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Sample records for bacterial consortium enriched

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a bacterial consortium enriched from mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari Moghadam, Mohsen; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Abtahi, Behrooz; Ghassempour, Alireza; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation in contaminated sediment is an attractive remediation technique and its success depends on the optimal condition for the PAH-degrading isolates. The aims of the current study was to isolate and identify PAHs-degrading bacteria from surface sediments of Nayband Bay and to evaluate the efficiency of statistically based experimental design for the optimization of phenanthrene (Phe) and Fluorene (Flu) biodegradation performed by enriched consortium. PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated from surface sediments. Purified strains were then identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Taguchi L16 (4(5)) was employed to evaluate the optimum biodegradation of Phe and Flu by the enriched consortium. Total of six gram-negative bacterial strains including Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Roseovarius pacificus, Pseudidiomarina sediminum and 3 unidentified strains were isolated from enrichment consortium, using Fluorene (Flu) and phenanthrene (Phe) as the sole carbon and energy source. The enriched consortium showed highest degradation abilities (64.0% Flu and 58.4% Phe degraded in 7 days) in comparison to a single strain cultures or mixtures. Maximum biodegradation efficiency was occur at temperature = 35°C; pH = 8; inoculum size = 0. 4 OD600nm; salinity = 40 ppt; C/N ratio = 100:10. In conclusion our results showed that, indigenous bacteria from mangrove surface sediments of Nayband Bay have high potential to degrade Flu and Phe with the best results achieved when enriched consortium was used. PMID:25436114

  2. Bacterial community analysis in chlorpyrifos enrichment cultures via DGGE and use of bacterial consortium for CP biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CP) has been used extensively since the 1960s for insect control. However, its toxic effects on mammals and persistence in environment necessitate its removal from contaminated sites, biodegradation studies of CP-degrading microbes are therefore of immense importance. Samples from a Pakistani agricultural soil with an extensive history of CP application were used to prepare enrichment cultures using CP as sole carbon source for bacterial community analysis and isolation of CP metabolizing bacteria. Bacterial community analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that the dominant genera enriched under these conditions were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, along with lower numbers of Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium and Burkholderia. Furthermore, it revealed that members of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, α- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were present at initial steps of enrichment whereas β-Proteobacteria appeared in later steps and only Proteobacteria were selected by enrichment culturing. However, when CP-degrading strains were isolated from this enrichment culture, the most active organisms were strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Pseudomonas mendocina and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains degraded 6-7.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP when cultivated in mineral medium, while the consortium of all four strains degraded 9.2 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP (100 mg L(-1)). Addition of glucose as an additional C source increased the degradation capacity by 8-14 %. After inoculation of contaminated soil with CP (200 mg kg(-1)) disappearance rates were 3.83-4.30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for individual strains and 4.76 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for the consortium. These results indicate that these organisms are involved in the degradation of CP in soil and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  3. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10) and temperatures (20–37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  4. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Qing-Song; Zhang, You-Bing; Guo, Mao-Wei; Gong, An-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Wu, Ai-Bo; Huang, Tao; Qu, Bo; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON). Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5-10) and temperatures (20-37 °C) values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase), as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation. PMID:27669304

  5. Aerobic De-Epoxydation of Trichothecene Mycotoxins by a Soil Bacterial Consortium Isolated Using In Situ Soil Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV are among the most widely distributed mycotoxins that contaminate small grain cereals. In this study, a bacterial consortium, PGC-3, with de-epoxydation activity was isolated from soil by an in situ soil enrichment method. Screening of 14 soil samples that were sprayed with DON revealed that 4 samples were able to biotransform DON into de-epoxydized DON (dE-DON. Among these, the PGC-3 consortium showed the highest and most stable activity to biotransform DON into dE-DON and NIV into dE-NIV. PGC-3 exhibited de-epoxydation activity at a wide range of pH (5–10 and temperatures (20–37 °C values under aerobic conditions. Sequential subculturing with a continued exposure to DON substantially reduced the microbial population diversity of this consortium. Analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that PGC-3 comprised 10 bacterial genera. Among these, one species, Desulfitobacterium, showed a steady increase in relative abundance, from 0.03% to 1.55% (a 52-fold increase, as higher concentrations of DON were used in the subculture media, from 0 to 500 μg/mL. This study establishes the foundation to further develop bioactive agents that can detoxify trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals and enables for the characterization of detoxifying genes and their regulation.

  6. Bacterial diversity and reductive dehalogenase redundancy in a 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a contaminated aquifer

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    Wittebolle Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria possess a reservoir of metabolic functionalities ready to be exploited for multiple purposes. The use of microorganisms to clean up xenobiotics from polluted ecosystems (e.g. soil and water represents an eco-sustainable and powerful alternative to traditional remediation processes. Recent developments in molecular-biology-based techniques have led to rapid and accurate strategies for monitoring and identification of bacteria and catabolic genes involved in the degradation of xenobiotics, key processes to follow up the activities in situ. Results We report the characterization of the response of an enriched bacterial community of a 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA contaminated aquifer to the spiking with 5 mM lactate as electron donor in microcosm studies. After 15 days of incubation, the microbial community structure was analyzed. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library showed that the most represented phylogenetic group within the consortium was affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes. Among them, known degraders of chlorinated compounds were identified. A reductive dehalogenase genes clone library showed that the community held four phylogenetically-distinct catalytic enzymes, all conserving signature residues previously shown to be linked to 1,2-DCA dehalogenation. Conclusions The overall data indicate that the enriched bacterial consortium shares the metabolic functionality between different members of the microbial community and is characterized by a high functional redundancy. These are fundamental features for the maintenance of the community's functionality, especially under stress conditions and suggest the feasibility of a bioremediation treatment with a potential prompt dehalogenation and a process stability over time.

  7. Microbial Degradation of Aniline by Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; ZE-YU MAO; WEI-ZHONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of microbial degradation of aniline by a stable bacterial consortium. Methods The bacterial consortium was isolated from activated sludge treating chemical wastewater using aniline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by enrichment and isolation technique. The biomass was measured as optical density (OD) at 510 nm using a spectrophotometer. Aniline concentrations were determined by spectrophotometer. The intermediates of aniline degradation were identified by GC/MS method. Results The bacterial consortium could grow at a range of aniline concentrations between 50 and 500 mg/L. The optimal pH and temperature for aniline degradation were determined to be 7.0 and 30, respectively. The presence of NH4NO3 as an additional nitrogen source (100-500 mg/L) had no adverse effect on bacterial growth and aniline degradation. The presence of heavy metal ions, such as Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ had an inhibitory effect on aniline degradation. Conclusions The isolated bacterial consortium candegrade aniline up to 500 mg/L effectively and tolerate some heavy metal ions that commonly exist in chemical wastewater. It has a potential to be applied in the practical treatment of aniline-containingwastewater.

  8. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product. PMID:26897474

  9. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  10. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

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    Jihane Cheriaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila-(CM-4 was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L and malachite green (50 mg/L dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  11. Enrichment strategy to select functional consortium from mixed cultures: Consortium from rumen liquor for simultaneous cellulose degradation and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Lingfang; Xu, Jifei; Liu, Chong; Lee, Duu-Jong [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Strain isolation using conventional roll tube/plating technique is time consuming and is able to culture in vitro only a small fraction of existing microbes in a natural microflora. This paper proposed a simple and rapid method to select the as-simple-as-possible biological consortium by serially diluting the original mixed culture. The diluted which remains, while the one diluted in serial loses the target function, is defined as the functional consortium of the original mixed culture. Since the microbial structure and the reaction pathway incorporated with the functional consortium is much simpler than its original mother liquor, detailed analysis on the strain interaction is possible without the risk of losing key functional strains as often caused from conventional isolation method. The rumen liquor that can degrade cellulose and produce hydrogen is used as a demonstration example. A ''rumen cellulose-degrading bacterial consortium'' (RCBC) was identified using the proposed enrichment strategy. (author)

  12. Dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate and other common pollutants by a consortium enriched from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmala Bardiya; Jae-Ho Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enrich a facultative anaerobic bacterial consortium from the Yellow Sea and assess its ability to reduce perchlorate and other co-pollutants. Methods: Bacterial consortium collected from the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea was enriched in an anoxic medium containing perchlorate as the electron (e-) acceptor and acetate as the electron (e-) donor. The enriched consortium was then tested for perchlorate reduction under different perchlorate concentrations and in the presence of nitrate by using standard anaerobic techniques. The complete enzymatic reduction of perchlorate to chloride was confirmed by chlorite dismutation. Ability of the consortium to grow with alternate e- acceptors was also tested with acetate as the e- donor. Results: The enriched consortium could rapidly reduce perchlorate up to the initial concentration of 25.65 mmol/L. In the presence of nitrate, perchlorate reduction did not occur immediately and reduction of nitrate started after a lag phase, with concomitant accumulation of nitrite. The perchlorate-enriched consortium could reduce chlorate, oxygen, Cr (VI), and selenate as the alternate e- acceptors but failed to utilize sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and nitrite. Conclusions: The consortium from the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea could reduce perchlorate and co-contaminants such as chlorate, nitrate, Cr (VI), and selenate under heterotrophic conditions with acetate as the e- donor and carbon source. While perchlorate was completely dismutated into innocuous chloride and oxygen, accumulation of nitrite occurred during the reduction of nitrate.

  13. Biomineralization and formulation of endosulfan degrading bacterial and fungal consortiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam

    2014-11-01

    Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants and in this study, a microbial consortium consisting of bacterial strains and fungal strains were originally obtained from endosulfan contaminated agricultural soils. Identification of the bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA sequences revealed the isolates to be Halophilic bacterium JAS4, Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5, and Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, whereas the fungal isolates were identified by 18S rRNA sequences and the isolates were Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6, Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 and Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12. The biodegradation of endosulfan was monitored by using HPLC and FTIR analysis. The bacterial and fungal consortium could degrade 1000 mg l(-1) of endosulfan efficiently in aqueous medium and in soil. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded samples in the aqueous medium by bacterial and fungal consortium showed bands at 1400 and 950 cm(-1) which are the characteristics of COOH group and acid dimer band respectively. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used for the formulation of microbial consortium and to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains. PMID:25454517

  14. Biodeterioration studies of thermoplastics in nature using indigenous bacterial consortium

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    Mohd. Shahbaz Anwar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastics, poly vinyl chloride and low-density polyethylene were treated in the presence of indigenously developed bacterial consortium in laboratory and natural conditions. The consortium was developed using four bacteria, selected on the basis of utilization of PVC as primary carbon source, namely P. otitidis, B. aerius, B. cereus and A. pedis isolated from the plastic waste disposal sites in Northern India. The comparative in-vitro treatment studies as revealed by the spectral and thermal data, illustrated the relatively better biodegradation potential of developed consortium for PVC than the LDPE. Further, the progressive treatments of both the thermoplastics were conducted for three months under natural conditions. For this purpose, bioformulation of consortium was prepared and characterized for the viability up to 70 days of storage at 25±1ºC. The consortium treated polymer samples were monitored through SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. Analytical data revealed the biodeterioration potential of the developed consortium for PVC and LDPE, which could help in disposing the plastic waste.

  15. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27471499

  16. Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites

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    Kaustuvmani Patowary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1 and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and Bacillus cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH after five weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  17. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27471499

  19. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

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    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  20. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

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    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

  1. Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium.

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    Senan, Resmi C; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-08-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium consisting of two isolated strains (BF1, BF2) and a strain of Pseudomonas putida (MTCC1194) was developed for the aerobic degradation of a mixture of textile azodyes and individual azodyes at alkaline pH (9-10.5) and salinity (0.9-3.68 g/l) at ambient temperature (28 +/- 2 degrees C). The degradation efficiency of the strains in different media (mineral media and in the Simulated textile effluent (STE)) and at different dye concentrations were studied. The presence of a H2O2 independent oxidase-laccase (26.5 IU/ml) was found in the culture filtrate of the organism BF2. The analysis of the degraded products by TLC and HPLC, after the microbial treatment of the dyes showed the absence of amines and the presence of low molecular weight oxidative degradation products. The enzymes present in the crude supernatant was found to be reusable for the dye degradation.

  2. Communal microaerophilic-aerobic biodegradation of Amaranth by novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul; Chua, Lee Suan; Ab llah, Norzarini; Nasiri, Rozita; Ikubar, Mohamed Roslan Mohamad

    2012-02-01

    A novel bacterial consortium, NAR-2 which consists of Citrobacter freundii A1, Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 and Enterobacter cloacae L17 was investigated for biodegradation of Amaranth azo dye under sequential microaerophilic-aerobic condition. The NAR-2 bacterial consortium with E. casseliflavus C1 as the dominant strain enhanced the decolorization process resulting in reduction of Amaranth in 30 min. Further aerobic biodegradation, which was dominated by C. freundii A1 and E. cloacae L17, allowed biotransformation of azo reduction intermediates and mineralization via metabolic pathways including benzoyl-CoA, protocatechuate, salicylate, gentisate, catechol and cinnamic acid. The presence of autoxidation products which could be metabolized to 2-oxopentenoate was elucidated. The biodegradation mechanism of Amaranth by NAR-2 bacterial consortium was predicted to follow the steps of azo reduction, deamination, desulfonation and aromatic ring cleavage. This is for the first time the comprehensive microaerophilic-aerobic biotransformation pathways of Amaranth dye intermediates by bacterial consortium are being proposed.

  3. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  4. Microbial dehalogenation of trichlorophenol by a bacterial consortium: characterization and mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Chlorinated phenolic compounds are a class of toxic and refractory organic pollutants. The pollution caused by chlorophenols poses serious ecological and environmental problems. A stable bacterial consortium capable of reductively dechlorinating trichlorophenol was isolated using chlorophenol as the sole source of carbon and energy. The physiological characteristics of the mixed cultures were studied and the results show that the consortium could use pyruvate as the carbon and energy source. The fermentation of pyruvate, sulfate reduction and dechlorination process proceeded strictly in succession within this consortium. The effect of specific inhibitors on the dechlorinating activity of the consortium was investigated, and the results indicate that sulfate and molybdate (1 mmol/L) have a strong inhibitive influence on the dechlorination activity. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was applied to analyzing the composition of the consortium and the results reveal that one major subpopulation within the consortium was phylogenetically affiliated to gamma and delta subclass of Proteobacteria.

  5. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251

  6. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  7. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  8. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    OpenAIRE

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Lisa M. Gieg

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heav...

  9. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100-300mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment.

  10. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31 by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvine Lalnunhlimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151 and Direct Red 31 (DR 31. The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L. The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment.

  11. Effectiveness of Endophytic Bacterial Consortium of Coffee Plant on Mortality of Pratylenchus Coffeae in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    dwi halimah; Abdul Munif; Giyanto Giyanto

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria live in wild in form of a consortium. Use of microbial consortium tends to give better results than single isolate, because the action of enzyme of each type of microbe can complement each other in order to survive. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of bacterial endophytic consortium from coffee plant on plant growth and mortality of parasitic nematodes in coffee. Isolation of bacteria is conducted  by growing the crushed roots, stems and leaves of coffee on 20% TSA media, ...

  12. Enrichment and characterization of an anaerobic cellulolytic microbial consortium SQD-1.1 from mangrove soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Xu, Xun; Ruan, Ling-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment of microbial consortia provides an approach to simulate and investigate microbial communities in natural environments. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium SQD-1.1 was enriched from mangrove soil of Qinglan port (Hainan, China) by 27 times continuous subcultivation under anaerobic static conditions. The consortium could completely degrade 0.2% (w/v) filter paper within 3 days and utilized it as the sole carbon source. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a stable microbial community structure in the incubation process of 10 days and in the procedure of subcultivation. Twenty-four operational taxonomic units belonging to seven phyla were obtained from the full-length 16S rRNA gene library. Five clones, closest related to the genera Alkaliflexus, Clostridium, Alistipes, Spirochaeta, and Trichococcus, were the predominant ones. Among them, M117, phylogeneticly showing high similarity (16S rRNA gene identity, 95.3%) with the cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium straminisolvens CSK1(T), was the potential key cellulolytic bacterium. Using the plate cultivation method, 12 strains, including one potential new species and four potential new species of new genera, were isolated. The strain P2, corresponding to the most frequently detected clone (M05) in the 16S rRNA gene library, showed both CMCase and xylanase activity and may be another important cellulolytic bacterium. The findings of cellulase activity in cell pellet and cohesion and dockerin domains in metagenome data further suggested the potential of utilization of cellulosomes by the consortium to degrade cellulose. Consortium SQD-1.1 provides a candidate for investigating the mechanism of cellulose degradation under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:23529681

  13. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0-30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  14. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS.

  15. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS. PMID:21524793

  16. Biodegradation of Alachlor in Liquid and Soil Cultures Under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Nasseri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds, the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea and different pH (5.5-8.5 on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%. Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%. Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94% compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74% as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil.

  17. Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Zamanian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

  18. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak Paul; Sankar Narayan Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobact...

  19. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  20. Biological Removal of Phosphate Using Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Consortium from Synthetic Wastewater: A Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological phosphate removal is an important process having gained worldwide attention and widely used for removing phosphorus from wastewater. The present investigation was aimed to screen the efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates and used to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater under shaking flasks conditions. Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20, Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 and mixed bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas sp. JPSB12+Enterobacter sp. TPSB20+Flavobacterium sp. TPSB23 were used for the removal of phosphate. Among the individual strains, Enterobacter sp. TPSB20 was removed maximum phosphate (61.75% from synthetic wastewater in presence of glucose as a carbon source. The consortium was effectively removed phosphate (74.15-82.50% in the synthetic wastewater when compared to individual strains. The pH changes in culture medium with time and extracellular phosphatase activity (acid and alkaline were also investigated. The efficient removal of phosphate by the consortium may be due to the synergistic activity among the individual strains and phosphatase enzyme activity. The use of bacterial consortium in the remediation of phosphate contaminated aquatic environments has been discussed.

