. Porcine models of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Johanna G; Jensen, Henrik E; Johansen, Louise K; Kochl, Janne; Koch, Jørgen; Aalbaek, Bent; Nielsen, Ole L; Leifsson, Páll S

    2013-05-01

    Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and, in particular, infective endocarditis (IE), are serious and potentially life-threatening diseases. An increasingly important agent of human IE is Staphylococcus aureus, which typically causes an acute endocarditis with high mortality. The study aim was to evaluate the pig as a model for non-bacterial as well as S. aureus-associated endocarditis, as these models would have several advantages compared to other laboratory animal models. Fourteen animals underwent surgery with placement of a plastic catheter in the left side of the heart. Six of the pigs did not receive a bacterial inoculation and were used to study the development of NBTE. The remaining eight pigs were inoculated intravenously once or twice with S. aureus, 10(5)-10(7) cfu/kg body weight. Two bacterial strains were used: S54F9 (porcine) and NCTC8325-4 (human). Clinical examination, echocardiography and bacterial blood cultures were used to diagnose and monitor the development of endocarditis. Animals were euthanized at between two and 15 days after catheter placement, and tissue samples were collected for bacteriology and histopathology. Pigs inoculated with 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9 developed clinical, echocardiographic and pathologic signs of IE. All other pigs, except one, developed NBTE. Serial blood cultures withdrawn after inoculation were positive in animals with IE, and negative in all other animals. S. aureus endocarditis was successfully induced in pigs with an indwelling cardiac catheter after intravenous inoculation of 10(7) cfu/kg of S. aureus strain S54F9. The model simulates typical pathological, clinical and diagnostic features seen in the human disease. Furthermore, NBTE was induced in all but one of the pigs without IE. Thus, the pig model can be used in future studies of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of NBTE and S. aureus endocarditis.

  15. Bacterial recovery using sonication versus swabbing of titanium and stainless steel implants inoculated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshen, Thomas; Case, J Brad; Wellehan, James F; Dujowich, Mauricio

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the use of sonication to improve recovery of bacteria from metal discs infected with bacteria commonly associated with implant infections in veterinary medicine. In vitro study in which sterile titanium (Ti6Al4V) and stainless steel (AIS1316-L) discs were incubated with either Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 24 hours. The following three groups were compared: 1) the sonication group involved immersing the discs in sterile saline and sonicating for five minutes; 2) the sham group was considered a negative control in which the discs were immersed in saline for five minutes without sonication; and 3) the swab group involved systematically swabbing the implant with a sterile culturette. All samples were plated on blood agar and incubated for 24 hours. Colonies were then counted and compared. For both species of bacteria, there was a significant increase in bacterial colonies isolated using sonication compared to the other two study groups (p = 0.0001). No differences in bacterial growth were found between the two types of metal implants. There was a significant increase in bacterial colony counts for S. pseudintermedius when comparing the swab group versus the sham group, but this was not significant for P. aeruginosa. Sonication significantly improves recovery of bacteria commonly associated with veterinary implant-associated surgical site infections compared to swabbing of implants in vitro. A prospective clinical evaluation is indicated to determine the in vivo efficacy of sonication in veterinary patients.

  16. Subacute Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Elegino-Steffens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 75-year-old man with a history significant for hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the native valve were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to nafcillin and intravenous cefazolin was initiated. On postoperative day 24, he developed acute decompensated heart failure. A transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally abnormal mitral valve with severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa pseudoaneurysm (P-MAIF with systolic expansion and flow within the aneurysm. Antibiotic treatment was changed from cefazolin to vancomycin for presumed development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. He subsequently underwent a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and has restoration of health without sequella. This case highlights the development of a P-MAIF as a rare complication of both aortic or mitral valve replacement and infective endocarditis.

  17. Atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Annette; Bjerke, Torbjørn; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and closely related to other clinical manifestations of allergy. The incidence is high and still increasing. The genetic contribution to disease development is substantial and complex. Only recently genetic research has begun...... to focus on this phenotype, and specific susceptibility genes remain to be found. To identify candidate regions holding genes for atopic dermatitis we performed a genome-scan in Danish affected sib-pair families containing sib-pairs matching a phenotype definition of both clinical atopic dermatitis...

  18. Efficacy of (+-Lariciresinol to Control Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial potential of a polyphenolic compound (+-lariciresinol isolated from Rubia philippinensis against selected foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1621 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. (+-Lariciresinol at the tested concentrations (250 μg/disk evoked a significant antibacterial effect as a diameter of inhibition zones (12.1–14.9 mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 125–250 and 125–250 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, (+-lariciresinol at MIC showed reduction in bacterial cell viabilities, efflux of potassium (K+ ions and release of 260 nm materials against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621. Moreover, deteriorated cell wall morphology of E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621 cells treated with (+-lariciresinol at MIC further confirmed its inhibitory effect against the tested pathogens, suggesting it to be an alternative means of antimicrobials.

  19. Seborrheic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, or using lotions that contain alcohol Obesity Nervous system disorders, including Parkinson disease , traumatic brain injury, or stroke Having HIV/AIDS Symptoms Seborrheic dermatitis can occur on different body areas. ...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Infection of Human Gestational Membranes Induces Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Host Production of Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doster, Ryan S; Kirk, Leslie A; Tetz, Lauren M; Rogers, Lisa M; Aronoff, David M; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2017-02-15

    Staphylococcus aureus, a metabolically flexible gram-positive pathogen, causes infections in a variety of tissues. Recent evidence implicates S. aureus as an emerging cause of chorioamnionitis and premature rupture of membranes, which are associated with preterm birth and neonatal disease. We demonstrate here that S. aureus infects and forms biofilms on the choriodecidual surface of explanted human gestational membranes. Concomitantly, S. aureus elicits the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which could ultimately perturb maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy. Therefore, targeting the immunological response to S. aureus infection during pregnancy could attenuate disease among infected individuals, especially in the context of antibiotic resistance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Ceftaroline Fosamil for the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Secondary to Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections or Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jose A; Maggiore, Christy R; Cole, Phillip; Smith, Alexander; Jandourek, Alena; Friedland, H David

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment Program and Teflaro® Utilization Registry is designed to collect information on the clinical use of ceftaroline fosamil in the Unites States. This report presents data on the treatment of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) secondary to acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Patients diagnosed with ABSSSI or CABP were identified through sequential review of randomly ordered charts generated from pharmacy listings from August 2011 to February 2013. Data were collected by chart review 30 days or more after completion of ceftaroline fosamil therapy. Secondary SAB was reported in a total of 48 of 1428 evaluable patients (27 with ABSSSI, 21 with CABP). The mean (SD) patient age was 61 (15) years. At least 1 comorbidity was recorded for 74% of patients with ABSSSI and 81% with CABP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was isolated from 59% of patients with ABSSSI and 76% with CABP. The mean (SD) duration of ceftaroline fosamil therapy was 5.8 (4.8) days for ABSSSI and 7.0 (3.8) days for CABP. Clinical success among all patients with SAB treated with ceftaroline fosamil was 58% (52% for SAB secondary to ABSSSI, 67% for SAB secondary to CABP). Clinical success rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus SAB were 50% (8/16) for ABSSSI and 63% (10/16) for CABP. This study supports the use of ceftaroline fosamil as a viable treatment option in hospitalized patients with SAB secondary to ABSSSI or CABP. Further studies evaluating the use of ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of SAB are warranted.

  2. Dermatitis artefacta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Økland, Camilla; Petersen, Niels Erik; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    of psychiatric co-morbidity including depression and anxiety. Many have experienced negative life events such as diseases or deaths. Personality disorders were reported in only two studies. Treatment options besides the acute treatment of the skin were psychotherapy and psychotropic drugs.......Dermatitis artefacta is a self-inflicted skin disease with a multifactorial aetiology. The condition can be a symptom of an underlying psychiatric condition or a sign of psycho-social stressors. This paper gives an updated view on dermatitis artefacta. The majority of the patients have some form...

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms and Their Influence on Bacterial Adhesion and Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulood Hamid Dakheel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates were characterized by staphylococcal protein A gene typing and the ability to form biofilms. The presence of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA and RNA in biofilms was assessed by a dispersal assay. In addition, cell adhesion to surfaces and cell cohesion were evaluated using the packed-bead method and mechanical disruption, respectively. The predominant genotype was spa type t127 (22 out of 25 isolates; the majority of isolates were categorized as moderate biofilm producers. Twelve isolates displayed PIA-independent biofilm formation, while the remaining 13 isolates were PIA-dependent. Both groups showed strong dispersal in response to RNase and DNase digestion followed by proteinase K treatment. PIA-dependent biofilms showed variable dispersal after sodium metaperiodate treatment, whereas PIA-independent biofilms showed enhanced biofilm formation. There was no correlation between the extent of biofilm formation or biofilm components and the adhesion or cohesion abilities of the bacteria, but the efficiency of adherence to glass beads increased after biofilm depletion. In conclusion, nucleic acids and proteins formed the main components of the MRSA clone t127 biofilm matrix, and there seems to be an association between adhesion and cohesion in the biofilms tested.

  4. Insights into the mechanism of inhibition of novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors from characterization of resistant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sushmita D; Kutschke, Amy; McCormack, Kathy; Alm, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    The type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinically validated bacterial targets that catalyze the modulation of DNA topology that is vital to DNA replication, repair, and decatenation. Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, which trap the topoisomerase-DNA complex, has led to significant efforts in the discovery of novel inhibitors of these targets. AZ6142 is a member of the class of novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) that utilizes a distinct mechanism to trap the protein-DNA complex. AZ6142 has very potent activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In this study, we determined the frequencies of resistance to AZ6142 and other representative NBTI compounds in S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. The frequencies of selection of resistant mutants at 4× the MIC were 1.7 × 10(-8) for S. aureus and topoisomerase subunits were identified. Many of these substitutions were located outside the NBTI binding pocket and impact the susceptibility of AZ6142, resulting in a 4- to 32-fold elevation in the MIC over the wild-type parent strain. Data on cross-resistance with other NBTIs and fluoroquinolones enabled the differentiation of scaffold-specific changes from compound-specific variations. Our results suggest that AZ6142 inhibits both type II topoisomerases in S. aureus but that DNA gyrase is the primary target. Further, the genotype of the resistant mutants suggests that domain conformations and DNA interactions may uniquely impact NBTIs compared to fluoroquinolones. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Structural and Functional analysis of Staphylococcus aureus NADP-dependent IDH and its comparison with Bacterial and Human NADPdependent IDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Swarupa, Vimjam; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Kumar, Easambadi Siva; Reddy, Kalikiri Mahesh Kumar; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Rani, Vangavaragu Jhansi; Chaudhary, Abhijit; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus a natural inhabitant of nasopharyngeal tract mainly survives as biofilms and possess complete Krebs cycle which plays major role in its pathogenesis. This TCA cycle is regulated by Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) we have earlier cloned, sequenced (HM067707), expressed and characterized this enzyme from S. aureus ATCC12600. We have observed only one type of IDH in all the strains of S. aureus which dictates the flow of carbon thereby controlling the virulence and biofilm formation, this phenomenon is variable among bacteria. Therefore in the present study comparative structural and functional analysis of IDH was undertaken. As the crystal structure of S. aureus IDH was not available therefore using the deduced amino sequence of complete gene the 3D structure of IDH was built in Modeller 9v8. The PROCHECK and ProSAweb analysis showed the built structure was close to the crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis. This structure when superimposed with other bacterial IDH structures exhibited extensive structural variations as evidenced from the RMSD values correlating with extensive sequential variations. Only 24% sequence identity was observed with both human NADP dependent IDHs (PDB: 1T09 and 1T0L) and the structural comparative studies indicated extensive structural variations with an RMSD values of 14.284Å and 10.073Å respectively. Docking of isocitrate to both human IDHs and S. aureus IDH structures showed docking scores of -11.6169 and -10.973 respectively clearly indicating higher binding affinity of isocitrate to human IDH.

  6. Role of Rot in bacterial autolysis regulation of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinmin; Xia, Rui; He, Nianan; Fang, Yuting

    2013-09-01

    Autolysis is an important process in cell wall turnover in Staphylococcus aureus, performed by several peptidoglycan hydrolases or so-called autolysins and controlled by many regulators. Rot is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes, including genes encoding lipase, hemolysins, proteases and genes related to cell surface adhesion. The aim of our study was to determine whether Rot has the ability to regulate autolysis. We compared Triton-X-100-induced autolysis of S. aureus NCTC8325 and its rot knock-out mutant. We found that the rot mutant showed increased autolysis rates. By examining the transcript level of several autolysins and some known regulators responsible for regulating autolysis using real-time RT-PCR assays, we found that transcription of two autolysins (lytM, lytN) and one regulatory operon (lrgAB) was changed in the rot mutant. An in vitro approach was undertaken to determine which of these genes are directly controlled by Rot. Rot proteins were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Gel mobility shift DNA binding assays were used and showed that in-vitro-purified Rot can directly bind to the promoter region of lytM, lytN, lrgA and lytS. We also tested biofilm formation of the rot mutant, and it showed enhancement in biofilm formation. Taken together, our results reveal that Rot affects autolysis by directly regulating autolysins LytM and LytN, and, via a regulatory system, LrgAB. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Herpetiform dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E. Arrese; Gérald E. Pierard; Mabel Yaneth Ávila Camacho; Beatriz Armand Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Herpetiform dermatitis is an autoimmuneampollae disease characterized by an pruriginouspapulovesicular eruption associated with IgA granulardermical papillayr deposites which are detected by DIF. Thisskin disease has relation to non symptomatical glutensensible intestinal illness. Microscopical examination showmicroabscess with many neutrophilous, eosonophilous in dermis papille and lymphocyte T, neutrophilous,eosinophilous infiltration. Disease pathogenesis is not knownand is considered type...

  8. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Saçar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seborrehic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition occurring most often on the face, scalp and chest. It affects between 1-3 of adults and is more common in males. It is especially common in adolescents, young adults and people older than 50 years old. Frequently, it involves scalp, nasolabial folds, ears, eyebrows and sternum. It is characterised by symetriccal erythematous papules and plaques with greasy yellow squams. The condition has multifactorial etiology and stress, atopy, Pityrosporum ovale, central nervous system diseases and drugs are the mostly accused factors. Antiinflammatory, antimicotic and immunomodulatory drugs are used for therapy. In resistent cases, systemic steroids, isotretinoin, antimycotics and phototherapy can be tried. In this review, the literature associated with the etiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis is overviewed.

  9. [Seborrheic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, R; Kempter, W; Meurer, M

    2011-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a frequent skin disorder in infancy and adulthood. It also often occurs in patients with HIV or neurologic disorders like Parkinson disease or mood disorders. It is characterized by greasy, yellow flakes or scales in areas of high sebaceous gland activity like the scalp, face, chest and upper back. Additionally, erythema and itching can be present. The etiology and pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown; however, the focus lies on the involvement of Malassezia yeasts or fatty acid metabolites of Malassezia, on hormones and immunologic factors. The diagnosis is usually a clinical one, based on history and the appearance and site of lesions. The therapy consists mainly of antifungal agents, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and keratolytics. Because of the chronicity of the illness with frequent relapses, a treatment strategy in which effectiveness and potential side effects are weighed should be used.

  10. Herpetiform dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Arrese

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Herpetiform dermatitis is an autoimmuneampollae disease characterized by an pruriginouspapulovesicular eruption associated with IgA granulardermical papillayr deposites which are detected by DIF. Thisskin disease has relation to non symptomatical glutensensible intestinal illness. Microscopical examination showmicroabscess with many neutrophilous, eosonophilous in dermis papille and lymphocyte T, neutrophilous,eosinophilous infiltration. Disease pathogenesis is not knownand is considered type IgA complex illness. The effectivetreatment is done with dapsone and a free gluten diet.

  11. Novel bacterial metabolite merochlorin A demonstrates in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sakoulas

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro activity of a merochlorin A, a novel compound with a unique carbon skeleton, against a spectrum of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and against previously characterized clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates with resistance to numerous antibiotics.Merochlorin A was isolated and purified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain CNH189. Susceptibility testing for merochlorin A was performed against previously characterized human pathogens using broth microdilution and agar dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was assayed in tissue culture assays at 24 and 72 hours against human HeLa and mouse sarcoma L929 cell lines.The structure of as new antibiotic, merochlorin A, was assigned by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Merochlorin A demonstrated in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Clostridium dificile, but not against Gram negative bacteria. In S. aureus, susceptibility was not affected by ribosomal mutations conferring linezolid resistance, mutations in dlt or mprF conferring resistance to daptomycin, accessory gene regulator knockout mutations, or the development of the vancomycin-intermediate resistant phenotype. Merochlorin A demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA. Activity was lost in the presence of 20% serum.The unique meroterpenoid, merochlorin A demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against S. aureus and C. dificile and did not show cross-resistance to contemporary antibiotics against Gram positive organisms. The activity was, however, markedly reduced in 20% human serum. Future directions for this compound may include evaluation for topical use, coating biomedical devices, or the pursuit of chemically modified derivatives of this compound that retain activity in the presence of serum.

  12. Pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils and bacterial clearance in mice inoculated with aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Burnes, J; López, A; Merino-Moncada, M; Ochoa-Galván, P; Mondragón, I

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages are considered to be the main phagocytic cell of the pulmonary defense mechanism. However recent studies indicate that neutrophils may also participate in the defense against inhaled bacteria. The aim of this investigation was to study in mice the correlation between numbers of phagocytic cells in the bronchoalveolar space and the pulmonary clearance of bacteria. White mice were exposed to aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica (n = 129) or Staphylococcus aureus (n = 129) in three different experimental replicates. Another group of mice (n = 22) was sham exposed to an aerosol of sterile phosphate buffered solution in a single replicate. Animals were sacrificed at various times postaerosolization. The numbers of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in lung lavages and the pulmonary bacterial clearance rates were determined and statistically analysed. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were observed in the rates of pulmonary clearance between the two genera of bacteria, but P. haemolytica had a significant (p less than 0.05) replicate effect. The number of alveolar macrophages was not significantly affected by either bacteria or phosphate buffered solution. Exposure to P. haemolytica resulted in dramatic, significant (p less than 0.01) but transient increases in neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space as well as a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in the weights of lung. The correlation between neutrophils and clearance was positive for P. haemolytica but negative for S. aureus. These results indicate that both species of bacteria are rapidly eliminated from the lung despite a rather different cellular response. PMID:4041978

  13. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  14. Role of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factors in Inducing Inflammation and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Model of Bacterial Endophthalmitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus (S. aureus is a common causative agent of bacterial endophthalmitis, a vision threatening complication of eye surgeries. The relative contribution of S. aureus virulence factors in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis remains unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the development of intraocular inflammation, vascular permeability, and the loss of retinal function in C57BL/6 mouse eyes, challenged with live S. aureus, heat-killed S. aureus (HKSA, peptidoglycan (PGN, lipoteichoic acid (LTA, staphylococcal protein A (SPA, α-toxin, and Toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST1. Our data showed a dose-dependent (range 0.01 μg/eye to 1.0 μg/eye increase in the levels of inflammatory mediators by all virulence factors. The cell wall components, particularly PGN and LTA, seem to induce higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, KC, and MIP2, whereas the toxins induced IL-1β. Similarly, among the virulence factors, PGN induced higher PMN infiltration. The vascular permeability assay revealed significant leakage in eyes challenged with live SA (12-fold and HKSA (7.3-fold, in comparison to other virulence factors (~2-fold and controls. These changes coincided with retinal tissue damage, as evidenced by histological analysis. The electroretinogram (ERG analysis revealed a significant decline in retinal function in eyes inoculated with live SA, followed by HKSA, SPA, and α-toxin. Together, these findings demonstrate the differential innate responses of the retina to S. aureus virulence factors, which contribute to intraocular inflammation and retinal function loss in endophthalmitis.

  15. Evaluating a commercial PCR assay against bacterial culture for diagnosing Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, N M; Williamson, J H; Thresher, R; Laven, R A; Hillerton, J E

    2017-05-01

    The performance of a commercial, real-time PCR assay was compared with traditional bacterial culture for the identification of Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk collected at different stages of lactation. Initial validation tests using fresh and frozen quarter milk samples identified factors that affected the success of the PCR. Therefore, the standard protocol was adjusted for samples collected at the first milking postpartum (colostrum) and from clinical mastitis cases. The adjustment involved PCR testing both undiluted and diluted (1 in 10 with sterile water) DNA extracts. The performance comparison between culture and the PCR assay used milk samples collected aseptically from individual quarters of mixed-age spring-calving dairy cows, during early, mid, and late lactation. Bacterial culture results were used to select a subset of samples for PCR testing (n = 315) that represented quarters with a current or prior Strep. uberis or Staph. aureus infection. Compared with culture, PCR had a sensitivity of 86.8% and specificity of 87.7% for detecting Strep. uberis (kappa = 0.74) and 96.4% and 99.7%, respectively, for detecting Staph. aureus (kappa = 0.96). The dilution of DNA extracts for colostrum and clinical samples increased the relative sensitivity from 79.2% to 86.8% for Strep. uberis detection and from 92.9% to 96.4% for Staph. aureus, presumably through diluting unidentified PCR inhibitors. The sensitivity for detecting Strep. uberis using PCR, relative to culture, was similar throughout lactation (85-89%), whereas relative specificity was lowest immediately postcalving (64%) but improved in mid and late lactation (98%). Specificity estimates for samples collected in early lactation can be optimized by reducing the cutoff cycle threshold (Ct) value from the recommended value of 37 to 34. Although using this value improved specificity (77%), it reduced test sensitivity (77%). The PCR assay lacked agreement with culture in early

  16. Identification of common bacterial antigenic markers from bovine digital dermatitis lesions using meta-transcriptomics in combination with high-density peptide-microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Marcatili, Paolo; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious cause of lameness in dairy cattle, and a major contributing factor to welfare problems and economic losses in the dairy cattle industry worldwide. DD is a disease that involves chronic dermal inflammatory processes and destruction...

  17. Papulosquamous disorders: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nickel contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Patricia A

    2011-04-01

    This article has addressed some of the recent discoveries in pathogenesis and treatment options of 4 papulosquamous disorders: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nickel contact dermatitis.

  18. Tet38 Efflux Pump Affects Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Epithelial Cells through Interaction with CD36 and Contributes to Bacterial Escape from Acidic and Nonacidic Phagolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Bolduc, Q C; Khan, N S; Vyas, J M; Hooper, D C

    2017-02-01

    We previously reported that the Tet38 efflux pump is involved in internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by A549 lung epithelial cells. A lack of tet38 reduced bacterial uptake by A549 cells to 36% of that of the parental strain RN6390. Using invasion assays coupled with confocal microscopy imaging, we studied the host cell receptor(s) responsible for bacterial uptake via interaction with Tet38. We also assessed the ability of S. aureus to survive following alkalinization of the phagolysosomes by chloroquine. Antibody to the scavenger receptor CD36 reduced the internalization of S. aureus RN6390 by A549 cells, but the dependence on CD36 was reduced in QT7 tet38, suggesting that an interaction between Tet38 and CD36 contributed to S. aureus internalization. Following fusion of the S. aureus-associated endosomes with lysosomes, alkalinization of the acidic environment with chloroquine led to a rapid increase in the number of S. aureus RN6390 bacteria in the cytosol, followed by a decrease shortly thereafter. This effect of chloroquine was not seen in the absence of intact Tet38 in mutant QT7. These data taken together suggest that Tet38 plays a role both in bacterial internalization via interaction with CD36 and in bacterial escape from the phagolysosomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Anti-bacterial Efficacy of Bacteriocin Produced by Marine Bacillus subtilis Against Clinically Important Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Strains and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mickymaray

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-bacterial efficacy of bacteriocin produced by Bacillus subtilis SM01 (GenBank accession no: KY612347, a Gram-positive marine bacterium, against Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producing Gram-negative pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and Gram-positive pathogen Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Methods: A marine bacterium was isolated from mangrove sediment from the Red Sea coast of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and identified based on its morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. The bacteriocin production using this isolate was carried out in brain heart infusion broth (BHIB medium. The Anti-bacterial activity of bacteriocin was evaluated against selected ESBL strains and MRSA by the well agar method. The effects of incubation time, pH, and temperature on the Anti-bacterial activity were studied. Results: The bacteriocin Bac-SM01 produced by B. subtilis SM01 demonstrated broad-spectrum Anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. The present study is the first report that the bacteriocin Bac-SM01 inhibits the growth of ESBL producing Gram-negative strains A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and a Gram-positive MRSA strain. The optimum incubation time, pH, and temperature for the Anti-bacterial activity of Bac-SM01 was 24 h, 7, and 37°C respectively. Conclusion: The overall investigation can conclude that the bacteriocin Bac-SM01 from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis SM01 could be used as an alternative Anti-bacterial agent in pharmaceutical products.

  20. Undetectable bacterial resistance to phage lytic proteins from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we tested for the emergence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus to any of three phage lytic proteins constructs. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes w...

  1. Atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Wade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs, the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes.

  2. Behandlingseffekt af Digital Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kenneth; Thomsen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    af klovlidelser herunder især Digital Dermatitis. Klovregistreringerne viser, at der er stor dynamik og mange nyinfektioner af Digital Dermatitis svarende til problematikken ved mastitis. Behandlingseffekten ved Digital Dermatitis er høj (omkring 90 %) ved den udførte behandling. Behandlingen bestod...

  3. Direct analysis of bacterial viability in endotracheal tube biofilm from a pig model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia following antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barat, Laia; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Ferrer, Miquel; Bosch, Anna; Calvo, Maria; Vila, Jordi; Gabarrús, Albert; Martínez-Olondris, Pilar; Rigol, Montse; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Néstor; Torres, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) helps to observe the biofilms formed in the endotracheal tube (ETT) of ventilated subjects and to determine its structure and bacterial viability using specific dyes. We compared the effect of three different treatments (placebo, linezolid, and vancomycin) on the bacterial biofilm viability captured by CLSM. Eight pigs with pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were ventilated up to 96 h and treated with linezolid, vancomycin, or placebo (controls). ETT images were microscopically examined after staining with the live/dead(®) BacLight(™) Kit (Invitrogen, Barcelona, Spain) with a confocal laser scanning microscope. We analyzed 127 images obtained by CLSM. The median ratio of live/dead bacteria was 0.51, 0.74, and 1 for the linezolid, vancomycin, and control groups, respectively (P = 0.002 for the three groups); this ratio was significantly lower for the linezolid group, compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Images showed bacterial biofilm attached and non-attached to the ETT surface but growing within secretions accumulated inside ETT. Systemic treatment with linezolid is associated with a higher proportion of dead bacteria in the ETT biofilm of animals with MRSA pneumonia. Biofilm clusters not necessarily attach to the ETT surface. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of two methods of bacterial DNA extraction from human fecal samples contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Jun; Kurosaki, Morito; Kawakami, Yuta; Kashimoto, Takashi; Tsunomori, Yoshie; Sato, Koji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Etoh, Yoshiki; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quantitative PCR (S-qPCR) analyses revealed higher copy numbers (8-234 times) of DNA in samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit, resulting in lower cycle threshold values for the Ukit samples of the 4 bacteria on SG-PCR analysis. Fecal DNA samples from patients infected during foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella and Campylobacter were also prepared by Qkit and Ukit methods and subjected to RFBS24 analyses. Higher numbers of RFBS24 bacterial target genes were detected in DNA samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit. Thus, the higher DNA extraction efficiency of the Ukit method compared with Qkit renders the former more useful in achieving improved detection rates of these 4 bacteria in fecal samples using SG-PCR.

  5. Seborrheic dermatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis.

  6. Differential induction of innate defense antimicrobial peptides in primary nasal epithelial cells upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines, Th17 cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium from Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgey, Christine; Kern, Winfried V; Römer, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    To date it is incompletely understood why half of the human population is intrinsically resistant to Staphylococcus aureus colonization whereas the other half is intermittently or permanently colonized. Nasal colonization represents the primary niche for S. aureus. We therefore investigated whether primary nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines or bacterial conditioned medium (BCM) of different colonizing and invasive staphylococci. Stimulation with classical cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ) potently induced hBD-3 and RNase7 in HNEC. Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) yielded comparably weak hBD-3 and RNase7 induction and no synergistic effects with classical cytokines. BCM of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates moderately induced hBD3 and RNase7 mRNA expression without significant differences when comparing colonizing vs. invasive isolates. Our results indicate that HNEC contribute to the innate defense by secretion of an AMP-containing chemical defense shield along the nasal mucosa i.e. within the primary colonization niche of S. aureus. Further studies are needed to investigate whether a deficient AMP expression in the nasal mucosa may be related to different S. aureus carrier states. AMPs or AMP-inducing agents may be promising candidates for future topical decolonization regimens that aim to prevent invasive S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed...... opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor...... atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis...