  1. Extremely-halotolerant bacterial consortium for the biodegradation of crude oil in saline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Piedad Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of the application of a novel bacterial consortium extremely-halotolerant for the biodegradation of crude oil using free and immobilized cell systems, in media with salinities ranged from zero to 220 g/L, are described. Its effectiveness increased when the cells were immobilized on polyurethane foam, polypropylene fibers, scourers and Celatom and the salinity of the culture medium surpassed 20 g/L. Four of the microorganisms belonging to the consortium grew in media with salinities varying from zero to 320 g/L and are amongst the most halotolerant microorganisms described up to now. 

  2. Evaluating robustness of a diesel-degrading bacterial consortium isolated from contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydow, Mateusz; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna;

    2016-01-01

    kinetics on individual hydrocarbons. However, despite this low resistance, structural and functional resilience were high, as verified by re-exposing the hydrocarbon-perturbed consortium to diesel fuel. The high resilience is either due to the short exposure time, insufficient for permanent changes...... structural resistance. The structural resistance was low, with changes in relative abundances of up to four orders of magnitude, depending on hydrocarbon type and bacterial taxon. This low resistance is explained by the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading specialists in the consortium and differences in growth...

  3. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  4. Response surface methodology for optimization of medium for decolorization of textile dye Direct Black 22 by a novel bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Shrivastava, Shalini; Divecha, Jyoti; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-02-01

    Decolorization and degradation of polyazo dye Direct Black 22 was carried out by distillery spent wash degrading mixed bacterial consortium, DMC. Response surface methodology (RSM) involving a central composite design (CCD) in four factors was successfully employed for the study and optimization of decolorization process. The hyper activities and interactions between glucose concentration, yeast extract concentration, dye concentration and inoculum size on dye decolorization were investigated and modeled. Under optimized conditions the bacterial consortium was able to decolorize the dye almost completely (>91%) within 12h. Bacterial consortium was able to decolorize 10 different azo dyes. The optimum combination of the four variables predicted through RSM was confirmed through confirmatory experiments and hence this bacterial consortium holds potential for the treatment of industrial waste water. Dye degradation products obtained during the course of decolorization were analyzed by HPTLC.

  5. Effectiveness of Endophytic Bacterial Consortium of Coffee Plant on Mortality of Pratylenchus Coffeae in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dwi halimah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria live in wild in form of a consortium. Use of microbial consortium tends to give better results than single isolate, because the action of enzyme of each type of microbe can complement each other in order to survive. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of bacterial endophytic consortium from coffee plant on plant growth and mortality of parasitic nematodes in coffee. Isolation of bacteria is conducted  by growing the crushed roots, stems and leaves of coffee on 20% TSA media, then testing their hemolysis and hypersensitivity reaction. Selected isolates were tested on their effect on the growth of seedling and Pratylenchus coffeae mortality, as well as their chitinolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic, HCN production, dissolution of phosphate (P and fixation of nitrogen (N2 abilities. The results showed that from 27 isolates of the consortium, 23 isolates showed negative reaction to hypersensitive test and 9 isolates to hemolysis test. The highest mortality rate was shown by K6 isolate (65.8%. The highest growth was shown by K15 and K 21 isolates while the highest root length by K21 isolate. Further analisys showed that 100% of the isolates could hydrolyze proteases, lipid, and produce HCN, while chitinolytic activity was shown by 78% isolates which could fix N2 and 11% of isolates could dissolve phosphate.

  6. High-efficient nitrogen removal by coupling enriched autotrophic-nitrification and aerobic-denitrification consortiums at cold temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiqiang; Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren

    2014-06-01

    This study paid particular attention to total nitrogen removal at low temperature (10°C) by excellent coupling of enriched autotrophic nitrifying and heterotrophic denitrifying consortiums at sole aerobic condition. The maximum specific nitrifying rate of the nitrifying consortium reached 8.85mgN/(gSSh). Further test in four identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors demonstrated its excellent performance for bioaugmentation in potential applications. On the other hand, the aerobic denitrifying consortium could achieve a specific denitrifying rate of 32.93mgN/(gSSh) under dissolved oxygen of 1.0-1.5mg/L at 10°C. Coupling both kinds of consortiums was proved very successful for a perfect total nitrogen (TN) removal at COD/N of 4 and dissolved oxygen of 1.5-4.5mg/L, which was hardly reached by any single consortium reported previously. The encouraging results from coupling aerobic consortiums implied a huge potential in practical treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater (200-300mg/L COD) during wintertime.

  7. Selection, isolation and growth kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from the Potengi mangrove in the presence of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.C.; Vaz, M.R.F.; Santos, E.S.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: natcintia@gmail.com; Costa, J.G. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Coari, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Saude e Biotecnologia

    2011-10-15

    The selection, isolation and kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from a sample of soil from the Potengi mangrove, located in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, has been carried out using the enrichment culture technique to observe aspects such as the evaluation of main growth parameters. The kinetic study used a rotary incubator shaker at 150rpm, under 30 deg C. The bacterial consortium isolated from the estuary of the Potengi River showed a good acclimation in minimum mineral medium with 1% (v/v) of oil. The cell concentration reached 2.55 g/L at 16h of cultivation and surface tension dropped. The maximum productivity in cells obtained was of 0.3 g/L.h, the specific velocity of growth was of 0.075h{sup -1}, with a generation time (tg) of 9.24h. This study seeks to demonstrate that the consortium can be used as inoculants in biological treatments, capable of reducing the waste's degradation time. (author)

  8. Effects of low-level deuterium enrichment on bacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Xie

    Full Text Available Using very precise (±0.05% measurements of the growth parameters for bacteria E. coli grown on minimal media, we aimed to determine the lowest deuterium concentration at which the adverse effects that are prominent at higher enrichments start to become noticeable. Such a threshold was found at 0.5% D, a surprisingly high value, while the ultralow deuterium concentrations (≤0.25% D showed signs of the opposite trend. Bacterial adaptation for 400 generations in isotopically different environment confirmed preference for ultralow (≤0.25% D enrichment. This effect appears to be similar to those described in sporadic but multiple earlier reports. Possible explanations include hormesis and isotopic resonance phenomena, with the latter explanation being favored.

  9. Degradation Characteristics and Community Structure of a Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Gu Guizhou; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium KO5-2 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Karamay in Xinjiang, China, which could remove 56.9%of 10 g/L total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) at 30℃after 7 days of incu-bation, and could also remove 100%of lfuorene, 98.93%of phenanthrene and 65.73%of pyrene within 3, 7 and 9 days, respectively. Twelve strains from six different genera were isolated from KO5-2 and only eight ones were able to utilize the TPH. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to investigate the microbial community shifts in ifve different carbon sources (including TPH, saturated hydrocarbons, lfuorene, phenanthrene and pyrene). The test results indi-cated that the community compositions of KO5-2 in carbon sources of TPH and saturated hydrocarbons, respectively, were roughly the same, while they were distinctive in the three different carbon sources of PAHs. Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudo-monas sp. could survive in the ifve kinds of carbon sources. Bacillus sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. likely played key roles in the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons, PAHs and phenanthrene, respectively. This study showed that speciifc bacterial phylotypes were associated with different contaminants and complex interactions between bacterial spe-cies, and the medium conditions inlfuenced the biodegradation capacity of the microbial communities involved in bioreme-diation processes.

  10. Carrier mounted bacterial consortium facilitates oil remediation in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Keryn L; Sheppard, Petra J; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna; Juhasz, Albert L; Manefield, Mike; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-04-01

    Marine oil pollution can result in the persistent presence of weathered oil. Currently, removal of weathered oil is reliant on chemical dispersants and physical removal, causing further disruption. In contrast few studies have examined the potential of an environmentally sustainable method using a hydrocarbon degrading microbial community attached to a carrier. Here, we used a tank mesocosm system (50 l) to follow the degradation of weathered oil (10 g l(-1)) using a bacterial consortium mobilised onto different carrier materials (alginate or shell grit). GCMS analysis demonstrated that the extent of hydrocarbon degradation was dependent upon the carrier material. Augmentation of shell grit with nutrients and exogenous hydrocarbon degraders resulted in 75±14% removal of >C32 hydrocarbons after 12 weeks compared to 20±14% for the alginate carrier. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a biostimulated and bioaugmented carrier material to degrade marine weathered oil.

  11. Bacterial production in subarctic peatland lakes enriched by thawing permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Bethany N.; Crevecoeur, Sophie; Matveev, Alex; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2016-08-01

    Peatlands extend over vast areas of the northern landscape. Within some of these areas, lakes and ponds are changing in size as a result of permafrost thawing and erosion, resulting in mobilization of the carbon-rich peatland soils. Our aims in the present study were to characterize the particle, carbon and nutrient regime of a set of thermokarst (thaw) lakes and their adjacent peatland permafrost soils in a rapidly degrading landscape in subarctic Québec, Canada, and by way of fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, production measurements and an in situ enrichment experiment, determine the bacterial characteristics of these waters relative to other thaw lakes and rock-basin lakes in the region. The soil active layer in a degrading palsa (peatland permafrost mound) adjacent to one of the lakes contained an elevated carbon content (51 % of dry weight), high C : N ratios (17 : 1 by mass), and large stocks of other elements including N (3 % of dry weight), Fe (0.6 %), S (0.5 %), Ca (0.5 %) and P (0.05 %). Two permafrost cores were obtained to a depth of 2.77 m in the palsa, and computerized tomography scans of the cores confirmed that they contained high concentrations (> 80 %) of ice. Upon thawing, the cores released nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (from all core depths sampled), and soluble reactive phosphorus (from bottom depths), at concentrations well above those in the adjacent lake waters. The active layer soil showed a range of particle sizes with a peak at 229 µm, and this was similar to the distribution of particles in the upper permafrost cores. The particle spectrum for the lake water overlapped with those for the soil, but extended to larger (surface water) or finer (bottom water) particles. On average, more than 50 % of the bacterial cells and bacterial production was associated with particles > 3 µm. This relatively low contribution of free-living cells (operationally defined as the rock-basin lakes (average ± SE of 25 ± 6 %). However, a

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Thermophilic Oil-Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Guizhou; Li Zheng; Zhao Dongfeng; Zhao Chaocheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a thermophilic oil-degrading bacterial consortium KO8-2 growing within the temperature range of 45-65℃(with 55℃being the optimum temperature) was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Karamay in Xinjiang, China. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that there were nine strains included in KO8-2, which originated from the genera of Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. They all belonged to thermophilic bacteria, and had been previously proved as degraders of at least one petroleum fraction. The crude oil degraded by KO8-2 was analyzed by infrared spectrophotometry, hydrocarbon group type analysis and gas chromatography. The results indicated that the bacterial consortium KO8-2 was able to utilize 64.33%of saturates, 27.06%of aromatics, 13.24%of resins and the oil removal efifciency reached up to 58.73%at 55℃when the oil concentration was 10 g/L. Detailed analysis showed that KO8-2 was able to utilize the hydrocarbon components before C19, and the n-alkanes ranging from C20-C33 were signiif-cantly degraded. The ratios of nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph were 3.12 and 3.87, respectively, before degradation, whereas after degradation the ratios reduced to 0.21 and 0.38, respectively. Compared with the control sample, the oil removal efifciency in KO8-2 composting reactor reached 50.12%after a degradation duration of 60 days.

  13. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs.

  14. Low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of Arthrobacter aurescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Vicki S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III] and hexavalent [Cr(VI] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm. Many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 Centigrade year round. It is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of Cr(VI contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychrophiles. Results Core samples obtained from a Cr(VI contaminated aquifer at the Hanford facility in Washington were enriched in Vogel Bonner medium at 10 Centigrade with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/l Cr(VI. The extent of Cr(VI reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide assay. Resistance to Cr(VI up to and including 1000 mg/l Cr(VI was observed in the consortium experiments. Reduction was slow or not observed at and above 100 mg/l Cr(VI using the enrichment consortium. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI in the 30 and 60 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the consortium was 8 and 17 days, respectively at 10 Centigrade. Lyophilized consortium cells did not demonstrate adsorption of Cr(VI over a 24 hour period. Successful isolation of a Cr(VI reducing organism (designated P4 from the consortium was confirmed by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI at 10 Centigrade in the 25 and 50 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the isolate P4 was 3 and 5 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence from isolate P4 identified this organism as a strain of Arthrobacter aurescens, a species that has not previously been shown to be capable of low temperature Cr(VI reduction. Conclusion A. aurescens, indigenous to the subsurface, has the potential to be a predominant metal reducer in enhanced, in situ subsurface bioremediation efforts involving Cr(VI and possibly other heavy metals and radionuclides.

  15. Effects of inoculation sources on the enrichment and performance of anode bacterial consortia in sensor typed microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells are a recently emerging technology that promises a number of applications in energy recovery, environmental treatment and monitoring. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating sources on the enrichment of electrochemically active bacterial consortia in sensor-typed microbial fuel cells (MFCs. Several MFCs were constructed, operated with modified artificial wastewater and inoculated with different microbial sources from natural soil, natural mud, activated sludge, wastewater and a mixture of those sources. After enrichment, the MFCs inoculated with the natural soil source generated higher and more stable currents (0.53±0.03 mA, in comparisons with the MFCs inoculated with the other sources. The results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE showed that there were significant changes in bacterial composition from the original inocula to the enriched consortia. Even more interestingly, Pseudomonas sp. was found dominant in the natural soil source and also in the corresponding enriched consortium. The interactions between Pseudomonas sp. and other species in such a community are probably the key for the effective and stable performance of the MFCs.

  16. Chemometric formulation of bacterial consortium-AVS for improved decolorization of resonance-stabilized and heteropolyaromatic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Madhava Anil; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Premkumar, Manickam Periyaraman; Baskaralingam, Palanichamy; Thiruvengadaravi, Kadathur Varathachary; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Sivanesan, Subramanian

    2012-11-01

    A bacterial consortium-AVS, consisting of Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112, Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM 2168 was formulated chemometrically, using the mixture design matrix based on the design of experiments methodology. The formulated consortium-AVS decolorized acid blue 15 and methylene blue with a higher average decolorization rate, which is more rapid than that of the pure cultures. The UV-vis spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis confirm that the decolorization was due to biodegradation by oxido-reductive enzymes, produced by the consortium-AVS. The toxicological assessment of plant growth parameters and the chlorophyll pigment concentrations of Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum seedlings revealed the reduced toxic nature of the biodegraded products.

  17. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums; Biorremocao de Am-241 e Cs-137 de rejeitos radioativos liquidos por consorcios bacterianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  18. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for ...

  19. Biodegradation of petroleum sludge and petroleum polluted soil by a bacterial consortium: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojgic-Cvijovic, G D; Milic, J S; Solevic, T M; Beskoski, V P; Ilic, M V; Djokic, L S; Narancic, T M; Vrvic, M M

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a study of the efficiency and degradation pattern of samples of petroleum sludge and polluted sandy soil from an oil refinery. A bacterial consortium, consisting of strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Micromonospora, was isolated from a petroleum sludge sample and characterized. The addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients and a chemical surfactant to both the samples and bioaugmentation to the soil sample were applied under laboratory conditions. The extent of biodegradation was monitored by the gravimetric method and analysis of the residual oil by gas chromatography. Over a 12-week experiment, the achieved degree of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) degradation amounted to 82-88% in the petroleum sludge and 86-91% in the polluted soil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to determine the biodegradability and degradation rates of n-alkanes, isoprenoids, steranes, diasteranes and terpanes. Complete degradation of the n-alkanes and isoprenoids fractions occurred in both the samples. In addition, the intensities of the peaks corresponding to tricyclic terpenes and homohopanes were decreased, while significant changes were also observed in the distribution of diasteranes and steranes.

  20. Removal of methyl parathion and tetrachlorvinphos by a bacterial consortium immobilized on tezontle-packed up-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Ocampo, Gustavo; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz-Hernández, M Laura

    2011-11-01

    A tezontle-packed up-flow reactor (TPUFR) with an immobilized bacterial consortium for biological treatment of methyl-parathion and tetrachlorvinphos was evaluated. These organophosphate pesticides are widely used in Mexico for insect and mite control, respectively. With the aim of developing a tool for pesticide biodegradation, four flow rates (0.936, 1.41, 2.19, and 3.51 l/h) and four hydraulic residence times (0.313, 0.206, 0.133, and 0.083 h) were evaluated in a TPUFR. In the bioreactor, with an operating time of 8 h and a flow of 0.936 l/h, we obtained 75% efficiency in the removal of methyl-parathion and tetrachlorvinphos. Their adsorptions in the volcanic rock were 9% and 6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the removal of pesticides was due to the biological activity of the immobilized bacterial consortium. We confirmed the decrease in toxicity in the treated effluent from the bioreactor through the application of acute toxicity tests on Eisenia foetida. Immobilization of a bacterial consortium using tezontle as a support is innovative and an economical tool for the treatment of mixtures of organophosphorus pesticide residues. PMID:21533773

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L(-1) concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn't show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic

  2. Potential Bacterial Consortium to Increase the Effectiveness of Beer Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Nia Anggraeni; Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam; Retno Kawuri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of microbial consortia in beer wastewater treatment. The research was initiated with the isolation of soil microbial consortium that has been contaminated by beer waste water, followed by the selection of the best potential microbial beer wastewater treatment. At the end, the selection of the best microbial consortium was tested in beer wastewater treatment based on pollutant parameters namely biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  3. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes.

  4. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis

  5. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  6. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. (author)

  7. Bacterial stress enrichment enhances anaerobic hydrogen production in cattle manure sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2006-10-01

    Methodology was evaluated to selectively enrich hydrogen-producing species present in biological sludge produced during organic wastewater treatment. The influence of bacterial stress enrichment on anaerobic hydrogen-producing microorganisms was investigated in batch tests using serum bottles. Enrichment conditions investigated included application of acute physical and chemical stresses: wet heat, dry heat and desiccation, use of a methanogen inhibitor, freezing and thawing, and chemical acidification with and without preacidification of the sludge at pH 3. For each enrichment sample, cultivation pH value was set at an initial value of 7. After application of selective enrichment (by bacterial stress), hydrogen production was significantly higher than that of untreated original sludge. Hydrogen production from the inocula with bacterial stress enrichment was 1.9-9.8 times greater when compared with control sludge. Chemical acidification using perchloric acid showed the best hydrogen production potential, irrespective of preacidification. Enhancement is due to the selective capture of hydrogen-producing sporeformers, which induces altered anaerobic fermentative metabolism. PMID:16525779

  8. Screening and degrading characteristics and community structure of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium from contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run Sun; Jinghua Jin; Guangdong Sun; Ying Liu; Zhipei Liu

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation with efficient microbes had been proved to be the most important way for the bioremediation of polluted environments.For the treatment of abandoned site of Beijing Coking Chemical Plant contaminated with high level of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs),a bacterial consortium capable of degrading HMW-PAHs,designated 1-18-1,was enriched and screened from HMW-PAHs contaminated soil.Its degrading ability was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),and the community structure was investigated by construction and analyses of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (A,B and F) at different transfers.The results indicated that 1-18-1 was able to utilize pyrene,fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene as sole carbon and energy source for growth.The degradation rate of pyrene and fluoranthene reached 82.8% and 96.2% after incubation for 8 days at 30℃,respectively;while the degradation rate of benzo[a]pyrene was only 65.1% after incubation for 28 days at 30℃.Totally,108,100 and 100 valid clones were randomly selected and sequenced from the libraries A,B,and E Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the clones could be divided into 5 groups,Bacteroidetes,α-Proteobacteria,Actinobacteria,β-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria.Sequence similarity analyses showed total 39 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the libraries.The predominant bacterial groups were α-Proteobacteria (19 OTUs,48.7%),γ-Proteobacteria (9 OTUs,23.1%) and β-Protcobacteria (8 OTUs,20.5%).During the transfer process,the proportions of α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria increased greatly (from 47% to 93%),while γ-Proteobacteria decreased from 32% (library A) to 6% (library F);and Bacteroidetes group disappeared in libraries B and F.

  9. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  10. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  11. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  12. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum. This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  13. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  14. Comparative genomics analysis of the companion mechanisms of Bacillus thuringiensis Bc601 and Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 in bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus endophyticus both act as the companion bacteria, which cooperate with Ketogulonigenium vulgare in vitamin C two-step fermentation. Two Bacillus species have different morphologies, swarming motility and 2-keto-L-gulonic acid productivities when they co-culture with K. vulgare. Here, we report the complete genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis Bc601 and eight plasmids of B. endophyticus Hbe603, and carry out the comparative genomics analysis. Consequently, B. thuringiensis Bc601, with greater ability of response to the external environment, has been found more two-component system, sporulation coat and peptidoglycan biosynthesis related proteins than B. endophyticus Hbe603, and B. endophyticus Hbe603, with greater ability of nutrients biosynthesis, has been found more alpha-galactosidase, propanoate, glutathione and inositol phosphate metabolism, and amino acid degradation related proteins than B. thuringiensis Bc601. Different ability of swarming motility, response to the external environment and nutrients biosynthesis may reflect different companion mechanisms of two Bacillus species. Comparative genomic analysis of B. endophyticus and B. thuringiensis enables us to further understand the cooperative mechanism with K. vulgare, and facilitate the optimization of bacterial consortium. PMID:27353048

  15. Comparative genomics analysis of the companion mechanisms of Bacillus thuringiensis Bc601 and Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 in bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus endophyticus both act as the companion bacteria, which cooperate with Ketogulonigenium vulgare in vitamin C two-step fermentation. Two Bacillus species have different morphologies, swarming motility and 2-keto-L-gulonic acid productivities when they co-culture with K. vulgare. Here, we report the complete genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis Bc601 and eight plasmids of B. endophyticus Hbe603, and carry out the comparative genomics analysis. Consequently, B. thuringiensis Bc601, with greater ability of response to the external environment, has been found more two-component system, sporulation coat and peptidoglycan biosynthesis related proteins than B. endophyticus Hbe603, and B. endophyticus Hbe603, with greater ability of nutrients biosynthesis, has been found more alpha-galactosidase, propanoate, glutathione and inositol phosphate metabolism, and amino acid degradation related proteins than B. thuringiensis Bc601. Different ability of swarming motility, response to the external environment and nutrients biosynthesis may reflect different companion mechanisms of two Bacillus species. Comparative genomic analysis of B. endophyticus and B. thuringiensis enables us to further understand the cooperative mechanism with K. vulgare, and facilitate the optimization of bacterial consortium.

  16. Photo-oxygenation to support nitrification in an algal-bacterial consortium treating artificial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karya, N G A I; van der Steen, N P; Lens, P N L

    2013-04-01

    Oxygenation by photosynthesis in a mixed culture of algae and nitrifiers was investigated for its potential to support nitrification. An open photo-bioreactor (1L fermentor; 30°C) was inoculated with an enriched culture of nitrifiers obtained from activated sludge and a pure culture of Scenedesmus sp. The reactor was illuminated (60 μmol/m2 s) and operated as a sequencing batch reactor with 50% discharge per cycle and sludge retention time of 15 or 30 days. Full nitrification of synthetic wastewater (50 mgNH4+-N/L) without mechanical aeration was achieved after less than 14 cycles (18.5 h React per 24h cycle) and the biomass steadily increased until a concentration of 1.9 g VSS/L with 29 mg chl-a/L. The maximum observed nitrification rate was 7.7 mgNH4+-N/Lh. A mass balance showed that ammonium removal was primarily by nitrification (81-85%) rather than by ammonium uptake by algae. PMID:23500581

  17. Determination of atrazine and its biodegradation intermediates in bacterial enrichments obtained from Uruguayan water courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Da Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is an herbicide used to control annual weeds and perennial grasses. Due to the toxicity of atrazine and its metabolites, this herbicide is banned in the European Union. In Uruguay atrazine is the second most frequently imported herbicide. It has been detected in surface water courses, particularly those that provide water for potabilization plants.The main mechanism for atrazine removal in neutral pH environments is the bacterial degradation. The microorganisms can degrade atrazine giving intermediates that vary in persistence and toxicity, or mineralize it giving ammonia and carbondioxide. The separation and detection of atrazine intermediates of biological degradation is important to know the potential of bacterial consortia to be applied in bioremediation processes. In this paper we developed an isocratic method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC by ion-pair reversed phase to separate atrazine and metabolites in a synthetic culture medium. This method was useful to detect intermediates of atrazine degradation produced by selected native bacterial consortia. In addition, the method was employed to assess if atrazine adsorbed on activated carbon could be degraded by an active degrading consortium.

  18. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  19. Bacterial community analysis of cypermethrin enrichment cultures and bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Cypermethrin is widely used for insect control; however, its toxicity toward aquatic life requires its complete removal from contaminated areas where the natural degradation ability of microbes can be utilized. Agricultural soil with extensive history of CM application was used to prepare enrichment cultures using cypermethrin as sole carbon source for isolation of cypermethrin degrading bacteria and bacterial community analysis using PCR-DGGE of 16 S rRNA gene. DGGE analysis revealed that dominant members of CM enrichment culture were associated with α-proteobacteria followed by γ-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Three potential CM-degrading isolates identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi JCm1, Bacillus megaterium JCm2, and Rhodococcus sp. JCm5 degraded 86-100% of CM (100 mg L(-1) ) within 10 days. These isolates were also able to degrade other pyrethroids, carbofuran, and cypermethrin degradation products. Enzyme activity assays revealed that enzymes involved in CM-degradation were inducible and showed activity when strains were grown on cypermethrin. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates JCm1, JCm2, and JCm5 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0516, 0.0425, and 0.0807 d(-1), respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The isolated bacterial strains were among dominant genera selected under CM enriched conditions and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  20. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  1. Differential response of high-elevation planktonic bacterial community structure and metabolism to experimental nutrient enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig E Nelson

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient

  2. Textile dye degradation by bacterial consortium and subsequent toxicological analysis of dye and dye metabolites using cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Patil, Asmita V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-02-15

    The present study aims to evaluate Red HE3B degrading potential of developed microbial consortium SDS using two bacterial cultures viz. Providencia sp. SDS (PS) and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH (PA) originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. Consortium was found to be much faster for decolorization and degradation of Red HE3B compared to the individual bacterial strain. The intensive metabolic activity of these strains led to 100% decolorization of Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with in 1h. Significant induction of various dye decolorizing enzymes viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase compared to control, point out towards their involvement in overall decolorization and degradation process. Analytical studies like HPLC, FTIR and GC-MS were used to scrutinize the biodegradation process. Toxicological studies before and after microbial treatment was studied with respect to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation analysis using root cells of Allium cepa. Toxicity analysis with A. cepa signifies that dye Red HE3B exerts oxidative stress and subsequently toxic effect on the root cells where as biodegradation metabolites of the dye are relatively less toxic in nature. Phytotoxicity studies also indicated that microbial treatment favors detoxification of Red HE3B.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J P; Kalyani, D C; Telke, A A; Phugare, S S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-01-01

    A microbial consortium DAS consisting three bacterial sp. originally obtained from dye contaminated sites of Solapur, India was selected because it was capable of decolorizing textile effluent and dye faster than the individual bacteria under static conditions. Identification of the isolates by 16S rRNA techniques revealed the isolates to be Pseudomonas species. The concerted metabolic activity of these isolates led to complete decolorization of textile effluent as well as Reactive Orange 16 (100 mg l(-1)) within 48-h at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. Studies involving Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye were carried with the bacterial consortium DAS to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation. Induction of the laccase and reductase enzyme during RO16 decolorization indicated their role in biodegradation. The biodegradation of RO16 was monitored by using IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity studies carried out before and after decolorization of the textile effluent revealed the nontoxic nature of the biotreated sample.

  4. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Taisa R; Pértile, Renata A N; Rambo, Carlos R; Porto, Luismar M

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications.

  5. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R., E-mail: rambo@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900 (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology.

  6. Environmental Dissolved Organic Matter Governs Biofilm Formation and Subsequent Linuron Degradation Activity of a Linuron-Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Benjamin; Breugelmans, Philip; Hofkens, Johan; Smolders, Erik

    2013-01-01

    It was examined whether biofilm growth on dissolved organic matter (DOM) of a three-species consortium whose members synergistically degrade the phenylurea herbicide linuron affected the consortium's integrity and subsequent linuron-degrading functionality. Citrate as a model DOM and three environmental DOM (eDOM) formulations of different quality were used. Biofilms developed with all DOM formulations, and the three species were retained in the biofilm. However, biofilm biomass, species composition, architecture, and colocalization of member strains depended on DOM and its biodegradability. To assess the linuron-degrading functionality, biofilms were subsequently irrigated with linuron at 10 mg liter−1 or 100 μg liter−1. Instant linuron degradation, the time needed to attain maximal linuron degradation, and hence the total amount of linuron removed depended on both the DOM used for growth and the linuron concentration. At 10 mg liter−1, the final linuron degradation efficiency was as high as previously observed without DOM except for biofilms fed with humic acids which did not degrade linuron. At 100 μg liter−1 linuron, DOM-grown biofilms degraded linuron less efficiently than biofilms receiving 10 mg liter−1 linuron. The amount of linuron removed was more correlated with biofilm species composition than with biomass or structure. Based on visual observations, colocalization of consortium members in biofilms after the DOM feed appears essential for instant linuron-degrading activity and might explain the differences in overall linuron degradation. The data show that DOM quality determines biofilm structure and composition of the pesticide-degrading consortium in periods with DOM as the main carbon source and can affect subsequent pesticide-degrading activity, especially at micropollutant concentrations. PMID:23666338

  7. Novel dark fermentation involving bioaugmentation with constructed bacterial consortium for enhanced biohydrogen production from pretreated sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2009-09-15

    The present study summarizes the observations on various nutrient and seed formulation methods using sewage sludge that have been aimed at ameliorating the biohydrogen production potential. Pretreatment methods viz., acid/base treatment, heat treatment, sterilization, freezing-thawing, microwave, ultrasonication and chemical supplementation were attempted on sludge. It was observed that pretreatment was essential not only to reduce the needless, competitive microbial load but also to improve the nutrient solublization of sludge. Heat treatment at 121 C for 20 min was found to be most effective in reducing the microbial load by 98% and hydrolyzing the organic fraction of sludge. However, this pretreatment alone was either not sufficient or inconsistent in developing a suitable microbial consortium for hydrogen production. Hydrogen yield was found to improve 1.5-4 times upon inoculation with H{sub 2}-producing microorganisms. A defined microbial consortium was developed consisting of three established bacteria viz., Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1. Following pretreatments soluble proteins and lipids (the major component of the sludge) were also found to be consumed besides carbohydrates. This laid out the concurrent proteolytic/lipolytic ability of the developed H{sub 2}-producing consortium. 1:1:1 v/v ratio of these bacteria in consortium was found to give the maximum yield of H{sub 2} from sludge, 39.15 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub reduced}. 15%v/v dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v cane molasses prior to heat treatment was found to further improve the yield to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub reduced}. (author)

  8. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme.

  9. Treatment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant Wastewater in a Sequential Anoxic-Oxic Batch Reactor by Developed Bacterial Consortium VN11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sananda; Purohit, Hemant J; Sharma, Abhinav; Jadeja, Niti B; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory-scale anoxic-oxic sequential reactor system was seeded with acclimatized mixed microbial consortium for the treatment of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) wastewater having 7000-7400 mg L(-1) of COD and 3000-3400 mg L(-1) of BOD. Initially, CETP wastewater was treated under anoxic reactor at 5000 mg L(-1) of MLSS concentrations, 5.26 ± 0.27 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) of organic loading rate (OLR) and 36 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT). Further, the effluent of anoxic reactor was treated in oxic reactor with an OLR of 6.6 ± 0.31 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) and 18 h HRT. Maximum color and COD removal were found to be 72 and 85 % at total HRT of 2.25 days under anoxic-oxic sequential reactor at 37 °C and pH 7.0. The UV-VIS, FTIR, NMR and GCMS studies showed that majority of peaks observed in untreated wastewater were either shifted or disappeared after sequential treatment. Phytotoxicity study with the seeds of Vigna radiata and Triticum aestivum showed more sensitivity toward the CETP wastewater, while the products obtained after sequential treatment does not have any inhibitory effects. The results demonstrated that the anoxic-oxic reactor fed with bacterial consortium VN11 could bring about efficient bioremediation of industrial wastewaters.

  10. Effective bioleaching of chromium in tannery sludge with an enriched sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Kida, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing community was enriched from activated sludge generated in tannery wastewater treatment plants. Bioleaching of tannery sludge containing 0.9-1.2% chromium was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the enriched community, the effect of chromium binding forms on bioleaching efficiency, and the dominant microbes contributing to chromium bioleaching. Sludge samples inoculated with the enriched community presented 79.9-96.8% of chromium leaching efficiencies, much higher than those without the enriched community. High bioleaching efficiencies of over 95% were achieved for chromium in reducible fraction, while 60.9-97.9% were observed for chromium in oxidizable and residual fractions. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, the predominant bacteria in the enriched community, played an important role in bioleaching, whereas some indigenous heterotrophic species in sludge might have had a supporting role. The results indicated that A. thiooxidans-dominant enriched microbial community had high chromium bioleaching efficiency, and chromium binding forms affected the bioleaching performance.

  11. Bacterial community succession during the enrichment of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria at high arsenic concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Ai Le; Akiko Sato; Daisuke Inoue; Kazunari Sei; Satoshi Soda; Michihiko Ike

    2012-01-01

    To generate cost-effective technologies for the removal of arsenic from water,we developed an enrichment culture of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria (CAOs) that could effectively oxidize widely ranging concentrations of As(Ⅲ) to As(Ⅴ).In addition,we attempted to elucidate the enrichment process and characterize the microbial composition of the enrichment culture.A CAOs enrichment culture capable of stably oxidizing As(Ⅲ) to As(Ⅴ) was successfully constructed through repeated batch cultivation for more than 700 days,during which time the initial As(Ⅲ) concentrations were increased in a stepwise manner from l to 10-12 mmol/L.As(Ⅲ) oxidation activity of the enrichment culture gradually improved,and 10-12 mmol/L As(Ⅲ) was almost completely oxidized within four days.Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the enrichment culture varied drastically during the enrichment process depending on the As(Ⅲ) concentration.Isolation and characterization of bacteria in the enrichment culture revealed that the presence of multiple CAOs with various As(Ⅲ) oxidation abilities enabled the culture to adapt to a wide range of As(Ⅲ) concentrations.The CAOs enrichment culture constructed here may he useful for pretreatment of water from which arsenic is being removed.

  12. Process optimization of experimental variables using plackett-burman design for decolourisation of reactive blue 222 by a novel bacterial consortium isolated from the gut of termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial consortium derived from termite was tested for its efficiency to decolourise Reactive Blue 222 aerobically. The central composite design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to design experiments for the assessment of interactive effects of four most important operating variables viz., pH (3.0-11.0), agitation (300 rpm), temperature (20-60 degree C) and glucose (0.1-0.5 g/litre) on the biodegradation of Reactive Blue 222 out of eleven different variables. Optimisation was achieved using the Plackett-Burman statistical design. A regression coefficient between variables and the response indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data by the Stat-Ease package. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted ones and the model was highly significant, correlation coefficient being 0.89. RSM indicated that pH 7.0 at static condition; temperature at 20 degree C and a glucose concentration of 0.50 g/litre resulted in 99.21% decolourisation. (author)

  13. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium. PMID:24804625

  14. Viral control of bacterial biodiversity - Evidence from a nutrient enriched mesocosm experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandaa, R.-A.; Gómez-Consarnau, L.; Pinhassi, J.;

    2009-01-01

    -host pairs. We investigated these relationships in nutrient-manipulated systems, under simulated in situ conditions. There was a strong correlation in the clustering of the viral and bacterial community data supporting the existence of an important link between the bacterial and viral communities...