  8. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  9. Non-pharmacological treatment modalities for atopic dermatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-pharmacological measures to improve the management of atopic dermatitis (AD) are as important as pharmacotherapy for true healing of the skin. Skin dryness (which contributes to inflammation, loss of suppleness (leading to fissuring), impaired barrier function, and increased adherence of Staphylococcus aureus ...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Giampiero; Nobile, Giulia; Rindi, Simonetta; Speziale, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils, complement system and skin collectively represent the main elements of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the host against many common microorganisms. Bacterial pathogens have evolved strategies to counteract all these defense activities. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, secretes a variety of immune evasion molecules including proteases, which cleave components of the innate immune system or disrupt the integrity of extracellular matrix and intercellular connections of tissues. Additionally, S. aureus secretes proteins that can activate host zymogens which, in turn, target specific defense components. Secreted proteins can also inhibit the anti-bacterial function of neutrophils or complement system proteases, potentiating S. aureus chances of survival. Here, we review the current understanding of these proteases and modulators of host proteases in the functioning of innate immunity and describe the importance of these mechanisms in the pathology of staphylococcal diseases.

  11. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Skin microbiome before development of atopic dermatitis: Early colonization with commensal staphylococci at 2 months is associated with a lower risk of atopic dermatitis at 1 year.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    Disease flares of established atopic dermatitis (AD) are generally associated with a low-diversity skin microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus dominance. The temporal transition of the skin microbiome between early infancy and the dysbiosis of established AD is unknown.

  13. Covalent Immobilization of Enoxacin onto Titanium Implant Surfaces for Inhibiting Multiple Bacterial Species Infection and In Vivo Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bin'en; Long, Teng; Ao, Haiyong; Zhou, Jianliang; Tang, Tingting; Yue, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Infection is one of the most important causes of titanium implant failure in vivo A developing prophylactic method involves the immobilization of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, onto the surface of the titanium implant. However, these methods have a limited effect in curbing multiple bacterial infections due to antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to an amine-functionalized Ti surface by use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo The titanium surface was amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through which PEG spacer molecules were covalently immobilized onto the titanium, and then the enoxacin was covalently bound to the PEG, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). A spread plate assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the antimicrobial activity. For the in vivo study, Ti implants were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rats. The degree of infection was assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and determination of the counts of adherent bacteria 3 weeks after surgery. Our data demonstrate that the enoxacin-modified PEGylated Ti surface effectively prevented bacterial colonization without compromising cell viability, adhesion, or proliferation in vitro Furthermore, it prevented MRSA infection of the Ti implants in vivo Taken together, our results demonstrate that the use of enoxacin-modified Ti is a potential approach to the alleviation of infections of Ti implants by multiple bacterial species. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Arylthiazole antibiotics targeting intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Islam; Elsebaei, Mohamed M; Mohammad, Haroon; Hagras, Mohamed; Peters, Christine E; Hegazy, Youssef A; Cooper, Bruce; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Abulkhair, Hamada S; Seleem, Mohamed N; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2017-10-20

    The promising antibacterial potency of arylthiazole antibiotics is offset by their limited activity against intracellular bacteria (namely methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), similar to many clinically-approved antibiotics. The failure to target these hidden pathogens is due to the compounds' lack of proper characteristics to accumulate intracellularly. Fine tuning of the size and polar-surface-area of the linking heteroaromatic ring provided a new series of 5-thiazolylarylthiazoles with balanced properties that allow them to sufficiently cross and accumulate inside macrophages infected with MRSA. The most promising compound 4i exhibited rapid bactericidal activity, good metabolic stability and produced over 80% reduction of intracellular MRSA in infected macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Phagocytosis escape by a Staphylococcus aureus protein that connects complement and coagulation proteins at the bacterial surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ping Ko

    Full Text Available Upon contact with human plasma, bacteria are rapidly recognized by the complement system that labels their surface for uptake and clearance by phagocytic cells. Staphylococcus aureus secretes the 16 kD Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb that binds two different plasma proteins using separate domains: the Efb N-terminus binds to fibrinogen, while the C-terminus binds complement C3. In this study, we show that Efb blocks phagocytosis of S. aureus by human neutrophils. In vitro, we demonstrate that Efb blocks phagocytosis in plasma and in human whole blood. Using a mouse peritonitis model we show that Efb effectively blocks phagocytosis in vivo, either as a purified protein or when produced endogenously by S. aureus. Mutational analysis revealed that Efb requires both its fibrinogen and complement binding residues for phagocytic escape. Using confocal and transmission electron microscopy we show that Efb attracts fibrinogen to the surface of complement-labeled S. aureus generating a 'capsule'-like shield. This thick layer of fibrinogen shields both surface-bound C3b and antibodies from recognition by phagocytic receptors. This information is critical for future vaccination attempts, since opsonizing antibodies may not function in the presence of Efb. Altogether we discover that Efb from S. aureus uniquely escapes phagocytosis by forming a bridge between a complement and coagulation protein.

  16. Exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells in milk on bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yuya; Kiku, Yoshio; Sugawara, Kazue; Tanabe, Fuyuko; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2018-01-01

    The exfoliation rate of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in milk is affected by physiological, breeding and environmental factors. Little is known about the relationship between the MEC exfoliation into milk and mammary-infected Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) load on bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between S. aureus load and the proportion of MEC exfoliation in milk using five substantial bovine mastitis models. In 64 randomly extracted milk samples from udders at 3-21 days after S. aureus infusion, there were various samples with different numbers of S. aureus counts and somatic cell counts. No significant correlations were found between the S. aureus counts and somatic cell count (r = 0.338). In contrast, a significant correlation was noted between S. aureus counts and the proportion of cytokeratin-positive cells in the milk from the infused udders (r = 0.734, P mastitis udders caused by S. aureus may contribute to reduced milk yield. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Atopic dermatitis 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    No, Daniel J; Amin, Mina; Egeberg, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Novel and innovative treatment options for atopic dermatitis (AD) are underway. The recent advancements in understanding AD are reminiscent of the progress made in psoriasis research over a decade ago.......Novel and innovative treatment options for atopic dermatitis (AD) are underway. The recent advancements in understanding AD are reminiscent of the progress made in psoriasis research over a decade ago....

  18. Atopic dermatitis: new evidence on the role of allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heratizadeh, Annice

    2016-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease. In the presence of a complex genetic background, there is increasing evidence for the role of specific allergenic trigger factors in perpetuating skin inflammation in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients. In this review, clinical and in-vitro data so far published on allergen-induced adaptive immune responses in atopic dermatitis are summarized. Emerging new data have been published particularly on adaptive immune responses to inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis. In a randomized controlled study, the induction of a flare-up by grass pollen exposure in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients could be demonstrated for the first time. T cells directed to the two major allergens of house dust mite have been characterized to display a Th2, and moreover, a Th17 and Th2/Th17 phenotype in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients. With regard to microbial antigens, T cell-mediated immune responses directed to proteins of the species themselves can be observed - as has been published for Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia spp. Beyond this, specific T-cell activation to cross-reacting human proteins might further trigger the disease in distinct patients. The role of 'autoallergic' phenomena in atopic dermatitis, because of human antigens without known cross-reactivity to environmental allergens, is currently under investigation as well. Recent findings on immunological and clinical characteristics of adaptive immune responses to allergens in atopic dermatitis, but also on the identification of new, potentially relevant allergen sources might contribute to the development of effective treatment strategies 'customized' for allergic inflammation in atopic dermatitis in future.

  19. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Caterina; De Vito, Valentina; Picariello, Gianluca; Colicchio, Roberta; Pastore, Gabiria; Salvatore, Paola; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant properties were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. The most abundant bioactive molecules, including anthocyanins, catechins, tannins, gallic and ellagic acids were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD, also coupled to off-line matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory spectrum of extracts against test microorganisms was assessed by the agar well-diffusion method. Data herein indicated that both pomegranate aril and peel extracts have an effective antimicrobial activity, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of two important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are often involved in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct bacterial loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection on the pathogenic features of the nosocomial pathogen - Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with respiratory origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Xu, Pusheng; Li, Jiaowu; Chen, Yin; Feng, Jieyi

    2017-08-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification based detection assays using bacterial culture or colony for direct detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) had been developed and evaluated, followed by its extensive application on a large scale of clinical MRSA isolated from respiratory origins, including nasal swabs and sputums. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specifically designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on four targets: 16SrRNA, femA, mecA and orfX. Twenty-seven reference strains were used to develop, evaluate and optimize this assay. Then, a total of 532 clinical MRSA isolates were employed for each detected targets. And the results were determined through both visual observation of the color change by naked eye and electrophoresis. The specific of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65 °C for 40 min. The limit of detections (LOD) of bacteria culture LAMP assays were determined to be 10 4  CFU/ml for 16S rRNA, femA, as well as orfX and 10 5  CFU/ml for mecA, respectively. The established novel assays on MRSA detection may provide new strategies for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Antibiotic reduction campaigns do not necessarily decrease bacterial resistance: the example of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas-Sloma, Lidia; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Opatowski, Lulla; Guillemot, Didier; Temime, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Interventions designed to reduce antibiotic consumption are under way worldwide. While overall reductions are often achieved, their impact on the selection of antibiotic-resistant selection cannot be assessed accurately from currently available data. We developed a mathematical model of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) transmission inside and outside the hospital. A systematic simulation study was then conducted with two objectives: to assess the impact of antibiotic class-specific changes during an antibiotic reduction period and to investigate the interactions between antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community. The model reproduced the overall reduction in MRSA frequency in French intensive-care units (ICUs) with antibiotic consumption in France from 2002 to 2003 as an input. However, the change in MRSA frequency depended on which antibiotic classes changed the most, with the same overall 10% reduction in antibiotic use over 1 year leading to anywhere between a 69% decrease and a 52% increase in MRSA frequency in ICUs and anywhere between a 37% decrease and a 46% increase in the community. Furthermore, some combinations of antibiotic prescription changes in the hospital and the community could act in a synergistic or antagonistic way with regard to overall MRSA selection. This study shows that class-specific changes in antibiotic use, rather than overall reductions, need to be considered in order to properly anticipate the impact of an antibiotic reduction campaign. It also highlights the fact that optimal gains will be obtained by coordinating interventions in hospitals and in the community, since the effect of an intervention in a given setting may be strongly affected by exogenous factors.

  2. Effect of irradiation on kinetic behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce and damage of bacterial cell envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Je, Gil-Soo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Mtenga, Adelard B.; Lee, Won-Gyeong; Song, Jeong-Un; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Yoon, Yohan

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated effect of gamma irradiation on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on lettuce and damage of cell envelope. S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were inoculated on red leaf lettuce, and they were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 kGy, and the samples were then stored at 7 and 25 °C for 7 days. Survival of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and Baird-Parker agar, respectively. D10 value (dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/leaf) was calculated, and kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate; μmax and lag phase duration; LPD) were calculated by the modified Gompertz model. In addition, cell envelope damage of the pathogens was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). D10 values were 0.35 and 0.33 kGy for S. Typhimurium and S. aureus, respectively. During storage at 7 °C, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus had significant (Pirradiated samples up to about 2.5 and 4 log CFU/leaf at 0.42 and 1.28 log CFU/leaf/day of μmax, respectively. At 25 °C, cell counts of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus on the samples irradiated at 0 and 0.5 kGy increased (Pirradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy showed disrupted cell membrane. These results indicate that gamma irradiation could be a useful decontamination technology to improve food safety of lettuce by destroying cells of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus.

  3. Identification of Common Bacterial Antigenic Markers From Bovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions Using Meta-Transcriptomics in Combination With High-Density Peptide-Microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Marcatili, Paoli; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas

    of collagenous and connective tissues. Multiple Treponema species, many of which are not-yet-cultivable, are strongly implicated in disease progression. Despite the economic and welfare importance of this disease, no effective vaccine is available; and there is presently very little knowledge concerning...... efficacious immunoprophylactic antigens against DD. It is highly likely that DD-associated treponemes possess considerable antigenic variation, as cows exhibit a variable humoral response against different isolates of Treponema. Hence, combinations of antigens from multiple Treponema species should be used...... response directed at the site of infection. By metatranscriptomics we measured the in situ genome-wide transcriptome of the bacterial population in DD-affected skin lesions from 21 dairy cows. From the transcriptome data, we identified a panel of Treponema genes that were highly expressed in multiple...

  4. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on risk factors of severe course of atopic dermatitis in children: the role of alimentary and inhalant allergens, cutaneous infections, allergic reactions to drugs used in the treatment of disease. The most important questions of differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis in children and the distinctive features of the illness, which may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis (primary immunodeficiencies, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, enteropatic acrodermatitis; cutaneous bacterial and fungal infections, and drug-induced contact dermatitis to topical creams and ointments are discussed. Treatment of atopic dermatitis is based on modern approaches and includes recommendations on the use of emolents, anti-inflammatory drugs (topical glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors. The article provides indications and contraindications to the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. Special recommendations for use of cleansers and emolents at all degrees of severity of atopic dermatitis, which helps reduce the risk of side effects of topical corticosteroids, complications such as cutaneous infections and helps to maintain remission of disease are given. The importance of training programs patients is emphasized. Compliance of patients and/or their parents contributes to the achievement of the desired effect of the treatment of atopic dermatitis, which will improve the patients’ quality of life.

  5. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  6. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  7. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  8. Bacterial Genetic Architecture of Ecological Interactions in Co-culture by GWAS-Taking Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Ye, Meixia; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; Jiang, Libo; Wu, Rongling

    2017-01-01

    How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively. We identified a large number of SNPs and indels across the genomes (35.69 G clean data of E. coli and 50.41 G of S. aureus ). We reported 66 and 111 SNPs that were associated with interaction in E. coli and S. aureus , respectively. 23 out of 66 polymorphic changes resulted in amino acid alterations.12 significant genes, such as murE, treA, argS , and relA , which were also identified in previous evolutionary studies. In S. aureus , 111 SNPs detected in coding sequences could be divided into 35 non-synonymous and 76 synonymous SNPs. Our study illustrated the potential of genome-wide association methods for studying rapidly evolving traits in bacteria. Genetic association study methods will facilitate the identification of genetic elements likely to cause phenotypes of interest and provide targets for further laboratory investigation.

  9. [PHENOTYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETICAL DETERMINANTS OF PATHOGENICITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, ISOLATED FROM BACTERIAL CARRIERS, RESIDING ON THE TERRITORIES WITH VARIOUS LEVELS OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION OF AIR ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L; Khazeeva, G D; Khaliullina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phenotypical and genetical evaluation of pathogenic potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated from resident bacterial carriers, residing on the territories with anthropogenic pollution of air environment of varying intensity. S. aureus, isolated 3 times from mucous membrane of the anterior of nose from 210 children, were the object of the study. Anti-carnosine activity and biofilm formation was determined by a photometric method, antibiotics resistance--by a disc diffusion method. lukS, lukF, sec 3, clfA, clfB, agr and mecA gene detection, that are associated with S. aureus, was carried out by PCR. S. aureus strains, isolated from children, residing on the territories with a high level of anthropogenic pollution of air environment, were characterized by antibiotics resistance, higher values of anti-carnosine activity, 2 times more frequently formed biofilms with higher values of the parameter. clfA and clfB genes, that determine colonization of mucous membranes, and agr gene were detected in all the studied S. aureus strains, lukF and sec 3 genes were detected in 20-40% of the strains, isolated from children, residing on both territories. mecA and lukS genetical determinants were not detected. S. aureus, isolated from children, residing on the territories with high levels of anthropogenic pollution of air environment; were characterized by higher values of the studied factors of persistence and stability against antibiotics. Genetical determinants of pathogenicity were not detected in S. aureus, isolated from individuals, residing on both territories.

  10. A novel CCR-2/TLR-2 triggered signaling in murine peritoneal macrophages intensifies bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) killing by reactive oxygen species through TNF-R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-10-01

    Macrophages are remarkably versatile in their ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of stimuli by expressing a variety of surface and intracellular receptors and triggering multiple signal transduction pathways. The onset of microbial infection is primarily determined by the initial contacts made by the microbes with the host macrophages. Although there prevail a relationship between the chemokine receptor and Toll like receptors during disease, particularly TLR-2 and CCR-2 signaling interdependence on each other has not been yet investigated during acute staphylococcal infection. Thus, the present study was aimed to trace possible interaction between CCR-2 and TLR-2 in peritoneal macrophages during acute Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that neutralization of CCR-2 attenuates TLR-2 expression and restricts S. aureus burden but TLR-2 neutralization augments CCR-2 expression in macrophages, along with compromised host-derived reactive oxygen species production. S. aureus infection to CCR-2 intact but TLR-2 neutralized macrophages triggered production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and expression of iNOS, TNFR-1 and GPx with concomitant decrease in IL-10 production. Further, study with NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) [iNOS blocker] and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) [GPx blocker] revealed that S. aureus infection enhanced TLR-2 expression in CCR-2 intact and TLR-2 neutralized macrophages possibly via iNOS and TNFR-1 up regulation and GPx down regulation. Overall, our data indicate that targeting CCR-2 with neutralizing antibody in the early phase of S. aureus infection could restrict excessive inflammation with less compromised bacterial killing. It certainly would be a therapeutic strategy in S. aureus induced inflammatory and infective diseases. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  12. Differential Diagnosis of Diaper Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard

    2017-05-01

    Mild diaper dermatitis often occurs in children before toilet training is complete, particularly from 9 to 12 months of age, and the most common presentation is an irritant contact dermatitis. Diaper dermatitis may account for up to 25% of dermatology visits to health care providers during the first year of life. Fortunately, since the introduction of hypoallergenic, superabsorbent modern disposable diapers, the incidence and severity of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis has decreased dramatically. Diaper dermatitis broadly refers to skin disorders that occur in the diaper area, such as skin eruptions triggered by diapers, rashes exacerbated by the diaper, and other events that occur in the diaper area. A number of skin conditions that can occur anywhere on the skin may present with distinctive findings in the diaper area. The following discussion will review the most common triggers of diaper dermatitis and contact irritant dermatitis, while focusing on the skin conditions that may be associated or overlap clinically with contact dermatitis.

  13. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  14. Red face revisited: Endogenous dermatitis in the form of atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Sampaio, Ana Luisa; Carneiro, Sueli

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis are multifactorial dermatitides that are known collectively as endogenous dermatitis. Both conditions can affect the face, but they have clinical, epidemiological, and physiopathological peculiarities that distinguish them from each other. These two diseases are very common all around the world. Atopic dermatitis is associated with xerosis and increased susceptibility to irritants and proteins; patients with this condition have a tendency to develop asthma, allergic rhinitis, and systemic manifestations that are mediated by immunoglobulin E. Seborrheic dermatitis is a moderate chronic dermatitis that is restricted to regions with a high production of sebum and areas that have cutaneous folds. There are many studies about pathophysiology related to the immunology and genetics of atopic dermatitis, but little is known about the genetic and immunological markers of seborrheic dermatitis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  16. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. [Computers and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooms-Goossens, A

    1989-01-01

    A computerized database with the complete composition of pharmaceutical products and some cosmetics helps the patient with an allergic contact dermatitis reaction to avoid his specific allergens. Together with a database with patient information (12000 cases) this product, file serves as the basis for an expert system that assists the dermatologist during his every day clinical practice. The use of the computer in the field of contact dermatitis has gained much interest in the course of the last decade. In fact, the computer can be a particularly helpful tool in: 1. The storage of large amounts of data that can help to identify the patient's allergen microenvironment: --literature: articles related to contact dermatitis problems; --product information such as, for example, the composition of pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial materials; --the dermatologist: the filling in of a standardized anamnesis from also helps to assure that relevant clinical data is not overlooked. 2. The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis: on the basis of all these data stored, an expert system can be developed to provide targeted information to assist the physician with the anamnesis of a new patient. Depending on the profile of the patient, several factors that could be at the source of the contact dermatitis, such as the patient's profession, hobbies, and use of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, can be considered, thus increasing the efficiency of the allergological examination considerably. 3. Research in contact dermatitis: --The data can be used for epidemiological analyses in behalf of the patients, the medical profession, the industry, and the authorities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka; Ulzii, Dugarmaa; Nakahara, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    Chronic itch in inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, markedly diminishes the quality of life of affected individuals. Comprehensive progress has been made in understanding itch signaling and associated mediators in the skin, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and central nervous system, which may amplify or suppress atopic itch. Conventional therapies for atopic dermatitis are capable of reducing atopic itch; however, most patients are not satisfied with the antipruritic capacity of conventional treatments. Exploring itch pathways and mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for atopic itch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis and Its Relationship to Emollients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke; Bertucci, Vince; McCuaig, Catherine; Skotnicki, Sandy; Weinstein, Miriam; Wiseman, Marni; Zip, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Human-associated bacterial communities on the skin, skin microbiome, likely play a central role in development of immunity and protection from pathogens. In atopic patients, the skin bacterial diversity is smaller than in healthy subjects. To review treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis in Canada, taking the skin microbiome concept into account. An expert panel of 8 Canadian dermatologists explored the role of skin microbiome in clinical dermatology, specifically looking at atopic dermatitis. The panel reached consensus on the following: (1) In atopic patients, the skin microbiome of lesional atopic skin is different from nonlesional skin in adjacent areas. (2) Worsening atopic dermatitis and smaller bacterial diversity are strongly associated. (3) Application of emollients containing antioxidant and antibacterial components may increase microbiome diversity in atopic skin. The skin microbiome may be the next frontier in preventive health and may impact the approach to atopic dermatitis treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Seborrheic dermatitis and homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Chukwudi Nwabudike

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seborrheic dermatitis is a common, usually mild skin condition affecting both sexes. Infants as well as adults may be afflicted. It may cause discomfort when not properly treated. Seborrheic dermatitis is in the spectrum of diseases found frequently in HIV infected patients and in people with AIDS. Various treatment modalities exist, all aimed at control and not cure of the disease. Homeopathy is a system of treatment that is cheap, apparently free of side-effects, does not interact with regular medications and is widely applicable in many fields of medicine, including dermatology. Any new, but efficacious, treatment modality is always welcome in dermatology. Materials and methods: Two patients with seborrheic dermatitis of varying severity and duration were treated with homeopathy and the results documented. Results: The patients recovered fully and are still in remission years later. Conclusions: Homeopathy may be of use in the treatment of acute and chronic seborrheic dermatitis. Since it is cheap, free of side-effects and does not interfere with regular medication, it may become an attractive option in the treatment of this disorder, especially in patients with multiple pathologies.

  1. Nummular Dermatitis (Discoid Eczema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room moist with a humidifier. Outcome With proper treatment, nummular dermatitis can clear completely. Sores on the thighs, legs, and feet often take longer to heal and tend to leave behind darker or lighter spots. Some patients’ skin clears within a year. Others have these ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  3. Successful Treatment of Chronic Staphylococcus aureus-Related Dermatoses with the Topical Endolysin Staphefekt SA.100: A Report of 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E.E. Totté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in skin and soft tissue infections and contributes to the pathophysiology of complex skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. Bacterial resistance against commonly used antibiotics has increased considerably in the last decades demanding alternative treatment approaches. We present 3 cases where patients with chronic and recurrent S. aureus-related dermatoses were successfully treated with Staphefekt SA.100. Staphefekt SA.100 is a recombinant phage endolysin for topical skin application that specifically targets both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. As a consequence of its specific mechanism of action, bacterial resistance is unlikely to develop. In our 3 cases, resistance induction was not observed. Our results indicate that targeted treatment with Staphefekt might be an attractive alternative for (long-term classical antibiotic therapy, and confirmatory randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety.

  4. Successful Treatment of ChronicStaphylococcus aureus-Related Dermatoses with the Topical Endolysin Staphefekt SA.100: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totté, Joan E E; van Doorn, Martijn B; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in skin and soft tissue infections and contributes to the pathophysiology of complex skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. Bacterial resistance against commonly used antibiotics has increased considerably in the last decades demanding alternative treatment approaches. We present 3 cases where patients with chronic and recurrent S. aureus -related dermatoses were successfully treated with Staphefekt SA.100. Staphefekt SA.100 is a recombinant phage endolysin for topical skin application that specifically targets both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. As a consequence of its specific mechanism of action, bacterial resistance is unlikely to develop. In our 3 cases, resistance induction was not observed. Our results indicate that targeted treatment with Staphefekt might be an attractive alternative for (long-term) classical antibiotic therapy, and confirmatory randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety.

  5. Toll-like receptor 9 enhances bacterial clearance and limits lung consolidation in murine pneumonia caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Anne Jan; Achouiti, Achmed; van der Ende, Arie; Soussan, Aicha A.; Florquin, Sandrine; de Vos, Alex; Zeerleder, Sacha S.; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen in pneumonia, associated with severe lung damage. Tissue injury causes release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), which may perpetuate inflammation. DNA has been implicated as a DAMP that activates inflammation

  6. Letter to the editor: Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis ...

  7. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  8. Comorbidities of Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review article, we summarize the current evidence about atopic dermatitis (AD)-associated comorbidities, beyond the traditional atopic and allergic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with AD may have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, certain malignancies...... therapy, in combination with reduction of risk factors, may help prevention of certain comorbidities. The reported observations may generate hypotheses for future investigations in underlying risk factors for AD-associated comorbidities....

  9. Microbiome in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina,Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Uwe Wollina Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~10–20% of the general population. AD is characterized by disturbances in epidermal barrier function and hyperactive immune response. Recently, changes in the skin and intestinal microbiome have been analyzed in more detail. The available data suggest a link between disturbe...

  10. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    : This clinical review article presents clinical and scientific data on cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with. Exposure...... data together with clinical data from metal workers heavily exposed to cobalt suggest that patch-test reactions are sometimes false positive and that patch testers should carefully evaluate their clinical relevance....

  11. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  12. Cheyletiella Blakei Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheyletiellosis (cheyletiella dermatitis is a dermatitis caused by cheyletiella mites that are seen more commonly in cats, dogs and rabbits all over the world. Cheyletiella blakei, which is naturally hosted by cats, causes infestations in people, especially who are in close contact with infested cats. The diagnosis of cheyletiellosis in humans is established by the suspicion of physician or veterinarian and demonstration of the mites in cats. If not suspected, cheyletiellosis may be thought as delusions of parasitosis and may be undiagnosed. A 48-year-old woman presented to our clinic with red, pruritic papules on the chest, abdomen, arms and anterior thighs. There was no remission of the complaints of the patient after 3 days of topical corticosteroid treatment. Following more detailed examination and medical history, cheyletiellosis was suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed by a veterinary control of the cat that the women had started feeding at home about 15 days ago. Although cheyletiella dermatitis is not uncommon, most cases are undiagnosed because it is not a well-known dermatosis by dermatologists. As far as we know, there is no previously reported cheyletiella case in our country. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 213-5

  13. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  14. Sofa dermatitis presenting as a chronic treatment resistant dermatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, M

    2010-04-01

    There is now a well publicised increase in cases of sofa dermatitis since 2007. These have been linked to allergic contact sensitization to dimethlylfumarate, a novel contact allergen. We report on a case associated with a two year history of a treatment resistant dermatitis.

  15. Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-03-02

    Devriesea agamarum is frequently isolated from dermatitis in lizards, notably from cheilitis in spiny tailed lizards (genus Uromastyx). It was the aim of the present study to assess the role of this bacterium as a causative agent of dermatitis by fulfilling Koch's postulates. First, its association with diseased lizards was demonstrated. The bacterium was isolated from several, mainly desert dwelling squamate species showing symptoms of dermatitis and/or septicaemia. The affected lizards mainly belonged to the family of the Agamidae (genera Pogona, Uromastyx, Agama) and in one case to the Iguanidae (genus Crotaphytus). Secondly, the occurrence of D. agamarum in 66 clinically healthy bearded dragons, 21 clinically healthy Uromastyx species and 40 squamate eggshells was studied. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 10 bearded dragons but from none of the healthy Uromastyx species. Hence D. agamarum was found to be part of the oral microbiota in Pogona vitticeps. Finally, bearded dragons (P. vitticeps) were experimentally inoculated with D. agamarum by direct application of a bacterial suspension on intact and abraded skin. At the scarified skin of all inoculated lizards, dermatitis was induced from which D. agamarum was re-isolated. In conclusion, D. agamarum is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, able to cause dermatitis in agamid lizards when the integrity of the skin is breached.

  16. Occupational Hand Dermatitis among Hair Dressers in a Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    E-mail: drohambele1@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Occupational hand dermatitis may be defined as the inflammation of the skin of the hands ... namely, endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous dermatitis includes atopic dermatitis, discoid dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and asteatotic dermatitis ...