  15. Kinetic study approach of remazol black-B use for the development of two-stage anoxic-oxic reactor for decolorization/biodegradation of azo dyes by activated bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafale, Nishant; Wate, Satish; Meshram, Sudhir; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-11-30

    The laboratory-isolated strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus circulance, NAD 1 and NAD 6 were observed to be predominant in the bacterial consortium responsible for effective decolorization of the azo dyes. The kinetic characteristics of azo dye decolorization by bacterial consortium were determined quantitatively using reactive vinyl sulfonated diazo dye, remazol black-B (RB-B) as a model substrate. Effects of substrate (RB-B) concentration as well as different substrates (azo dyes), environmental parameters (temperature and pH), glucose and other electron donor/co-substrate on the rate of decolorization were investigated to reveal the key factor that determines the performance of dye decolorization. The activation energy (E(a)) and frequency factor (K(0)) based on the Arrhenius equation was calculated as 11.67 kcal mol(-1) and 1.57 x 10(7)mg lg MLSS(-1)h(-1), respectively. The Double-reciprocal or Lineweaver-Burk plot was used to evaluate V(max), 15.97 h(-1) and K(m), 85.66 mg l(-1). The two-stage anoxic-oxic reactor system has proved to be successful in achieving significant decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by specific developed bacterial consortium with a removal of 84% color and 80% COD for real textile effluents vis-à-vis >or=90% color and COD removal for synthetic dye solution.

  16. Bacterial diversity and reductive dehalogenase redundancy in a 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a contaminated aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Wittebolle Lieven; Carpani Giovanna; Corallo Lorenzo; de Ferra Francesca; Balloi Annalisa; Marzorati Massimo; Verstraete Willy; Daffonchio Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacteria possess a reservoir of metabolic functionalities ready to be exploited for multiple purposes. The use of microorganisms to clean up xenobiotics from polluted ecosystems (e.g. soil and water) represents an eco-sustainable and powerful alternative to traditional remediation processes. Recent developments in molecular-biology-based techniques have led to rapid and accurate strategies for monitoring and identification of bacteria and catabolic genes involved in the de...

  17. 高效功能菌群 RR 的筛选及其群落分析%Isolation of high performance bacterial consortium RR and its bacterial community composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲玉; 谢学辉; 刘娜; 杨芳; 俞承志; 柳建设

    2015-01-01

    利用梯度浓度压力驯化法,从厌氧反应器中筛选出对直接红28有具有良好脱色能力的混合菌群 RR。在染料初始浓度为200mg/L,pH=7.0,温度为35℃条件下,经48h 静止培养,染料脱色率可达96.16%。进一步对其培养条件如 pH 值、温度、盐度、初始染料浓度等进行了脱色研究,结果表明,在 pH=7、温度为45℃,盐度为2mmol/L 的情况下,功能菌群脱色效果达到最佳。为了进一步适应工程无机条件,筛选出以染料作为唯一氮源、碳源以及能量的功能菌群,遂将培养基中葡萄糖去掉,同样利用梯度浓度压力驯化法,筛选出混合菌群 RM,并对其脱色性能及群落结构进行分析。混合菌群 RM 在染料初始浓度为50mg/L、温度为35℃、pH=7.0条件下,48h 后其脱色效率为20.05%。利用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)法,对群落进行分析,混合菌群 RR 主要为伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burkholderia sp.)、链球菌属(Streptococcus)和克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella sp.),菌群 RM 主要为伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burkholderia sp.),可见伯克霍尔德氏菌属菌株(Burkholderia sp.)可以适应工程无机环境,并对直接红28存在一定的降解能力。%A bacterial consortium capable of decoloring Direct Red 28 effectively was screened from a well-running textile printing wastewater biological treatment system,through the method of domestication with gradient concentrations. The bacterial consortium RR had the ability to decolorize Direct Red 28 (at 35℃,pH 7.0,initial dye concentration 200mg/L ) with the decolorization rate being 96.16% in 48h. The optimum pH,temperature,and NaCl concentration for the degradation of Direct Red 28 are 7.0,45℃,and 2mmol/L,respectively. To screen the bacterial consortium RM which fed on Direct Red 28 was to ensure the bacterial consortium to adapt the inorganic conditions. The bacterial consortium RM degrading Direct Red 28

  18. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β......-agarase I). The results indicated that the enzymatic method was much gentler on IOB cells and yielded an approximately 5000-fold higher DNA mass than the published method. The 16S rRNA gene clone library developed from the β-agarase I treated IOB enrichments indicated a high IOB community diversity...

  19. Effect of CO2 enrichment on bacterial metabolism in an Arctic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Motegi; T. Tanaka; J. Piontek; C.P.D. Brussaard; J.P. Gattuso; M.G. Weinbauer

    2013-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) alters the seawater carbonate chemistry, with a decline of pH and an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Although bacteria play a major role in carbon cycling, little is known about the impact of rising pCO2 on bacterial carbon metabolis

  20. Enriched iron(III-reducing bacterial communities are shaped by carbon substrate and iron oxide mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lentini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite, which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III reduction and the well known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g. Enterobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio spp.. Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  1. Hyperoxaluria leads to dysbiosis and drives selective enrichment of oxalate metabolizing bacterial species in recurrent kidney stone endures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Mangesh V.; Bhute, Shrikant S.; Jadhav, Swapnil D.; Bhatia, Manish S.; Gune, Rahul P.; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition. Interestingly, higher than usual concentration of oxalate was found inhibitory to many gut microbes, including Oxalobacter formigenes, a well-characterized OMBS. In addition a concomitant enrichment of acid tolerant pathobionts in recurrent stone sufferers is observed. Further, specific enzymes participating in oxalate metabolism are found augmented in stone endures. Additionally, hyperoxaluria driven dysbiosis was found to be associated with oxalate content, stone episodes and colonization pattern of Oxalobacter formigenes. Thus, we rationalize the first in-depth surveillance of OMBS in the human gut and their association with hyperoxaluria. Our findings can be utilized in the treatment of hyperoxaluria associated recurrent stone episodes. PMID:27708409

  2. Occurrence and enrichment of 'bacterial sherpas': climb to sustainability in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldos, M; Pagilla, K R

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents research on hemoglobin (Hb)-expressing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment systems. The outcome(s) will greatly reduce the aeration needs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and provide insight into emerging biological nitrogen removal processes using low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. In anthropogenic terms, the bacteria that express Hb could be considered as 'bacterial sherpas' that can function under low DO conditions. Hitherto, this functionality of bacteria has not been realized due to the initial response of the aerobic treatment stage: namely, morphology change by bacteria to filamentous forms to overcome oxygen mass transfer limitations causing bulking/foaming and nitrification inhibition. There is evidence, however, of the potential expression of Hb proteins by activated sludge (AS) bacteria. First, bacteria known to possess genes coding Hb proteins have been isolated from AS systems. Secondly, there is evidence that WWTPs are able to operate their biological processes at low DO without sludge bulking or incomplete nitrification. Our research has focused on nitrifying systems and has shown that this is due to prolonged operation at low DO conditions (0.1 mg O2/L), which allows sufficient time for bacterial acclimation. Additionally, it has been shown that enhanced Hb expression is linked to acclimation to low DO conditions. PMID:26524438

  3. A lack of consensus in the literature findings on the removal of airborne benzene by houseplants: Effect of bacterial enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Strand, Stuart E.

    2016-04-01

    Removal rates of benzene and formaldehyde gas by houseplants reported by several laboratories varied by several orders of magnitude. We hypothesized that these variations were caused by differential responses of soil microbial populations to the high levels of pollutant used in the studies, and tested responses to benzene by plants and soils separately. Five houseplant species and tobacco were exposed to benzene under hydroponic conditions and the uptake rates compared. Among the test plants, Syngonium podophyllum and Chlorophytum comosum and Epipremnum aureum had the highest benzene removal rates. The effects of benzene addition on populations of soil bacteria were determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays targeting microbial genes involved in benzene degradation. The total bacterial population increased as shown by increases in the levels of eubacteria 16S rRNA, which was significantly higher in the high benzene incubations than in the low benzene incubations. Transcripts (mRNA) of genes encoding phenol monooxygenases, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and the housekeeping gene rpoB increased in all soils incubated with high benzene concentrations. Therefore the enrichment of soils with benzene gas levels typical of experiments with houseplants in the literature artificially increased the levels of total soil bacterial populations, and especially the levels and activities of benzene-degrading bacteria.

  4. Bacterial Leakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Calcium-Enriched Mixture and Biodentine as Furcation Perforation Repair Materials in Primary Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate seal of iatrogenically perforated area within the root canal system can improve the long term treatment prognosis. This in vitro study evaluated the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and Biodentine in repair of furcation perforation in primary molars. Methods and Materials: A total of 61 freshly extracted primary mandibular second molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=17) and 10 teeth were put in negative (without perforation, n=5) and positive (perforated without repair, n=5) control groups. Turbidity was used as the criteria of bacterial leakage, when detected in the model of dual-chamber leakage. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in SPSS software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All positive samples showed turbidity, whereas none of the negative samples allowed bacterial leakage. There was no significant difference between the number of turbidity samples in repaired teeth with all test materials (P=0.13). No significant difference was also detected in the mean survival time (P>0.05). Conclusion: CEM cement and Biodentine showed promising results as perforation repair materials and can be recommended as suitable alternatives of MTA for repair of furcation perforation of primary molars. PMID:27471534

  5. Black colored sandy sediments caused by bacterial action, and the mechanism for arsenic enrichment of groundwater in Inner Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, H., E-mail: h.hagiwara@silk.plala.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi-2, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Akai, J. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi-2, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Terasaki, K. [6379-72, Ikarashi-1, Niigata 950-2101 (Japan); Yoshimura, T. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi-2, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Luo, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Arsenic enrichment of groundwater in Inner Mongolia is described. {yields} Characteristic black sands by FeS are always associated with this enrichment. {yields} Bacterial activity plays a key role in forming highly reducing environments and H{sub 2}S. {yields} Arsenic is released from Fe oxyhydroxide and H{sub 2}S reacts with Fe{sup 2+}, resulting in formation of black FeS. {yields} Black sands are indicative of As release in this region. - Abstract: High As concentrations in groundwater were detected in the village of Ershe, Jianshe but were not detected in the village of Qishe, Fengle in Inner Mongolia. In this study, core samples from two comparable regions were mineralogically examined. Results of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the principal minerals present in the drill core samples are quartz, micas, feldspars, calcite and clay minerals. Variation of these mineral species does not correlate with depth but to lithofacies; minerals were As-rich in muddy sediments and As-poor in sandy sediments. The results of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) are consistent with those of XRD. The As content shows a positive correlation with total Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V and loss of ignition (LOI). In order to identify the chemical forms of As present, a selective sequential extraction (SSE) method was carried out. The results of the SSE experiment suggested that in highly reducing environments, As that is adsorbed on Fe oxyhydroxides is released. Extremely black sand was found in deep drill core samples. To investigate the cause of black sands, inorganic and bacterial culture experiments were carried out. The black color in sands is due to the Fe sulfide greigite evolved from the Fe oxyhydroxide film coating the sand grains. This change in color occurred upon reaction with H{sub 2}S gas most probably associated with bacterial activity. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations clarified that the sulfide structure of black sand

  6. Atrazine biodegradation efficiency, metabolite detection, and trzD gene expression by enrichment bacterial cultures from agricultural soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robinson David Jebakumar SOLOMON; Amit KUMAR; Velayudhan SATHEEJA SANTHI

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine is a selective herbicide used in agricultural fields to control the emergence of broadleaf and grassy weeds. The persistence of this herbicide is influenced by the metabolic action of habituated native microor-ganisms. This study provides information on the occurrence of atrazine mineralizing bacterial strains with faster me-tabolizing ability. The enrichment cultures were tested for the biodegradation of atrazine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Nine cultures JS01.Deg01 to JS09.Deg01 were identified as the degrader of atrazine in the enrichment culture. The three isolates JS04.Deg01, JS07.Deg01, and JS08.Deg01 were identified as efficient atrazine metabolizers. Isolates JS04.Deg01 and JS07.Deg01 produced hydroxyatrazine (HA) N-isopropylammelide and cyanuric acid by dealkylation reaction. The isolate JS08.Deg01 generated deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and cyanuric acid by N-dealkylation in the upper degradation pathway and later it incorporated cyanuric acid in their biomass by the lower degradation pathway. The optimum pH for degrading atrazine by JS08.Deg01 was 7.0 and 16S rDNA phylogenetic typing identified it as Enterobacter cloacae strain JS08.Deg01. The highest atrazine mineralization was observed in case of isolate JS08.Deg01, where an ample amount of trzD mRNA was quantified at 72 h of incubation with atrazine. Atrazine bioremediating isolate E. cloacae strain JS08.Deg01 could be the better environmental remediator of agricultural soils and the crop fields contaminated with atrazine could be the source of the efficient biodegrading microbial strains for the environmental cleanup process.

  7. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part B--Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and Oxygen-Containing Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-07-01

    Present study focused on the biodegradation of various heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (NSO) compounds using naphthalene-enriched culture. Target compounds in the study were pyridine, quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran. Screening studies were carried out using different microbial consortia enriched with specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and NSO compounds. Among different microbial consortia, naphthalene-enriched culture was the most efficient consortium based on high substrate degradation rate. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order pyridine > quinoline > benzofuran > benzothiophene. Benzothiophene and benzofuran were found to be highly recalcitrant pollutants. Benzothiophene could not be biodegraded when concentration was above 50 mg/l. It was observed that 2-(1H)-quinolinone, benzothiophene-2-one, and benzofuran-2,3-dione were formed as metabolic intermediates during biodegradation of quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran, respectively. Quinoline-N and pyridine-N were transformed into free ammonium ions during the biodegradation process. Biodegradation pathways for various NSO compounds are proposed. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate single substrate biodegradation kinetics satisfactorily. Benzothiophene and benzofuran biodegradation kinetics, in presence of acetone, was simulated using a generalized multi-substrate model.

  8. 降解对苯二甲酸厌氧微生物群快速驯化与富集技术%Quick enrichment & acclimation of an anaerobic microbial consortium used for biodegrading terephthalic acid(TA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小明; 陈坚; 伦世仪

    2001-01-01

    来自甲烷发酵的厌氧污泥在反硝化条件下,可以对苯二甲酸(Terephthalic Acid,简称TA)为唯一碳源快速驯化富集TA厌氧降解菌,然后转换到甲烷发酵状态,到第6周时,获得的TA降解速度为22.6mgTA/gVSS*day,是对照实验的2.1倍。经过约90天的驯化,原存在于种污泥中的发酵性细菌几乎全部消亡,新的培养物中取而代之的是TA还原和开环菌,TA降解菌的驯化过程和富集过程是偶联的。MPN计数和滚管计数进一步证实了上述结果。%The seed sludge originated from a methane fermentation reactor can be enriched and acclimated quickly with TA as sole carbon source for TA anaerobic degradation under nitrate respiration mode first,and then under methane fermentation mode.Through 6-week process,a 22.6mgTA/gVSS*day TA degradation rate was obtained,which was 2.1 times of the rate got from normal acclimation process.After a total of 90 days for the enrichment and acclimation,the fermentative bacteria which originally existed in the seed sludge nearly disappeared,and instead of them,the TA reductive and cleaving bacteria group was formed in the new consortium,which was confirmed by the MPN counts and roll tube counts.

  9. Enrichment of specific bacterial and eukaryotic microbes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Li, Xiangzhen; Smyth, Eoghan M; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-06-01

    Identification of microbes that actively utilize root exudates is essential to understand plant-microbe interactions. To identify active root exudate-utilizing microorganisms associated with switchgrass - a potential bioenergy crop - plants were labelled in situ with (13) CO2 , and 16S and 18S rRNA genes in the (13) C-labelled rhizosphere DNA were pyrosequenced. Multi-pulse labelling for 5 days produced detectable (13) C-DNA, which was well separated from unlabelled DNA. Methylibium from the order Burkholderiales were the most heavily labelled bacteria. Pythium, Auricularia and Galerina were the most heavily labelled eukaryotic microbes. We also identified a Glomus intraradices-like species; Glomus members are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that are able to colonize the switchgrass root. All of these heavily labelled microorganisms were also among the most abundant species in the rhizosphere. Species belonging to Methylibium and Pythium were the most heavily labelled and the most abundant bacteria and eukaryotes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass. Our results revealed that nearly all of the dominant rhizosphere bacterial and eukaryotic microbes were able to utilize root exudates. The enrichment of microbial species in the rhizosphere is selective and mostly due to root exudation, which functions as a nutrition source, promoting the growth of these microbes.

  10. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  11. 复合茵群的构建及其对石油污染土壤修复的研究%Construction of Multiple Bacterial Consortium and Its Application in Bioremediation of Petroleum-contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵硕伟; 沈嘉澍; 沈标

    2011-01-01

    从石油污染土壤中富集分离、筛选出3株高效降解石油的微生物菌株,通过生理生化特性研究及16S rRNA基因序列分析,确定3株菌均属于红球菌属(Rhodococcus sp),研究和比较了它们与实验室保存的4株菌(分别属于Gordonia sp,Comamonas sp,Pesudomonas sp)降解石油的能力.这7株菌株对石油的不同组分具有不同的降解能力,对7株菌进行不同的组合用以研究复合菌群对石油的降解.结果表明,由两株Rhodococcus sp,一株Gordonia sp和一株Pesudomonas sp组成的复合菌群D,降解石油的能力超过任何单一菌株和其他组合菌群.混合菌群D在5d的培养中能降解70.3%的石油总量和71.4%的芳香化合物.混合菌群D能降解99.8%的C13-19烷烃,92.6%的C20-26烷烃,82.2%的C27-32烷烃以及90.2%的植烷.在实验室模拟条件下,对土壤中石油的降解率达到50%以上.降解土壤中石油的最适温度为10~30℃、pH值为6.5~9.5,接种量需要在106 CFU·g-1以上.%Three bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Abilities to degrade petroleum were studied and compared among three isolates and four strains instored in our laboratory. The seven strains prefered to degrade different component of petroleum re-spetively. Multiple bacterial consortia were composed by different combination among the seven strains. Consortium D which consists of two strains of Rhodococcus sp, a Gordonia sp and a Pesudomonas sp showed much higher degradating-oil efficiency than any single strains and other consortia. Consortium D could degrade 70.3 % of petroleum totally and 71.4% of aromatic component in petroleum in S days incubation. Consortium D could also degrade 99.8% of C13-19 aikanes, 92.6 % of C20-26 aikanes, 82.2% of C27-32 alkanes and 90.2% phylane in petroleum. When consortium D

  12. Assessing the influence of the carbon oxidation-reduction state on organic pollutant biodegradation in algal-bacterial photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahr, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Rosa, de la F.; Garcia-Encina, P.; Munoz, R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the carbon oxidation-reduction state (CORS) of organic pollutants on their biodegradation in enclosed algal-bacterial photobioreactors was evaluated using a consortium of enriched wild-type methanotrophic bacteria and microalgae. Methane, methanol and glucose (with CORS -4, -2 and 0

  13. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  14. Bacterial Community Profiling of H2/CO2 or Formate-Utilizing Acetogens Enriched from Diverse Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, R.; Zhang, L.; Fu, B.; Liu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic gases are usually generated from either cellulosic agricultural waste combustion or industrial release and could be subsequently transformed into acetate, ethanol, and/or butyrate by homoacetogenic bacteria, which commonly possess reductive acetyl-CoA synthesis pathway. Homoacetogen-based syngas fermentation technology provides an alternative solution to link greenhouse gas emission control and cellulosic solid waste treatment with biofuels production. The objective of our current project is to hunt for homoacetogens with capabilities of highly efficiently converting syngases to chemical solvents. In this study, we evaluated homoacetogens population dynamics during enrichments and pinpointed dominant homoacetogens representing diverse ecosystems enriched by different substrates. We enriched homoacetogens from four different samples including waste activate sludge, freshwater sediment, anaerobic methanogenic sludge, and cow manure using H2/CO2 (4:1) or formate as substrate for homoacetogen enrichment. Along with the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene (fhs gene)-specific real time qPCR assay and Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, 16S rRNA based 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing was applied to reveal the population dynamic and community structure during enrichment from different origins. Enrichment of homoacetogenic populations coincided with accumulations of short chain fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed Firmicutes and Spirochaetes populations became dominant while the overall microbial diversity decreased after enrichment. The most abundant sequences among the four origins belonged to the following phyla: Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 62.1%-99.1% of the total reads. The major putative homoacetogenic species enriched on H2/CO2 or formate belonged to Clostridium spp., Acetobacterium spp., Acetoanaerobium spp

  15. Identification of novel glycosyl hydrolases with cellulolytic activity against crystalline cellulose from metagenomic libraries constructed from bacterial enrichment cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    To obtain cellulases that are capable of degrading crystalline cellulose and cedar wood, metagenomic libraries were constructed from raw soil sample which was covered to pile of cedar wood sawdust or from its enrichment cultures. The efficiency of screening of metagenomic library was improved more than 3 times by repeating enrichment cultivation using crystalline cellulose as a carbon source, compared with the library constructed from raw soil. Four cellulase genes were obtained from the meta...

  16. Changes in sediment bacterial community in response to long-term nutrient enrichment in a subtropical seagrass-dominated estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Rafael; Ikenaga, Makoto; Dean, Amanda L; Pisani, Cristina; Boyer, Joseph N

    2014-10-01

    Florida Bay exhibits a natural gradient of strong P limitation in the east which shifts to weak P or even N limitation at the western boundary. This nutrient gradient greatly affects seagrass abundance and productivity across the bay. We assessed the effects of N and P additions on sediment bacterial community structure in relation to the existing nutrient gradient in Florida Bay. Sediment samples from 24 permanent 0.25 m(2) plots in each of six sites across Florida Bay were fertilized with granular N and P in a factorial design for 26 months. Sediment bacterial community structure was analyzed using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a cloning strategy from DGGE bands. The phylogenetic positions of 16S rRNA sequences mostly fell into common members found in marine sediments such as sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Bacteriodetes. Twenty-eight common DGGE bands were found in all sediment samples; however, some DGGE bands were only found or were better represented in eastern sites. Bacterial community diversity (Shannon-Weiner index) showed similar values throughout all sediment samples. The N treatment had no effect on the bacterial community structures across the bay. Conversely, the addition of P significantly influenced the bacterial community structure at all but the most western site, where P is least limiting due to inputs from the Gulf of Mexico. P additions enhanced DGGE band sequences related to Cytophagales, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Desulfobulbaceae, suggesting a shift toward bacterial communities with increased capability to degrade polymeric organic matter. In addition, a band related to Deferribacteres was enhanced in eastern sites. Thus, indigenous environmental conditions were the primary determining factors controlling the bacterial communities, while the addition of P was a secondary determining factor. This P-induced change in community

  17. Radiogenomics Consortium (RGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiogenomics Consortium's hypothesis is that a cancer patient's likelihood of developing toxicity to radiation therapy is influenced by common genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  18. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  19. Bulk and Rhizosphere Soil Bacterial Communities Studied by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Plant-Dependent Enrichment and Seasonal Shifts Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Smalla, K.; Wieland, G.; Buchner, A.; A. Zock; Parzy, J.; Kaiser, S; Roskot, N.; Heuer, H.; Berg, G

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial rhizosphere communities of three host plants of the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, field-grown strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), were analyzed. We aimed to determine the degree to which the rhizosphere effect is plant dependent and whether this effect would be increased by growing the same crops in two consecutive years. Rhizosphere or soil samples were taken five times over the vegetation periods....

  20. Precision and sensitivity of the measurement of 15N enrichment in D-alanine from bacterial cell walls using positive/negative ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunlid, A.; Odham, G.; Findlay, R. H.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive detection of cellular components from specific groups of microbes can be utilized as 'signatures' in the examination of microbial consortia from soils, sediments or biofilms. Utilizing capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stereospecific derivatizing agents, D-alanine, a component localized in the prokaryotic (bacterial) cell wall, can be detected reproducibly. Enrichments of D-[15N]alanine determined in E. coli grown with [15N]ammonia can be determined with precision at 1.0 atom%. Chemical ionization with methane gas and the detection of negative ions (M - HF)- and (M - F or M + H - HF)- formed from the heptafluorobutyryl D-2 butanol ester of D-alanine allowed as little as 8 pg (90 fmol) to be detected reproducibly. This method can be utilized to define the metabolic activity in terms of 15N incorporation at the level of 10(3)-10(4) cells, as a function of the 15N-14N ratio.

  1. Bulk and rhizosphere soil bacterial communities studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis: plant-dependent enrichment and seasonal shifts revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalla, K; Wieland, G; Buchner, A; Zock, A; Parzy, J; Kaiser, S; Roskot, N; Heuer, H; Berg, G

    2001-10-01

    The bacterial rhizosphere communities of three host plants of the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, field-grown strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), were analyzed. We aimed to determine the degree to which the rhizosphere effect is plant dependent and whether this effect would be increased by growing the same crops in two consecutive years. Rhizosphere or soil samples were taken five times over the vegetation periods. To allow a cultivation-independent analysis, total community DNA was extracted from the microbial pellet recovered from root or soil samples. 16S rDNA fragments amplified by PCR from soil or rhizosphere bacterium DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE fingerprints showed plant-dependent shifts in the relative abundance of bacterial populations in the rhizosphere which became more pronounced in the second year. DGGE patterns of oilseed rape and potato rhizosphere communities were more similar to each other than to the strawberry patterns. In both years seasonal shifts in the abundance and composition of the bacterial rhizosphere populations were observed. Independent of the plant species, the patterns of the first sampling times for both years were characterized by the absence of some of the bands which became dominant at the following sampling times. Bacillus megaterium and Arthrobacter sp. were found as predominant populations in bulk soils. Sequencing of dominant bands excised from the rhizosphere patterns revealed that 6 out of 10 bands resembled gram-positive bacteria. Nocardia populations were identified as strawberry-specific bands. PMID:11571180

  2. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was developed from mixed urban and petrochemical activated sludge after 4 month's enrichment. Enrichment was conducted in batch reactor, fitted with a screw cap and butyl rubber septum. MTBE concentration was measured in head space by gas chromatography. Degradation was determined by MTBE removal. MTBE biodegradation was depended to Dissolved Oxygen (DO concentration and not affected by the changes in concentration of trace element solution or other stimulator Substances. Degradation rates were nearly 1.478 mg MTBE h-1 g-1 (wet biomass and didn't change with MTBE concentration (up 500 mg L-1.

  3. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues.

  4. Anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis kill cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Massaguer, Anna; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Key players in translational regulation such as ribosomes might represent powerful, but hitherto largely unexplored, targets to eliminate drug-refractory cancer stem cells (CSCs). A recent study by the Lisanti group has documented how puromycin, an old antibiotic derived from Streptomyces alboniger that inhibits ribosomal protein translation, can efficiently suppress CSC states in tumorspheres and monolayer cultures. We have used a closely related approach based on Biolog Phenotype Microarrays (PM), which contain tens of lyophilized antimicrobial drugs, to assess the chemosensitivity profiles of breast cancer cell lines enriched for stem cell-like properties. Antibiotics directly targeting active sites of the ribosome including emetine, puromycin and cycloheximide, inhibitors of ribosome biogenesis such as dactinomycin, ribotoxic stress agents such as daunorubicin, and indirect inhibitors of protein synthesis such as acriflavine, had the largest cytotoxic impact against claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer cells. Thus, biologically aggressive, treatment-resistant breast cancer subtypes enriched for stem cell-like properties exhibit exacerbated chemosensitivities to anti-protozoal and anti-bacterial antibiotics targeting protein synthesis. These results suggest that old/existing microbicides might be repurposed not only as new cancer therapeutics, but also might provide the tools and molecular understanding needed to develop second-generation inhibitors of ribosomal translation to eradicate CSC traits in tumor tissues. PMID:25970790

  5. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  6. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  7. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  8. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy;

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  9. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. PMID:26590285

  10. Molecular analysis of the bacterial diversity in a specialized consortium for diesel oil degradation Análise molecular da diversidade bacteriana de um consórcio degradador de óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Antonio Alvaredo Paixão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diesel oil is a compound derived from petroleum, consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. Poor conditions in transportation and storage of this product can contribute significantly to accidental spills causing serious ecological problems in soil and water and affecting the diversity of the microbial environment. The cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is one of the molecular techniques that allows estimation and comparison of the microbial diversity in different environmental samples. The aim of this work was to estimate the diversity of microorganisms from the Bacteria domain in a consortium specialized in diesel oil degradation through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. After the extraction of DNA metagenomics, the material was amplified by PCR reaction using specific oligonucleotide primers for the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, and Escherichia coli was used as the host cell for recombinant DNAs. The partial clone sequencing was obtained using universal oligonucleotide primers from the vector. The genetic library obtained generated 431 clones. All the sequenced clones presented similarity to phylum Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria the most present group (49.8 % of the clones, followed by Alphaproteobacteira (44.8 % and Betaproteobacteria (5.4 %. The Pseudomonas genus was the most abundant in the metagenomic library, followed by the Parvibaculum and the Sphingobium genus, respectively. After partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, the diversity of the bacterial consortium was estimated using DOTUR software. When comparing these sequences to the database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, a strong correlation was found between the data generated by the software used and the data deposited in NCBI.O óleo diesel é um composto derivado do petróleo, constituído basicamente por hidrocarbonetos. Condições precárias no processo de transporte e armazenagem

  11. IPD-Work consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna;

    2015-01-01

    of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of......Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range...... the IPD-Work's findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how...

  12. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  13. Nuclear Technology Education Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reinforce the government efforts toward the restoration of nuclear education health, a new concept in post-graduate level training for the nuclear sector has been developed by a strong consortium of UK universities and HE institutions under the title Nuclear Technology Education Consortium (NTEC). The basis of this consortium were designed to meet the UK projected nuclear skills requirements in decommissioning and cleanup, reactor technology, fusion and nuclear medicine. The structure and content of the programme, which leads to qualifications up to master's level in nuclear science and technology, was established following extensive consultations with the UK nuclear sector, including industry, regulators, MoD, NDA, Government Departments and the Cogent Sector Skills Council. The programme is coordinated by the Dalton Nuclear Institute at The University of Manchester. This programme has been approved by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Following are the key features of this consortium: - It was only designed to fulfil the needs nuclear sector; - It offers subjects in broad spectrum, from reactor theory through decommissioning to waste disposal and storage, the subject matter being presented by leading specialists in their field; - Each topic is presented in short course format which is ideal for employees within the industry; - It offers part-time basis over a period of three years as well as full-time in one year post-graduate courses in nuclear science and technology; - This programme also covers the Post-graduate Diploma or Post-graduate Certificate opportunity for students; - Individual subjects are presented in 'short course' modular format, providing excellent access to the programme for engineers and managers in full-time employment who wish to advance their skill and knowledge base; - The core of each module is one week of direct teaching at the relevant institution, minimizing the time away from the workplace for an employee whilst maximizing

  14. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  15. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  16. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  17. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  19. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  20. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  1. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  3. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  4. Characterization of bacterial diversity in an atrazine degrading enrichment culture and degradation of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret in industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Vasudevan, Venugopal; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    An enrichment culture was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salt medium (MSM) (T1), MSM+soil extract (1:1, v/v) (T2) and soil extract (T3). Results suggested that enrichment culture required soil extract to degrade atrazine, as after second sequential transfer only partial atrazine degradation was observed in T1 treatment while atrazine was completely degraded in T2 and T3 treatments even after fourth transfer. Culture independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique confirmed selective enrichment of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Degradation of atrazine/metabolites in the industrial wastewater was studied at different initial concentrations of the contaminants [wastewater-water (v/v) ratio: T1, 1:9; T2, 2:8; T3, 3:7; T4, 5:5 and T5, undiluted effluent]. The initial concentrations of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret ranged between 5.32 and 53.92 µg mL(-1), 265.6 and 1805.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.85 and 16.12 µg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment culture was able to completely degrade atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret up to T4 treatment, while no appreciable degradation of contaminants was observed in the undiluted effluent (T5). Inability of enrichment culture to degrade atrazine/metabolites might be due to high concentrations of cyanuric acid. Therefore, a separate study on cyanuric acid degradation suggested: (i) no appreciable cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of an unidentified metabolite in the medium where cyanuric acid was supplemented as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen; (ii) partial cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of unidentified metabolite in the medium containing additional nitrogen source; and (iii) complete cyanuric acid degradation in the medium supplemented with an additional carbon source. This unidentified metabolite observed during cyanuric acid degradation and also detected in the enrichment culture inoculated wastewater samples

  5. Characterization of bacterial diversity in an atrazine degrading enrichment culture and degradation of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret in industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Vasudevan, Venugopal; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    An enrichment culture was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salt medium (MSM) (T1), MSM+soil extract (1:1, v/v) (T2) and soil extract (T3). Results suggested that enrichment culture required soil extract to degrade atrazine, as after second sequential transfer only partial atrazine degradation was observed in T1 treatment while atrazine was completely degraded in T2 and T3 treatments even after fourth transfer. Culture independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique confirmed selective enrichment of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Degradation of atrazine/metabolites in the industrial wastewater was studied at different initial concentrations of the contaminants [wastewater-water (v/v) ratio: T1, 1:9; T2, 2:8; T3, 3:7; T4, 5:5 and T5, undiluted effluent]. The initial concentrations of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret ranged between 5.32 and 53.92 µg mL(-1), 265.6 and 1805.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.85 and 16.12 µg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment culture was able to completely degrade atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret up to T4 treatment, while no appreciable degradation of contaminants was observed in the undiluted effluent (T5). Inability of enrichment culture to degrade atrazine/metabolites might be due to high concentrations of cyanuric acid. Therefore, a separate study on cyanuric acid degradation suggested: (i) no appreciable cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of an unidentified metabolite in the medium where cyanuric acid was supplemented as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen; (ii) partial cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of unidentified metabolite in the medium containing additional nitrogen source; and (iii) complete cyanuric acid degradation in the medium supplemented with an additional carbon source. This unidentified metabolite observed during cyanuric acid degradation and also detected in the enrichment culture inoculated wastewater samples

  6. COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) is an extramural-intramural partnership that promotes collaboration among prospective cohort studies that follow participants for a range of outcomes and perform metabolomic profiling of individuals.

  7. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  8. Petroleum and derivatives emulsification by bacterial consortium of sea meeds from Enseada do Forno-Armacao de Buzios (RJ); Emulsificacao de petroleo e seus derivados pelos consorcios bacterianos de algas da Enseada do Forno-Armacao dos Buzios (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Frederico S. da; Crapez, Mirian A.C.; Krepsky, Natascha; Fontana, Luiz F.; Baptista-Neto, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fred@igeo.uff.br

    2004-07-01

    Constant petroleum spill over natural habitats made necessary alternatives for environmental damage mitigation and recuperation. Bio surfactants can be used as an alternative for oil spill once they reduce surface oil tension, making them soluble in water or can make it available from the sediments. Bacterial consortia were isolated and bio amplified from Caulerpa (C), Laurencia (L) and Dictyota (D) algae biofilm. Bacterial carbon (CB); surface tension (TS); Emulsification index (E{sub 24}) and non-aqueous (A) and aqueous (B) emulsification of gasoline, kerosene and Arabian Light were estimated in 0, 7, 15 and 30 days of incubation. Results show a decrease of Laurencia and Caulerpa CB. However, Dictyota showed an increase at CB. Laurencia TS showed no significant reduction at days 7 and 15. For Dictyota and Caulerpa there was a increase at day 7 and reduction at day 15. E{sub 24} was higher than 70% for all the three substances and consortia tested. Laurencia bacteria consortia presented emulsification B for Arabian Light and emulsification A for gasoline and kerosene. Caulerpa consortia emulsified all compounds. All bacterial consortia isolated were surfactant producer, with emulsification A and B, being indicated for recuperation of environments contaminated with oil and its derivatives compounds. (author)

  9. REALIZATION OF CONSORTIUM PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasik, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    В статье описаны институционные проблемы и взаимоотношения внутри консорциум во время реализации проектов. Представлены избранные конфликтные ситуации, которые могут появиться в проектных коллективах, также описан фактор риска, который может появляться во время работы с проектом.The article describes the institutional problems and relationships within the consortium during the realization of projects. Selected conflict situations that may arise in project teams and risk factor that may appear...