  17. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  18. Dermatite seborreica Seborrheic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Sobral Bittencourt Sampaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A dermatite seborreica é uma doença eritêmato-escamativa de caráter crônico-recidivante que acomete entre 1 e 3% da população geral dos Estados Unidos. Possui dois picos de incidência - o primeiro, durante os três primeiros meses de vida, e o segundo, a partir da puberdade, atingindo seu ápice entre os 40 e 60 anos de idade. Os indivíduos HIV positivos têm maior prevalência da doença, que apresenta maior intensidade e tendência à refratariedade ao tratamento. Doenças neurológicas e outras doenças crônicas também estão associadas ao desenvolvimento da dermatite seborreica. Como mecanismo fisiopatogênico, reconhece-se que o fungo Malassezia sp., presente na pele de indivíduos suscetíveis, leve a uma irritação não-imunogênica a partir da produção de metabólitos à base de ácidos graxos insaturados deixados na superfície cutânea. Este artigo faz uma revisão da literatura sobre dermatite seborreica, com ênfase nos aspectos imunogenéticos, formas clínicas e tratamento.Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly skin disease, the prevalence of which is around 1 to 3% of the general population in the United States. It has two incidence peaks, the first in the first three months of life and the second beginning at puberty and reaching its apex at 40 to 60 years of age. The prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis is higher in HIV-positive individuals and the condition tends to be more intense and refractory to treatment in these patients. Neurological disorders and other chronic diseases are also associated with the onset of seborrheic dermatitis. The currently accepted theory on the pathogenesis of this disease advocates that yeast of Malassezia spp., present on the skin surface of susceptible individuals, leads to a non-immunogenic irritation due to the production of unsaturated fatty acids deposited on the skin surface. This article provides a review of the literature on seborrheic dermatitis

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Smed-PGRP-2/Smed-setd8-1 Methyltransferase Signalling in Planarian Neoblasts to Sensitize Anti-bacterial Gene Responses During Re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Cedric; Abnave, Prasad; Tsoumtsa, Landry Laure; Mottola, Giovanna; Lepolard, Catherine; Trouplin, Virginie; Gimenez, Gregory; Desrousseaux, Julie; Gempp, Stephanie; Levasseur, Anthony; Padovani, Laetitia; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Ghigo, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about how organisms exposed to recurrent infections adapt their innate immune responses. Here, we report that planarians display a form of instructed immunity to primo-infection by Staphylococcus aureus that consists of a transient state of heightened resistance to re-infection that persists for approximately 30days after primo-infection. We established the involvement of stem cell-like neoblasts in this instructed immunity using the complementary approaches of RNA-interference-mediated cell depletion and tissue grafting-mediated gain of function. Mechanistically, primo-infection leads to expression of the peptidoglycan receptor Smed-PGRP-2, which in turn promotes Smed-setd8-1 histone methyltransferase expression and increases levels of lysine methylation in neoblasts. Depletion of neoblasts did not affect S. aureus clearance in primo-infection but, in re-infection, abrogated the heightened elimination of bacteria and reduced Smed-PGRP-2 and Smed-setd8-1 expression. Smed-PGRP-2 and Smed-setd8-1 sensitize animals to heightened expression of Smed-p38 MAPK and Smed-morn2, which are downstream components of anti-bacterial responses. Our study reveals a central role of neoblasts in innate immunity against S. aureus to establish a resistance state facilitating Smed-sted8-1-dependent expression of anti-bacterial genes during re-infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Smed-PGRP-2/Smed-setd8-1 Methyltransferase Signalling in Planarian Neoblasts to Sensitize Anti-bacterial Gene Responses During Re-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Torre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how organisms exposed to recurrent infections adapt their innate immune responses. Here, we report that planarians display a form of instructed immunity to primo-infection by Staphylococcus aureus that consists of a transient state of heightened resistance to re-infection that persists for approximately 30 days after primo-infection. We established the involvement of stem cell-like neoblasts in this instructed immunity using the complementary approaches of RNA-interference-mediated cell depletion and tissue grafting-mediated gain of function. Mechanistically, primo-infection leads to expression of the peptidoglycan receptor Smed-PGRP-2, which in turn promotes Smed-setd8-1 histone methyltransferase expression and increases levels of lysine methylation in neoblasts. Depletion of neoblasts did not affect S. aureus clearance in primo-infection but, in re-infection, abrogated the heightened elimination of bacteria and reduced Smed-PGRP-2 and Smed-setd8-1 expression. Smed-PGRP-2 and Smed-setd8-1 sensitize animals to heightened expression of Smed-p38 MAPK and Smed-morn2, which are downstream components of anti-bacterial responses. Our study reveals a central role of neoblasts in innate immunity against S. aureus to establish a resistance state facilitating Smed-sted8-1-dependent expression of anti-bacterial genes during re-infection.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and genetic diversity of resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent and major contagious mastitis bacterial pathogen. The antibiotic treatment cure rates vary considerably from 4% to 92%. Staphylococcus aureus readily becomes resistant to antibiotics, resulting in persistent noncurable intramammary infection that usually results i...

  2. Auranofin and related heterometallic gold(I)-thiolates as potent inhibitor/span>s of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokai, Yozane; Jurkowicz, Boruch; Fernández-Gallardo, Jacob; Zakirkhodjaev, Nuruddinkodja; Sanaú, Mercedes; Muth, Theodore R; Contel, María

    2014-09-01

    A series of new heterometallic gold(I) thiolates containing ferrocenyl-phoshines were synthesized. Their antimicrobial properties were studied and compared to that of FDA-approved drug, auranofin (Ridaura), prescribed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. MIC in the order of one digit micromolar were found for most of the compounds against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and CA MRSA strains US300 and US400. Remarkably, auranofin inhibited S. aureus, US300 and US400 in the order of 150-300 nM. This is the first time that the potent inhibitory effect of auranofin on MRSA strains has been described. The effects of a selected heterometallic compound and auranofin were also studied in a non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Darsow (U.); A. Wollenberg (A.); D. Simon; A. Taieb; T. Werfel; A.P. Oranje (Arnold); C. Gelmetti (C.); Ã. Svensson (Ãke); M. Deleuran (M.); A.M. Calza; F. Giusti; J. Lübbe (Jann); S. Seidenari (Stefania); J. Ring (J.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDifficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for

  4. Omalizumab for atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper Grønlund; Agner, Tove; Sand, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE, registered for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria and severe allergic asthma. We present a case series of nine patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated off-label with omalizumab...... and a systematic review of the existing literature. Patients were selected consecutively from a tertiary dermatological referral center during a 5-year period. All patients were treated with omalizumab at a starting dose of 300 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Systematic literature searches were performed in Pub......Med, Web of Science, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify any study (case reports, case series, and controlled trials) evaluating the effect of treatment with omalizumab in AD. Based on physicians' assessment, 50% of our patients had a good or excellent response to treatment with omalizumab...

  5. Infection cases in infants and small children with atopic dermatitis – own observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rotsztejn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The purpose of the work is to estimate the frequency of occurrence of various infections in infants and small children, aged between 0 and 36 months with atopic dermatitis in the practice of a family doctor.Material/Methods:The study has been conducted on the basis of the retrospective analysis of medical documentation of disease among children born in 2005–2008 treated in Outpatient Clinic of the Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital in Lodz.Results:Children suffering from atopic dermatitis are more prone to develop infectious diseases.Conclusions:Infectious diseases in children with atopic dermatitis are of more chronic nature and more often require antibiotic therapy. Such children often manifest chronic diarrhea and their stool contains Staphylococcus aureus. They are more often hospitalized because of difficulty in setting a diagnosis and applying treatment in outpatient clinics.

  6. Linoleic acid salt with ultrapure soft water as an antibacterial combination against dermato-pathogenic Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, H; Makita, Y; Jung, K; Ishizaka, S; Karasawa, K; Oida, K; Takai, M; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A

    2016-02-01

    Skin colonization of Staphylococcus spp. critically affects the severity of dermatitis in humans and animals. We examined different types of fatty acid salts for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus spp. when used in ultrapure soft water (UPSW). We also evaluated their therapeutic effect on a spontaneous canine model of dermatitis. UPSW, in which Ca(++) and Mg(++) were replaced with Na(+) , was generated using a water softener with cation-exchange resin. Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), Staphylococcus intermedius (Staph. intermedius), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staph. pseudintermedius) were incubated with various fatty acid salts in distilled water (DW) or UPSW and the number of bacteria was counted. Among the fatty acids, oleic acid salt and linoleic acid (LA) salt reduced the number of these bacteria. Also, UPSW enhanced the antibacterial effect of LA on Staph. spp. In spontaneously developed itchy dermatitis in companion dogs, shampoo treatment with liquid soap containing 10% LA in UPSW improved skin conditions. LA salt showed antibacterial activity against Staph. spp. Treatment with soap containing LA with UPSW reduced clinical conditions in dogs with dermatitis. Because colonization of Staph. spp. on the skin exacerbates dermatitis, the use of LA-containing soap in UPSW may reduce unpleasant clinical symptoms of the skin. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The π Configuration of the WWW Motif of a Short Trp-Rich Peptide Is Critical for Targeting Bacterial Membranes, Disrupting Preformed Biofilms, and Killing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarena, D; Mishra, Biswajit; Lushnikova, Tamara; Wang, Fangyu; Wang, Guangshun

    2017-08-08

    Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures of the membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes is poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure of an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH 2 with 50% W) determined by the improved two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance method, which includes the measurements of 13 C and 15 N chemical shifts at natural abundance. This peptide forms the shortest two-turn helix with a distinct amphipathic feature. A unique structural arrangement is identified for the Trp triplet, WWW, that forms a π configuration with W2 as the horizontal bar and W1/W3 forming the two legs. An arginine scan reveals that the WWW motif is essential for killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and disrupting preformed bacterial biofilms. This unique π configuration for the WWW motif is stabilized by aromatic-aromatic interactions as evidenced by ring current shifts as well as nuclear Overhauser effects. Because the WWW motif is maintained, a change of I7 to R led to a potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm peptide with 4-fold improvement in cell selectivity. Collectively, this study elucidated the structural basis of antibiofilm activity of the peptide, identified a better peptide candidate via structure-activity relationship studies, and laid the foundation for engineering future antibiotics based on the WWW motif.

  8. Dermatitis, atopic on the legs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are caused by an inherited allergic condition called atopic dermatitis. Many of these areas have been scratched until ... infection triggering and perpetuating the problem. In adults, atopic dermatitis frequently involves the body creases, such as inside ...

  9. Dermatitis, atopic on the arms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This person has inherited allergic skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis) on the arms. Red (erythematous), scaly plaques can be seen on the inside of the elbows (antecubital fossa). In adults, atopic dermatitis usually ...

  10. Staphylococcus hyicus in skin lesions of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Vlaminck, K; Nuytten, J; De Keersmaecker, P

    1983-07-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus (subspecies hyicus) was isolated as the only pathogenic organism from two independent cases of dermatitis of the lower parts of the limbs (grease heel) in horses. The organism was recovered together with other pathogenic staphylococci from similar conditions in two other horses of different origins. These conditions were characterised by epidermolysis, alopecia and crust formation. They responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. The organism was also isolated from a long standing case of "summer eczema" which healed without antibiotic treatment, and from a horse with dermatophilosis (streptotrichosis, Dermatophilus congolensis infection). Experimentally, Staph hyicus caused epidermolysis, exudation and inflammation in the superficial layers of the skin.

  11. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.

  12. Synergistic Anti-bacterial Effects of Phellinus baumii Ethyl Acetate Extracts and β-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Bok; Rhee, Man Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Lim, Young Hoon; Song, Hyung Geun; Shin, Kyeong Seob

    2016-03-01

    The development of new drugs or alternative therapies effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of great importance, and various natural anti-MRSA products are good candidates for combination therapies. We evaluated the antibacterial activities of a Phellinus baumii ethyl acetate extract (PBEAE) and its synergistic effects with β-lactams against MRSA. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the PBEAE. The PBEAE synergistic effects were determined by evaluating the MICs of anti-staphylococcal antibiotic mixtures, with or without PBEAE. Anti-MRSA synergistic bactericidal effects of the PBEAE and β-lactams were assessed by time-killing assay. An ELISA was used to determine the effect of the PBEAE on penicillin binding protein (PBP)2a production. The MICs and MBCs of PBEAE against MRSA were 256-512 and 1,024-2,048 μg/mL, respectively. The PBEAE significantly reduced MICs of all β-lactams tested, including oxacillin, cefazolin, cefepime, and penicillin. However, the PBEAE had little or no effect on the activity of non-β-lactams. Time-killing assays showed that the synergistic effects of two β-lactams (oxacillin and cefazolin) with the PBEAE were bactericidal in nature (Δlog10 colony forming unit/mL at 24 hr: 2.34-2.87 and 2.10-3.04, respectively). The PBEAE induced a dose-dependent decrease in PBP2a production by MRSA, suggesting that the inhibition of PBP2a production was a major synergistic mechanism between the β-lactams and the PBEAE. PBEAE can enhance the efficacy of β-lactams for combined therapy in patients infected with MRSA.

  13. Malassezia species and seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisova, Lilia G

    2009-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are medically important dimorphic, lipophilic yeasts that form part of the normal cutaneous microflora of human. Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactor disease that needs endogenous and exogenous predisposing factors for its development. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of the saprophytic opportunistic pathogen Malassezia spp. and development of a disease. The inflammatory reaction against the yeast Malassezia is considered basic in the etiology of the seborrheic dermatitis. The pathogenesis and exact mechanisms via which these yeasts cause inflammation are still not fully elucidated. They are rather complex and subject of controversy in literature. Most probably Malassezia spp. cause seborrheic dermatitis by involving and combining both nonummune and immune mechanisms (nonspecific and specific). Which of these mechanisms will dominate in any single case depends on the number and virulence of the yeasts as well as on the microorganism reactivity. In the recent years a great interest have been aroused by the epidemiological investigations. Depending on the geographical place of the countries different Malassezia species in seborrheic dermatitis dominate in the different countries. In view of the etiology and pathogenesis of the seborrheic dermatitis comprehensive antifungal preparations have been recently introduced and are nowadays the basic therapeutic resource in the treatment of this disease.

  14. Atopic dermatitis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Ricci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL. The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases.

  15. Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Karabudak

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a rare immunobullous disorder of the skin that is associated with gluten hypersensitivity. Subepidermal IgA-type antibody deposition against tissue transglutaminase leads to dense neutrophilic microabscess and eventually into vesicles in dermal papillae, which may occasionally merge into bullae. Being a subepidermal vesiculobullous disorder, DH is frequently associated with postinflammatory pigmentary changes, particularly hypopigmentation. However, the association of DH with true vitiligo is extremely rare. Here, we report a 21-year-old male with vitiligo and comorbid DH, and review the literature. This new case had severely pruritic, papular and papulovesicular lesions that were localized symmetrically and partly confined to the pre-existing vitiliginous areas. The skin biopsy specimen taken from an erythematous papule on the elbow showed characteristic findings of DH and vitiligo. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy of the perilesional skin revealed granular IgA deposition of dermal papillae. There are only 10 reports in the literature of DH and vitiligo comorbidity.

  16. Systemic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th (Th1 and Th2, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens’ distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease.

  17. Plant hair dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, R V; Haegi, L A

    1992-05-04

    To survey the ill effects of plant hairs on humans in Australia, incorporating new records. Retrospective analysis of new records, in some cases confirmed and supplemented by experimental skin contacts, along with a general survey of relevant literature. Reports of accidental injuries submitted to the authors, through either medical or other sources, and to the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium of South Australia, were studied and compared with existing literature; in some cases the effects were confirmed experimentally. A general survey of plant hair dermatitis in Australia is offered. Most species included have been referred to in the scattered earlier literature, but a few plants not previously recorded as irritating are included, notably Apalochlamys spectabilis, Wisteria sinensis and Grevillea species. Attention is also called to the penetrating and irritating pod spines of Brachychiton spp. (kurrajongs and relatives) and Lagunaria patersonii (Norfolk Island hibiscus or pyramid tree), which are often planted as ornamental street trees. Generally those most likely to receive these injuries are gardeners and children.

  18. [Severe childhood atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudh, Anis; Zaraa, Inès; Amara, Thouraya; Zribi, Hela; El Euch, Dalenda; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel

    2014-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease. It represents one of the symptoms of atopic diathesis. DA affects usually infants and children. aim : The aim of our study is to draw up the epidemiological, clinical features, treatment and outcome of severe childhood AD through a hospital series. methods: A retrospective study of 24 cases of severe childhood AD hospitalized in the Dermatology Department of La Rabta hospital of Tunis was conducted during a 28 year-period (1981 - 2009). results: The hospital incidence of severe childhood AD was 0,085‰. Patient's mean age at the beginning was 14 months. The sex ratio H/F was 1.66. Cutaneous manifestations occurred preferentially in face (75%). Generalized eczema was observed in 37.5% of cases. Pruritus and xerosis were constant. The mean duration of hospitalization was 11 days. Topical corticosteroids was the most effective method of treating severe DA, associated with antiseptic solutions emollient and antihistaminic drugs. Infectious complications were noted in 50% of cases. Ocular complications were observed in 16.7% of cases. Recurrences were reported in 9 cases. Conclusion :AD is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, and pruritic skin disorder developing in a xerotic skin. Severe AD in childhood is rare in Tunisia. It requires a good understanding of therapeutic modalities by the patient and his family. It is a cause of important morbidity and it may have a bad impact on quality of life.

  19. Bullous diaper dermatitis with cloth diaper use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya; Chen, Amy Y; Witman, Patricia

    2017-11-01

    Irritant diaper dermatitis occurs at a higher frequency with cloth diaper use than disposable diapers. We present four cases of vesiculobullous, erosive diaper dermatitis occurring in older infants and toddlers with cloth diaper use that resolved completely after transitioning to disposable diapers. This is the first report of vesicles and bullae as a type of irritant diaper dermatitis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to plastic banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M; Delaney, T A; Horton, J J

    1999-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to ultraviolet (UV) cured acrylates occurs predominantly in occupationally exposed workers. Two men presented with dermatitis coinciding with the location of banknotes in their pockets. Patch testing confirmed allergic contact dermatitis to multiple acrylates and Australian plastic banknotes. This is the first report of contact allergy to acrylates present in Australian plastic banknotes.

  2. Staphylococcus edaphicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantůček, Roman; Sedláček, Ivo; Indráková, Adéla; Vrbovská, Veronika; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Kovařovic, Vojtěch; Švec, Pavel; Králová, Stanislava; Krištofová, Lucie; Kekláková, Jana; Petráš, Petr; Doškař, Jiří

    2017-10-27

    Two Gram-stain-positive, coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains were isolated from abiotic sources, stone fragments and sandy soil in James Ross Island, Antarctica. Here we describe properties of novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that has near identical 16S rRNA gene sequence to Staphylococcus saprophyticus However, compared to S. saprophyticus and the next closest relatives, the new species demonstrates considerable phylogenetic distance at whole genome level, average nucleotide identity globalized world to their geographically distant relative from the extreme Antarctic environment. Although this new species was not exposed to the pressure of antibiotic treatment in human or veterinary practice, mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance genes were found in the genome. The presented genomic characteristics elucidate the evolutionary relationships in the Staphylococcus genus with a special focus on antimicrobial resistance, pathogenicity and survival traits. Genes encoded on mobile genetic elements were arranged in unique combinations but retained conserved locations for the integration of mobile genetic elements. These findings point to enormous plasticity of the staphylococcal pangenome shaped by horizontal gene transfer. Thus S. edaphicus can act not only as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance in a natural environment, but also as a mediator for the spread and evolution of resistance genes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995...... matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. RESULTS: Occupational...... with a statistically significant association with the occupation of hairdressing were p-phenylenediamine, thiuram mix, and benzocaine. Frequent sensitizers from the hairdressing series were ammonium persulfate, toluene-2,5-diamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide emerged...

  4. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. An update on the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Olivry, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease seen in veterinary clinical practice. Several factors appear to contribute to the cutaneous inflammation and pruritus. The therapeutic strategy should focus on control of those factors that can be identified and for which interventional measures are feasible; these include ectoparasites, bacterial/fungal infection and dietary hypersensitivity. Ectoparasites, particularly fleas, are not the cause of atopic dermatitis, but they are a confounding factor, which can exacerbate pruritus, and preventative measures are therefore indicated. Bacterial and yeast infections are frequently associated with atopic dermatitis and initial systemic and/or topical therapy should be considered, followed by regular topical treatment for preventing relapse. Concurrent dietary hypersensitivity should be investigated by undertaking an elimination/provocation trial, followed by feeding of a hypoallergenic diet where appropriate. Depending on the severity of the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and the willingness and expectations of owners, symptomatic treatment and/or specific interventional therapy for environmental allergy (allergen avoidance, allergen-specific immunotherapy) may be implemented. Symptomatic treatment includes use of glucocorticoids (systemically or topically), ciclosporin and oclacitinib. Other treatment modalities of lower or less proven efficacy include antihistamines, dextromethorphan, fatty acids, feline interferon-omega, misoprostol, pentoxifylline, specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressant drugs. The therapeutic approach should be reviewed at regular intervals and tailored to the individual's needs. A successful long-term outcome can usually be achieved by combining the various treatment approaches in a way that maximises their benefits and minimises their drawbacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Litter on Development and Severity of Foot-Pad Dermatitis and Behavior of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Zikic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter type and litter treatment with enzymatic-bacterial production incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis and consequently on behavior of broiler chickens. A total of 1,200 one day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 replicates in 2 x 2 factorial design. The first factor was the physical form of the straw (chopped on approximately 2 cm or un-chopped and the second factor was addition of enzymatic-bacterial product applied directly on the straw. Each replicate consisted of 75 as-hatched birds per pen. Occurrence and severity of the footpad dermatitis and histological evaluation of the scores was done at the end of the trial (42 days of age. During the trial, at 3 and 6 weeks of age, broiler behavior was observed by Scan Sampling Method. The results showed that chopped straw significantly lowered the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Chopped straw in combination with enzymatic-bacterial product showed the lowest footpad dermatitis score in broilers. Histological procedures confirmed the macroscopic evaluation of the footpad dermatitis severity. The chopped straw had a significant effect on some behavioral patterns of broiler chickens. Differences were observed for dust bathing and scratching. Correlation between footpad dermatitis and birds locomotor activity was not confirmed.

  7. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  8. Paederus dermatitis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Srihari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vorderman (1901 was the first to record blisters caused by beetles in medical literature. Blister beetle dermatitis is a cutaneous condition caused by the toxins released by blister beetles. The vesicant chemical in the body fluids of these insects causes an acute irritant contact dermatitis characterized by erythematovesicular lesions associated with burning sensation on exposed parts of the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological patterns of blister beetle dermatitis. We conducted a 1-year (January–December 2014 prospective study of the clinical presentation of Paederus dermatitis noticed in urban and semiurban areas close to paddy fields in the Cauvery Basin, Mysuru, Karnataka. All patients with Paederus dermatitis attending the outpatient department of Department of Dermatology were recruited in the study with a total of 37 patients. Diagnosis was made on detailed history regarding onset of lesions, symptoms, as well as thorough clinical examination of the lesions. The peak time of presentation was June–September, the monsoon season in this part of India. The average duration of lesions at the time of presentation was 2–5 days. All patients had a history of burning and itchy sensation at night followed by full blown lesions the next morning, with the face, neck, and arms being the most common sites. Patients were predominantly males with the age range of 13–55 years. The most common presentations were linear erythematous plaques and erythematovesicles with a “burnt” appearance and a gray necrotic centre. “Kissing” lesions and periorbital involvement were seen in 5 and 6 patients, respectively. Species identification of the Paederus beetles was not done. Paederus dermatitis occurs in tropical regions. Awareness about the morphological patterns of the condition will prevent misdiagnosis. Simple preventive measures can be undertaken based on the behavioral pattern of this nocturnal beetle.

  9. Contact Dermatitis Due to Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven cases of suspected plant dermatitis were patch tested with extracts of various plants. Twenty-six showed positive patch tests to one or more plant antigens. Parthenium sensitivity was observed in nine cases. Trianthema monogyna, Carissa, carandus, Amaranthus viridis, Amaranthus spinosus, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia thymibolia, Salvia plebia, lantana camera and pennisetum typhoides were other important plants founds to be responsible for contact sensitivity. Majority of the patients were from rural areas and most of them showed exacerbation of the dermatitis during rainy season. Males and females were equally affected.

  10. Effect of Ultraviolet Light Irradiation Combined with Riboflavin on Different Bacterial Pathogens from Ocular Surface Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jing; Liang, Qingfeng; Su, Guanyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiqun; Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    In order to study Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin, twelve strains of Staphylococcus epidermis and twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis. The growth situation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus under different experimental conditions was qualitatively observed. The number of colonies surviving bacteria was counted under di...

  11. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product.

  12. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  13. Profile of sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial specie that opposed more resistance again many antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from biological patient's liquids. A total of 303 samples including urine and vaginal pus samples from human were collected.

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Amira; Munir, Tehmina; Rehman, Sabahat; Najeeb, Sara; Gilani, Mehreen; Latif, Mahwish; Ansari, Maliha; Saad, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Quasi-experimental study. Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30 μg) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was ≤ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 °C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Clinicopathological study of exfoliative dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudho R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicopathological study of exfoliative dermatitis involving 25 fresh cases was carried out. Males were predominantly affected with a peak incidence between 21-30 years. Pruritus, shivering, erythema and scaling were the common clinical manifestations. Psoriasis and eczema were the most common aetiological factors and the histopathological findings were correlating with the same.

  16. Efficiency of Vanilla, Patchouli and Ylang Ylang Essential Oils Stabilized by Iron Oxide@C14 Nanostructures against Bacterial Adherence and Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Bilcu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14 in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties.

  17. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-11-04

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of soybean meal after fermentation with two fish gut bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 in for-mulated diets for Labeo rohita fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Kumar Dan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve isonitrogenous (35 % crude protein and isocaloric (18.0 kJ/g diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented soybean meal (SBM at 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% levels by weight. Two phytase-producing bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus LRF5 and Staphylococcus caprae CCF2 isolated from the gut of adult Labeo rohita and Catla catla, respectively were used for fermentation of SBM. Fermentation of SBM was effective in reducing the anti-nutritional factors, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid and enhancing protein, lipid and mineral concentration. The response of L. rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.33±0.07 g fed the experimental diets for 100 days was compared with fish fed a fish meal based diet. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, diet S7 containing 45% SBM fermented with B. cereus LRF5 resulted in a significantly (P<0.05 better performance of fish. The overall performance of L. rohita fed fermented SBM incorporated diets was better in comparison to those fed raw SBM incorporated diets. The apparent digestibility of nutrients and minerals was significantly (P<0.05 higher in fish fed diet S7. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed diet S7. Diets containing fermented SBM reduced fecal P levels. The use of this fermented feed will definitely increase the production in fish farm. Furthermore, it will also reduce the production cost, as fish meal protein is costly in the market.

  19. DERMATITIS KONTAK AKIBAT KERJA PADA PEKERJA GARMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Stepanus Biondi Pramantara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational contact dermatitis is a dermatitis that occurs due to contact with thematerials that exist in the workplace, and this is not the case if the person does not work.In the textile workers, the incidence of occupational contact dermatitis ranks fourth ofall occupational skin diseases annually in Finland. Contact dermatitis is of two kinds,namely contact dermatitis (DKI arising through non-immunologic mechanisms andallergic contact dermatitis (DKAas a result of specific immunologic mechanism (slowtype hypersensitivity reaction (type IV. To assign a material cause of contactdermatitis required a careful history taking about, a complete medical history, physicalexamination and patch test and is also required investigation into the workplace toobserve the work and what materials are usually in contact with the patient when thepatient works. Some of the materials most commonly cause dermatitis due to work ingarment workers are resins, formaldehyde and dyes. Handling contact dermatitis can bedivided into non-pharmacological therapy and pharmacology. The best way toovercome work-related contact dermatitis is prevention by avoiding contact of thematerial causes. Long-term prognosis of occupational contact dermatitis is very bad,despite the best efforts of treatment and change the type of work has been done.

  20. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments attenuate the disease severity of staphylococcal dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Na

    Full Text Available RA patients being treated with biologics are known to have an increased risk of infections. We recently demonstrated that both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment aggravate systemic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infection in mice, but with distinct clinical manifestations. However, the effects of CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatments on a local S. aureus infection (e.g., skin infection might differ from their effects on a systemic infection.The aim of this study was to examine the differential effects of anti-TNF versus CTLA4 Ig treatment on S. aureus skin infections in mice.Abatacept (CTLA4 Ig, etanercept (anti-TNF treatment or PBS was given to NMRI mice subcutaneously inoculated with S. aureus strain SH1000. The clinical signs of dermatitis, along with histopathological changes due to skin infection, were compared between the groups.Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF treatment resulted in less severe skin infections and smaller post-infectious hyperpigmentation compared with controls. Consistent with the clinical signs of dermatitis, smaller lesion size, more epithelial hyperplasia and more granulation were found in skin biopsies from mice receiving anti-TNF compared with PBS controls. However, both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapy tended to prolong the healing time, although this finding was not statistically significant. Serum MCP-1 levels were elevated in the anti-TNF group relative to the CTLA4 Ig and PBS groups, whereas IL-6 levels were higher in PBS controls than in the other two groups. Both anti-TNF and CTLA4 Ig treatments tended to down-regulate the necrosis/apoptosis ratio in the locally infected skin tissue. Importantly, no tangible difference was found in the bacterial burden among groups.Both CTLA4 Ig and anti-TNF therapies attenuate disease severity but may prolong the healing time required for S. aureus skin infections. Neither treatment has an impact on bacterial clearance in skin tissues.

  1. Diffuse HIV-associated seborrheic dermatitis - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrestel, Amy K; Kovarik, Carrie L; Mosam, Anisa; Gupta, Deepti; Maurer, Toby A; Micheletti, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is reported to have distinct clinical and histologic presentations in patients with HIV infection. Here we present 20 cases to further define some of these unique characteristics. Common features include erythematous, scaly papules, and plaques involving areas beyond the typical seborrheic distribution; thick, greasy scale on the scalp; and an increased frequency of erythroderma. Histologically, there is widespread parakeratosis, spongiosis, and necrotic keratinocytes. Treatment is often difficult, requiring prolonged use of oral and topical antifungals and corticosteroids as well as antibiotics for bacterial superinfection. SD with these features represents a marker for HIV infection and can aid in early diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

  3. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  4. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an Important agent of food poisoning. In many countries, it is the main bacterial organism responsible for diseases caused by exotoxin production and direct invasion with systemic dissemination. In poultry, S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, ...

  5. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  6. Comparative Efficacy Of Topical Ciprofloxacin On Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacinis often considered drug of first choice in the treatment of bacterial keratitis.Most of the ocular infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study set to compare the efficacy of ciprofloxacin on these two microorganisms in vitro. The “agar well diffusion” and the 10-fold ...

  7. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  8. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  9. Sites of dermatitis in a patch test population: hand dermatitis is associated with polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sites of dermatitis in larger series of contact allergic patients are rarely reported. Increased risk of polysensitization has been linked only to stasis dermatitis and leg ulcers. However, a large proportion of polysensitized individuals may have dermatitis in other skin areas...

  10. Retinal Detachment Associated With Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Nikisha; Young, Ryan C; Read, Sarah P; Tutiven, Jacqueline; Perez, Victor L; Flynn, Harry W; Berrocal, Audina M

    2017-06-01

    Ocular manifestations related to atopic dermatitis include keratoconus, keratoconjunctivitis, cataract, and retinal detachment. The authors report three cases of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. Although the pathogenesis is poorly understood, chronic blunt trauma may play a role in the development of retinal detachment. In addition, retinal detachments associated with atopic dermatitis may have lower rates of successful retinal detachment repair. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:513-517.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. How I treat...diaper dermatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Frédérique; Thirion, Laurence; Franchimont, Claudine; Letawe, Caroline; Pierard, Gérald

    2006-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most frequent skin disorder of the newborn. Several clinical types are distinguished. The most frequent type results from increased fragility of the newborn buttock skin when covered by diapers. According to the mechanisms involved and the severity of the dermatitis, one can distinguish the intertrigo of the chubby baby, and the so-called "W", "Y" and "red panties" types of diaper dermatitis. When the effects of occlusion are not controlled by adequate absorption by t...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.

  13. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry......’ risk of DD occurrence and it prospects of cure might depend on lactation stage and age. Furthermore, the study brings forward evidence that challenge the assumptions of DD as a disease with generally slow healing lesions and rare occurrence of spontaneous healing. Further research is needed to find out...

  14. Esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no published case reports of esomeprazole-induced photoallergic dermatitis. We report here a 58-year-old lady with prior history of propylthiouracil and carbimazole-induced photoallergy, who presented with heartburn and dysphagia. She was diagnosed to have erosive esophagitis and was treated with esomeprazole, following which she developed photoallergic dermatitis. It improved on cessation of the drug and did not recur on subsequent treatment with ranitidine. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was 8, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. This reaction may be due to sulphur moiety, which is common to all these drugs. Physicians must be aware of this possible side-effect, especially in patients with prior history of photoallergy to other drugs.

  15. Arthritis dermatitis syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Mendez, Monica Patricia; Ramirez Gomez, Luis Alberto

    2004-01-01

    The pediatric rheumatology is a medical specialization with many areas under developed. The prevalence, pathophysiology and form of presentation of the pediatric rheumatic disease are different of adults. The skin compromise in many pediatric rheumatic diseases is a helping sing for diagnosis. The arthritis-dermatitis syndrome can be the first manifestation of many diseases as infections, tumors and endocrine diseases, but in pediatric age the immunologic and infections diseases are really important. Among infections diseases, virus (parvovirus, rubella, HIV) and bacteria (gonococcus, meningoccus) are the most Important. Within the group of autoimmune diseases the vasculitis such as Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are among the more prevalent autoimmune disease. This is a general review about arthritis-dermatitis syndrome in pediatric age

  16. The history of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Owen N; Strom, Mark A; Ladizinski, Barry; Lio, Peter A

    Fred Wise (1881-1950) and Marion Sulzberger (1895-1983) are often credited with introducing the term atopic dermatitis to dermatology in 1933. This definition was based on atopy, a term first created by Arthur Coca (1875-1959) and Robert Cooke (1880-1960) in 1923, when they recognized an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Despite its recent introduction into our medical lexicon, historical precursors of atopic dermatitis date back to at least as early as 69-140 ce. In this contribution, we highlight both the prominent individuals credited with shaping the disorder into our current interpretation and the suspected historical precursors of this disease and reported treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... with DD lesions. Three commercial dairy herds were studied for twelve weeks with weekly observations of DD. The cows’ feet were washed on the left side in an automatic hoof washer, whereas feet in the right side were left unwashed and thus acted as a negative control. Washed legs in parity 1 and 3+ cows...

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2014-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.

  20. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2017-04-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the “Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016” together with those for other allergic diseases.

  1. Contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, A. B.; Johansen, J. D.; Deleuran, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis is frequently debated. Previously, patients with atopic dermatitis were believed to have a reduced ability to produce a type IV immunological response. However, this belief has been challenged and authors have highlighted the risk...... frequencies of positive patch test reactions in children with atopic dermatitis. We identified 436 manuscripts of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. Although the literature is conflicting, it is evident that contact allergy is a common problem in children with atopic dermatitis....

  2. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Bacterial Expression Profiles Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to determine the phytochemicals in the active fraction. Results: Five differentially expressed bacterial proteins (four from Escherichia coli and one from Staphylococcus aureus), were identified via ...

  4. Bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implant materials and a novel oxygen plasma modified PEEK surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochford, E. T. J.; Poulsson, A. H. C.; Salavarrieta Varela, J.; Lezuo, P.; Richards, R. G.; Moriarty, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive use of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in biomedical applications, information about bacterial adhesion to this biomaterial is limited. This study investigated Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to injection moulded and machined PEEK OPTIMA (R) using a

  5. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, P; Praveen Krishna, V; Bharath, D; Lavanya, Raajaraam; Vairaprakash, Pothiappan; Adline Princy, S

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widely acknowledged Gram-positive pathogen for forming biofilm and virulence gene expressions by quorum sensing (QS), a cell to cell communication process. The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up-regulates the expression of many virulence factors including biofilm formation to mediate pathogenesis and evasion of the host immune system in the late phases of growth. Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down-regulation of biofilm and virulence factors. In this context, here we have synthesized 2-[(Methylamino)methyl]phenol, which was specifically targeted toward the quorum regulator SarA through in silico approach in our previous study. The molecule has been evaluated in vitro to validate its antibiofilm activity against clinical S. aureus strains. In addition, antivirulence properties of the inhibitor were confirmed with the observation of a significant reduction in the expression of representative virulence genes like fnbA, hla and hld that are governed under S. aureus QS. Interestingly, the SarA targeted inhibitor showed negligible antimicrobial activity and markedly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of conventional antibiotics when used in combination making it a more attractive lead for further clinical tests.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Jean Marie; Kaye, Keith S; Reed, Shelby D; Peter, Senaka A; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F; Hardy, N Chantelle; Tong, Steven Yc; Smugar, Steven S; Fowler, Vance G; Anderson, Deverick J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common and most important pathogen following knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Understanding the epidemiology of invasive S. aureus infections is important to quantify this serious complication. This nested retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients who had undergone insertion of knee or hip prostheses with clean or clean-contaminated wound class at 11 hospitals between 2003-2006. Invasive S. aureus infections, non-superficial incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) and blood stream infections (BSIs), were prospectively identified following each procedure. Prevalence rates, per 100 procedures, were estimated. 13,719 prosthetic knee (62%) and hip (38%) insertion procedures were performed. Of 92 invasive S. aureus infections identified, SSIs were more common (80%) than SSI and BSI (10%) or BSI alone (10%). The rate of invasive S. aureus infection/100 procedures was 0.57 [95% CI: 0.43-0.73] for knee insertion and 0.83 [95% CI: 0.61-1.08] for hip insertion. More than half (53%) were methicillin-resistant. Median time-to-onset of infection was 34 and 26 days for knee and hip insertion, respectively. Infection was associated with higher National Healthcare Safety Network risk index (p ≤ 0.0001). Post-operative invasive S. aureus infections were rare, but difficult-to-treat methicillin-resistant infections were relatively common. Optimizing preventative efforts may greatly reduce the healthcare burden associated with S. aureus infections.

  7. Current insights into the role of human β-defensins in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieosilapatham, P; Ogawa, H; Niyonsaba, F

    2017-11-01

    Anti-microbial peptides or host defence peptides are small molecules that display both anti-microbial activities and complex immunomodulatory functions to protect against various diseases. Among these peptides, the human β-defensins (hBDs) are localized primarily in epithelial surfaces, including those of the skin, where they contribute to protective barriers. In atopic dermatitis skin lesions, altered skin barrier and immune dysregulation are believed to be responsible for reduced hBD synthesis. Impaired hBD expression in the skin is reportedly the leading cause of increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. Although hBDs have considerable beneficial effects as anti-microbial agents and immunomodulators and may ameliorate atopic dermatitis clinically, recent evidence has also suggested the negative effects of hBDs in atopic dermatitis development. In the current review, we provide an overview of the regulation of hBDs and their role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The efforts to utilize these molecules in clinical applications are also described. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  8. A cathelicidin-2-derived peptide effectively impairs Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molhoek, E.M.; van Dijk, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; Haagsman, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of nosocomial infections owing to its ability to form biofilms on the surface of medical devices. Biofilms are surface-adhered bacterial communities. In mature biofilms these communities are encased in an extracellular matrix composed of bacterial

  9. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... bacterial pathogens, S. aureus probe, Staphylococcus spp. probe, nucleic acid fixture positive controls and positive experimental control ... bacterial pathogens by which raw milk is contaminated in most cases, can result in ... benign skin infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome ...

  10. Seborrhoeic dermatitis: An overview | Schwartz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects the scalp, central face, and anterior chest. In adolescents and adults, it often presents as scalp scaling (dandruff). Seborrhoeic dermatitis also may cause mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold, often with scaling. Stress can cause flare-ups. The scales are greasy, not dry, as commonly ...

  11. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  12. Seborrheic dermatitis among Oxford renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, A; Casabonne, D; Newton, R; Wojnarowska, F

    2010-05-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of 1-3% in the general population. It is recognized more commonly in those infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No studies have looked at Seborrheic dermatitis in the context of immunosuppression secondary to organ transplantation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Seborrheic dermatitis in a renal transplant population and characteristics of those affected. A prospective study of 308 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) was carried out. All participants were examined for Seborrheic dermatitis. Descriptive statistics were employed and associations with Seborrheic dermatitis were examined using Fisher's exact test to calculate P-exact values, and Student's t-test was used to compare mean ages and time since transplantation. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows. Seborrheic dermatitis was identified in 29/308 (9.5%) patients and was more common in males (P-exact = 0.004) and in those who had been transplanted for longer (P = 0.02). The disease was mild-moderate severity in the majority but an unusual flexural appearance was recorded in 7/29 patients. Seborrheic dermatitis was less likely in those taking prednisolone (P-exact = 0.006) or tacrolimus (P-exact = 0.008). Seborrheic dermatitis was significantly associated with cutaneous malignancy, in particular squamous cell carcinoma (P-exact Seborrheic dermatitis is more common than other inflammatory dermatoses in immunosuppressed RTRs, but is not as frequent as in those immunosuppressed secondary to HIV. Degree and duration of exposure to immunosuppression and increased colonization with Malassezia yeast genus are likely be important in the aetiology of Seborrheic dermatitis in RTRs. Further studies are required to clarify this.

  13. Contact dermatitis from compositae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Sharma

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty patients (58 males and 22 females suspected of compositae contact dermatitis and 22 controls were investigated using ethanolic plants extracts., Fifty four (68% patients and none of the controls had positive patch tests. Forty five (56% of these patients showed positive reactions with, extracts of only a single Compositae plant. Parthenium hysterophorus produced positive reactions in 51%, Chrysanthemum morifolium in 23%, Dahlia pinnata in 9% and Tagetes indica in 4% patients. The highest number (84% of patients with positive patch tests were exposed to these plants during their occupation.

  14. Contact dermatitis due to minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year old girl having androgenetic alopecia developed itching and erythema on the scalp one month after she started applying a commercial preparation containing 2% minoxidil. The dermatitis disappeared on discontinuing minoxidil but recurred when she applied minoxidil again after a gap of 1 month. Patch tests revealed a papulo-vesicular reaction with the commercial minoxidil lotion and also with a minoxidil tablet powdered and made into a paste with distilled water. Patch tests with ethyl alcohol were negative.

  15. [Seborrheic dermatitis in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Francesca; Mercuri, Santo Raffaele; Naldi, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches in areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is one of the most frequent skin disorders and may be socially embarrassing. Fungi of the genus Malassezia, lipid-dependent, ubiquitous skin residents, play a pathogenic role. Topical antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole) are the mainstay of treatment, and if used intermittently they can maintain remission. The vehicle itself may also play a relevant role. Improvements in diagnostic criteria, severity measures and outcome variables are needed to better design clinical trials and inform clinical practice.

  16. Evolving Concepts in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidbury, Robert; Khorsand, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever. Studies of primary prevention have gained traction including the remarkable impacts of early emollient therapy. Basic advances have simultaneously elucidated the nature of atopic inflammation, setting the stage for an explosion of new potential therapeutic targets. After a fallow period of nearly 15 years without a substantial therapeutic advance, this year has already seen two new FDA-approved treatments for AD. AD has a tremendous impact on quality of life with an underappreciated burden of disease; there are important newly described co-morbidities including ADHD and anemia; new insights into etio-pathogenesis have paved the way for novel topical therapies like crisaborole, and new systemic interventions like dupilumab.

  17. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  18. Family management of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hae Kyoung; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Heejung; Chung, Kyoungmee; Kim, Hee-Soon

    2018-02-22

    To identify the variables that affect family management of childhood atopic dermatitis and establish a prediction model based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent skin disease and common health problem in childhood. It is necessary to use an approach that includes parental factors when considering the effective management of childhood atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study design. A convenience sample, comprising 168 Korean mothers caring for a child with atopic dermatitis under the age of 13, was recruited from the pediatric outpatient departments of two general hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Data were collected using structured self-reported questionnaires including severity, antecedents, effort, self-efficacy and family management of childhood atopic dermatitis from 1 November 1 2015 - 28 February 28 2016. Descriptive statistics regarding the participants and variables were examined and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The hypothetical model had an adequate fit to the data, indicating that severity, antecedents, effort and self-efficacy influenced family management of childhood atopic dermatitis. These results suggest that strategies to support children with atopic dermatitis and their family should consider the influence of such variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Contact dermatitis from Eriodictyon parryi: a novel cause of contact dermatitis in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, Christopher D

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Eriodictyon parryi, better known as poodle-dog bush, is a growing cause of contact dermatitis in California. Blooming after a large fire, E parryi is a threat to reforestation workers as well as countless outdoor enthusiasts across the state. This paper focuses on the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of contact dermatitis from this little-researched plant. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  1. Reduction of Staphylococcus Spp. in jerked beef samples after irradiation with Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to isolate and identify Staphylococcus genus microorganisms in jerked beef before and after radiation doses between 2, 4 and 6kGy. Jerked beef samples were obtained on a Recife-PE supermarket network and divided into three lots. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed. Sub-samples were assigned to the control group and to the irradiation source of cobalt-60 on doses of 2, 4 and 6kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile water and stirred for 15 minutes creating wash water, and another part was added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile distilled water that was at rest at room temperature for 14 hours there is the formation of a water desalting. 1μL aliquots of this water was removed and sown by depletion in sheep blood agar medium and incubated at 35 °C for 24 hours for analysis of bacterial growth. After Gram staining colonies classified as Gram positive arranged in bunches were subjected to biochemical tests for identification. Were isolated and identified 94 strains of the genus Staphylococcus being 72 (76%) of the control group and 22 (24%) after irradiation. Of the 22 isolates, after irradiation, with 2 kGy 7 species were identified as Staphylococcus succinus, Staphylococcus carnosus sub. carnosus, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus sub. saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus auricularis all coagulase negative and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus sub. anaerobius. At a dose of 4kGy were identified six species: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus aureus sub. anaerobius. Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus saprophyticus sub. saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were isolated and identified after a dose of 6 kGy. Was observed that irradiation significantly reduced microbial load, and increased dose decreased the number of

  2. Reduction of Staphylococcus Spp. in jerked beef samples after irradiation with Co-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque, E-mail: marcioalbuquerquesilva@gmail.com [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Genomica Funcional e Bioinformatica; Costa, Maria Claudia V.Vicalvi; Junior, Carlos Eduardo de O.C.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: claudiavicalvi@hotmail.com, E-mail: oliveiracosta@msn.com, E-mail: evelyne_solidonio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.br, E-mail: k.xisto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed to isolate and identify Staphylococcus genus microorganisms in jerked beef before and after radiation doses between 2, 4 and 6kGy. Jerked beef samples were obtained on a Recife-PE supermarket network and divided into three lots. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed. Sub-samples were assigned to the control group and to the irradiation source of cobalt-60 on doses of 2, 4 and 6kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile water and stirred for 15 minutes creating wash water, and another part was added to an Erlenmeyer flask with 225 ml of sterile distilled water that was at rest at room temperature for 14 hours there is the formation of a water desalting. 1μL aliquots of this water was removed and sown by depletion in sheep blood agar medium and incubated at 35 °C for 24 hours for analysis of bacterial growth. After Gram staining colonies classified as Gram positive arranged in bunches were subjected to biochemical tests for identification. Were isolated and identified 94 strains of the genus Staphylococcus being 72 (76%) of the control group and 22 (24%) after irradiation. Of the 22 isolates, after irradiation, with 2 kGy 7 species were identified as Staphylococcus succinus, Staphylococcus carnosus sub. carnosus, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus sub. saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus auricularis all coagulase negative and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus sub. anaerobius. At a dose of 4kGy were identified six species: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus aureus sub. anaerobius. Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus saprophyticus sub. saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were isolated and identified after a dose of 6 kGy. Was observed that irradiation significantly reduced microbial load, and increased dose decreased the number of

  3. Corrosion, haemocompatibility and bacterial adhesion behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were examined in order to evaluate the coating's compatibility for ideal implant. Results revealed that TiZrN coatings exhibited less bacterial attachment against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, negligible platelets ...

  4. Targeted anti-staphylococcal therapy with endolysins in atopic dermatitis and the effect on steroid use, disease severity and the microbiome: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MAAS trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totté, J.; Wit, J. de; Pardo, L.; Schuren, F.; Doorn, M. van; Pasmans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with reduced skin microbial diversity and overgrowth of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. However, the importance of S. aureus colonisation in the complex pathogenesis remains unclear and studies on the effect of anti-staphylococcal therapy in non-infected

  5. Targeted anti-staphylococcal therapy with endolysins in atopic dermatitis and the effect on steroid use, disease severity and the microbiome: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MAAS trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); de Wit, J. (Jill); Pardo, L. (Luba); Schuren, F. (Frank); van Doorn, M. (Martijn); S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with reduced skin microbial diversity and overgrowth of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. However, the importance of S. aureus colonisation in the complex pathogenesis remains unclear and studies on the effect of anti-staphylococcal therapy in

  6. Management of Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Golpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing skin disorder that affects all ages including infancy and childhood. There are many proved and unproved treatments for atopic dermatitis. Evidence Acquisition Data sources of this narrative review included studies about pediatric atopic dermatitis with the following keywords, pediatric, atopic dermatitis, immunity, acute, chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disorder, infancy, childhood, diagnosis, management and treatment. All of the articles were written in English language with full text on management or treatment. Results Innate and adaptive immune system involved atopic dermatitis. Major characteristics of atopic dermatitis include pruritus, chronic or relapsing lesions and personal or family history of atopic disease. There is no specific treatment for atopic dermatitis. The treatment included rehydration, emollients, topical steroid, calcineurin inhibitors and immunosuppressant. Crisaborole topical ointment, a PDE4 anti-inflammatory topical agent (phase three of the research could be effective in atopic dermatitis. Conclusions Avoidance from trigger factors and emollients are basic treatments of atopic dermatitis.

  7. Atopic dermatitis phenotypes and the need for personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Brehler, Ann-Christin; Novak, Natalija

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent developments in therapies which target the molecular mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Recent findings Current advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis are leading to the stratification of different atopic dermatitis phenotypes. New therapies offer the option to target-specific molecules involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. Current new therapies under investigation aim to modulate specific inflammatory pathways associated with distinctive atopic dermatitis phenotypes, which would potentially translate into the development of personalized, targeted-specific treatments of atopic dermatitis. Summary Despite the unmet need for well tolerated, effective, and personalized treatment of atopic dermatitis, the current standard treatments of atopic dermatitis do not focus on the individual pathogenesis of the disease. The development of targeted, phenotype-specific therapies has the potential to open a new promising era of individualized treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:28582322

  8. Typical and atypical clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex, systemic inflammatory disorder associated with a variety of clinical features. The original criteria of Hanifin and Rajka include major criteria and a list of about two dozen minor criteria however, even the minor criteria do not include some features of atopic dermatitis noted less commonly but still seen with some frequency. This contribution first reviews the common clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis in infancy, childhood, and adulthood, as well as the less typical appearances, including lichenoid atopic dermatitis; juvenile plantar dermatosis; nummular-type atopic dermatitis; follicular atopic dermatitis; alopecia of atopic dermatitis; eczema coxsackium; and psoriasiform, perineal, and lip licker's dermatitis. The clinician will be able to recognize and treat rarer forms of atopic dermatitis and incorporate this into their daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis.

  10. Photocontact dermatitis on the hand (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This person is sensitive to chemicals used in perfumes, and now develops a rash when the area is exposed to light (photocontact dermatitis). These perfumes include Oil of Bergamot, an oil also found ...

  11. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page] Español [PDF – 1 page] “Hot Tub Rash” ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) If contaminated water comes in contact ... is often caused by infection with the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa . This germ is common in the environment ( ...

  13. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: JAK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Schairer, David; Eichenfield, Lawrence

    2018-03-01

    The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway is a conserved master regulator of immunity and myeloproliferation. Advanced understanding of this pathway has led to development of targeted inhibitors of Janus kinases (Jakinibs). As a class, JAK inhibitors effectively treat a multitude of hematologic and inflammatory diseases. Given such success, use of JAK inhibitors for mitigation of atopic dermatitis is under active investigation. Herein, we review the evolving data on the safety and efficacy of JAK inhibitors in treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although it is still early in the study of JAK inhibitors for atopic dermatitis, evidence identifies JAK inhibitors as effective alternatives to conventional therapies. Nonetheless, multiple large safety and efficacy trials are needed before widespread use of JAK inhibitors can be advocated for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  15. Pitiriasis Alba: Kelainan Hipopigmentasi Pada Dermatitis Atopik

    OpenAIRE

    Yulyana, Cyntia; Yulianti, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Pitiriasis alba (PA) merupakan suatu bentuk dermatitis yang tidak spesifik dan belum diketahui penyebabnya. Teori tentang dermatitis atopik (DA) dan proses pasca peradangan berperan penting sebagai penyebab terjadinya lesi awal. Kelainan ini sering dijumpai pada anak-anak dan biasanya tanpa keluhan. Lesinya berupa makula hipopigmentasi, berbentuk bulat, oval atau plakat yang tidak teratur dengan atau tanpa skuama halus yang melekat, biasanya terdapat pada muka. Diagnosis PAberdasarkan awitan ...

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Jun Lee, Moosang KimDepartment of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis ca...

  17. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus intermedius in Humans in Contact with Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, R. G.; Marples, R. R.; Noble, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    A study of staphylococci isolated from the anterior nares of 16 owners of dogs with atopic dermatitis and 13 veterinary practice staff in constant contact with dogs was conducted. There was one persistent nasal carrier and four transient nasal carriers of Staphylococcus intermedius. This carriage rate is higher than previously reported and presumably contributes to the presence of antibodies to S. intermedius in about 20 per cent of the normal population. Thus transfer of S. intermedius from ...

  19. ATOPIC DERMATITIS: NEW ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease, which demands a prolonged treatment. A modern views on the main approaches to treatment of atopic dermatitis in children and adults are analyzed in this article. The treatment is based on the permanent use of emollients in order to achieve an anti-inflammatory effect — topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, and short courses (5 days of topical corticosteroids during relapses. For the 10-year period of topical calcineurin inhibitors usage in treatment of atopic dermatitis a great amount of experimental and clinical data have been accumulated. Two the most important changes and additions in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in recent times were related to a new hypothesis of proactive therapy with the use of topical tacrolimus and closing of «black box» warnings, associated to malignization risk due to the long-term usage of topical calcineurin inhibitors. Since atopic dermatitis is characterized by relapsing course, nowadays topical tacrolimus should be considered the most appropriate treatment approach, both in adults and children. The results of investigations confirmed more than 6-times decrease in relapse rate, as well as the significant improvement of quality of life, when the above-mentioned treatment scheme is used, both in children and adults.Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, emollients, treatment, tacrolimus.

  20. Fragrance series testing in eyelid dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Kurt S; Ehrlich, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.

  1. Optimizing treatment approaches in seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Goldenberg

    2013-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson's disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment.

  2. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  3. A novel member of the thermolysin family, cloning and biochemical characterization of metalloprotease from Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Bista, Michal; Sabat, Artur J.; Bonar, Emilia; Grzeszczuk, Sabina; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Dubin, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Thermolysins constitute a family of secreted bacterial metalloproteases expressed, among others, by several pathogens. Strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs and judged as protease-positive, by skim milk agar plate culture, were investigated for protease content. No

  4. Hyperlinearity in atopic dermatitis, on the palm (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a manifestation of atopic dermatitis on the palm. Individuals with atopic dermatitis characteristically have increased numbers and depth of skin lines (hyperlinearity) on the palms with little ...

  5. Clinical patterns of Compositae dermatitis in Danish monosensitized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis was originally described as airborne contact dermatitis. More recent studies have reported a wider clinical spectrum, but often in polysensitized patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of patients sensitized to Compositae only. PATIENTS/METHODS: C...

  6. Relevance of patch testing in patients with nummular dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A chronic dermatosis like nummular dermatitis may be complicated by contact dermatitis due to an impaired cutaneous barrier. This study is aimed at evaluating secondary contact dermatitis in patients with nummular dermatitis. Methods: Patch testing with the Indian Standard Series was performed in 50 of 78 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nummular eczema. Significant reactions were graded as per ICDRG criteria. Results: Significant reactions were noted in 23 of 50 tested patients. The most frequent sensitizers were colophony, nitrofurazone, neomycin sulfate and nickel sulfate (7.14% each Reactions to antigens in topical medications, cosmetics and toiletries constituted 64.28% of all the reactions. Conclusions: Patients with nummular dermatitis are at significant risk of developing secondary allergic contact dermatitis, which contributes to the severity and chronicity of their dermatitis. Patch testing has the potential to improve the quality of life in these patients. Hence, patients with chronic recalcitrant nummular dermatitis must be patch tested.

  7. The role of antihistamines in chronic actinic dermatitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inveterate actinic dermatitis is an immunologically mediated photodermatosis characterized by itchy eczematous dermhelminthiasis exposed to sunlight. The disease proceeds in the same way as the atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis. The treatment of patients with inveterate actinic dermatitis is similar to the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis and eczema. Administration of the modern antihistaminic preparation desloratadine (Aerius in the treatment has a positive effect on the skin process relief and on some cellular and humoral immunity factors.

  8. Immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis : clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tengvall Linder, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Serum IgE levels are elevated in 80% of atopic dermatitis patients and CD4+ T cells and environmental allergens are known to be of importance in the pathogenesis of the disease. It was therefore of interest to further elucidate the role of these factors in atopic dermatitis. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was used as a tool for exploring the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with emphasis on the...