  10. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  11. Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with...

  12. Isolation and Characteristics of a Microbial Consortium for Effectively Degrading Phenanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Xu Hongke; Guo Shaohui

    2007-01-01

    A microbial consortium (named W4) capable of aerobic biodegradation of solid phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from petroleum-contaminated soil in the Henan oilfield,China. The strains of the consortium were identified as Sphingomonas cloacae, Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter xylosoxidans respectively by means of genetic methods. The major metabolites of phenanthrene were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The biodegradation percentage of solid phenanthrene at 200 mg/L in liquid medium after 7 days of growth was greater than 99%. The degradation of phenanthrene was compared between individual predominant strains and the microbial consortium in different treatment processes. The microbial consortium showed a significant improvement of phenanthrene degradation rates in either static or shaking culture. The degradation percentage of phenanthrene by the consortium W4 decreased to some degree when C 16 coexisted, however it was hardly affected by C30. Furthermore, the ability of consortium W4 to remediate oil sludge from the Dagang oil refinery was studied by composting; and it was found that the consortium W4 could obviously remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and paraffinic hydrocarbons. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium W4 had a promising application in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments and could be potentially used in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

  13. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  15. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo;

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  17. Is Job Enrichment Really Enriching?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...

  18. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  19. Actividades Enzimáticas en Consorcios Bacterianos de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa con Manejo Convencional y Bajo Pastizal Enzyme Activities in Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Soils with Potato Crop under Conventional Management and under Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluaron las actividades enzimáticas (ureasa, proteasa, fosfatasa ácida y alcalina, fosfodiesterasa, b-glucosidasa y arilsulfatasa en consorcios bacterianos (Bacillus subtilis, Brevundimonas diminuta, Flavimonas oryzihabitants de suelos bajo cultivo de papa variedad Parda Pastusa, con manejo convencional de aplicación de agroinsumos (PCA y en suelos bajo pastizal sin aplicación de agroinsumos (PSA, en fincas de tres localidades del departamento de Cundinamarca (Tausa, Villapinzón y Zipaquirá, Colombia. Se encontraron efectos por la aplicación de insumos de síntesis química y el tipo de uso del suelo, sobre las actividades enzimáticas; sin embargo, estos fueron diferentes para cada una de las enzimas y localidades. Para el municipio de Villapinzón la actividad de ureasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfodiesterasa y b-glucosidasa, fue mayor en las muestras PCA con respecto a las PSA en un 89, 71, 67 y 75% respectivamente; para el municipio de Zipaquirá se presentó la misma tendencia en la actividad ureasa, b-glucosidasa y arilsulfatasa con un 50, 71 y 68% respectivamente; finalmente en el municipio de Tausa se mantuvo el mismo comportamiento para la actividad de proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, fosfodiesterasa, b-glucosidasa, con un 55, 20, 75, 82 y 87% de mayor actividad en las muestras PCA en relación con las de PSA.Abstract. Enzyme activities were evaluated (urease, protease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase, b-glucosidase and arylsulfatase in bacterial consortia (Bacillus subtilis, Brevundimonas diminuta, Flavimonas oryzihabitants from either soil with potato cropping under conventional management with the application of agrochemicals (PWA or grassland soils without the use of agrochemicals (GNA on farms of three municipalities (Tausa, Villapinzón and Zipaquirá in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The type of land use and the location affected the tested enzymatic activities. In the

  20. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  1. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  2. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  3. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program is a collaborative University-Industry R&D Consortium that is managed and administered by the South Carolina Energy R&D Center. AGTSR is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry-defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. The consortium is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation and is sponsored by the U.S. DOE - Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The program is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. At present, there are 78 performing member universities representing 36 states, and six cost-sharing U.S. gas turbine corporations. Three RFP`s have been announced and the fourth RFP is expected to be released in December, 1995. There are 31 research subcontracts underway at performing member universities. AGTSR has also organized three workshops, two in combustion and one in heat transfer. A materials workshop is in planning and is scheduled for February, 1996. An industrial internship program was initiated this past summer, with one intern positioned at each of the sponsoring companies. The AGTSR consortium nurtures close industry-university-government collaboration to enhance synergism and the transition of research results, accelerate and promote evolutionary-revolutionary R&D, and strives to keep a prominent U.S. industry strong and on top well into the 21st century. This paper will present the objectives and benefits of the AGTSR program, progress achieved to date, and future planned activity in fiscal year 1996.

  4. Corn in consortium with forages

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS) throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was c...

  5. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  6. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; Anita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389) and P. moraviensis (JX149542). Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas ...

  7. Biodegradation mechanisms and kinetics of azo dye 4BS by a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Yuezhong

    2004-10-01

    A microbial consortium consisting of a white-rot fungus 8-4* and a Pseudomonas 1-10 was isolated from wastewater treatment facilities of a local dyeing house by enrichment, using azo dye Direct Fast Scarlet 4BS as the sole source of carbon and energy, which had a high capacity for rapid decolorization of 4BS. To elucidate the decolorization mechanisms, decolorization of 4BS was compared between individual strains and the microbial consortium under different treatment processes. The microbial consortium showed a significant improvement on dye decolorization rates under either static or shaking culture, which might be attributed to the synergetic reaction of single strains. From the curve of COD values and the UV-visible spectra of 4BS solutions before and after decolorization cultivation with the microbial consortium, it was found that 4BS could be mineralized completely, and the results had been used for presuming the degrading pathway of 4BS. This study also examined the kinetics of 4BS decolorization by immobilized microbial consortium. The results demonstrated that the optimal decolorization activity was observed in pH range between four and 9, temperature range between 20 and 40 degrees C and the maximal specific decolorization rate occurred at 1,000 mg l(-1) of 4BS. The proliferation and distribution of microbial consortium were also microscopically observed, which further confirmed the decolorization mechanisms of 4BS.

  8. Development of Leptospirillum ferriphilum dominated consortium for ferric iron regeneration and metal bioleaching under extreme stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhargav C; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2012-08-01

    Activated iron oxidizing consortium SR-BH-L enriched from Rajpardi lignite mine soil sample gave iron oxidation rate 1954 mg/L/h. Developed novel polystress resistant consortium oxidized ferrous iron under 11cP viscosity, 7.47 M ionic strength, 2.3 pH and g/L of 0.50 cadmium, 3.75 copper, 0.20 lead, 92.00 zinc, 6.4 sodium, 5.5 chloride, 154 sulphate and 393.8 TDS. The developed consortium showed 78.0% and 70.0% copper and zinc extraction from polymetallic bulk concentrate in monophasic bioleaching process. The bioregenerated ferric by the consortium in leachate showed 80.81% and 54.0% copper and zinc leaching in only 30 and 90 min. The DGGE analysis indicated the presence of 11 OTUs in the consortium. 16S rRNA gene sequence (JN797729) of the dominant band on DGGE shared >99% similarity with Leptospirillum ferriphilum. RE digestion analysis of the total 16S rRNA gene also illustrated the dominance of L. ferriphilum in the consortium. PMID:22717567

  9. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Biostimulation of metal-resistant microbial consortium to remove zinc from contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias Carpio, Isis E; Franco, Diego Castillo; Zanoli Sato, Maria Inês; Sakata, Solange; Pellizari, Vivian H; Seckler Ferreira Filho, Sidney; Frigi Rodrigues, Debora

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the diversity and metal removal ability of microorganisms associated to contaminated aquatic environments is essential to develop metal remediation technologies in engineered environments. This study investigates through 16S rRNA deep sequencing the composition of a biostimulated microbial consortium obtained from the polluted Tietê River in São Paulo, Brazil. The bacterial diversity of the biostimulated consortium obtained from the contaminated water and sediment was compared to the original sample. The results of the comparative sequencing analyses showed that the biostimulated consortium and the natural environment had γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and uncultured bacteria as the major classes of microorganisms. The consortium optimum zinc removal capacity, evaluated in batch experiments, was achieved at pH=5 with equilibrium contact time of 120min, and a higher Zn-biomass affinity (KF=1.81) than most pure cultures previously investigated. Analysis of the functional groups found in the consortium demonstrated that amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and phosphate groups present in the consortium cells were responsible for zinc uptake. PMID:26849331

  11. Job Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  12. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  13. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  14. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  15. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Biodegradation Rates in Untreated and Oily Soils During PAH Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach taken in this study represents an attempt to address the possible selective effects of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the bacterial community structure of an untreated garden soil (S) and a chronically contaminated oily soil (CS). Untreated and chronically hydrocarbon polluted soils, collected from Egypt were enriched in shaking flasks containing 50 mg/l anthracene as a sole source of carbon over a period of 15 days. Bacterial communities in each soil were profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR amplified 16 S r DNA gene fragments after 0, 5, 10, and 15 days. Culture able biodegrading bacterial counts on minerals- Silica gel- Oil (MSD) plates as well as anthracene degradation for both soils were followed up at the same time intervals. Nine bacterial species were found to be dominant in the pristine soil before enrichment with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), eight of them disappeared after live days of enrichment with the domination of one new species. It stayed dominant in soil until 15 days - exposure to anthracene. Therefore it can be used as a bio marker for PAH pollution. The chronically contaminated soil revealed a remarkable increase in the diversity directly after 5 days exposure to PAH HPLC analysis of the extracted anthracene remained in the biodegradation flasks after different degradation periods revealed that a higher biodegradation rates were accomplished by the oily soil consortium rather than by the pristine one. Before exposure to PAH, counts of culture able biodegrading bacteria were found to be higher in the untreated soil rather than in the oily one. After exposure the situation has been a bit altered as the counts in the untreated soil revealed a temporary suppression with a prolongation of the time required for growth as a result of the hydrocarbon stress

  16. Screening of a microbial consortium for highly simultaneous degradation of lignocellulose and chlorophenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiajin; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Dexing; Li, Beiyin; Wang, Dehan; Lin, Yunqin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, spent mushroom substrates were utilized for screening a microbial consortium with highly simultaneous degradation of lignocellulose and chlorophenols. The desired microbial consortium OEM1 was gained through successive cultivation for about 50 generations and its stability of composition was verified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) during screening process. It could degrade lignocellulose and chlorophenols at around 50% and 100%, respectively, within 7days. The diversity analysis and the growth characteristics of OEM1 during degradation process were investigated by PCR-DGGE combined with clone and sequence. The results indicated that OEM1 consisted of 31 strains. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the predominant bacterial groups. The dynamic change of OEM1 illustrated that consortium community structure was effected by pH and substrate alteration and tended to be stable after 6days' cultivation. Furthermore, bacteria (11 strains) and actinomycetes (2 strains) were obtained based on plate isolation and identified via 16S rDNA sequence. PMID:25974352

  17. Performance assessment of a submerged membrane bioreactor using a novel microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kangmin; Lee, Kyungpyo; Kim, In-Soo; Jang, Am

    2016-06-01

    The performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) with and without a novel microbial consortium (NMBR vs. CMBR) was compared to provide deeper insights into the effects of changes in water quality and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics by a novel microbial consortium on the fouling characteristics of MBR processes. Despite similar operating conditions and identical DOM properties in the feed waters, NMBR exhibited a lower propensity to release polysaccharide-like compounds with low molecular weight by bacterial activities compared to CMBR. These compounds have a great fouling potential for MBR processes. Therefore, an increase in the transmembrane pressure (TMP) of NMBR (normalized TMP (TMP/TMP0): 1.14) was much slower and less significant than that observed in CMBR (TMP/TMP0: 2.61). These observations imply that the novel microbial consortium can efficiently mitigate membrane fouling by hydrophilic DOM in MBR processes.

  18. Phylogenetic characterization of a corrosive consortium isolated from a sour gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-Roblero, J; Romero, J M; Amaya, M; Le Borgne, S

    2004-06-01

    Biocorrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. Characterization of the microbial populations responsible for biocorrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implement efficient monitoring and control strategies. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to separate PCR products and sequence analysis revealed the bacterial composition of a consortium obtained from a sour gas pipeline in the Gulf of Mexico. Only one species of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was detected in this consortium. The rest of the population consisted of enteric bacteria with different characteristics and metabolic capabilities potentially related to biocorrosion. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. The low abundance of the detected SRB was evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In addition, the localized corrosion of pipeline steel in the presence of the consortium was clearly observed by ESEM after removing the adhered bacteria.

  19. Study of a plugging microbial consortium using crude oil as sole carbon source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Yan Guiwen; An Mingquan; Liu Jieli; Zhang Houming; Chen Yun

    2008-01-01

    A microbial consortium named Y4 capable of producing biopolymers was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in the Dagang Oilfield, China. It includes four bacterial strains: Y4-1 (Paenibacillus sp.), Y4-2 (Actinomadura sp.), Y4-3 (Uncultured bacterium clone) and Y4-4 (Brevibacillus sp.). The optimal conditions for the growth of the consortium Y4 were as follows: temperature about 46 ℃,pH about 7.0 and salinity about 20.0 g/L. The major metabolites were analyzed with gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). A comparison was made between individual strains and the microbial consortium for biopolymer production in different treatment processes. The experimental results showed that the microbial consortium Y4 could produce more biopolymers than individual strains, and the reason might be attributed to the synergetic action of strains. The biopolymers were observed with optical and electron microscopes and analyzed by paper chromatography. It was found that the biopolymers produced by the microbial consortium Y4 were insoluble in water and were of reticular structure, and it was concluded that the biopolymers were cellulose. Through a series of simulation experiments with sand cores, it was found that the microbial consortium Y4 could reduce the permeability of reservoir beds, and improve the efficiency of water flooding by growing biomass and producing biopolymers.The oil recovery was enhanced by 3.5% on average. The results indicated that the consortium Y4 could be used in microbial enhanced oil recovery and play an important role in bioremediation of oil polluted environments.

  20. Building a local research consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P A

    1994-05-01

    Although state, regional, and national networking often are critical to the nurse researchers, local support that is broader than what is found in any single agency may be the foundation needed by clinicians who want "more" research than that prescribed by their current role. More formal consortiums have successfully implemented a variety of research projects and are another possibility to explore (Beaman & Strader, 1990; Bolton, 1991; Chenitz et al., 1990; Keefe et al., 1988; Thiele, 1989). Another option is some state nurses' associations that have formal research assemblies (eg., Ohio Nurses Association, Assembly of Nurse Researchers). However, forming a local, less formal group with a few expert advisors may supply the energy and momentum necessary for both using and conducting research at a grassroots level. The expert advisors should be research-trained nurses (almost always with a PhD or DNS) who are active group members. Although Fitzpatrick encouraged collaborative research and writing early in the history of Applied Nursing Research (Fitzpatrick, 1989), in 1993 approximately two thirds of the articles in Applied Nursing Research still were single authored. Nurses are not using collaboration to its fullest extent. An informal group in one community has been one way to release the scholarship that was latent in many nurses. PMID:8031105

  1. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  3. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  4. Effect of CH4/O2 ratio on fatty acid profile and polyhydroxybutyrate content in a heterotrophic-methanotrophic consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Nadarajan, Saravanan; Lee, Patrick K H; Heimann, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of heterotrophic-methanotrophic (H-Meth) communities is important for improvement of methane (CH4) oxidation capacities (MOC) particularly in conjunction with bio-product development in industrial bio-filters. Initially, a H-Meth consortium was established and enriched from marine sediments and characterized by next generation sequencing of the 16s rDNA gene. The enriched consortium was subjected to 10-50% CH4 (i.e., 0.20-1.6 CH4/O2 ratios) to study the effects on MOCs, biomass growth, fatty acid profiles and biopolymer (e.g. polyhydroxybutyrate; PHB) content. Methylocystis, Methylophaga and Pseudoxanthomonas dominated the H-Meth consortium. Culture enrichment of the H-Meth consortium resulted in 15-20-folds higher MOC compared to seed sediments. Increasing CH4 concentration (and decreased O2 levels) yielded higher MOCs, but did not improve total fatty acid contents. PHB contents varied between 2.5% and 8.5% independently of CH4/O2 ratios. The results suggest that H-Meth consortia could potentially be used in industrial bio-filters for production of biopolymer/biofuel precursors from CH4. PMID:26247542

  5. CFD analysis of pump consortium impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Williams, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, embedded with the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and with appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, is developed to analyze turbulent flows in the turbomachinery devices. The FDNS code was benchmarked with its numerical predictions of the pump consortium inducer, and provides satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD analysis of the pump consortium impeller will be conducted with the application of the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is the new design concept of the advanced rocket engine.

  6. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  7. The Yamato-793605 martian meteorite consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima,Hideyasu/Miyamoto,Masamichi/Warren,Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the consortium that has been organized to coordinate study of the Yamato-793605 shergottitic peridotite, a 16-g meteorite of presumed martian origin. Y-793605 is similar to two other Antarctic martian meteorites, ALH-77005 and LEW88516. One of the most important goals of the consortium is to determine how the cosmic-ray exposure history of Y-793605 compares with those of ALH-77005 and LEW88516. An aphanitic-glassy shock melted lithology that constitutes, as scattered veins and glo...

  8. The COPD Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaburi, Richard; Celli, Bartolome; Crapo, James;

    2013-01-01

    industry and academia conducted a workshop to survey the available information that could contribute to new tools. Based on this, a collaborative project, the COPD Biomarkers Qualification Consortium, was initiated. The Consortium in now actively preparing integrated data sets from existing resources......, and no interested party has been in a position to undertake such a process. In order to facilitate the development of novel tools to assess new treatments, the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the COPD Foundation, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and scientists from the pharmaceutical...

  9. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.;

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains....... Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance...