  9. Occupational contact dermatitis in painters - an analysis of patch test data from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Zachariae, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Background. Painters are among the occupational groups that most commonly experience occupational contact dermatitis, but few investigations exist concerning this occupation. Objectives. To characterize painters with contact dermatitis and identify the most common allergens associated with the oc...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gary W; Pope, Sara M; Jaboori, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition in infants, adolescents, and adults. The characteristic symptoms-scaling, erythema, and itching-occur most often on the scalp, face, chest, back, axilla, and groin. Seborrheic dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on the location and appearance of the lesions. The skin changes are thought to result from an inflammatory response to a common skin organism, Malassezia yeast. Treatment with antifungal agents such as topical ketoconazole is the mainstay of therapy for seborrheic dermatitis of the face and body. Because of possible adverse effects, anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors should be used only for short durations. Several over-the-counter shampoos are available for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, and patients should be directed to initiate therapy with one of these agents. Antifungal shampoos (long-term) and topical corticosteroids (short-term) can be used as second-line agents for treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  11. Atopic dermatitis in Tunisian schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouri, Meriem; Masmoudi, Abderahmen; Borgi, Nozha; Rebai, Ahmed; Turki, Hamida

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is low in North Africa. We describe the epidemiology of this atopic condition among school children in Tunisia. Methods We conducted a Cross-sectional survey study of 5 to 6-year-old schoolchildren from 21 primary schools of Sfax. The diagnosis of AD was based on the U.K. Working Party diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire including these criteria and some risk factors of AD was issued to the children. All children were examined by one dermatologist. Results Among the 1617 examined children, ten had AD giving a one-year prevalence of 0.65%. The overall sex ratio was 2.33. The disease occurred before the age of 2 years in 3 children. Pure AD without concomitant respiratory allergies was noted in 3 cases. One first-degree family member with atopy was at least noted in seven children. The strongest associated factor was the presence of AD in at least one parent and maternal age at the time of the child birth. Nor breast-feeding neither environmental characteristics of the house did correlate with AD. Conclusion The prevalence of AD in Tunisian schoolchildren is low but comparable to those of other developing countries. Family history of atopy and maternal age at the birth time was the most important associated factors. PMID:22145066

  12. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. DERMATITIS PELAGROSA. REPORTE DE CASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Alvarez-Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La pelagra es una enfermedad cada vez menos frecuente. Debida a una deficiencia de niacina en la dieta, principalmente, en áreas donde la alimentación es muy deficiente y/o el consumo de alcohol es importante. La pelagra o síndrome de las tres D, se caracteriza por demencia, dermatitis y diarrea.Se reporta un caso donde predominaron las lesiones localizadas en la piel de la cara, región anterior del cuello, brazos, antebrazos, dorso de las manos, tercio distal de las piernas y dorso de los pies, de tipo eritematoescamosas, con zonas agrietadas y descamación de la piel y despigmentación en otras áreas bien delimitadas en relación con la piel normal.El tratamiento con Nicotinamida produjo notable mejoría de las lesiones en piel. En evaluación posterior al alta las lesiones en piel habían desaparecidos.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have ha...

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...

  16. Dermatitis neglecta -- A dirty dermatosis: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis neglecta is a condition that results from inadequate frictional cleansing leading to accumulation of corneocytes, sebum and sweat ultimately resulting in hyper-pigmented patch or verrucous plaque. Recognizing this condition avoids unnecessary, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Here we report three cases of dermatitis neglecta in whom the dermatitis developed as a result of intentional neglect of personal hygiene.

  17. Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Urticaria: Cutaneous Manifestations of Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudinski, Martin Robert; Milner, Joshua D

    2017-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic urticaria are common conditions of the skin that can also be the presenting symptoms of uncommon diseases. Defects leading to immunodeficiency may be associated with atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria. Unusually severe or otherwise atypical presentations of atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria may lead to clinical suspicion of an underlying immunodeficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organisms encountered include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces sp, Rhodotorula sp, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Micrococcus sp. The resistances of thirty bacterial strains isolated from orange juice products to the commonly used ...

  19. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Photobacterium damselae, Serratia liquefaciens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Vibrio sp. survived after prolonged freezing. Two bacterial species viz. Shewanella putrefaciens and Aeromonas ...

  20. Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis (puppy strangle in Pekingese and German shepherd puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis is an uncommon granulomatous and pustular disorder of the face, pinnae, and submandibular lymph nodes of puppies. A 10-week-old male Pekingese and a 8-week-old female German shepherd presented with submandibular lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions on muzzle and periocular area (Papules, crusts and pustules. The case did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Results of a hemogram, biochemical panel, and urinalysis were normal. Due to skin scraping, cytology examination (impression smear, fungal and bacterial culture and response to therapy puppy strangle (juvenile cellulitis was diagnosed. The puppies made a full recovery on glucocorticoid therapy. The present case report describes the first report of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis in Iran.

  1. IgE-Selective Immunoadsorption for Severe Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperkiewicz, Michael; Mook, Sophie-Charlotte; Knuth-Rehr, Diana; Vorobyev, Artem; Ludwig, Ralf J; Zillikens, Detlef; Muck, Philip; Schmidt, Enno

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports proposed the application of immunoadsorption (IA) for patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis (AD) and high-serum IgE levels. However, experience with this novel treatment approach, especially with the newly available IgE-specific adsorber, is limited and recommendation for its use in clinical practice awaits evidence from more studies. Patients with severe AD (SCORAD ≥ 60) and total serum IgE levels ≥750 kU/L were included in this study. The treatment protocol consisted of two cycles of five consecutive treatments with IgE-selective IA 3 weeks apart. Ten patients were enrolled and four patients completed the study. The mean SCORAD was significantly improved by up to 43% within a few weeks and until the end of a 6-month follow-up period, with 50% of patients achieving an at least 50% individual reduction of the baseline SCORAD. Each IA cycle induced a temporal average decrement of total serum levels of IgE, IgM, IgA, and IgG by 92, 43, 38, and 35%, respectively. Except for one case of Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, no major adverse events occurred. Although limited by a considerable withdrawal rate, our observations strengthen our and other recent results further suggesting that IgE-selective IA is an effective treatment option for patients severely affected by AD with highly elevated IgE levels.

  2. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R

    2018-01-01

    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

    OpenAIRE

    ELVIRA BELI; RENIS MAÇI; SONILA ÇOÇOLI; HALIT MEMOÇI

    2014-01-01

    Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albani...

  4. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia, Dragos C; Iancu, Cezar; Steriade, Alexandru T; Muntean, Alexandru A; Balint, Octavian; Popa, Vlad T; Popa, Mircea I; Bogdan, Miron A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history). Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were ob...

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether...... the prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy...... and ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  6. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  7. Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ichiro; Aihara, Michiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shimojo, Naoki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamada, Hidekazu

    2017-04-01

    Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016" together with those for other allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While much is known about childhood atopic dermatitis, little is known about persistence of atopic dermatitis into adult life. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the clinical course of atopic dermatitis in an unselected cohort of adolescents followed into adulthood. METHODS......: The course of atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood was studied prospectively in a cohort of unselected 8th-grade schoolchildren established in 1995 and followed up in 2010 with questionnaire and clinical examination. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was high (34...

  9. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  10. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilu, Prayolga Toban; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus sp. is one of the most dangerous bacteria that could cause food poisoning. It is a pathogenic bacterium which is able to produce enterotoxin in foods. Milk is an ideal growth medium for Staphylococcus sp., that may cause problem if it is to be consumed, especially by infant. It is the objective of this research to detect the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk. As many as 14 samples obtained from market were used as samples for bacterial isolation. The isolation were done by employing enrichment step on BHI-broth, continued with Baird-Parker Agar which will produce a typical colony. It is then picked and grown on Mannitol Salt Agar, and gram staining, coagulase assay, and fermentation tests. The confirmation step was done by using API-Staph which gives the identification of Staphylococcus hemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a percentage of identity ranging from 65.9-97.7%. Two isolates with the highest identification similarity values were then picked for molecular detection. A PCR primer pair targeting gene coding for enterotoxin A was used, and it gives positive result for the two isolates being tested. It is then concluded that the two isolates belong to Staphylococcus sp., and further research need to be done to correctly identify these isolates.

  11. Optimization of lipase production by Staphylococcus sp. Lp12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacterial strain isolated from an oil contaminated soil, identified as Staphylococcus sp. Lp12 was screened for lipase activity on tributyrin agar and spirit blue agar medium. Maximum lipase production was observed at 48 h of growth (3.5 Eu/ml). Peptone was found to be as an ideal nitrogen source for production at a ...

  12. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne diseases if consumed in contaminated milk products. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogen S. aureus is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. It is still a challenge to detect and identify bacterial pathogens quickly and ...

  13. Optimization of lipase production by Staphylococcus sp. Lp12

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus,. Achromobacter have been cloned and characterized. Bacterial lipases are mostly inducible enzymes and require some form of oil, fatty acid, fatty acid alcohol or fatty acid ester and surfactants for induction (Immanuel et al., 2008). Lipase biosynthesis ...

  14. Prevalence of Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen that causes different community and hospital-acquired infections. Over time, strains of S. aureus have become resistant to different antibiotics including penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Having data on the local antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of this pathogen is ...

  15. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  16. Structural basis of phospholipase activity of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesinga, Jan J. W.; van Pouderoyen, Gertie; Nardini, Marco; Ransac, Stephane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus lipase differs from other bacterial lipases in its high phospholipase A, activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the S. hyicus lipase at 2.86 angstrom resolution. The lipase is in an open conformation, with the active site partly covered by a neighbouring molecule.

  17. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wound colonization by microorganisms is most frequently polymicrobial and incidences of high level resistance among bacterial isolates from wounds have been reported. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extendedspectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram-negative bacteria both constitute ...

  18. Heat shock protein HSP40 family chaperone DNAJB6/MRJ expression analysis in blood cells obtained from patients with atopic dermatitis in different phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elistratova, I V; Ivanchenko, O B; Grechko, A V; Morozov, S G

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein HSP40 family molecular chaperone DNAJB6/MRJ expression has been analyzed in blood cells of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with healthy donors. Severity of disease was estimated according index SCORAD. Peripheral blood cells were separated using Percoll density gradient. Purified neutrophils and lymphocytes have been stained with antibodies to the heat shock protein DNAJB6/MRJ. Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. Real time PCR method has been used to verify the bacterial contamination of the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Expression of DNAJB6/MRJ protein has been found to be elevated in all samples of cells obtained from patients with atopic dermatitis. The highest level of the DNAJB6/MRJ protein expression was shown in neutrophils at the acute phase of severe atopic dermatitis. DNAJB6/MRJ protein expression in lymphocytes of patients with atopic patients was less extensive compared with neutrophil level and was shown to be higher at subacute phase of disease. The DNAJB6/MRJ protein expression was found to be statistically significant higher in lymphocytes from atopic patients compared with healthy donors. The bacterial contamination of skin (verified by PCR) was shown to influence the DNAJB6/MRJ protein level in lymphocytes of atopic dermatitis patients. Expression of the heat shock protein DNAJB6/MRJ was elevated in neutrophils and lymphocytes of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with healthy donors. The highest level of the DNAJB6/MRJ protein was found to be in neutrophils at acute phase of severe atopic dermatitis and gradually decline as continue to the disease.

  19. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonia Pastor-Nieto, María; Olivares, Mercedes; Sánchez-Herreros, Consuelo; Belmar, Paulina; De Eusebio, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat certain types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Metvix cream applied topically in PDT is composed of the active substance methyl aminolevulinate and 14 excipients composing the vehicle. One case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reported. A 49-year-old nurse's aide working in a PDT unit in the dermatology department developed a dermatitis involving the eyelids and fingers. The lesions began a few months after she started working in that unit. Patch tests were performed with the standard series (Spanish Group for Research into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies [GEIDAC]), cosmetics series, Metvix cream "as is," the Metvix vehicle supplied by the manufacturer, and some of the excipients separately (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipagin M], propyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipasol M], isopropyl myristate, cetostearyl alcohol [Lanette N], and disodium edetate). After day-2, day-4, and day-7 readings, positive results were achieved only with Metvix cream "as is." Tests performed on a control group of 15 individuals were negative. Literature on cases of allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reviewed. It should be emphasized that the present case is the first occupational case reported so far.

  20. Parthenium dermatitis in a HIV patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Sekar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium dermatitis is a distressing problem in India. Both type 1 (immediate and late phase reaction and type 4 hypersensitivity phenomenon play a role in pathogenesis. We prick tested the patient after administering various drugs to assess the best agent to prevent late phase reaction.

  1. Pustular Dermatitis Caused by Dermatophilus congolensis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Eileen M.; Juzych, Lydia A.; Rudrik, James T.; Habib, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism. PMID:17376877

  2. Pustular Dermatitis Caused by Dermatophilus congolensis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Eileen M.; Juzych, Lydia A.; Rudrik, James T.; Habib, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism.

  3. Pustular dermatitis caused by Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Eileen M; Juzych, Lydia A; Rudrik, James T; Habib, Fadi

    2007-05-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism.

  4. Use of systemic corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drucker, A M; Eyerich, K; de Bruin-Weller, M S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines discourage the use of systemic corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis (AD), but their use remains widespread. OBJECTIVES: To reach consensus among an international group of AD experts on the use of systemic corticosteroids for AD. METHODS: A survey consisting of statements a...

  5. Seborrheic dermatitis: a clinical practice snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer A

    2011-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring skin disorder that has no cure.Current clinical research has implicated Malassezia yeast in the etiology. Using a clear, concise clinical picture and a thorough patient history, even the novice NP can formulate an effective treatment plan.

  6. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...

  7. AAPE proliposomes for topical atopic dermatitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Alexander; Song, Chung Kil; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Ju-Hee; Chung, Suk-Jae; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of advanced adipose stem cell derived protein extract (AAPE) could be improved by minimising protein degradation. To develop a proliposomal formulation of AAPE for the treatment of topical atopic dermatitis. Proliposomal powder was manufactured by evaporating a solution of soy phosphatidyl choline, AAPE and Poloxamer 407 in ethanol under vacuum on sorbitol powder. Characterisation of proliposomes (zeta potential, diameter, stability and flowability) as well as in vivo efficacy in a dermatitis mouse model was investigated. Reconstitution of the proliposomal powder formed liposomes of 589 ± 3.6 nm diameter with zeta potential of -51.33 ± 0.36 mV. Protein stability was maintained up to 90 days at 25 °C as proliposomes. In vivo studies on atopic dermatitis mouse model showed a significant reduction in IgE levels after topical AAPE proliposome treatment. AAPE proliposomes maintained protein stability and showed promising results for atopic dermatitis treatment.

  8. T-cell inhibitors for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, W James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2018-03-01

    The management of atopic dermatitis is changing with the development of novel biologic agents to target specific molecules in the inflammatory cascade. Following the ability of dupilumab has proved its ability to act on the interleukin 4 receptor in treating atopic dermatitis. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin monoclonal antibody (AMG157/MEDI9929) and OX40 blocking antibody (GBR 830) were developed by targeting the same pathway as dupilumab further upstream. The clinical data on the efficacy for these drugs are not yet known. There is some early evidence that AMG157/MEDI9929 attenuates most measures of allergen-induced asthmatic responses. However, there are no public data on its ability to treat atopic dermatitis. In a phase 2a study, GBR 830 showed at least a 50% reduction in the Eczema Area and Severity Index scores of 17 of 23 patients, but it was not sufficiently powered for identification of statistical differences between GBR 830 versus placebo. Although there is potential for these 2 drugs to greatly improve the management of severe atopic dermatitis, significant clinical trials have not yet been completed to prove efficacy, and there are not yet any available phase 3 clinical trials, which are needed to truly evaluate their efficacy in affecting T-cells. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [How I treat...diaper dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, F; Thirion, L; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Letawe, C; Piérard, G E

    2006-04-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most frequent skin disorder of the newborn. Several clinical types are distinguished. The most frequent type results from increased fragility of the newborn buttock skin when covered by diapers. According to the mechanisms involved and the severity of the dermatitis, one can distinguish the intertrigo of the chubby baby, and the so-called "W", "Y" and "red panties" types of diaper dermatitis. When the effects of occlusion are not controlled by adequate absorption by the diapers maceration of the stratum corneum occurs. As a result, degradation of the skin barrier function takes place. In addition, the value of the coefficient of friction of the skin increases with epidermal weakening to rubbing. In addition, fecal enzymes alter urines and skin. Judicious hygiene measures and a correct choice of care and diapers are mandatory. Cutaneous colonisation by microorganisms, in particular the yeasts Candida spp, is the main complication. Adequate preventive and curative measures can combat diaper dermatitis with confidence. A miconazole paste allows to improve the tribological properties of the interface between diapers and the skin. It also corrects the degradation of the skin barrier function, reduces inflammation and abates the impact of Candida spp. in the pathogenesis of the skin disorder.

  10. Contact Dermatitis in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Construction workers are employed in a large and dynamic occupational sector and are exposed to hazardous substances during their work. This may cause diseases like contact dermatitis, one of the most prevalent occupational diseases in many countries. This thesis aims to assess the current

  11. Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, Sanja; Visser, Maaike J.; Verberk, Maarten M.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis (OCD) is one of the most common work-related diseases. High risk occupations are in health care, hairdressing, food sector and metal industry. OCD tends to become chronic; persistent OCD often results in impaired quality of life and loss of work ability. The purpose

  12. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who

  13. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Dermatitis herpetiformis intolerant to dapsone in Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man with AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis presented with lesions suggestive of dermatitis herpetiformis and intolerance to dapsone. He was managed successfully with a combination of nicotinamide 200 mg/day and indomethacin 75 mg/day, topical steroids and gluten free diet.

  15. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  16. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  17. First isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pigs’ clinical samples in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Zutic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a highly important human pathogen that is also a significant concern in veterinary medicine. Despite the high prevalence of colonization, clinical infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus appear to be rare in pigs. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a sow with endometritis and her five piglets with dermatitis originating from a Serbian farm. Identification of the strains was done by automated system and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for mecA and nuc genes. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin was done by disc diffusion method. Six isolated strains from the infected sow and her piglets showed resistance only to tetracycline beside resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics. In the tested methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V was present. To our knowledge, this finding is the first documented detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pigs’ clinical samples in Serbia. The results of our study indicate the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a pig farm in Serbia highlighting the threat of this antibiotic-resistant microorganism as a pathogen causing both animal and human infections.

  18. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  19. Acute sacroiliac joint infection in a rugby player with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tadashi; Nisimatsu, Hidekazu

    2012-11-01

    In athletes, acute bacterial infection is an unusual cause of pain in the sacroiliac joint. Although an entry site for infection is not always evident, the present case of a 15-year-old rugby player suggests the association between right sacroiliac joint infection and skin lesion of atopic dermatitis (AD) infected with group A streptococcus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammation around the sacroiliac joint with abscess formation. The infection resolved after a course of antibiotics. Because atopic skin lesion is a potential portal of bacteria, treatment for AD is essential for the prevention of pyogenic arthritis in athletes.

  20. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, Whitney; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous disorder of the skin, affecting 3% to 5% of the population. Dandruff, a less severe form of seborrheic dermatitis, affects a greater proportion of the population. The exact pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, however colonization of the lipophilic yeast, Malasezzia furfur, and an inflammatory reaction to this yeast each seem to play a role in disease etiology. Therefore, treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is aimed at yeast elimination and inflammation control. Several treatment modalities are available for seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff including shampoos, which contain both active ingredients related to antimycotic or anti-inflammatory effects and also surfactant ingredients that allow these shampoos to replace regular shampoos in affected patients. The literature regarding the treatment of therapeutic shampoos is reviewed, and treatment strategies for managing seborrheic dermatitis with therapeutic shampoos are provided.

  1. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  2. Ultralarge von Willebrand Factor Fibers Mediate Luminal Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion to an Intact Endothelial Cell Layer Under Shear Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappelbaum, Karin I.; Gorzelanny, Christian; Graessle, Sandra; Suckau, Jan; Laschke, Matthias W.; Bischoff, Markus; Bauer, Corinne; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Obser, Tobias; Sinha, Bhanu; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2013-01-01

    Background During pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, Staphylococcus aureus adherence often occurs without identifiable preexisting heart disease. However, molecular mechanisms mediating initial bacterial adhesion to morphologically intact endocardium are largely unknown. Methods and Results

  3. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, J M; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are common in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological knowledge is sparse for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis in this age group. Furthermore, no population-based studies have evaluated the prevalence of atopic diseases and hand and contact...... associated. A considerable number of adolescents still suffers from AD, and a considerable sex difference was noted for hand eczema and allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel allergy and perfume allergy were the major contact allergies. In the future this cohort of eighth grade school children will be followed...... dermatitis in the same group of adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence measures of atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis and hand and contact dermatitis in adolescents in Odense municipality, Denmark. METHODS: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study among 1501 eighth grade...

  4. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant bacteria isolated in the breast milk samples ... the number of microbes was within levels considered acceptable in expressed breast milk. Key words: bacterial growth, expressed, breast milk ..... period, the bacterial isolates represented normal skin flora [18].

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefact...

  6. Transfer contact dermatitis caused by rosin use in bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutalebi, Amir; Chan, C Stanley; Katta, Rajani

    2009-12-15

    The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis due to colophony may be challenging as this allergen is found in a number of products and used in a variety of settings. Diagnosis becomes more difficult when the distribution of dermatitis does not coincide with typical patterns of use of the allergen. We present a case of transfer contact dermatitis of the face due to rosin use in bowling.

  7. [Streptococcal impetigo at topical tacrolimus application sites in a woman with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, G; Rey, A-C; Graveriau, C; Hesse, S; Denoeux, J-P

    2007-03-01

    We report a case of staphylococcal impetigo in a girl treated with tacrolimus ointment (Protopic) for atopic dermatitis. A 15 year-old girl was receiving treatment with tacrolimus 0.03% (Protopic) for an episode of atopic dermatitis. On reduction of applications of tacrolimus, a vesicular-pustular rash appeared and was treated with pristinamycin and valaciclovir. At the end of antibiotic and antiviral therapy, the vesicular-pustular rash recurred while the goal was receiving treatment once more with tacrolimus ointment 0.1%. The bacteriological and virological skin samples revealed B-haemolytic streptococcus group A. The negative results for cutaneous virological samples ruled out Kaposi-Juliusberg syndrome and a diagnosis of staphylococcal impetigo was made. The intrinsic imputability of tacrolimus was I3 (C3 S2). The most obvious specific feature of this impetigo was its limitation to areas of eczema treated by application of tacrolimus. In prospective studies in large patient cohorts, tacrolimus ointment has been associated with two types of adverse effect: local irritations and skin infections chiefly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To date, there have been no reports in the literature of impetigo due to haemolytic B streptococcus following application of tacrolimus. Because of its immunodepressant effect, tacrolimus ointment may result in increased incidence of skin infections even though a number of studies have shown a reduction in such infections.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinman, P L

    1996-06-01

    Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.

  9. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  10. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  11. Nursing interventions for radiation dermatitis during breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shiho; Nagai, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis occurs in 95% of the women undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. Radiation dermatitis is one of the common acute side effects of RT and includes erythema, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation. Radiation dermatitis may cause physical distress, such as pain and itchiness, and influence individual's quality of life as well. Nurses are to reduce the distress and improve quality of life by managing the symptoms and enhancing patient's self-care ability. This article describes the supportive care for radiation dermatitis from nurse's point of view. (author)

  12. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  13. Atopic dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Smita; Rothe, Marti Jill; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    The approach to children and adults with atopic dermatitis is similar. In both age groups, failure to respond to conventional therapy should prompt evaluation for complicating factors such as secondary infection and secondary ACD. Immunologic, metabolic, genetic, and nutritional disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of refractory pediatric atopic dermatitis. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), cutaneous drug reactions, other spongiotic dermatoses, psoriasis, dermatomycosis, and infestations should be considered in the differential of refractory atopic dermatitis in adults. Systemic therapies prescribed to both children and adults with severe atopic dermatitis include oral corticosteroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Pattern of Contact Dermatitis Amongst Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V D Tiwari

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and fifty seven cases suspected to have contact dermatitis reporting at 14 dermatological centres of armed forces hospitals during a 12-month period were investigated. One hundred sixty one cases Showed positive patch tests. Sixty-five cases showed positive patch tests with footwear materials including rubber, leather and canvas. Clothing, topical medicaments, airborne allergens and marking ink were responsible in 5.75%, 25%, 3.82% and 0.85% patients respectively.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronically relapsing dermatitis with no known cure. Due to the chronic nature of the condition, frequent and long term topical therapy is used. This may lead to sensitization, resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD. AIMS: The aim of the study was to observe the frequency of ACD in atopic patients in this part of the country using Indian standard battery. METHODS: A total number of 30 cases of AD were taken for the study. Diagnosis of AD cases was based on the criteria of Hannifin and Rajka (1980. All the selected cases of AD had mild to moderate grade of severity. All these cases were treated and patch tested during the remission period. The duration of the study was 12 months. RESULTS: Out of the 30 AD cases, 7 cases showed positive ACD with patch test allergens. CONCLUSION: This study shows that ACD is not uncommon amongst atopic individuals.

  16. Histamine and Histamine Receptors in Allergic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Seike, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we will first introduce the pathophysiological process of several skin diseases including allergic dermatitis, a common skin disease, including chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD), and atopic dermatitis (AD). In CACD and AD patients, repeated skin exposure to antigens contributes to the development of chronic eczematous lesions. Repeated application of haptens on mice allows emulation of the development of CACD in humans. Further, we will focus on H1, H2, and H4 histamine receptors and their effects on CACD and AD. Histamine-deficient mice, with a knockout histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, were used to investigate the role of histamine in CACD and AD. Histamine induces infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and eosinophils, and elevates Th2 cytokine levels in CACD. Histamine promotes the development of eczematous lesions, elevates IgE serum levels, and induces scratching behavior in CACD. The administration of H1 or H4 receptor antagonists was effective to ameliorate these symptoms in murine CACD models. The combination of H1 and H4 receptor antagonists is a potential therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as CACD and AD, since combined therapy proved to be more effective than monotherapy.

  17. Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre Salvador, J F; Romero-Pérez, D; Encabo-Durán, B

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a prevalence of 1%-3% in adults. Adult-onset AD has only been defined recently, and lack of familiarity with this condition and confusion regarding the appropriate terminology persist. AD may first appear in childhood or de novo in adults and is characterized by pronounced clinical heterogeneity. The disease often deviates from the classic pattern of flexural dermatitis, and there are forms of presentation that are specific to adults, such as head-and-neck dermatitis, chronic eczema of the hands, multiple areas of lichenification, or prurigo lesions. Although diagnosis is clinical, adult-onset AD frequently does not fit the traditional diagnostic criteria for the disease, which were developed for children. Thus, AD is often a diagnosis of exclusion, especially in de novo cases. Additional diagnostic tests, such as the patch test, prick test, skin biopsy, or blood test, are usually necessary to rule out other diseases or other types of eczema appearing concomitantly with AD. This article presents an update of the different forms of clinical presentation for AD in adults along with a proposed diagnostic approach, as new treatments will appear in the near future and many patients will not be able to benefit from them unless they are properly diagnosed.

  18. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  19. Contact Dermatitis Due to Plants in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vinod Sharma

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and seven patients (151 males and 56 females were patch tested with a battery of plants, potassium dichromate and formaldehyde. Sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus. Nerium indicum, Calotropis procera, Eucalyptus sp and Mangifera indica was found in 60.87, 23.64, 15.46 andl2.08% patients respectively. One hundred and twenty six patients (92 males and 34 females including five teenage girls and one 13 years old child had parthenium dermatitis. Majority (74.60% were between 30 to 59 years of age. Dermatitis involving face especially eyelids, neck, cubital and popliteal fossae was the common (82.54% mode of presentation. Photosensitive pattern was seen in 9.51% and chronic lichenification of extremities in the remaining 7.97% patients Parthenium dermatitis was seen more frequently in city dwellers, while farmers constituted only 20.7% of all cases. There was frequent patch test positivity to potassium dichromate (24.i5% and formaline (28.02% in the present patients.

  20. Footwear contact dermatitis from dimethyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švecová, Danka; Šimaljakova, Maria; Doležalová, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective inhibitor of mold growth. In very low concentrations, DMF is a potent sensitizer that can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It has been identified as the agent responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients in Slovakia with footwear ACD associated with DMF, with regard to clinical manifestations, patch test results, and results of chemical analysis of their footwear. Nine patients with suspected footwear contact dermatitis underwent patch testing with the following allergens: samples of their own footwear, commercial DMF, the European baseline, shoe screening, textile and leather dye screening, and industrial biocides series. The results were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in footwear and anti-mold sachets was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute ACD was observed in nine Caucasian female patients. All patients developed delayed sensitization, as demonstrated by positive patch testing using textile footwear lining. Seven patients were patch tested with 0.1% DMF, and all seven were positive. Chemical analysis of available footwear showed that DMF was present in very high concentrations (25-80 mg/Kg). Dimethyl fumarate is a new footwear allergen and was responsible for severe ACD in our patients. To avoid an increase in the number of cases, the already approved European preventive measures should be accepted and commonly employed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of...

  3. Biofilm-forming ability profiling of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis mastitis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, M; Bexiga, R; Nunes, S F

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm-forming ability has been increasingly recognized as an important virulence factor in Staphylococci, facilitating their persistence in the host, evading its defences and allowing bacterial survival at high antimicrobial concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus remains a major pathogen...... of chronic mastitis, but in the last years Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a relevant mastitis pathogen. The present work aimed at the evaluation of the biofilm-forming ability of Staphylococci field isolates from bovine subclinical mastitis and at the development of a fluorescent in situ...... hybridisation (FISH) protocol that would allow the direct observation of biofilm formation in milk samples. The analysis of phenotypic expression in Congo Red Agar (CRA) and by FISH, showed that 37.5% of the S. aureus isolates produced biofilm, while by optical density measurement only 18.75% isolates revealed...

  4. Case for diagnosis. Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1: differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorena Maria Lima de; Souza, Marcos Vilela de; Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi

    2017-01-01

    Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood.

  5. Impact of enhanced Staphylococcus DNA extraction on microbial community measures in cystic fibrosis sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangchao Zhao

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common constituent of the bacterial community inhabiting the airways of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF. Culture-independent studies have shown that this species is often present in relatively high abundance and would therefore be expected to exert a pronounced effect on measures of CF airway bacterial community structure. We investigated the impact of DNA extraction method on pyrosequencing-based measures of Staphylococcus abundance and bacterial community structure in 17 sputum samples from five CF patients. Staphylococcus was detected in fewer samples when DNA was extracted using a standard bacterial lysis method compared to when DNA was extracted using a lysis buffer amended with lysostaphin and lysozyme. The standard lysis method resulted in significantly lower measures of Staphylococcus relative abundance and higher levels of community diversity, richness, and evenness compared to the lysostaphin-lysozyme modified method. Measures of community dynamics in serial sputum samples from the same individual were nevertheless highly concordant between the two DNA extraction methods. These results illustrate the impact of DNA preparation method on measures of Staphylococcus abundance and bacterial community structures in studies of the airways microbiota in CF.

  6. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence: Implication for skin homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa eNdiaye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2 production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  7. Evaluation of silicon oil on bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fabio; Romero, Ivana Lopes; Silva, Cely Barreto da; Manzano, Roberta Pereira de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the antimicrobial properties of silicon oil (Óleo de Silicone®, Ophthalmos, Brazil) on in vitro bacterial growth of different microorganisms related to endophthalmitis. The following microorganisms were analyzed: (1) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27583); (2) Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922); (3) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923); (4) Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228); (5) Candida albicans (ATCC 10231); (6) Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883); and (7) Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619). The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2ºC and its growth examined after 24 hours. An empty disk was placed in the center of each plate as a control. No inhibition halos were verified in any of the plates containing the four different concentrations of the bacterial inocula. The silicon oil 1000 cps does not have any effect on bacterial growth of any of the studied microorganisms.

  8. Evaluation of silicon oil on bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Adams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the antimicrobial properties of silicon oil (Óleo de Silicone®, Ophthalmos, Brazil on in vitro bacterial growth of different microorganisms related to endophthalmitis. METHODS: The following microorganisms were analyzed: (1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27583; (2 Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922; (3 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923; (4 Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228; (5 Candida albicans (ATCC 10231; (6 Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883; and (7 Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2ºC and its growth examined after 24 hours. An empty disk was placed in the center of each plate as a control. RESULTS: No inhibition halos were verified in any of the plates containing the four different concentrations of the bacterial inocula. CONCLUSIONS: The silicon oil 1000 cps does not have any effect on bacterial growth of any of the studied microrganisms.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis...

  10. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to pa...

  11. The course of life of patients with childhood atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elian, E.; Brenninkmeijer, A.; Legierse, C.M.; Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Bos, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis mainly covers the period of infancy to adulthood, an important period in the development of an individual. The impairment of quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of children with atopic dermatitis have been well documented but so far no data exist about the impact of

  12. The Course of Life of Patients with Childhood Atopic Dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, Elian E. A.; Legierse, Catharina M.; Sillevis Smitt, J. Henk; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Jan D.

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis mainly covers the period of infancy to adulthood, an important period in the development of an individual. The impairment of quality of life and the psychological wellbeing of children with atopic dermatitis have been well documented but so far no data exist about the impact of

  13. Clinical Profile Of Atopic Dermatitis In Benin City, Nigeria | Onunu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the clinical presentation and management problems of atopic dermatitis in Benin City, Nigeria. Design: A 15-year retrospective study from May 1985 to April 2000. Setting: Dermatology clinics of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects: All new cases of atopic dermatitis ...

  14. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  15. A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Qualizza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara.

  16. Apgar score is related to development of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeser, Vibeke; Kahr, Niklas; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the impact of birth characteristics on the risk of atopic dermatitis in a twin population. Methods. In a population-based questionnaire study of 10,809 twins, 3-9 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we identified 907 twin pairs discordant for parent-reported atopic dermatitis...

  17. Prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckman, D.; Schoonhoven, L.; Verhaeghe, S.; Heyneman, A.; Defloor, T.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a review conducted to describe the current evidence about the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis and to formulate recommendations for clinical practice and research. BACKGROUND: Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a common problem in

  18. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile in rinse-off products causes allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C D; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of sensitivity to the cosmetic preservative methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) has increased significantly in Europe. Most cases of allergic contact dermatitis from MDBGN are caused by leave-on cosmetic products. The risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis from...... recommend that this level should be re-evaluated....

  19. Formulasi Salep Ekstrak Etanol Cacing Tanah (Peryonix sp.) dan Uji Aktivitasnya Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Aji Muhiddin

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin still is one of the most disease suffered by people in developing countries. One cause of the skin infection disease is a bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus. Earthworms have traditionally been widely used to treat diseases caused by bacteria. Earthworms Peryonix sp have been studied have anti-infection activity against Staphylococcus aureus that commonly found on the skin surface. The purpose of this research was to create a suitable ointment formulations ...

  20. Topical ROR Inverse Agonists Suppress Inflammation in Mouse Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Acute Irritant Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Choo, Min-Kyung; Park, Jin Mo; Fisher, David E

    2017-12-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors RORα and RORγ are critical for the functions of specific subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells, which are key drivers of inflammatory disease in barrier tissues. Here, we investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of SR1001, a synthetic RORα/γ inverse agonist, in mouse models of atopic dermatitis and acute irritant dermatitis. Topical treatment with SR1001 reduces epidermal and dermal features of MC903-induced atopic dermatitis-like disease and suppresses the production of type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in lesional skin. In the epidermis, SR1001 treatment blocks MC903-induced expression of TSLP and reverses impaired keratinocyte differentiation. SR1001 is also effective in alleviating acute dermatitis triggered by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Overall, our results suggest that RORα/γ are important therapeutic targets for cutaneous inflammation and suggest topical usage of inhibitory ligands as an approach to treating skin diseases of inflammatory etiology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of efficacy of topical cyclosporin A in atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rie, M. A.; Meinardi, M. M.; Bos, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Since oral cyclosporin A (CsA) has demonstrated its effectiveness in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, efforts have been made to develop a topical CsA formulation, thus avoiding systemic adverse events. A limited number of publications are available on the use of topical CsA in allergic contact

  2. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  3. Contact sensitivity in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Masuda, Koji; Ueda, Sachiko; Nakamura, Naomi; Hotta, Eri; Hattori, Junko; Minamiyama, Rina; Yamazaki, Akiko; Katoh, Norito

    2015-07-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis are usually responsive to conventional treatment such as topical steroids; however, they are sometimes refractory to the treatment. The influence of contact sensitivities on the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether contact sensitivities affect the course of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. We evaluated 45 patients with atopic dermatitis who had failed conventional therapy. Patch testing was performed with the Japanese standard series, metal series and/or suspected items. A total of 15 patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one allergen. The most common allergens were nickel, topical drugs and rubber accelerators. Avoidance of products or food containing allergic substances greatly or partially improved skin symptoms in nine patients. These results suggest that contact allergens and metals may be critical factors causing eczematous lesions in patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Survival of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in modified Romanowsky staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Angus; Chan, Wei Yee; Trott, Darren; Hill, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip ® ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin). A clinical isolate of S. pseudintermedius was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated Quick Dip ® solutions (methanol fixative, eosin, methylene blue), and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) controls. Each solution was tested for the presence of viable bacteria by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) at various time points. Solutions also were examined under high power microscopy to count the number of visible bacteria at each time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was able to survive in the clean and contaminated Quick Dip ® stains for at least one hour, but by 24 h no viable bacteria remained. Survival of the bacteria was not supported in the fixative at any time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius remained visible under high power microscopy for up to 2 weeks in all organically contaminated solutions of the Quick Dip ® set. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius only remains viable in eosin and methylene blue for short periods of time, but the prolonged visibility of dead organisms could theoretically lead to the misdiagnosis of cytology samples. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Neutrophil evasion strategies by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Megan L; Surewaard, Bas G J

    2018-03-01

    Humans are well equipped to defend themselves against bacteria. The innate immune system employs diverse mechanisms to recognize, control and initiate a response that can destroy millions of different microbes. Microbes that evade the sophisticated innate immune system are able to escape detection and could become pathogens. The pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are particularly successful due to the development of a wide variety of virulence strategies for bacterial pathogenesis and they invest significant efforts towards mechanisms that allow for neutrophil evasion. Neutrophils are a primary cellular defense and can rapidly kill invading microbes, which is an indispensable function for maintaining host health. This review compares the key features of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in epidemiology, with a specific focus on virulence mechanisms utilized to evade neutrophils in bacterial pathogenesis. It is important to understand the complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria and neutrophils so that we can disrupt the ability of pathogens to cause disease.

  6. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber IOLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Shalini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Methods: Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. Results: The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 ± 7,150 bacteria / IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 ± 35,024 bacteria/IOL (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Our results show that Staphylococcus epidermidis adheres to PMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  7. Atopic dermatitis, melatonin, and sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Sen; Chou, Yen-Ting; Lee, Jyh-Hong; Lee, Pei-Lin; Dai, Yang-Shia; Sun, Chi; Lin, Yu-Tsan; Wang, Li-Chieh; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Chun-An; Wan, Kong-Sang; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). However, studies have largely been questionnaire-based, and the pathophysiology remains unclear. The aims of this study were to determine objective characteristics of sleep disturbance in children with AD and explore contributing factors and clinical predictors. Sleep parameters were measured by actigraphy and polysomnography in 72 patients with AD and 32 controls ages 1 to 18 years. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, serum cytokines, and total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were also measured. The patients with AD had significantly reduced sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more sleep fragmentation, and less nonrapid eye movement sleep. Results from actigraphy correlated well with those from polysomnography. The AD disease severity was associated with sleep disturbance (r = 0.55-0.7), and a Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index of ≥48.7 predicted poor sleep efficiency with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 75% (area under the curve = 0.81, P = .001). Lower nocturnal melatonin secretion was significantly associated with sleep disturbance in the patients with AD. Other correlates of sleep disturbance included pruritus, scratching movements, higher total serum IgE levels, and allergic sensitization to dust mite and staphylococcal enterotoxins. Poor sleep efficiency is common in children with AD and can be predicted by the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index. Melatonin and IgE might play a role in the sleep disturbance. Further studies are required to explore the mechanisms and clinical implications, and actigraphy could serve as a useful evaluating tool. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  9. [Nickel allergy in contact and atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyk, Grazyna; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Szmigiel-Michalak, Katarzyna; Bogdaszewska-Czabanowska, Jadwiga; Obtułowicz, Aleksander

    2003-01-01

    The study is aimed to determine the importance of type I and type IV allergy in eczema caused by allergy to nickel. The study was performed at 55 patients (42 women, 13 men, aged 16-58 yrs) suffering from hand dermatitis (19 cases), disseminated eczema (22 cases) and atopic dermatitis (14 cases) with positive skin patch test to 2.5% nickel sulphate. In each patients history of illness was analyzed, total serum IgE level (tIgE) was estimated and specific IgE (sIgE) for nickel and also absolute blood eosinophils and basophils counts were estimated for the evaluation of the atopy features. In each patient patch skin test with different nickel sulphate dilutions were performed as well as skin prick tests with different dilutions of nickel sulphate. The following oral provocation tests were carried out with the nickel sulphate in doses 0.56 mg, 1.12 mg, 2.24 mg, 5.6 mg and 11.2 mg. The test was stopped at the dose provoking the symptoms of illness. Positive family history, the increased tIgE serum level as well as absolute counts of eosinophils and basophils were present in some patients with atopic and contact dermatitis and they were not useful in differential diagnosis of this forms of skin allergy. Skin patch test with different concentrations of nickel sulphate was helpful to establish the degree of contact sensitivity in all patients. The oral provocation test with different dose of nickel sulphate also provoked symptoms in some patients in each observed groups, but the reaction to the lowest dose was observed only in patients with atopic dermatitis. Specific IgE to nickel as well as skin prick testing also with different dilutions of nickel sulphate are not useful in the diagnosis of nickel allergy. In the all examined patients they were negative. It seems that both types of allergy (type I and IV) may take part in the patho-mechanism of atopic and contact skin allergy with alternate prevalence of one of its depending on patient condition.

  10. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  11. Study on Aerobic Bacterial flora in Canine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Shambulingappa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the 125 bitches with reproductive disorder, 10 bitches which were aborted at different stages of gestation and presented to Veterinary hospitals for treatments were included in the present study. Total thirteen isolates were recovered from the aborted samples. The frequency of bacterial isolates in descending order were Escherichia coli (38.46%, Streptococcus canis (38.46%, Staphylococcus epidermedis (15.38% and Staphylococcus aureus (7.69%. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 111-112

  12. Multidrug efflux pumps in Staphylococcus aureus and their clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is rapidly spreading among bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of diseases in humans. For the last two decades, bacterial multidrug efflux pumps have drawn attention due to their potential association with clinical multidrug resistance. Numerous researchers have demonstrated efflux-mediated resistance in vitro and in vivo and found novel multidrug transporters using advanced genomic information about bacteria. This article aims to provide a concise summary of multidrug efflux pumps and their important clinical implications, focusing on recent findings concerning S. aureus efflux pumps.

  13. Bacterial Proteasomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrab, Jordan B; Darwin, K Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology.

  14. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Vlad T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history. Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were obtained by serial dilution from a concentrated TSB bacterial inoculum incubated overnight. Results The results show that experiments are fairly reproducible and that specimens can be preserved at low temperatures (1 - 2°C at least 4 days. The thermal signal variations at different temperatures and initial bacterial concentrations obey a set of rules that we identified. Conclusion Our study adds to the accumulating data and confirms available results of isothermal microcalorimetry applications in microbiology and can be used to standardize this method for either research or clinical setting.

  15. MicroDSC study of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Dragos C; Iancu, Cezar; Steriade, Alexandru T; Muntean, Alexandru A; Balint, Octavian; Popa, Vlad T; Popa, Mircea I; Bogdan, Miron A

    2010-12-17

    A microcalorimetric study was carried out using a Staphylococcus epidermidis population to determine the reproducibility of bacterial growth and the variability of the results within certain experimental parameters (temperature, bacterial concentration, sample thermal history). Reproducibility tests were performed as series of experiments within the same conditions using either freshly prepared populations or samples kept in cold storage. In both cases, the samples were obtained by serial dilution from a concentrated TSB bacterial inoculum incubated overnight. The results show that experiments are fairly reproducible and that specimens can be preserved at low temperatures (1 - 2°C) at least 4 days. The thermal signal variations at different temperatures and initial bacterial concentrations obey a set of rules that we identified. Our study adds to the accumulating data and confirms available results of isothermal microcalorimetry applications in microbiology and can be used to standardize this method for either research or clinical setting.

  16. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  17. Lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis: Recognition, classification, etiology, and clinicopathological overtones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra N Sehgal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichenoid tissue reaction or interface dermatitis embrace several clinical conditions, the prototype of which is lichen planus and its variants, drug induced lichenoid dermatitis, special forms of lichenoid dermatitis, lichenoid dermatitis in lupus erythematosus, and miscellaneous disorders showing lichenoid dermatitis, the salient clinical and histological features of which are described to facilitate their diagnosis. Background of lichenoid reaction pattern has been briefly outlined to enlighten those interested in this entity.

  18. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  19. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  20. Is atopic dermatitis associated with obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte; Agner, Tove

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), however the results have been conflicting. Our aim was to provide an update on current knowledge from observational studies addressing the possible association between obesity and AD. Systematic literature review was performed by identifyin...... to confirm the association between AD and obesity and the possibility that weight control in childhood may help to mitigate or reverse AD symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Obesity has been associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), however the results have been conflicting. Our aim was to provide an update on current knowledge from observational studies addressing the possible association between obesity and AD. Systematic literature review was performed by identifying...... studies addressing a possible link between AD and overweight/obesity from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-guidelines. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle...

  1. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antiga E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emiliano Antiga, Marzia Caproni Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with a chronic relapsing course, pruritic polymorphic lesions, and typical histopathological and immunopathological findings. According to several evidences, DH is considered the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease, and the most recent guidelines of celiac disease have stated that, in celiac patients with a proven DH, a duodenal biopsy is unnecessary for the diagnosis. In this review, the most recent data about the diagnosis and the management of DH have been reported and discussed. In particular, in patients with clinical and/or histopathological findings suggestive for DH, the finding of granular IgA deposits along the dermal–epidermal junction or at the papillary tips by direct immunofluorescence (DIF assay, together with positive results for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing, allows the diagnosis. Thereafter, a gluten-free diet should be started in association with drugs, such as dapsone, that are able to control the skin manifestations during the first phases of the diet. In conclusion, although DH is a rare autoimmune disease with specific immunopathological alterations at the skin level, its importance goes beyond the skin itself and may have a big impact on the general health status and the quality of life of the patients. Keywords: dermatitis herpetiformis, celiac disease, diagnosis, treatment, autoimmune disease, inflammatory cutaneous disease 

  2. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-10-01

    To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients. Most of the components present in cosmetic products are also occurring in household and industrial products, often under other trade names. Patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special problem because their quality of life is severely affected by the multitude of eliciting products in the environment. We still lack a good understanding of why these patients become so easily sensitized.

  3. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51% patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11% showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis.

  4. Atopic Dermatitis and Comorbidities: Added Value of Comprehensive Dermatoepidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsten, Tamar

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is common and in its severe form is devastating. This chronic inflammatory dermatosis is part of the atopic syndrome, which includes asthma, food allergies, and hay fever and is known to be associated with mental health disorders. In line with psoriasis, several recent observational studies using national survey and linkage data have suggested a link between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease. The atopic dermatitis field can benefit from the past experiences in psoriasis research and should not follow the same path, but, rather, aim for a more comprehensive approach from the beginning. A recent German consortium studying links between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease first screened a large claims database, followed by analyses of more deeply phenotyped (birth) cohorts with longitudinal data. In addition, genetic and metabolic analyses assessing the predisposition of patients with atopic dermatitis for cardiovascular disease were performed. Overall, the association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease was at most modest, but in more refined cohorts the cardiovascular risk profile and genetic architecture was comparable. A more integrated approach could create clarity about the clinical relevance of cardiovascular disease in individuals with atopic dermatitis sooner, avoid speculation that affects patient care, and save scientific resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  6. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  7. Clinical Signs, Staphylococcus and Atopic Eczema-Related Seromarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE, selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg, T helper (Th and antigen-presenting cells (APC are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life. Disease severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life with the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI in AD patients ≤18 years old. Concentrations of anti-staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B immunoglobulin E (anti-SEA and anti-SEB, selected Treg/Th/APC chemokines, skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were measured in these patients. Forty patients with AD [median (interquartile range age of 13.1 (7.9 years were recruited. Backward stepwise linear regression (controlling for age, personal allergic rhinitis and asthma, and other blood markers showed the serum anti-SEB level was positively associated with S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolations, objective SCORAD, clinical signs and CDLQI. TNF-α (a Th1 cytokine was positively associated with objective SCORAD (B = 4.935, p = 0.010, TGF-β (a Treg cytokine negatively with disease extent (B = −0.015, p = 0.001, IL-18 (an APC cytokine positively with disease extent (B = 0.438, p = 0.001 and with TEWL (B = 0.040, p = 0.010, and IL-23 (an APC cytokine negatively with disease extent (B = −2.812, p = 0.006 and positively with pruritus (B = 0.387, p = 0.007. Conclusions: Blood levels of anti-SEB, Th1, Treg and APC cytokines are correlated with various clinical signs of AD. AD is a systemic immunologic disease involving Staphylococcus aureus, cellular, humoral, cytokine and chemokine pathophysiology.

  8. Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 suppresses inflammation by decreasing interleukin-6 responses in a murine model of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Hiroshi; Kita, Junko; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    The oral intake of Lactobacillus spp. can provide beneficial effects to the host by modulating the immune response. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory disease mediated by various immune responses. In this study, we examined the effect of a Lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (OLL1073R-1), on AD development in a murine model of AD that was developed by the topical application of mite antigen in NC/Nga mice. The oral intake of heat-killed OLL1073R-1 cells inhibited both the development of dermatitis and the elevation of an acute inflammation marker, serum amyloid A. Another bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus OLL2984, exerted no inhibitory effects on dermatitis. The oral intake of heat-killed OLL1073R-1 cells also attenuated secretion of IL-6 from lymph node cells in response to mite antigen and reduced IL-6 levels in inflamed tissues, such as auricles. Production of IFN-γ or IL-4 was not influenced by OLL1073R-1 intake. We also found that inhibition of IL-6 signaling by gp130-Fc (a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular portion of glycoprotein 130 fused to the Fc region of human IgG1) markedly decreased the severity of dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Moreover, secretion of IL-6 by lymph node cells was augmented in NC/Nga mice compared with that in BALB/c mice. These results indicate that IL-6 plays an essential role in the development of dermatitis in the NC/Nga mouse model of AD, and that OLL1073R-1 inhibits dermatitis, at least in part, by suppressing the IL-6 response. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RESULTS OF APPLYING POLYVITAMIN COMPLEX FOR CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ivanova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents findings of applying vitamin-and-mineral complex (VMC for children frequently suffering from diseases and children with atopic dermatitis. It shows that usage of VMC within a complex therapy promotes regression of subnormal vitamin provision symptoms, as well as symptoms of the core disease. This happens against heightened vitamin content in child's organism — which was proven with the test of A and E vitamins content in blood. The research has demonstrated a quite good tolerance of VMC by children suffering from atopic dermatitis.Key words: children frequently suffering from diseases, atopic dermatitis, vitamins, treatment.

  10. "Inflammatory skin march" in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Kadono, Takafumi

    2017-10-01

    Comorbidities of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), metabolic syndrome and autoimmune diseases with systemic inflammation are recent topics in medicine. Inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are an active source of diverse proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which are readily detectable in the circulation and are likely to be involved in developing comorbidities. Both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are frequently comorbid with CVD, metabolic syndrome and autoimmune diseases, the consequence of which is called "inflammatory skin march", "psoriatic march" or "march of psoriasis". In this review, we summarize the epidemiological evidence and pathogenetic concepts regarding inflammatory skin march in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  11. History of Seborrheic Dermatitis: Conceptual and Clinico-Pathologic Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameri, Angela Cristina Akel; Carneiro, Sueli; Mameri, Letícia Maria Akel; Telles da Cunha, José Marcos; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory and chronic disease with a high incidence and prevalence (1% to 3% in the general population, 3% to 5% in young adults, and 40% to 80% in HIV-positive individuals). Although the condition was first described in 1887, its clinical aspects and clinical forms have still not been well individualized, nor has its etiopathogenesis been fully elucidated. The disease, despite having clinical features similar to dermatitis, does not have the same histopathologic features or the same progressive clinical behavior. This contribution reviews the history of seborrheic dermatitis.

  12. Impact of adult atopic dermatitis on topical drug penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia; Hansen, Steen H; Shah, Vinod P

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate methodologies for the determination of drug penetration in diseased skin have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation in atopic dermatitis, employing dermal microdialysis and tape strip sampling...... in the atopic dermatitis compared with uninvolved skin (p... techniques. Non-invasive measuring methods were used for the quantification of the severity of the dermatitis. Skin thickness and the depth of the microdialysis probes in the skin were measured by 20 MHz ultrasound scanning. Metronidazole concentration, sampled by microdialysis, was 2.4-fold higher...

  13. Thymoma associated with exfoliative dermatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Vallim Jacobina; Moura, Mariana Pereira; Monteiro, Fabio Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    A 7-year-old, castrated male, domestic shorthair cat presented with generalized exfoliative dermatitis, lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. Multiple skin scrapings taken at the time did not reveal any abnormalities. Skin histopathological examination was consistent with sebaceous adenitis or exfoliative dermatitis caused by an underlying thymoma (thymoma-associated feline exfoliative dermatitis). Thoracic radiographs revealed a cranial mediastinal mass, which was removed surgically. Histopathological examinations indicated that it was a thymoma. Within 90 days of surgery, the cutaneous signs had resolved, suggesting a causal relationship between the thymoma and the skin disease. Recurrence of thymoma was detected 24 months after surgery. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  14. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... was measured by objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD). Point-prevalence of AD peaked at 18 months of age (10%) and decreased at 36 and 72 months to slightly below 7%. The 6-yr cumulative incidence was 22.8% and sensitization was found in 43% of children with AD. It was predominately sensitization...

  15. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-15

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  16. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  18. Interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis in 14 Norwegian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, M.; Gilhuus, M.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess infectious foot diseases, including identification and characterization of Dichelobacter nodosus and Treponema spp., in herds having problems with interdigital dermatitis (ID) and heel horn erosion (E) and in control herds expected to have few problems. We also....... nodosus by PCR, culture, virulence testing, and serotyping. Biopsies were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization regarding histopathology, identification, and characterization of Treponema spp., and identification of D. nodosus. Interdigital dermatitis was the most frequent foot disease...... with DD, and in 66.0% of cows with healthy feet. All serogroups of D. nodosus except F and M were detected, and all isolates were defined as benign by the gelatin gel test. Treponema spp. were detected in 50.0% of the cows with ID, in 9.1% with E, in 67.5% with ID and E, in all cows with DD, and in 6...

  19. Antibiotic Exposure and Other Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Nasal Commensal Staphylococcus aureus: An Ecological Study in 8 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bijnen, E.M.E.; Paget, J.; de Klerk, E.S.M.; den Heijer, C.D.J.; Versporten, A.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Goossens, H.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global public health concern which threatens the effective treatment of bacterial infections. Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) increasingly appears in individuals with no healthcare associated risks. Our study assessed risk

  20. Antibiotic Exposure and Other Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Nasal Commensal Staphylococcus aureus: An Ecological Study in 8 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.M. van; Paget, J.; Lange-de Klerk, E.S. de; Heijer, C.D. den; Versporten, A.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Goossens, H.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global public health concern which threatens the effective treatment of bacterial infections. Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) increasingly appears in individuals with no healthcare associated risks. Our study assessed risk

  1. Antibiotic exposure and other risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in nasal commensal staphylococcus aureus: an ecological study in 8 European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M. de; Heijer, C.D.J. den; Versporten, A.; Stobberingh, E.E.; Goossen, H.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global public health concern which threatens the effective treatment of bacterial infections. Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) increasingly appears in individuals with no healthcare associated risks. Our study assessed risk

  2. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastman, Erik K; Kamelamela, Noelani; Norville, Josh W; Cosetta, Casey M; Dutton, Rachel J; Wolfe, Benjamin E

    2016-10-18

    Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum) is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes. Decades of culture-based studies and more recent metagenomic studies have demonstrated that bacterial species in agriculture, medicine, industry, and nature are unevenly distributed across time and space. The ecological processes and molecular mechanisms that shape these distributions are not well understood because it is challenging to connect in situ patterns of diversity with mechanistic in vitro studies in the laboratory. Using tractable cheese rind biofilms and a focus on coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS

  3. Molecular coordination of Staphylococcus aureus cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, Bryony E; Walther, Christa G; Fenn, Samuel J; Grein, Fabian; Wollman, Adam JM; Leake, Mark C; Olivier, Nicolas; Cadby, Ashley; Mesnage, Stéphane; Jones, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability, but despite its ability to withstand internal turgor must remain dynamic to permit growth and division. Peptidoglycan is the major cell wall structural polymer, whose synthesis requires multiple interacting components. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a prolate spheroid that divides in three orthogonal planes. Here, we have integrated cellular morphology during division with molecular level resolution imaging of peptidoglycan synthesis and the components responsible. Synthesis occurs across the developing septal surface in a diffuse pattern, a necessity of the observed septal geometry, that is matched by variegated division component distribution. Synthesis continues after septal annulus completion, where the core division component FtsZ remains. The novel molecular level information requires re-evaluation of the growth and division processes leading to a new conceptual model, whereby the cell cycle is expedited by a set of functionally connected but not regularly distributed components. PMID:29465397

  4. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...... was found. A rise in pH increased the amount of free fatty acids. Below pH 5.0, the amount of liberated fatty acids was insignificant although the viable count was >10+6 cell/ g emulsion. Of the two factors, pH was most influential in affecting the amount of free fatty acids. A rise in temperaure only...... slightly increased the amount of free fatty acids and hydrolysis took place at all temperatures from 14°C to 27°C. The strain liberates the fatty acids in a nonspecific way, in about the same proportions as those in which they occur in the pork fat....