  10. Biological treatment of textile dyes by agar-agar immobilized consortium in a packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogesh; Gupte, Akshaya

    2015-03-01

    The decolorization of Acid Maroon V was investigated using bacterial consortium EDPA containing Enterobacter dissolvens AGYP1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa AGYP2 immobilized in different entrapment matrices. The consortium displayed 96% removal of dye (100 mg/l) within 6 h when immobilized in agar-agar. Under optimum concentrations of agar-agar (3.0% w/v) and cell biomass (0.9 g% w/v), the consortium displayed decolorization for 18 successive batches of Acid Maroon V and also decolorized 14 other different textile dyes. A packed bed reactor under batch mode showed 89% decolorization of dye after 56 repetitive cycles. Under continuous flow mode, maximum color removal was achieved with bed length of 36 cm, hydraulic retention time of 2.66 h, and dye concentration of 100 mg/l. Additionally, the reactor decolorized relatively higher concentrations (100-2000 mg/l) of dye. The synthetic dye wastewater containing five textile dyes was decolorized 92% with 62% COD reduction using an immobilized consortium.

  11. Photocatalytic Removal of Microbiological Consortium and Organic Matter in Greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Cemre Birben

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of synthetically-prepared greywater samples with differing compositional contents of organic matter (OM, anion concentration, and microbiological consortium. Treatment efficiency was followed through removal of organic matter content in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, specific spectroscopic parameters, and bacterial inactivation. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics were expressed by pseudo first-order kinetic modeling. The best DOC removal rates were attained for greywater samples containing OM with lower molecular size fractions. In addition, either enhancing or reducing the effect of common anions as radical scavengers were observed depending on the composition and concentration of variables in the greywater matrix. Moreover, possibility of a photocatalytic disinfection process was found to be of a bacteria type specific in OM-loaded synthetic greywater samples. Photocatalytic destruction of fecal streptococci required longer irradiation periods under all conditions. Bacterial removal rates were found to be in the order of total coliform > fecal coliform > fecal streptococci, for low organic load greywater, and fecal coliform > total coliform > fecal streptococci, for high organic load greywater.

  12. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SC

  13. Deammonification process start-up after enrichment of anammox microorganisms from reject water in a moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Kroon, Kristel; Vabamäe, Priit; Salo, Erik; Loorits, Liis; Rubin, Sergio S C dC; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Tenno, Taavo

    2013-01-01

    Deammonification via intermittent aeration in biofilm process for the treatment of sewage sludge digester supernatant (reject water) was started up using two opposite strategies. Two moving-bed biofilm reactors were operated for 2.5 years at 26 (+/- 0.5 degree C with spiked influent(and hence free ammonia (FA)) addition. In the first start-up strategy, an enrichment of anammox biomass was first established, followed by the development of nitrifying biomass in the system (R1). In contrast, the second strategy aimed at the enrichment of anammox organisms into a nitrifying biofilm (R2). The first strategy was most successful, reaching higher maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rates over a shorter start-up period. For both reactors, increasing FA spiking frequency and increasing effluent concentrations of the anammox intermediate hydrazine correlated to decreasing aerobic nitrate production (nitritation). The bacterial consortium of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was determined via denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. In addition to a shorter start-up with a better TN removal rate, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) were outcompeted by spiked ammonium feeding from R1.

  14. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Ivarsson

    Full Text Available We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf. The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites-remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust.

  15. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites-remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust.

  16. Comparative Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Amended Tropical Soil Microcosms by Natural Attenuation, Bio augmentation, or Bio enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is an efficient strategy for cleaning up sites contaminated with organic pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation, bio enrichment, and bio augmentation using a consortium of three actinomycetes strains in remediating two distinct typical Brazilian soils from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes that were contaminated with crude oil, with or without the addition of NaCl. Microcosms were used to simulate bioremediation treatments over a 120-day period. During this period, we monitored total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and n-alkanes degradation and changes in bacterial communities. Over time, we found the degradation rate of n-alkanes was higher than TPH in both soils, independent of the treatment used. In fact, our data show that the total bacterial community in the soils was mainly affected by the experimental period of time, while the type of bioremediation treatment used was the main factor influencing the actinomycetes populations in both soils. Based on these data, we conclude that monitored natural attenuation is the best strategy for remediation of the two tropical soils studied, with or without salt addition.

  17. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  18. Molecular characterization of a microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification under micro-aerobic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingjing; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Liang; Ju, Xi; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-01-01

    Methane can be used as an alternative carbon source in biological denitrification because it is nontoxic, widely available and relatively inexpensive. A microbial consortium involved in methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (MOD) was enriched with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors under micro-aerobic conditions. The 16S rRNA gene combined with pmoA phylogeny of methanotrophs and nirK phylogeny of denitrifiers were analysed to reveal the dominant microbial populations and functi...

  19. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  20. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  1. Midwest superconductivity consortium. 1993 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, in the fourth year of operations further strengthened its mission to advance the science and understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. The goals of the organization and the individual projects continue to reflect the current needs for new knowledge in the field and the unique capabilities of the institutions involved. Group efforts and cooperative laboratory interactions to achieve the greatest possible synergy under the Consortium continue to be emphasized. Industrial affiliations coupled with technology transfer initiatives were expanded. Activities of the participants during the past year achieved an interactive and high level of performance. The number of notable achievements in the field contributed by Consortium investigators increased. The programmatic research continues to focus upon key materials-related problems in two areas. The first area has a focus upon {open_quotes}Synthesis and Processing{close_quotes} while the second is centered around {open_quotes}Limiting Features in Transport Properties of High T{sub c} Materials{close_quotes}.

  2. CFD Parametric Study of Consortium Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  3. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Kunle Okaiyeto; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The ...

  4. Selective enrichment of Geobacter sulfurreducens from anaerobic granular sludge with quinones as terminal electron acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes-Carillo, F.J.; Duong Dac, T.; Ivanova, A.E.; Roest, de K.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    A quinone-respiring, enrichment culture derived from methanogenic granular sludge was phylogenetically characterized by using a combined cloning-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method, which revealed that the consortium developed was dominated by a single microorganism: 97% related, i

  5. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation. PMID:27484946

  6. Latest Developments of the Isprs Student Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, I.; Kanjir, U.; Reyes, S. R.; Miyazaki, H.; Aktas, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Student Consortium (SC) is a network for young professionals studying or working within the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and other related geo-spatial sciences. The main goal of the network is to provide means for information exchange for its young members and thus help promote and integrate youth into the ISPRS. Over the past four years the Student Consortium has successfully continued to fulfil its mission in both formal and informal ways. The formal means of communication of the SC are its website, newsletter, e-mail announcements and summer schools, while its informal ones are multiple social media outlets and various social activities during student related events. The newsletter is published every three to four months and provides both technical and experiential content relevant for the young people in the ISPRS. The SC has been in charge or at least has helped with organizing one or more summer schools every year. The organization's e-mail list has over 1,100 subscribers, its website hosts over 1,300 members from 100 countries across the entire globe, and its public Facebook group currently has over 4,500 joined visitors, who connect among one another and share information relevant for their professional careers. These numbers show that the Student Consortium has grown into a significant online-united community. The paper will present the organization's on-going and past activities for the last four years, its current priorities and a strategic plan and aspirations for the future four-year period.

  7. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors

  8. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators

  9. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  10. Conversion of methane-derived carbon and microbial community in enrichment cultures in response to O2 availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Meng; He, Ruo; Chen, Min; Su, Yao; Ma, Ruo-Chan

    2016-04-01

    Methanotrophs not only play an important role in mitigating CH4 emissions from the environment, but also provide a large quantity of CH4-derived carbon to their habitats. In this study, the distribution of CH4-derived carbon and microbial community was investigated in a consortium enriched at three O2 tensions, i.e., the initial O2 concentrations of 2.5 % (LO-2), 5 % (LO-1), and 21 % (v/v) (HO). The results showed that compared with the O2-limiting environments (2.5 and 5 %), more CH4-derived carbon was converted into CO2 and biomass under the O2 sufficient condition (21 %). Besides biomass and CO2, a high conversion efficiency of CH4-derived carbon to dissolved organic carbon was detected in the cultures, especially in LO-2. Quantitative PCR and Miseq sequencing both showed that the abundance of methanotroph increased with the increasing O2 concentrations. Type II methanotroph Methylocystis dominated in the enrichment cultures, accounting for 54.8, 48.1, and 36.9 % of the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing reads in HO, LO-1, and LO-2, respectively. Methylotrophs, mainly including Methylophilus, Methylovorus, Hyphomicrobium, and Methylobacillus, were also abundant in the cultures. Compared with the O2 sufficient condition (21 %), higher microbial biodiversity (i.e., higher Simpson and lower Shannon indexes) was detected in LO-2 enriched at the initial O2 concentration of 2.5 %. These findings indicated that compared with the O2 sufficient condition, more CH4-derived carbon was exuded into the environments and promoted the growth of non-methanotrophic microbes in O2-limiting environments. PMID:26728286

  11. A rapid selection strategy for an anodophilic consortium for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2010-07-01

    A rapid selection method was developed to enrich for a stable and efficient anodophilic consortium (AC) for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A biofilm sample from a microbial electrolysis cell was serially diluted up to 10-9 in anaerobic phosphate buffer solution and incubated in an Fe(III)-acetate medium, and an Fe(III)-reducing AC was obtained for dilutions up to 10-6. The activity of MFC inoculated with the enrichment AC was compared with those inoculated with original biofilm or activated sludge. The power densities and Coulombic efficiencies of the AC (226 mW/m2, 34%) were higher than those of the original biofilm (209 mW/m2, 23%) and activated sludge (192 mW/m2, 19%). The start-up period of the AC (60 h) was also shorter than those obtained with the other inocula (biofilm, 95 h; activated sludge, 300 h). This indicated that such a strategy is highly efficient for obtaining an anodophilic consortium for improving the performance of an MFC. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  13. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Shearer, William T; Burroughs, Lauri M; Torgerson, Troy R; Decaluwe, Hélène; Haddad, Elie

    2016-08-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a collaboration of 41 North American centers studying therapy for rare primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs), including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). An additional 3 European centers have partnered with the PIDTC to study CGD. Natural history protocols of the PIDTC analyze outcomes of treatment for rare PIDs in multicenter longitudinal retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. Since 2009, participating centers have enrolled more than 800 subjects on PIDTC protocols for SCID, and enrollment in the studies on WAS and CGD is underway. Four pilot projects have been funded, and 12 junior investigators have received fellowship awards. Important publications of the consortium describe the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for SCID during 2000-2009, diagnostic criteria for SCID, and the pilot project of newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshops provide an opportunity to strengthen collaborations with junior investigators, patient advocacy groups, and international colleagues. Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the PIDTC has recently received renewal for another 5 years. Here we review accomplishments of the group, projects underway, highlights of recent workshops, and challenges for the future. PMID:27262745

  14. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE BY A MICROORGANISM CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimohammadi, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Mahmoodi, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi and J. Nouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE is one of the ether oxygenates which its use has been increased within the last twenty years. This compound is produced from isobutylene and methanol reaction that is used as octane index enhancer and also increases dissolved oxygen in gasoline and decreases carbon monoxide emission in four phased motors because of better combustion of gasoline. High solubility in water (52 g/L, high vapor pressure (0.54 kg/cm3, low absorption to organic carbon of soil and presence of MTBE in the list of potentially-carcinogens of U.S EPA has made its use of great concern. The culture media used in this study was Mineral Salt Medium (MSM. The study lasted for 236 days and in three different concentrations of MTBE of 200, 5 and 0.8 mg/L. A control sample was also used to compare the results. This research studied the isolation methods of microbial consortium in the MTBE polluted soils in Tehran and Abadan petroleum refinery besides MTBE degradation. The results showed the capability of bacteria in consuming MTBE as carbon source. Final microbial isolation was performed with several microbial passages as well as keeping consortium in a certain amount of MTBE as the carbon source.

  16. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Ainsztein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Extracellular RNA (exRNA Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies, (c identifying exRNA biomarkers of disease, (d demonstrating clinical utility of exRNAs as therapeutic agents and developing scalable technologies required for these studies, and (e developing a community resource, the exRNA Atlas, to provide the scientific community access to exRNA data, standardized exRNA protocols, and other useful tools and technologies generated by funded investigators.

  17. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  18. Overview of the carbon products consortium (CPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, C.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is an industry, university, government cooperative research team which has evolved over the past seven years to produce and evaluate coal-derived feedstocks for carbon products. The members of the Carbon Products Consortium are UCAR Carbon Company, Koppers Industries, CONOCO, Aluminum Company of America, AMOCO Polymers, and West Virginia University. The Carbon and Insulation Materials Technology Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fiber Materials Inc., and BASF Corporation are affiliates of the CPC. The initial work on coal-derived nuclear graphites was supported by a grant to WVU, UCAR Carbon, and ORNL from the U.S. DOE New Production Reactor program. More recently, the CPC program has been supported through the Fossil Energy Materials program and through PETC`s Liquefaction program. The coal processing technologies involve hydrogenation, extraction by solvents such as N-methyl pyrolidone and toluene, material blending, and calcination. The breadth of carbon science expertise and manufacturing capability available in the CPC enables it to address virtually all research and development issues of importance to the carbon products industry.

  19. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment.

  20. Microbial Corrosion in Linepipe Steel Under the Influence of a Sulfate-Reducing Consortium Isolated from an Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAbbas, Faisal M.; Williamson, Charles; Bhola, Shaily M.; Spear, John R.; Olson, David L.; Mishra, Brajendra; Kakpovbia, Anthony E.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigates microbiologically influenced corrosion of API 5L X52 linepipe steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The SRB consortium used in this study was cultivated from a sour oil well in Louisiana, USA. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the mixed bacterial consortium contained three phylotypes: members of Proteobacteria ( Desulfomicrobium sp.), Firmicutes ( Clostridium sp.), and Bacteroidetes ( Anaerophaga sp.). The biofilm and the pits that developed with time were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and open circuit potential (OCP) were used to analyze the corrosion behavior. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the physicoelectric interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces. The results confirmed that extensive localized corrosion activity of SRB is due to a formed biofilm in conjunction with a porous iron sulfide layer on the metal surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed semiconductive corrosion products predominantly composed of a mixture of siderite (FeCO3), iron sulfide (Fe x S y ), and iron (III) oxide-hydroxide (FeOOH) constituents in the corrosion products for the system exposed to the SRB consortium.

  1. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  2. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  3. The Financing of the Michigan Library Consortium. Paper No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Library Consortium, Detroit.

    Since the formal organization of the Michigan Library Consortium, its financial support has come through membership fees and a grant from the Michigan State Library from Title III funds. The financing of the consortium is already a complex operation and will become even more complex as new programs are undertaken, since funds have been accepted…

  4. The Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper presents the work of the Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform, a partnership funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of the second phase of its Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD) initiative. Consortium partners are the Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success at CLASP, the Education Trust, New…

  5. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  6. The Black Rock Forest Consortium: A narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole Antoinette

    The Black Rock Forest is a 3,785-acre wilderness area whose richly forested landscape represents the splendor of the Hudson Valley Region of New York State. Although originally intended to become the home of wealthy banker James Stillman, it was his son Ernest whose love of conservation caused him to embrace the then new and revolutionary practice of sustainable forestry and establish Black Rock in 1928. Due to Ernest Stillman's foresight, the property was protected from development and bequeathed to Harvard University following his death for the establishment of an experimental forest. The modern environmental movement in America began when the Black Rock Forest was threatened with development by Consolidated Edison, and the people of the surrounding community banded together, battling tirelessly for over 17 years to stop the degradation of this historic forest. The outcome of this crusade marked a hallmark win for the environment leaving an illustrious and inveterate legacy. The campaign resulted in the watershed legislation the National Environmental Policy Act, the formation of several environmental advocacy groups, the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality of the Executive Office of the President, as well as set a precedent for communities to initiate and win cases against major corporations in order to safeguard natural resources. In the midst of the controversy it became apparent that alternative futures for the Forest needed to be explored. As a result of a committee report and one man's vision, the idea emerged to create a consortium that would purchase and steward the Forest. With a formation that took nearly fifteen years, the Black Rock Forest Consortium was formed, a unique amalgamation of K--12 public and private schools, colleges and universities, and science and cultural centers that successfully collaborate to enhance scientific research, environmental conservation, and education. The Consortium works to bridge the gaps between learners

  7. The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC) consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubernet, M. L.; Antony, B. K.; Ba, Y. A.; Babikov, Yu L.; Bartschat, K.; Boudon, V.; Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.; Daniel, F.; Delahaye, F.; Del Zanna, G.; de Urquijo, J.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Domaracka, A.; Doronin, M.; Drouin, B. J.; Endres, C. P.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Gagarin, S. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Gratier, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, C.; Jevremović, D.; Joblin, C.; Kasprzak, A.; Krishnakumar, E.; Leto, G.; Loboda, P. A.; Louge, T.; Maclot, S.; Marinković, B. P.; Markwick, A.; Marquart, T.; Mason, H. E.; Mason, N. J.; Mendoza, C.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Millar, T. J.; Moreau, N.; Mulas, G.; Pakhomov, Yu; Palmeri, P.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Perevalov, V. I.; Piskunov, N.; Postler, J.; Quinet, P.; Quintas-Sánchez, E.; Ralchenko, Yu; Rhee, Y.-J.; Rixon, G.; Rothman, L. S.; Roueff, E.; Ryabchikova, T.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Scheier, P.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmitt, B.; Stempels, E.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Tyuterev, Vl G.; Vujčić, V.; Wakelam, V.; Walton, N. A.; Zatsarinny, O.; Zeippen, C. J.; Zwölf, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates atomic and molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and an organisation to support this activity. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of astronomical spectra and for modelling in many fields of astrophysics. Recently the VAMDC Consortium has connected databases from the radiation damage and the plasma communities, as well as promoting the publication of data from Indian institutes. This paper describes how the VAMDC Consortium is organised for the optimal distribution of atomic and molecular data for scientific research. It is noted that the VAMDC Consortium strongly advocates that authors of research papers using data cite the original experimental and theoretical papers as well as the relevant databases. .

  8. Uranium enrichment. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment industry is a more than 60 years old history and has developed without practically no cost, efficiency or profit constraints. However, remarkable improvements have been accomplished since the Second World War and have led to the development of various competing processes which reflect the diversity of uranium compositions and of uranium needs. Content: 1 - general considerations: uranium isotopes, problem of uranium enrichment, first realizations (USA, Russia, Europe, Asia, other countries), present day situation, future needs and market evolution; 2 - principles of isotopic separation: processes classification (high or low enrichment), low elementary enrichment processes, equilibrium time, cascade star-up and monitoring, multi-isotopes case, uranium reprocessing; 3 - enrichment and proliferation. (J.S.)