  5. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, Lena; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive bacterium colonizing nares, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, frequently invades the skin, soft tissues, and bloodstreams of humans. Even with surgical and antibiotic therapy, bloodstream infections are associated with significant mortality. The secretion of coagulases, proteins that associate with and activate the host hemostatic factor prothrombin, and the bacterial surface display of agglutinins, proteins that bind polymerized fibrin, are key virulence strategies for the pathogenesis of S. aureus bloodstream infections, which culminate in the establishment of abscess lesions. Pathogen-controlled processes, involving a wide spectrum of secreted factors, are responsible for the recruitment and destruction of immune cells, transforming abscess lesions into purulent exudate, with which staphylococci disseminate to produce new infectious lesions or to infect new hosts. Research on S. aureus bloodstream infections is a frontier for the characterization of protective vaccine antigens and the development of immune therapeutics aiming to prevent disease or improve outcomes. PMID:26925499

  6. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  7. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  8. A novel approach to probe host-pathogen interactions of bovine digital dermatitis, a model of a complex polymicrobial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial infections represent a great challenge for the clarification of disease etiology and the development of comprehensive diagnostic or therapeutic tools, particularly for fastidious and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. Using bovine digital dermatitis (DD) as a disease model, we introduce...... a novel strategy to study the pathogenesis of complex infections. The strategy combines meta-transcriptomics with high-density peptide-microarray technology to screen for in vivo-expressed microbial genes and the host antibody response at the site of infection. Bacterial expression patterns supported...

  9. Intracellular activity of the peptide antibiotic NZ2114: studies with Staphylococcus aureus and human THP-1 monocytes, and comparison with daptomycin and vancomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism.......Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism....

  10. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala.

  11. ENTEROSORBENTS AS A PART OF COMPLEX THERAPY OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alexeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common allergic diseases in children which is assuming ever greater medical and social importance. Risk factors of AD include gastro-intestinal tract disturbances, especially intestinal dysbiosis, which is revealed in 89–94,1% of children with atopic dermatitis. Both correlation of the dysbiosis and AD manifestations severity and increase of underlying disease treatment efficacy as a result of target influence on intestinal microflora confirm that. For many decades guidelines of atopic dermatitis treatment in children along with elimination diet, antihistamine drugs and topic medicines include enterosorbents. The most effective drugs are those ones, consisting of prebiotics and sorbents. The wide experience of prebiotic drug with sorbent action (Lactofiltrum in complex therapy of atopic dermatitis in children is reviewed in this article.

  12. Soy Allergy in Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmila, Čelakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results: The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Conclusion: Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:23919016

  13. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel-exposure...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...... investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...

  14. Candida albicans and napkin dermatitis: relationship and lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans and napkin dermatitis: relationship and lesion severity correlation. Amani Hussein Ahmed Karsani, Abdullateef Azolaibani, Yasser Farouq, Khalid Zedan, Mohammed Mohsen Alotaibi, Ghada Bin Saif, Ibrahim H. Babikir ...

  15. Occupational contact dermatitis toward sesquiterpene lactones in a florist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangha, E; Elsner, P

    1996-09-01

    Many plants and flowers can cause dermatitis in florists, growers, and others working in the industry. In the United States, Alstromeria, also called Peruvian Lily, has frequently been reported to cause hand eczema in floral workers. This interesting report details sesquiterpene lactone allergy in the occupational setting. Fortunately, in this case, it seems that resolution of the dermatitis was achieved fairly rapidly by avoiding the occupational situation. Unfortunately, for many of our patients with airborne compositae dermatitis, there is no way to avoid the allergen; therefore, many of these individuals develop severe, chronic recalcitrant dermatitis requiring aggressive therapy. Diagnosis of this condition is not always easy, as it appears that the sesquiterpene lactone mix allergen that we have commercially available misses a number of cases, at least in the United States. Better characterization of the allergens involved and better supply of allergenic extracts for testing is critical to improve our diagnostic ability.

  16. Dasatinib-induced Seborrheic Dermatitis-like Eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Ryan R; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    Dasatinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. It has been investigated in treating other neoplasms, including non-small-cell lung cancer and a subset of melanomas. Seborrheic dermatitis is characterized by erythematous patches or plaques with scaling typically affecting the external ear, glabella, hair-bearing areas of the face, nasolabial fold, and scalp. Antitumor agents are often associated with mucocutaneous side effects, including seborrheic dermatitis. We describe the case of a 79-year-old woman with a history of sinonasal melanoma who developed a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption while taking dasatinib. We also review the molecular abnormalities associated with melanoma, summarize the mucocutaneous side effects of dasatinib, and list the other antineoplastic agents associated with a seborrheic dermatitis-like eruption.

  17. Atopic dermatitis and skin allergies - update and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, A; Feichtner, K

    2013-12-01

    During the last few years, an impressive amount of experimental studies and clinical trials have dealt with a variety of distinct topics in allergic skin diseases - especially atopic dermatitis. In this update, we discuss selected recent data that provide relevant insights into clinical and pathophysiological aspects of allergic skin diseases or discuss promising targets and strategies for the future treatment of skin allergy. This includes aspects of barrier malfunction and inflammation as well as the interaction of the cutaneous immune system with the skin microbiome and diagnostic procedures for working up atopic dermatitis patients. Additionally, contact dermatitis, urticaria, and drug reactions are addressed in this review. This update summarizes novel evidence, highlighting current areas of uncertainties and debates that will stimulate scientific discussions and research activities in the field of atopic dermatitis and skin allergies in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Scalp Psoriasis vs. Seborrheic Dermatitis: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does a doctor tell the difference between scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from ... such as pitting. Compare signs and symptoms Scalp psoriasis Red skin covered with flakes and silvery scales ...

  19. [The role of the innate immune system in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, T; Kaesler, S; Skabytska, Y; Biedermann, T

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms how the innate immune system detects microbes and mounts a rapid immune response have been more and more elucidated in the past years. Subsequently it has been shown that innate immunity also shapes adaptive immune responses and determines their quality that can be either inflammatory or tolerogenic. As atopic dermatitis is characterized by disturbances of innate and adaptive immune responses, colonization with pathogens and defects in skin barrier function, insight into mechanisms of innate immunity has helped to understand the vicious circle of ongoing skin inflammation seen in atopic dermatitis patients. Elucidating general mechanisms of the innate immune system and its functions in atopic dermatitis paves the way for developing new therapies. Especially the novel insights into the human microbiome and potential functional consequences make the innate immune system a very fundamental and promising target. As a result atopic dermatitis manifestations can be attenuated or even resolved. These currently developed strategies will be introduced in the current review.

  20. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  1. Adhesion force of staphylococcus aureus on various biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Fahad; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises of more than half of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they can cause major bone infection which can result in destruction of joint and bone. In the current study, adhesion force of bacteria on the surface of various biomaterial surfaces is measured using atomic force microscope (AFM). Staphylococcus aureus was immobilized on an AFM tipless cantilever as a force probe to measure the adhesion force between bacteria and biomaterials (viz. ultra-high molecular weight poly ethylene (UHMWPE), stainless steel (SS), Ti-6Al-4V alloy, hydroxyapatite (HA)). At the contact time of 10s, UHMWPE shows weak adhesion force (~4nN) whereas SS showed strong adhesion force (~15nN) due to their surface energy and surface roughness. Bacterial retention and viability experiment (3M™ petrifilm test, agar plate) dictates that hydroxyapatite shows the lowest vaibility of bacteria, whereas lowest bacterial retention is observed on UHMWPE surface. Similar results were obtained from live/dead staining test, where HA shows 65% viability, whereas on UHMWPE, SS and Ti-6Al-4V, the bacterial viability is 78%, 94% and 97%, respectively. Lower adhesion forces, constrained pull-off distance (of bacterial) and high antibacterial resistance of bioactive-HA makes it a potential biomaterial for bone-replacement arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS FROM FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical agent, a part of our outdoor and indoor working and residential environment. Healthcare workers in difficult occupations are among the most affected by formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde is an ingredient of some dental materials. Formaldehyde is well-known mucous membrane irritant and a primary skin sensitizing agent associated with both contact dermatitis (Type IV allergy, and immediate, anaphylactic reactions (Type I allergy. Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde was identified as a potential cause of asthma. Quite a few investigations are available concerning health issues for dental students following formaldehyde exposure. Such studies would be beneficial for early diagnosis of hypersensitivity, adequate prophylactic, risk assessment and management of their work.

  4. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD......-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma...

  5. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condé-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Villegas, C; Romero, A; Gonzalez, M A

    1995-10-01

    We report the patch test results of 449 construction workers who came as patients to the Occupational Dermatology Service of the Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo in Madrid between 1989 and 1993. 90.8% of them were patch tested, because they had cutaneous lesions or a clinical history suggestive of occupational dermatitis. 65.5% (268) of those patch tested showed one or more reactions connected with their work. Chromate at 42.1% was the main allergen, followed by cobalt, 20.5%, nickel, 10%, and epoxy resin, 7.5%. 25.9% (106) of patients showed sensitization to rubber components, the majority at 23.7% to thiuram mix, with TETD being the main allergen.

  7. Autoimmune diseases in adults with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Yuki M F; Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: An increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease has been shown in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), but data remain scarce and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the co-occurrence of selected autoimmune diseases in adult patients with AD. Methods: Nationwide health registers...... were used. Adult patients with a hospital diagnosis of AD in Denmark between 1997 and 2012 were included as cases (n = 8112) and matched with controls (n = 40,560). The occurrence of autoimmune diseases was compared in the 2 groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Results: AD...... was significantly associated with 11 of 22 examined autoimmune diseases. In addition, AD was associated with having multiple autoimmune comorbidities. Patients with a history of smoking had a significantly higher occurrence of autoimmune comorbidities compared to nonsmokers. Limitations: This study was limited...

  8. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However......, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing...... that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread...

  9. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  10. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    -up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma......The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...

  11. Trichotillomania and Dermatitis Artefacta: A Rare Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Varyani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old pregnant female patient presented with complains of bilateral lower limb swelling and fever for 1 month. On examination, blood pressure was 144/94 mmHg along with pitting pedal edema. She had bizarre skin lesions, aligned longitudinally and distributed over the approachable site of the body with tapering ends and in various stages of healing. Lower limbs examination also revealed similar lesions with signs of cellulitis. Her scalp had short and distorted hair suggesting pulling and plucking. These skin lesions and the denial of self-infliction by the patient made us reach the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with trichotillomania. Psychotherapy was advocated along with conservative management of skin lesions. The patient improved and is under our follow up.

  12. Atopic dermatitis: skin care and topical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Udkoff, Jeremy; Borok, Jenna; Friedman, Adam; Nicol, Noreen; Bienstock, Jeffrey; Lio, Peter; Tollefson, Megha M; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is strongly influenced by Type 2 innate lymphoid cell and T-helper cell type 2 lymphocyte-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction. AD therapies attempt to correct this pathology, and guidelines suggest suggest basics of AD therapy, which include repair of the skin barrier through bathing practices and moisturizers, infection control, and further lifestyle modifications to avoid and reduce AD triggers.While some patients' AD may be controlled using these measures, inflammatory eczema including acute flares and maintenance therapy in more severe patients are treated with topical pharmacologic agents such as topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and, more recently, topical PDE-4 inhibitors. This model of basic skin therapy and, as needed, topical pharmacologic agents may be used to treat the vast majority of patients with AD and remains the staple of AD therapy. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  13. Diaper dermatitis and advances in diaper technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M; Friedlander, S F

    2000-08-01

    During the last decade, a number of technological innovations in disposable diaper designs and materials have aimed at reducing dermatological problems in the diaper area. The introduction of absorbent gelling materials led to a decrease in skin overhydration and made possible a more beneficial pH in the diaper area. A retrospective evaluation of clinical studies conducted before and after the introduction of absorbent gelling materials confirms that utilization of these materials has been associated with a marked reduction in the severity of diaper dermatitis. More recently, a novel diaper designed to deliver dermatological formulations to the skin also appears to improve the condition of diapered skin. Disposable wipes now are available that are nonirritating and suitable for use on damaged or broken skin. Ongoing innovative efforts in this area promise to further decrease the prevalence of diaper-associated dermatologic conditions.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Luis J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C

    2015-12-01

    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment.

  16. When does atopic dermatitis warrant systemic therapy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, Eric L; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Flohr, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -specific literature review, referred to guidelines when available, and provided interpretation and expert opinion. RESULTS: We recommend a systematic and holistic approach to assess patients with severe signs and symptoms of AD and impact on quality of life before systemic therapy. Steps taken before commencing...... systemic therapy include considering alternate or concomitant diagnoses, avoiding trigger factors, optimizing topical therapy, ensuring adequate patient/caregiver education, treating coexistent infection, assessing the impact on quality of life, and considering phototherapy. LIMITATIONS: Our work......BACKGROUND: Although most patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are effectively managed with topical medication, a significant minority require systemic therapy. Guidelines for decision making about advancement to systemic therapy are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To guide those considering use of systemic...

  17. Mobile Phone Dermatitis in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Clare; Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile phones have been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Methods: A comprehensive online literature review was conducted through the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed MEDLINE) using appropriate medical subject headings and keywords. Results: Thirty-seven cases...... of mobile phone-related ACD were found. Six studies evaluating allergen release from mobile phones were found. Conclusions: Case reports of mobile phone-associated ACD have risen rapidly in number since 2000. Case reports highlight mobile phone ACD in both pediatric and adult populations in many countries....... Metal allergens, notably nickel and chromium, were frequently implicated in mobile phone associated ACD. Nickel release from mobile phones appears to be common and has been reported in both cheap and expensive mobile phones, including phones covered under the EU Nickel Directive....

  18. TOXICO-ALLERGIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Mel'nikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 15% of children in the world have allergic diseases (who data. The rate of allergic diseases in citizens of megapolices in Russia is 30–60%. The number of visits to the doctors increased on 18% in last 3 years. Generalized allergic reactions have leading place: anaphylactic shock and toxico-allergic dermatitis (steven johnson and lyell's syndromes. These diseases are characterized as pathology with fulminant course and frequently negative outcome. Literature data about this problem was analyzed in this article. The results of own researches in the field of urgent medical care on pre admission stage in children with generalized allergic reactions were presented.Key words: children generalized allergic reactions, urgent care.

  19. Association of atopic dermatitis with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, Robert; Kim, Ashley; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure might be a modifiable risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between AD and exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (n = 86) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus......-sectional, longitudinal), study sizes (smoking (mild, extensive). RESULTS: A diagnosis of AD was associated with higher odds of active smoking (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.32-2.63) and exposure to passive smoke (OR 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.......01-1.38), but not maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.40). The association between active smoking and AD remained significant in children and adults, all continents studied, and study sizes, but all were cross-sectional designs and had NOS score 6 or greater. Passive smoke...

  20. Contact sensitivity in palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minocha Y

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available 230 patients presenting with palmar hyperkeratotic dermatitis were investigated by patch tests against various antigens depending upon occupation of the patients. Contact sensitivity was detected in 130 patients comprising of housewives (55, businessmen (20, farmers (15, teachers / clerks / students (13, doctors and nurses (9, factory workers and labourers (8, massons (7 and motor mechanics (3. Vegetables were found to be the most common agents followed by detergents and metals predominantly affecting housewives. Among the vegetables, garlic and onion were the most potent sensitizers whereas nickel was a common sensitizer among metals. Occupational factors were seen to have some influence in relation to the causative agents as indicated by higher positivity of vegetables in housewives; detergents, metals, rubber, leather, plastics in businessmen, teachers, clerks and students; fertilizers or animal foods in farmers; drugs in doctors and nurses and chromium and cobalt in massons.

  1. Eczema, Atopic Dermatitis, or Atopic Eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuai; Thyssen, Jacob P; Paller, Amy S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lack of standardized nomenclature for atopic dermatitis (AD) creates challenges for scientific communication, patient education, and advocacy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relative popularity of the terms eczema, AD, and atopic eczema (AE) using global search engine volumes....... METHODS: A retrospective analysis of average monthly search volumes from 2014 to 2016 of Google, Bing/Yahoo, and Baidu was performed for eczema, AD, and AE in English and 37 other languages. Google Trends was used to determine the relative search popularity of each term from 2006 to 2016 in English...... and the top foreign languages, German, Turkish, Russian, and Japanese. RESULTS: Overall, eczema accounted for 1.5 million monthly searches (84%) compared with 247 000 searches for AD (14%) and 44 000 searches for AE (2%). For English language, eczema accounted for 93% of searches compared with 6% for AD and 1...

  2. Contact Dermatitis of Hands in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Sharma

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four patients (40 males, 24females of contact dermatitis of hands were patch tested. The patients included housewives (22, factory workers (16, office workers (8, medical and para - medical personnel (8, building workers (3, teachers (4, and photographer, farmer and student one each. The substances tested included battery of metals, rubber chemicals, common medicaments and suspected substances. Sensitivity to metals was found in 34 (53. 1% patients and nickel, cobalt and chromate in 40.6, 31.2 and 21.8% patients respectively. Medicament, rubber and vegetable sensitivity was found in 26 (40.6%, 13 (20.3% and 13 (20.3% patients respectively. The miscellaneous sensitizers were positive in 15 (23.4% patients. They included plants oils, file cover, currency notes, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, PPD (paraphenylenediamine formaldehyde, mercuric chloride, film and paper developer.

  3. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from....... CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a positive association between cobalt allergy and a history of dermatitis caused by non-occupational exposure to leather articles....

  4. Case of basal cell epithelioma occurring on chronic radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, Kayoko; Matsuoka, Yoshitaka; Urushibata, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Soichi (Toho Univ. Ohashi Hosp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman had been treated with radiation therapy for lymphoid tuberculosis on the right side of the neck 40 years before. Chronic radiation dermatitis occurred on that site. Blackish small mass has appeared 2 years before on the central part of the dermatitis. Histological examination revealed thinning of the epidermis, swelling of the dermal collagen fibers, and follicular clusters composed of basaloid cells from the epidermis to the upper layer of the dermis. (Namekawa, K).

  5. Budesonide-induced periorificial dermatitis presenting as chalazion and blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of periorificial dermatitis caused by suboptimal inhalation of budesonide for asthma. The initial skin lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis. After several months, the patient developed perioral papules and pustules and was diagnosed with periorificial dermatitis. He was efficiently treated with topical metronidazole and oral erythromycin. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Budesonide-induced periorificial dermatitis presenting as chalazion and blepharitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of periorificial dermatitis caused by suboptimal inhalation of budesonide for asthma. The initial skin lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis. After several months, the pati......We report a case of periorificial dermatitis caused by suboptimal inhalation of budesonide for asthma. The initial skin lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis. After several months...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented.

  8. Clinical Recommendations on Managing Seborrheic Dermatitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Pilguy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seborrheic dermatitis is a widespread erythematous/squamous disease associated with high secretory activity of sebaceous glands. This article presents epidemiological characteristics of the disease and ethiopathogenetic mechanisms of the process. Given high prevalence of the disease, we present clinical pictures of the pediatric and adult forms of the disease, detailed differential/diagnostic algorithm and contemporary recommendations on pharmacological treatment and follow-up management of patients with seborrheic dermatitis

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parents' reported preference scores for childhood atopic dermatitis disease states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Emmanuel B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis. Methods Subjects were parents of children aged 3 months to 18 years. The sample was derived from the General Panel, Mommies Sub-Panel, and Chronic Illness Sub-Panel of Harris Interactive. Participants rated health scenarios for atopic dermatitis, asthma, and eyeglasses on a visual analog scale, imagining a child was experiencing the described state. Results A total of 3539 parents completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent had a child with a history of atopic dermatitis. Mean preference scores for atopic dermatitis were as follows: mild, 91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 91.5; mild/moderate, 84 (95%CI, 83.5 to 84.4; moderate, 73 (95%CI, 72.5 to 73.6; moderate/severe, 61 (95%CI, 60.6 to 61.8; severe, 49 (95% CI, 48.7 to 50.1; asthma, 58 (95%CI, 57.4 to 58.8; and eyeglasses, 87(95%CI, 86.3 to 87.4. Conclusions Parents perceive that atopic dermatitis has a negative effect on quality of life that increases with disease severity. Estimates of parents' preferences can provide physicians with insight into the value that parents place on their children's treatment and can be used to evaluate new medical therapies for atopic dermatitis.

  11. Intraocular lens subluxation in a patient with facial atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Nakamura, K; Kurosaka, D

    2001-02-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man presented with subluxation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) caused by a rupture of part of Zinn's zonule but no retinal break 2 years after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. He had a history of atopic dermatitis since infancy. This case presents a rare ocular complication of scratching and rubbing the face and eyelids because of itching related to atopic dermatitis.

  12. OCCUPATION COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elice Wijaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Occupational skin diseases are a widespread problem. Despite numerous protective mechanisms, the skin remains vulnerable to new irritants found in the workplace. As a result, many workers in different occupations suffer from occupational skin diseases. From the data at Sanglah Hospital in Dermatology Department, it should be noted that there is increasing number of new cases of contact dermatitis in period of January 2000 until December 2005, from 10,16% until 13,36% in the next year and relatively stable in the next four years. Occupations commonly associated with contact dermatitis are agriculture workers, construction workers, dental workers, electronic workers, florists, food workers, hairdressers, haousekeeping personnel, machinist, mechanics, medical workers, office workers, photographers, printers, textile workers. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Characteristic bacteriolytic activities of Staphylococcus hyicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lämmler, C

    1989-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a Micrococcus luteus reference strain. This lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing M. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. Smaller zones of transparency were observed with Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of Staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The distribution and extent of the...

  14. Validation and refinement of the Millennium Criteria for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Mandy E; Leeflang, Mariska M G; DEN Ottolander, Jan Paul S; Spuls, Phyllis I; Bos, Jan D

    2011-09-01

    There is no gold standard for a definite diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. For the time being, several lists of diagnostic criteria have been proposed, some of them in actual use. The Millennium Criteria have been proposed to diagnose atopic dermatitis and to differentiate it from atopiform dermatitis. Our aim was to further refine the Millennium Criteria into a manageable set that can differentiate between atopic and atopiform dermatitis and other entities. The hereby refined Millennium Criteria will be compared with the UK Working Party Criteria and the Hanifin & Rajka Criteria. Data of 210 included patients were used. After multiple logistic regression, a minimum set of five criteria was identified as best discriminators: (i) typical morphology; (ii) early age of onset; (iii) Dennie-Morgan fold; (iv) historical and (v) actual flexural involvement. The refined Millennium Criteria were constituted from these criteria. When comparing the different list for validity in diagnosing atopic dermatitis, the refined Millennium Criteria showed a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 98.8% compared to a sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 72.9% of the UK Criteria and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 48.8% of the Hanifin & Rajka Criteria. This refinement and validity study shows that the refined Millennium Criteria are a valid tool to diagnose atopic and atopiform dermatitis in a hospital-based setting and therefore could be incorporated in clinical practice and trials. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari, Juliana; Huebner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C; Dale, Jeremy W; Hughes, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (note)

  16. Bacterial contamination of computer touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P; Wuollet, Adam L; Raisanen, Peter; Lopez, Gerardo U

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens on the surfaces of computer touch screens used in hospitals and grocery stores. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria were isolated on touch screens in hospitals; Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and in grocery stores; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Enteric bacteria were more common on grocery store touch screens than on hospital computer touch screens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Mary Anne; Nance, Donna; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2010-01-01

    We studied the bacterial burden on toilet seats in a children's cancer hospital to validate a policy requesting that immunocompromised children use alcohol wipes on the seats prior to use of the toilets. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 3.3% of hospital toilets when wipes were not in use. Use of wipes resulted in a 50-fold reduction in mean daily bacterial counts and eliminated MRSA. PMID:19243856

  18. Mast cells and atopic dermatitis. Stereological quantification of mast cells in atopic dermatitis and normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, T E; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Stereological quantification of mast cell numbers was applied to sections of punch biopsies from lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients and skin of healthy volunteers. We also investigated whether the method of staining and/or the fixative influenced the results...... of the determination of the mast cell profile numbers. The punch biopsies were taken from the same four locations in both atopic dermatitis patients and normal individuals. The locations were the scalp, neck and flexure of the elbow (lesional skin), and nates (nonlesional skin). Clinical scoring was carried out...... yielded the following results: (1) in atopic dermatitis lesional skin an increased number of mast cell profiles was found as compared with nonlesional skin, (2) comparing atopic dermatitis skin with normal skin, a significantly increased number of mast cell profiles per millimetre squared was found...

  19. Clinical efficacy of emollients in atopic dermatitis patients – relationship with the skin microbiota modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seité S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Seité,1 Hana Zelenkova,2 Richard Martin3 1La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 2DOST, Private Clinic of Dermatovenereology, Svidnik, Slovakia; 3L’Oréal Research and Innovation, Tours, France Background: We speculated that an emollient supplemented with a biomass of nonpathogenic bacteria such as Vitreoscilla filiformis (Vf, grown in a medium containing thermal spring water (LRP-TSW; (LRP-Vitreoscilla filiformis biomass [LRP-VFB], could have a beneficial effect for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Patients and methods: This double-blind, randomized, comparative study was conducted with 60 patients with moderate AD. Before starting the study, participants were pretreated for 15 days with drug therapy to improve their SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD by at least 25%. On Day 1, the eligible patients were randomized to either the emollient containing LRP-VFB associated with mannose (Product A or another emollient (product B and were treated twice daily for 1 month. Recurrence of flare-ups and microbial communities were characterized from swabs taken at Day 1 and Day 28, under axenic conditions, from affected (AF and proximal unaffected (UAF skin areas. Results: At Day 1, the average SCORAD of each group and the microbial communities of AF and UAF areas for each participant were similar. One month after the end of the therapeutic treatment (Day 28, the average evolution of SCORAD at Day 28 compared to Day 1 of patients treated with product A was significantly lower than that of the patients treated with product B. A significantly increased level of Xanthomonas genus was noticed in the group treated with product A (versus product B. On the other hand, the level of Staphylococcus genus increased between Day 1 and Day 28 in the group treated with product B, but not in the group treated with product A. Interestingly, these differences were more pronounced for patients in relapse, and the associated SCORAD

  20. Silver nanoparticles toxicity against airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A; Malina, Dagmara K

    2017-11-10

    The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method assessment with regard to airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp. The first step of the experiment was the preparation of silver nanoparticle suspension. The suspension was obtained by a fast and simple chemical method involving the reduction of silver ions through a reducing factor in the presence of the suitable stabilizer required to prevent the aggregation. In the second stage, varied instrumental techniques were used for the analysis and characterization of the obtained nanostructures. Third, the bacteria of the Staphylococcus genus were isolated from the air under stable conditions with 47 sports and recreational horses, relatively. Next, isolated strains were identified using biochemical and spectrophotometric methods. The final step was the evaluation of the Staphylococcus genus sensitivity to nanosilver using the disk diffusion test. It has been proven that prepared silver nanoparticles exhibit strong antibacterial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentration for tested isolates was 30 μg/mL. It has been found that the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from six identified species differs considerably. The size distribution of bacterial growth inhibition zones indicates that resistance to various nanosilver concentrations is an individual strain feature, and has no connection with belonging to a specific species.

  1. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences.

  2. Bacterial Succession on Rat Carcasses and Applications for PMI Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Guo, Juan-juan; Telet-Siyit; Peng, Yu-long; Xie, Dan; Guo, Ya-dong; Yan, Jie; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Ji-feng

    2016-02-01

    Abstract: To investigate the bacterial succession on rat carcasses and to evaluate the use of bacterial succession for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Adult female SD rat remains were placed in carton boxes. The bacterial colonization of circumocular skin, mouth and vagina was collected to be identified using culture-dependent biochemical methods. The changes in community composition were regularly documented. The bacterial succession in three habitats showed that Staphylococcus and Neisseria were predominated in early PMI, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria lactamica in 6 hours after death. Lactobacillus casei developed on the 3-4 days regularly, and kept stable at a certain level in late PMI. The involvement of normal and putrefactive bacteria in three body habitats of rat remains can be used for PMI estimation.

  3. Fisiopatologia da dermatite da área das fraldas: parte I Pathogenesis of napkin dermatitis: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dumet Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A dermatite da área da fralda irritativa primária é a dermatite da área da fralda mais prevalente, sendo provavelmente a afecção cutânea mais freqüente na primeira infância, constituindo fonte significativa de desconforto para a criança. O uso da fralda ocasiona aumento da temperatura e da umidade locais. Há conseqüente maceração da pele, que se torna mais susceptível à irritação ocasionada pelo contato prolongado da urina e das fezes com a pele da região coberta pelas fraldas. Freqüentemente surge infecção secundária por Candida ou por bactérias como Bacillos faecallis, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O uso de pós, óleos, sabões e pomadas irritantes agravam o quadro clínico. Diante disso, é importante que se conheça a fisiopatologia da doença para que se possa fazer correta prevenção e tratamento apropriado.Irritant contact dermatitis is the most prevalent diaper dermatitis and, probably, the most common cause of skin disease in infancy. The wearing of diaper leads to overhydration, increased local temperature and humidity. Constant maceration and prolonged contact with urine and stools makes the skin under the diaper more susceptible. There is often secondary infection due to Candida or bacteria, such as Bacillus faecallis, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. Oils, soaps, powders and ointments can be irritants and aggravate the rash. It is important to know the pathophysiology of the disease for appropriate treatment and prevention

  4. Clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing children with sickle cell anaemia and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus

  5. Aggravation of bronchial eosinophilia in mice by nasal and bronchial exposure to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, P. W.; Hens, G.; Meyts, I.; Bullens, D.; Vanoirbeek, J.; Gevaert, P.; Jorissen, M.; Ceuppens, J. L.; Bachert, C.

    2006-01-01

    The role of bacterial enterotoxins like Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) in allergic asthma remains unknown. We used a mouse model of airway allergy to study the effects of nasal or bronchial contact with SEB on bronchial allergic inflammation. The features of allergic asthma were induced

  6. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  7. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  8. Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus mRNA using a flow through microarray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, R. M.; Schuitema, A. R. J.; Oskam, L.; Klatser, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The direct detection of mRNAs from bacterial cultures on a DNA array without amplification and labelling would greatly extend the range of applications suitable for microarray analysis. Here we describe the direct detection of 23S rRNA and seven mRNA species from total Staphylococcus aureus RNA

  9. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the s......The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge...... consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts...

  10. Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal

  11. Awareness of bacterial resistance among physicians, pharmacists and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem; Ayoub, Nehad; Al-Sakaji, Suehair; Al-Azzam, Sayer; Mhaidat, Nizar; Masadeh, Majed

    2009-01-01

    To assess the level of medical staff awareness of bacterial resistance and characterize the most common resistant bacterial species, the factors contributing to the development of such resistance, and the possible measures to limit the increasing rate of resistance to current antibacterial therapies. A questionnaire was administered to 352 health care professionals including physicians, pharmacists and nurses at four central university hospitals in Jordan. Our results indicate that most of the responding physicians and pharmacists considered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus the most frequently encountered resistant bacterial species. However, nurses recognized both methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) as the most prevalent resistant species. Physicians and nurses (50.0% and 61.6%, respectively) reported prolonged hospitalization as a factor likely to contribute to the increased incidence of bacterial resistance. About 58% of pharmacists indicated the use of antibiotics without prescription as a significant reason for the development of bacterial resistance. Most of physicians (61.2%) reported that appropriate infection control is the most important measure to reduce bacterial resistance. Pharmacists (58.1%) recognized better adherence to the infection control guidelines as the most important factor that could reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. The findings of this study indicate a varying level of awareness of bacterial resistance among the health care professionals. Thus, serious efforts are still needed to develop and implement strategies to decrease the future risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  12. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  13. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  14. The pH-unrelated influence of salt, temperature and manganese on aroma formation by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus in a fermented meat model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of manganese (0.01-0.1-1.0 mug/g), temperature (15-24 degreesC) and salt (3-4% w/w) on volatile formation in model minces inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus was studied in a full factorial experiment. In order to study......H-orthogonal effects of manganese, temperature and salt plus the experimental noise. From this, it was concluded that most of the variation in volatile profiles caused by manganese, temperature and salt was in fact directly or indirectly caused by changes in lactic acid bacterial activity and pH....

  15. Chronic radiation-induced dermatitis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spałek M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Spałek Department of Radiotherapy I, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Chronic radiation dermatitis is a late side effect of skin irradiation, which may deteriorate patients’ quality of life. There is a lack of precise data about its incidence; however, several risk factors may predispose to the development of this condition. It includes radiotherapy dose, fractionation, technique, concurrent systemic therapy, comorbidities, and personal and genetic factors. Chronic radiation dermatitis is mostly caused by the imbalance of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Clinical manifestation includes changes in skin appearance, wounds, ulcerations, necrosis, fibrosis, and secondary cancers. The most severe complication of irradiation is extensive radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF. RIF can manifest in many ways, such as skin induration and retraction, lymphedema or restriction of joint motion. Diagnosis of chronic radiation dermatitis is usually made by clinical examination. In case of unclear clinical manifestation, a biopsy and histopathological examination are recommended to exclude secondary malignancy. The most effective prophylaxis of chronic radiation dermatitis is the use of proper radiation therapy techniques to avoid unnecessary irradiation of healthy skin. Treatment of chronic radiation dermatitis is demanding. The majority of the interventions are based only on clinical practice. Telangiectasia may be treated with pulse dye laser therapy. Chronic postirradiation wounds need special dressings. In case of necrosis or severe ulceration, surgical intervention may be considered. Management of RIF should be complex. Available methods are rehabilitative care, pharmacotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and laser therapy. Future challenges include the assessment of late skin toxicity in modern irradiation techniques. Special attention should be paid on genomics and

  16. Relationships among plasma granzyme B level, pruritus and dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yayoi; Kimura, Utako; Matsuda, Hironori; Tengara, Suhandy; Kamo, Atsuko; Umehara, Yoshie; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H 1 -antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients. Plasma was collected from 46 patients with AD, 24 patients with psoriasis, and 30 healthy controls. AD severity was assessed with the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, psoriasis severity with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and degree of pruritus by visual analogue scale (VAS) score. GzmA, GzmB and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma GzmB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AD and psoriasis than in healthy controls. Correlation analyses showed that plasma GzmB concentrations positively correlated with SCORAD and serum levels of severity markers such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and lactate dehydrogenase in AD patients. Moreover, plasma levels of GRP, an itch-related peptide, were higher in patients with AD, positively correlating with VAS score and plasma GzmB level. In addition, plasma GzmB concentration was significantly lower in the treatment group than the untreated group with AD. Meanwhile, there were no correlations among GzmB levels, VAS score and PASI score in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to the results of plasma GzmB, plasma GzmA levels were unchanged among AD, psoriasis and healthy groups, and showed no correlations with VAS score and SCORAD index in patients with AD. Plasma GzmB levels may reflect the degree of pruritus and dermatitis in

  17. Stability of chloroquine phosphate tablets inoculated with bacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.; Orhe, C.A.; Iwaagu, M.U.

    2003-01-01

    Five popular brands of chloroquine tablets available to the average Nigerian consumers were examined for the effects of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, on the dissolution, disintegration and hardness after six weeks of incubation. The maximum percent dissolution was 98.34% with bacillus subtilis while the minimum was 19.12% with staphylococcus aureus. The disintegration results showed a maximum of 69 min. 19 sec with Staphylococcus aureus while the least was 56 sec with Bacillus subtilis. The maximum hardness obtained was 12.75 kg and the least was 1.25 kg also with Staphylococcus aureus. The dissolution, disintegration and hardness also varied with the control. The metabolic activities of the bacterial species were believed to have caused the variations in the physical properties of the chloroquine phosphate tablets. The results from this investigation strongly advises adequate storage of chloroquine phosphate tablets, especially when it is the drug of choice for the of sub-Saharan Africa. (author)

  18. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.; Hussein, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  19. Atopic dermatitis is associated with a fivefold increased risk of polysensitisation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeks, Suzanne; Brand, Paulus

    Aim: It has been hypothesised that in atopic dermatitis, the dysfunctional skin barrier facilitates the transcutaneous presentation of allergens to the immune system. This study examined whether atopic dermatitis increased the likelihood of polysensitisation, namely sensitisation to five or more

  20. Atopic dermatitis: Burden of illness, quality of life, and associated complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin condition that is burdensome for individuals with the disease, their families, and for society as a whole. The purpose of this review was to provide a broad overview of the burden of atopic dermatitis, including quality of life and its associated complications. This article was divided into four main sections: (1) atopic dermatitis prevalence, persistence, and population-level burden; (2) burden of atopic dermatitis for individuals and their families; (3) medical complications and comorbidities of atopic dermatitis; and (4) assessment of the burden of atopic dermatitis in clinical practice. Having an understanding of the burden of atopic dermatitis is important for clinicians as they assess and manage atopic dermatitis in the clinical setting.

  1. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Patrick M.; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S.; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A.; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg; Bagot, Martine; Hijnen, Dirk Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815519; Ardern-Jones, Michael; Reynolds, Nick; Spuls, Phyllis; Taieb, Alain

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of

  2. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  3. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGENS ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic eczematous skin disease that develops in a patient with atopic diathesis, which is characterized by an increased liability to produce IgE antibodies for allergens mostly derived from environmental or inhalant allergens and food allergens. They are produced by cell-mediated allergic contact reactions, and recently contact sensitivity to various environmental allergens has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Atopic patients are recognized by their ability to produce large amounts of specific IgE antibodies to common substances as environmental allergens, i.e. house dust mites, grass pollens, animal danders, molds, food, etc. These antibodies can be detected by skin prick test. The aim of this study was to identify the sensitization against environmental or inhalants allergens through skin prick tests in the patients with atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study. We revised all medical records of patients with AD since January 2002 to December 2004 in the Out Patients Unit of Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. The variables studied were: gender, age, work related, diagnosis associates to AD, and prick test of environmental allergens. Results: In 3 years periods we had revised 46 of patients with AD that was done skin prick tests. The median age was 38 years (range 29-54 years, 34/46 (73.9 % of these were male and 12 (26.1 % female. Twenty nine patients presented pure AD, and 17 patients had AD with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Only 16 (34.7% of patients had no history of allergic disease. Thirsty six of 46 (78.20% of all tested AD patients had a positive skin prick tests against inhalant (aeroallergens 16 patients and food allergens 21 patients. Sixteen patients with positive of skin test include; dust mite in 12 patients, animal dander in 10 patients, grass pollen in 9 patients and cockroach in 6 patients. Conclusion: We concluded that

  4. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lourtet-Hascoët

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics .

  5. PUSTULAR DERMATITIS CAUSED BY IMPETIGO IN RED-TAILED MONKEYS ( CERCOPITHECUS ASCANIUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Patrick; Bradford, Carol; Montali, Richard J; Bronson, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    Impetigo is a bacterial infection of the superficial layer of the epidermis with crusting or bullae caused by Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., or both. A 14-yr-old red-tailed monkey ( Cercopithecus ascanius) presented with recurrent scabbing and ulceration under the nares over an 8-yr period. Repeated cultures and biopsy samples led to a presumptive diagnosis of impetigo, later confirmed on necropsy. Multiple antibiotic regimens were employed with varying success during multiple episodes, while lesions resolved on their own at other times. This condition has not been previously reported in a nonhuman primate, although it is not uncommon in humans.

  6. Quinolone Resistance in Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli (95; 47.5%), Salmonella serotypes (78; 38.0%), Klebsiella (17; 8.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12; 6.0%) were isolated from chicken carcasses within the six-year period. On the overall, the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (40.5%), enrofloxacin (21.0%), ...

  7. Host defenses against bacterial pore-forming toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, F.C.O.

    2011-01-01

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs), the most common bacterial toxins, contribute to infection by perforating host cell membranes. Excessive use and lack of new development of antibiotics are causing increasing numbers of drug-resistant bacteria, like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and

  8. SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS IN PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS TREATED WITH ANTIPSYCHOTICS : AN OBSERVATION STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mijaljica, Goran; Britvić, Dolores; Sabljar, Arlena

    2015-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly skin disease with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 3% in the general population. Some studies linked seborrheic dermatitis to neuroleptic induced parkinsonism. We conducted a one-month observational study of the incidence of seborrheic dermatitis in 54 psychiatric inpatients treated with both typical and atypical antipsychotics. Seven patients manifested seborrheic dermatitis. One patient was hospitalized for the firs...

  9. Seborrheic dermatitis - an early and common skin manifestation in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikokkinou, Paraskevi; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Katoulis, Alexandros; Luzzati, Roberto; Trevisan, Giusto

    2008-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common dermatosis occurring on the scalp, face and chest. In the general population, the prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis varies between 3% and 5%, while in HIV positive patients there is an increased prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis ranging between 30% and 83%. Seborrheic dermatitis occurs early in the course of HIV disease and may be an initial clinical marker of HIV infection.

  10. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  11. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  12. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  13. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  14. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    , the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...

  15. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that coats the walls of the vagina Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or fishlike odor Vaginal pain or itching Burning during urination Doctors are unsure of the incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your child’s pediatrician can make the diagnosis ...

  16. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  17. Antibacterial mechanism of soybean isoflavone on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Mingjie

    2010-11-01

    Effects of different flavonoids on various bacterial strains have been extensively reported; however, the mechanism(s) of their action on bacterial cells remain largely elusive. In this study, the antibacterial mechanism of soybean isoflavone (SI) on Staphylococcus aureus is systematically investigated using 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, pBR322DNA decatenation experiment mediated by topoisomerase and agarose gel electrophoresis for direct decatenation. The results of fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometer indicated that DAPI was integrated in Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the quantity of both DNA and RNA reduced to 66.47 and 60.18%, respectively, after treated with SI for 28 h. Effects of SI on topoisomerase I and II were also investigated. SI completely inhibited the pBR322DNA unwinding mediated by topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II at the concentration of 6.4 mg/ml and could denature the plasmid DNA at the concentration of 12.8 mg/ml. These results indicate that topoisomerase I and II are the most important targets by SI to restrain bacterial cell division.

  18. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Hypoxylon fragiforme against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Tomoko Yuyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms. Sclerin, sclerin diacid and its 3-methyl monoester (methyl 1-(5-hydroxy-6-carboxylic-2,3,4-trimethylphenyl propionate are here described for the first time from this fungus. Sclerin and its diacid interfered with the biofilm formation of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 86% and 80% of the biofilm at 256 μg mL−1, respectively, but not killing the bacterium. Interestingly, the monomethylester of sclerin diacid was inactive. Although these compounds did not possess any activity against a pre-formed biofilm, they prevented its formation at subtoxic concentrations. Furthermore, sclerin and its diacid displayed a high specificity against Staphylococcus aureus, indicating a good strategy against pathogenic biofilms when combined with antibiotics.

  19. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    reduce or delay bacterial biofilm formation of a range of urinary tract infectious E.coli and Klebsiella isolates. Several other proteinaceous coatings were also found to display anti-adhesive properties, possibly providing a measure for controlling the colonization of implant materials. Several other...... components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  20. Staphylococcus epidermidis ΔSortase A strain elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yifang; Wang, Peng; Zou, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan. Considering its indispensable role in anchoring substrates to the cell wall and its effects on virulence, SrtA has attracted great attention. In this study, a 549-bp gene was cloned from a pathogenic S. epidermidis strain, YC-1, which shared high identity with srtA from other Staphylococcus spp. A mutant strain, YC-1ΔsrtA, was then constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The direct survival rate assay suggested that YC-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy mice blood compare with the wild-type strain, indicating that the deletion of srtA affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. epidermidis YC-1. YC-1ΔsrtA was then administered via intraperitoneal injection and it provided a relative percent survival value of 72.7 % in mice against S. aureus TC-1 challenge. These findings demonstrate the possbility that YC-1ΔsrtA might be used as a live attenuated vaccine to produce cross-protection against S. aureus.

  1. Nasal Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Military Personnel in a Developing Country - Development of a Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Surveillance System in the Peruvian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-07

    dermatitis and psoriasis that are associated with high rates of colonization. 4. It is important to have a profile of the most used antibiotics at each... Para el primer objetivo, realizamos un estudio de cohortes prospectivo en cuatro de las bases mas grandes de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú, recolectando...hisopados nasal de 756 miembros en actividad. Las muestras fueron cultivadas para identificar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus, y se determine

  2. Clinical implications of new mechanistic insights into atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-08-01

    The review will examine recent advances in our understanding of atopic dermatitis and how these mechanisms provide a framework for new approaches to the management of this common skin disease. The mechanisms by which epithelial skin barrier and immune responses contribute to the complex clinical phenotypes found in atopic dermatitis are being elucidated. Atopic dermatitis often precedes food allergy because reduced skin barrier function allows environmental food allergens to penetrate the skin leading to systemic allergen sensitization. There is increasing evidence that atopic dermatitis is a systemic disease. New treatments are focused on intervention in polarized immune responses leading to allergic diseases. This includes antagonism of IL-4 and IL-13 effects. Prevention strategies involve maintaining normal skin barrier function with emollients to prevent allergens and microbes from penetrating the skin. Recent work on the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has important implications for its clinical management, including the development of effective barrier creams and biologicals targeting specific polarized immune pathways resulting in skin inflammation.

  3. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to 8-methoxypsoralen in Ficus carica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Lionetti, Nicola; Rigano, Luigi; Angelini, Gianni

    2010-06-01

    Photocontact dermatitis to Ficus carica is induced by furocoumarins present in sap. These substances are generally considered to cause phototoxic reactions. We conducted a patch test and histopathological study of patients with phytophoto contact dermatitis from the fig tree to evaluate the mechanism underlying the photoreaction. Patch and photopatch testing with serial dilutions of two natural furocoumarins [5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP)] contained in plant sap were performed in 47 patients. A synthetic furocoumarin, 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, was also tested. Histopathological analyses were made of some positive photoreactions. Positive photopatch tests reactions to 8-MOP were obtained in 12 of 47 patients, in 4 of them down to a concentration of 0.0001%. Patch tests and photopatch tests to the other two furocoumarins were negative. Histopathological findings on biopsies from positive photopatch tests to 8-MOP showed a dermatitis. Allergic photoreactions induced by contact with plants containing coumarins are generally regarded as chance findings. This study has demonstrated that phytophoto allergic contact dermatitis resulting from furocoumarins is not an exceptional finding, and should be suspected in subjects with diffuse clinical manifestations in photo-exposed but also non-exposed sites. To differentiate allergic from toxic photoreactions, patch tests need to be performed with serial dilutions of furocoumarins. Histological analysis of a biopsy sample from a positive test site will reveal alterations compatible with a photoallergic contact dermatitis.

  4. Bullous cryothermic dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, A; Bender, A; Hertl, M; König, A

    2011-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta belongs to a broad spectrum of factitious diseases of lesions usually self-induced by patients. Here we report a surprisingly effective induction of blisters and thermic dermatitis by excessive abuse of common deodorant sprays. We evaluated the clinical course and outcome in three patients with dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray. A 12-year-old boy only admitted the abuse of deodorant spray after psychiatric intervention. Two adults (21-year-old and 37-year-old women) had borderline personality disorder and frankly reported the urge to induce pain by spraying for at least 100 s at a short distance. Bullous dermatitis was the acute presenting sign in all patients. The bullae were found on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, with a distribution of older lesions showing erosions and scarring and fresh lesions with intact bullae with a diameter of 3-15 cm. After searching for the causative agent and removal of the deodorant spray, clinical outcome showed a healing without and with scars. Cryo-damage by abuse of common deodorant sprays seems to become a popular mechanism by which an impressive bullous dermatitis can be artificially induced. Dermatologists and psychiatrist should be aware of this method of injury. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST, have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST.

  6. Emerging therapies for atopic dermatitis: The prostaglandin/leukotriene pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Daniel A; Mosser-Goldfarb, Joy L

    2018-03-01

    The role of leukotrienes and prostaglandins in development of atopy has been prototypically established in studies of asthma pathogenesis. Likewise, both in vitro and in vivo studies of atopic dermatitis have demonstrated that these molecules maintain important pathophysiologic roles. Thus, it follows that targeted therapies against these molecules may be promising in management of atopic dermatitis. Montelukast has had questionable efficacy in patients with atopic dermatitis, whereas small pilots using zileuton did have some clinically significant improvement. There are several agents in development that target leukotrienes and/or prostaglandins as well, including OC000459, Q301, and ZPL-521. In atopic dermatitis, OC000459 did not demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials, and the efficacy of the other 2 agents remains to be seen. Should these medications prove promising, these topical agents may play a future role in chronic maintenance therapy and flare prophylaxis in atopic dermatitis, as antileukotriene therapy does in asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  8. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  9. Immunoadsorption for treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Joanna; Weinmann-Menke, Julia; von Stebut, Esther

    2017-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease affecting up to 10-20% of the population with the largest disease burden in childhood. Treatment options include basic emollient treatment, topical as well as systemic immunosuppressants. The pathogenesis is complex and among various triggers, genetic predisposition and immunological alterations contribute to development of disease. Atopy is common in patients with AD and many patients have high levels of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), some of which recognizes exogenous or auto/self-allergens. Treatment options targeting IgE such as specific immunotherapy against e.g. house dust mites or using anti-IgE antibodies (omalizumab) showed variable results that were not convincing. We now review recent data on the application of unspecific and IgE-selective immunoadsorption (IA) in AD. All in all, 53 patients have been treated with non-specific pan Ig IA and 28 patients with IgE-selective IA. Side effects were rarely seen. The efficacy of IgE depletion was generally high (<∼80%) for each IA cycle, but transient and lasted only a few days/weeks. Of note, disease activity appeared to improve in almost all cases and lasted for several weeks. Although the evidence is still weak, these case studies suggest that IgE depletion in AD is effective and helped control the disease. The mechanism of action is not understood yet. Future controlled trials are needed to validate this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atopic Dermatitis Studies through In Vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne De Vuyst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD. However, since a lot of models have been developed, finding the appropriate experimental setting can be difficult. Therefore, herein, we review the different types of in vitro models mimicking features of AD. The simplest models are two-dimensional culture systems composed of immune cells or keratinocytes, whereas three-dimensional skin or epidermal equivalents reconstitute more complex stratified tissues exhibiting barrier properties. In those models, hallmarks of AD are obtained, either by challenging tissues with interleukin cocktails overexpressed in AD epidermis or by silencing expression of pivotal genes encoding epidermal barrier proteins. Tissue equivalents cocultured with lymphocytes or containing AD patient cells are also described. Furthermore, each model is placed in its study context with a brief summary of the main results obtained. In conclusion, the described in vitro models are useful tools to better understand AD pathogenesis, but also to screen new compounds in the field of AD, which probably will open the way to new preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  11. Molecular Genetic of Atopic dermatitis: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Alnomair, Naief; Alobead, Zeiad Abdulaziz; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD. In last decade advanced procedures similar to genome-wide association (GWA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been applied on different population and now it has been clarified that AD is significantly associated with genes of innate/adaptive immune systems, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokines, chemokines, drug-metabolizing genes or various other genes. In this review, we will highlight the recent advancements in the molecular genetics of AD, especially on possible functional relevance of genetic variants discovered to date. PMID:27004062

  12. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  13. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  14. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chindamporn, Ariya; Yumyourn, Poomjit; Payungporn, Sunchai; Samathi, Chanchuree; Poovorawan, Yong

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study both incidence and various strains of Malassezia in infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). Sixty infants between 2 weeks and 2 years old with clinical diagnosis of ISD at the Department of Pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from May 2002 to April 2003 were recruited. Malassezia spp. were isolated from cultured skin samples of the patients, genomic DNA was extracted and the ITS1 rDNA region was amplified. The PCR product was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequences were determined. The ITS1 sequences were also subjected to phylogenetic analysis and species identification. ISD is most commonly found in infants below the age of 2 months (64%), followed by those between 2 and 4 months (28%) old. Cultures yielded yeast-like colonies in 15 specimens. PCR yielded 200-bp products (Candida) in 3 patients and 300-bp products (Malassezia furfur) in 12 patients (18%). Sugar fermentation using API 20C aux performed on the three 200-bp PCR products yielded Candida species. M. furfur was the only Malassezia recovered from skin scrapings of children with ISD.

  15. Air-borne Contact Dermatitis in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Singh

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six patients suspected to have air borne contact dermatitis were tested with various plant antigens. Thirteen patients turned out to be sensitive to one or more antigens. The plant antigens, used for testing, were Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Cynodon dactylon, Bougainvaled spectabills, calotropis procera, Argimone mexicana, Acacia arabica, Azadiracha indica, Eucalyptus rostrata, Saraka indica, triticum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Dryopteris filix, Nerium indicum, Eclipta alba, Mangifera indica, Trianthema monogyna, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia thimifolia, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus viridis, Carissa carands, Salvia plebia, Cyperus rotandus, Cassia occidentalis, Gynandropsis gynandra, Pennisetum typhoides, chenopodium album, Nicotana tobacum, Tagetes sp, Rosa indica, Cestrum nocturnum, Helianthus annus, Jasminum samlae, Thuja orientalis, Cajanus cajan, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Echinochloa cruss-galli, Phaseolus aureus, Ricinus communis and Alternantheria sessilis. The maximum positive reactions were elicited by Parthenium hysterophorus (30.0% followed in the order of frequency by Amarnthus viridis (10.0% Gynandropsis gynandra (10.0% Pennisetum typhoides (10.0%, Nerium indicum (3.9%, Triticum vulgare (2.5% and Dryopteris filix (2.5%. Rest of the plant antigens did not show any reaction. The male to female ratio was 5.5:1.

  16. Kumkum-induced allergic contact dermatitis: Are we missing the actual culprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Annabathula

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Allergic contact dermatitis to kumkum occurs both due to the dyes (added for enhancing the colour and turmeric. All patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis should be patch tested with kumkum, turmeric and dyes, based on which alternative non-allergic material could be advised. Kumkum dermatitis can also occur due to various other allergens, for which too patch testing should be done.

  17. Atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortz, C G; Andersen, K E; Dellgren, C; Barington, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2015-07-01

    While much is known about childhood atopic dermatitis, little is known about persistence of atopic dermatitis into adult life. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, the clinical course of atopic dermatitis in an unselected cohort of adolescents followed into adulthood. The course of atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood was studied prospectively in a cohort of unselected 8th-grade schoolchildren established in 1995 and followed up in 2010 with questionnaire and clinical examination. The lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was high (34.1%), and a considerable number of adults still suffered from atopic dermatitis evaluated both by questionnaire (17.1%) and clinical examination (10.0%). Persistent atopic dermatitis was found in 50% of those diagnosed in school age, and persistent atopic dermatitis was significantly associated with early onset, childhood allergic rhinitis and hand eczema. A close association was also found with allergic contact dermatitis and increased specific IgE to Malassezia furfur, but not with filaggrin gene defect. Persistence of atopic dermatitis in adulthood is common and affects quality of life. Persistent atopic dermatitis is particularly prevalent in those with early onset, allergic rhinitis and hand eczema in childhood. It is important to recognizing atopic dermatitis as a common and disabling disease not only in children but also in adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contact sensitization in Dutch children and adolescents with and without atopic dermatitis - a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbes, Stefanie; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Smitt, Johannes H. Sillevis; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A

    Background. Allergic contact dermatitis is known to occur in children with and without atopic dermatitis, but more data are needed on contact sensitization profiles in these two groups. Objectives. To identify frequent allergens in children with and without atopic dermatitis suspected of having

  19. Purulent Trunk Dermatitis in a Male Ceylon Elephant (Elephas maximus maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodička

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the therapy of purulent trunk dermatitis in an aggressive male Ceylon elephant (Elephas maximus maximus. The elephant was immobilized 4 times with 1.7 ml Large Animal (LA Immobilon i.m. within 50 days. The anaesthetic action was antagonised with 1.7 ml LA Revivon + 8.0 ml Naloxone i.v. and 0.5 ml LA Revivon + 6.0 ml Naloxone i.m. From skin lesions the following pathogens were isolated: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and Candida tropicalis. Local therapy consisted of the debridement of the affected skin, application of antibiotics and skin antiseptics. Depot penicillin, vitamins, probiotics and autogenous yeast vaccine were administered generally. In haematological indicators the biggest changes were found in the numbers of white blood cells and segmented neutrophils. Markedly low zinc concentrations were found repeatedly. Despite the non-standard steps we took (repeated anaesthesia during a short time, non-compliance with the recommendations for the administration of some drugs, etc. and difficult handling (aggressive, uncontrollable elephant, no restraint chute, it proved possible to treat such a case in this manner.

  20. Deciphering the Complexities of Atopic Dermatitis: Shifting Paradigms in Treatment Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Donald Y. M.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset, severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved by early interventions protecting the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention may improve long term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization leading to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559