  9. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium. Progress report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, A.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems; principally, synthesis and processing and properties limiting transport phenomena. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 113 publications. publications. Two Master`s Degrees and one Ph.D. were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved two MISCON group meetings (held in July and January), twenty external speakers, 36 collaborations, 10 exchanges of samples and/or measurements, and one (1) gift of equipment from industry. Research achievements this past year expanded our understanding of processing phenomena on structure property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  10. Consortium sandbox: building and sharing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mark D

    2014-06-25

    Some common challenges of biomedical product translation-scientific, regulatory, adoption, and reimbursement-can best be addressed by the broad sharing of resources or tools. But, such aids remain undeveloped because the undertaking requires expertise from multiple research sectors as well as validation across organizations. Biomedical resource development can benefit from directed consortia-a partnership framework that provides neutral and temporary collaborative environments for several, oftentimes competing, organizations and leverages the aggregated intellect and resources of stakeholders so as to create versatile solutions. By analyzing 369 biomedical research consortia, we tracked consortia growth around the world and gained insight into how this partnership model advances biomedical research. Our analyses suggest that research-by-consortium provides benefit to biomedical science, but the model needs further optimization before it can be fully integrated into the biomedical research pipeline.

  11. Bacterioplankton responses to iron enrichment during the SAGE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, J.; Hall, J.; Ellwood, M.; Safi, K.; Peloquin, J.; Katz, D.

    2011-03-01

    We studied the microbial food web in the upper 100 m of the water column in iron-limited sub-Antarctic HNLC waters south-east of New Zealand in the SAGE experiment in 2004, with focus on bacterioplankton. Samples were collected daily from inside and outside the iron enriched patch. Short term enrichment experiments were conducted on board in 4 L polycarbonate bottles with water outside the iron enriched patch to study single and combined effects of micronutrient additions on microbial food web. Low bacterial growth was recorded in the study area with community turnover times of 50 h or more during the study period. Measurements of bacterial standing stocks and production rates in the study show minor responses to the large scale iron enrichment, with increase in rates and stocks after the first enrichment and at the end of the study period after the third iron enrichment when solar radiation increased and wind mixing decreased. The average daily bacterial production rates were 31.5 and 33.7 mgCm -2 d -1 for the OUT and IN stations, respectively; thus overall there was not a significant difference between the control and the iron-enriched patch. In the bottle experiments bacterial thymidine incorporation showed responses to single iron and silicic acid enrichments and a major growth response to the combined iron and sucrose enrichments. Phytoplankton chlorophyll- a showed clear stimulation by single additions of iron and silicic acid and silicic acid enhanced the iron impact. Cobalt additions had no effect on bacteria growth and a negative effect on phytoplankton growth. Low bacterial in situ growth rates and the enrichment experiments suggest that bacteria are co-limited by iron and carbon, and that bacterial iron uptake is dependent on carbon supply by the food web. With the high iron quota (μmol Fe mol C -1) bacteria may scavenge considerable amounts of the excess iron, and thus influence the relative importance of the microbial food web as a carbon sink.

  12. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  13. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  14. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez Avella, Diego; van Elsas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

  15. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  16. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  17. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  18. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  19. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  1. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  2. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation's premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: (a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, (b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering faculty and the MUSIC URRs

  3. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  4. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  5. Astroparticle Physics European Consortium Town Meeting Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium (APPEC) invites you to a town meeting at the Grand Amphithéatre de Sorbonne in Paris on the 6th and 7th April 2016 to discuss an update of the 2011 APPEC Astroparticle Physics roadmap, to be published in September 2016. In 2014 APPEC decided to launch an update of the 2011 Roadmap, transforming it to a “resource aware” roadmap. The intention was to gauge the financial impact of the beginnings of operation of the large global scale observatories put forward in the previous roadmap and to examine the possibilities of international coordination of future global initiatives. The APPEC Scientific Advisory Committee examined the field and prepared a set of recommendations. Based on these recommendations, the APPEC General Assembly drafted a set of “considerations” to be published by end of February 2016 and be debated in an open dialogue with the community, through the web page but primarily at the town meeting of 6-7 April. Based on this debate the final re...

  6. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  7. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  8. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  9. The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

  10. Kinetics and characteristics of phenanthrene degradation by a microbial consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Xu Hongke; An Mingquan; Yan Guiwen

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics and characteristics of phenanthrene degradation by a microbial consortium W4 isolated from Henan Oilfield were investigated. The degradation percentage of solid phenanthrene at 200 mg/L in liquid medium after 6 days of incubation was higher than 95% under the condition of 37 ℃ and 120 r/min by this microbial consortium. The degradation of phenanthrene could be fitted to a first-order kinetic model with the half-life of 1.25 days. The optimum conditions for degradation of phenanthrene by consortium W4 were as follows: temperature about 37 ℃, pH from 6.0 to 7.0 and salinity about 8.0 g/L.It was concluded that microbial consortium W4 might degrade phenanthrene via both salicylic acid and o-phthalic acid pathways by analyzing products with GC-MS.

  11. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  12. The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium: A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S

    2016-08-15

    The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. PMID:27481953

  13. Creation of the Probiotic Consortium on the Base of Strains of Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhakhmetov, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a widespread circulation of disbiotic conditions among the population of all ages in Kazakhstan requires an active development in industry for both preparations and products with probiotic properties. The gained bacterial isolates, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 180, B. breve 204, B. breve 584 and B. breve 587 were used in our researches and screening showed they possess high probiotic properties. The consortium possesses strong antimicrobial activity to pathogenic and potentially-pathogenic microflora, insulated during disbacteriosis, as well as from vagina and urea. They are able to produce vitamin B12 and also have antimutagenic activity. As a result, the consortium on the base of strains of Bifidobacterium spp. was received, possessing the following advantages: contains live mass of microbial, antagonistically active strains B. breve and B. adolescentis; contains more than 10^9 alive Bifidobacteria; does not contain plasmids, which means that it could not be a carrier of antibiotic stability for Gram-positive receptive pathogenic and potentially-pathogenic microflora.

  14. Carbon and phosphorus regulating bacterial metabolism in oligotrophic boreal lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, L. O.; Graneli, W.; Daniel, C. B.;

    2011-01-01

    -P and glucose-C alone or in combination (0.01 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) was added to 1.0 mu m filtered lake water and incubated in darkness at 20 degrees C. Additions of glucose (C) and phosphorus (P) alone did not lead to changes in the rates of bacterial metabolic processes, whereas bacterial...... respiration and bacterial production responded positively to C + P enrichment for most of the lakes sampled. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (2.5-28.7%) and low mean value (12%). These variations were not correlated with the DOC concentration. Our results show that heterotrophic bacterial...

  15. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  16. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  17. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  18. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  19. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  20. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  1. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  2. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  3. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  4. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

    OpenAIRE

    Essawet Najmi Ahmed; Cvetković Dragoljub; Velićanski Aleksandra; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna; Vulić Jelena; Maksimović Vuk; Markov Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a...

  5. Enriching Number Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  6. Designing job enrichment projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  7. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  8. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  9. Methodology for content enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, H.; Heerlien, M.

    2010-01-01

    The STERNA project mainly focuses on enrichment of existing content of content holding organisations in the natural history domain. Therefore, developing a methodology on how to best integrate one’s content into the STERNA information space is an essential part of the project. This document is the o

  10. The clinical impact of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Johansen, Helle Krogh;

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria survive in nature by forming biofilms on surfaces and probably most, if not all, bacteria (and fungi) are capable of forming biofilms. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and extracellular DNA....... Bacterial biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectant chemicals and to phagocytosis and other components of the innate and adaptive inflammatory defense system of the body. It is known, for example, that persistence of staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation....... Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients are caused by biofilm growing mucoid strains. Gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and the bacterial cells located in nutrient poor areas have decreased metabolic activity...

  11. Developing Outcomes Assessments as Endpoints for Registrational Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs: 2015 Update From the Biomarkers Consortium of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, George H; Powers, John H; Hoffmann, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    One important component in determining the benefits and harms of medical interventions is the use of well-defined and reliable outcome assessments as endpoints in clinical trials. Improving endpoints can better define patient benefits, allowing more accurate assessment of drug efficacy and more informed benefit-vs-risk decisions; another potential plus is facilitating efficient trial design. Since our first report in 2012, 2 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Project Teams have continued to develop outcome assessments for potential uses as endpoints in registrational clinical trials of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. In addition, the teams have initiated similar work in the indications of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This report provides an update on progress to date in these 4 diseases. PMID:26668337

  12. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  13. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  14. Enrichment marketplace - today (and tomorrow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies and capacities of the four primary sources of enrichment services, the United States Department of Energy, Eurodif, Techsnabexport of the Soviet Union, and Urenco, were given. Forecasts of future capacities and prices of enriched uranium were also included

  15. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting. PMID:26843697

  16. Dietary Regulation of the Gut Microbiota Engineered by a Minimal Defined Bacterial Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chin David Shen

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF can be used to durably engineer the gut microbiota to reduce ammonia production as an effective modality to reduce morbidity and mortality in the setting of liver injury. Here we investigated the effects of a low protein diet on ASF colonization and its ability to engineer the microbiota. Initially, ASF inoculation was similar between mice fed a normal protein diet or low protein diet, but the outgrowth of gut microbiota differed over the ensuing month. Notable was the inability of the dominant Parabacteroides ASF taxon to exclude other taxa belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum in the setting of a low protein diet. Instead, a poorly classified yet highly represented Bacteroidetes family, S24-7, returned within 4 weeks of inoculation in mice fed a low protein diet, demonstrating a reduction in ASF resilience in response to dietary stress. Nevertheless, fecal ammonia levels remained significantly lower than those observed in mice on the same low protein diet that received a transplant of normal feces. No deleterious effects were observed in host physiology due to ASF inoculation into mice on a low protein diet. In total, these results demonstrate that low protein diet can have a pronounced effect on engineering the gut microbiota but modulation of ammonia is preserved.

  17. Combination of anaerobic effluent and lignocellulosic bacterial consortium to reduce vermicomposting time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilization of solid bio-fertilizers is an alternative to avoid chemical degradation of soil. Anaerobic biodigestor effluents/digestates have been used effectively as fertilizers. However, they may have several risk factors such as the presence of pathogens and heavy metals. Vermicomposting could he...

  18. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  19. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  20. 24 CFR 943.128 - How does a consortium carry out planning and reporting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES... the consortium agreement, the consortium must submit joint five-year Plans and joint Annual Plans for... the joint PHA Plan....

  1. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  2. On the Consortium for Business Object Promotion (CBOP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the goals and visions of a consortium inJapan, named Cons ortium for Business Object Promotion (CBOP), discussing its background, activiti es, and basic technical approaches to share and exchanging various types of Busi ness Objects. Especially, Object Pattern Technologies used in CBOP should be di scussed.

  3. NASA Consortium awards funding to Virginia Tech's geospatial program

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    NASA has selected a partnership between the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) and Virginia Tech to receive a $100,000 grant for geospatial education and work force development. The grant, awarded through the NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship program, allows the partners to continue the already successful Virginia Geospatial Extension Program that was established in July 2003.

  4. The Worker Rights Consortium Makes Strides toward Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the Workers Rights Consortium, a student-originated group with 44 member institutions which opposes sweatshop labor conditions especially in the apparel industry. Notes disagreements about the number of administrators on the board of directors and about the role of industry representives. Compares this group with the…

  5. It Takes a Consortium to Support Open Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Judy

    2009-01-01

    If the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) has its way, expensive textbooks may go the way of typewriters and carbon paper. Ideally, Internet access for all students would allow educators to replace commercially printed textbooks with interactive digital textbooks and personal learning environments. However, until…

  6. The mammalian gene function resource: The International Knockout Mouse Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bradley (Allan); K. Anastassiadis (Konstantinos); A. Ayadi (Abdelkader); J.F. Battey (James); C. Bell (Cindy); M.-C. Birling (Marie-Christine); J. Bottomley (Joanna); S.D.M. Brown (Steve); F. Bürger (Friederike); C.J. Bult (Carol); W. Bushell (Wendy); F.S. Collins (Francis); C. Desaintes (Christian); B. Doe (Brendan); E. Aris (Economides); J.T. Eppig (Janan); R.H. Finnell (Richard); C. Fletcher (Colin); M. Fray (Martin); D. Frendewey (David); R.H. Friedel (Roland); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J. Hansen; Y. Hérault (Yann); G. Hicks (Geoffrey); A. Hörlein (Andreas); C. Houghton (Catherine); M. Hrabé De Angelis (Martin); D. Huylebroeck (Danny); V. Iyer (Vivek); P.J. de Jong (Pieter); J.A. Kadin (James); C. Kaloff (Cornelia); K. Kennedy (Karen); M. Koutsourakis (Manousos); K.C. Kent Lloyd (K.); S. Marschall (Susan); J. Mason (Jeremy); C. McKerlie (Colin); M.P. McLeod (Michael); H. von Melchner (Harald); M. Moore (Matt); A.O. Mujica (Alejandro); A. Nagy (Andras); M. Nefedov (Mikhail); L.M. Nutter (Lauryl); G. Pavlovic (Guillaume); J.L. Peterson (Jane); I. Pollock; R. Ramirez-Solis (Ramiro); D.E. Rancourt (Derrick); M. Raspa (Marcello); J.E. Remacle (Jacques); M. Ringwald (Martin); B. Rosen (Barry); N. Rosenthal (Nadia); J. Rossant (Janet); P. Ruiz Noppinger (Patricia); S. Ryder; J.Z. Schick (Joel Zupicich); F. Schnütgen (Frank); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Seisenberger (Claudia); M. Selloum (Mohammed); E.M. Simpson (Elizabeth); W.C. Skarnes (William); D. Smedley (Damian); W.L. Stanford (William); A. Francis Stewart (A.); K. Stone (Kevin); K. Swan (Kate); H. Tadepally (Hamsa); J.L. Teboul (Jean Louis); G.P. Tocchini-Valentini (Glauco); D. Valenzuela (David); A.P. West (Anthony); K.-I. Yamamura (Ken-Ichi); Y. Yoshinaga (Yuko); M. Wurst (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed highthroughput gene trapping and, i

  7. The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy Technology (CARET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. M.; Henderson, D. O.; Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Uribe, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy (CARET) is a research and education program which uses the theme of renewable energy to build a minority scientist pipeline. CARET is also a consortium of four universities and NASA Lewis Research Center working together to promote science education and research to minority students using the theme of renewable energy. The consortium membership includes the HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), Fisk, Wilberforce and Central State Universities as well as Kent State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. The various stages of this pipeline provide participating students experiences with a different emphasis. Some emphasize building enthusiasm for the classroom study of science and technology while others emphasize the nature of research in these disciplines. Still others focus on relating a practical application to science and technology. And, of great importance to the success of the program are the interfaces between the various stages. Successfully managing these transitions is a requirement for producing trained scientists, engineers and technologists. Presentations describing the CARET program have been given at this year's HBCU Research Conference at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and as a seminar in the Solar Circle Seminar series of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. In this report, we will describe the many positive achievements toward the fulfillment of the goals and outcomes of our program. We will begin with a description of the interactions among the consortium members and end with a description of the activities of each of the member institutions .

  8. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  9. Modelling growth of, and removal of Zn and Hg by a wild microalgal consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Cristina M.; Brandao, Teresa R.S.; Castro, Paula M.L. [Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal). CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia; Malcata, F. Xavier [ISMAI - Instituto Superior da Maia, Avioso S. Pedro (Portugal); CIMAR/CIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with heavy metals usually possess a higher removal capacity than strains from regular cultures. Heavy metal-containing soil samples from an industrial dumpsite in Northern Portugal were accordingly collected; following enrichment under metal stress, a consortium of wild microalgae was obtained. Their ability to grow in the presence of, and their capacity to recover heavy metals was comprehensively studied; the datasets thus generated were fitted to by a combined model of biomass growth and metal uptake, derived from first principles. After exposure to 15 and 25 mg/L Zn{sup 2+} for 6 days, the microalgal consortium reached similar, or higher cell density than the control; however, under 50 and 65 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, 71% to 84% inhibition was observed. Growth in the presence of Hg{sup 2+} was significantly inhibited, even at a concentration as low as 25 {mu}g/L, and 90% inhibition was observed above 100 {mu}g/L. The maximum amount of Zn{sup 2+} removed was 21.3 mg/L, upon exposure to 25 mg/L for 6 day, whereas the maximum removal of Hg{sup 2+} was 335 {mu}g/L, upon 6 day in the presence of 350 {mu}g/L. The aforementioned mechanistic model was built upon Monod assumptions (including heavy metal inhibition), coupled with Leudeking-Piret relationships between the rates of biomass growth and metal removal. The overall fits were good under all experimental conditions tested, thus conveying a useful tool for rational optimisation of microalga-mediated bioremediation. (orig.)

  10. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  11. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  12. 76 FR 38666 - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island Sea Lab (DISL). The goal... Marine Environmental Science Consortium-Dauphin Island Sea Lab (DISL) will greatly contribute to FDA's... Objectives FDA Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory (GCSL) and the Marine Environmental Science Consortium of...

  13. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop.... SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 16 and 17, 2012. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is planning to develop the reference...

  14. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Progress and Planning... workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 15 and 16, 2013. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is developing the reference...

  15. Influence of the nano-micro structure of the surface on bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials failures are frequently associated to the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface. The aim of this work is to study the adhesion of non motile bacteria streptococci consortium and motile Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substrates with micro and nanopatterned topography were used. The influence of surface characteristics on bacterial adhesion was investigated using optical and epifluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results showed an important influence of the substratum nature. On microrough surfaces, initial bacterial adhesion was less significant than on smooth surfaces. In contrast, nanopatterned samples showed more bacterial attachment than the smooth control. It was also noted a remarkable difference in morphology, orientation and distribution of bacteria between the smooth and the nanostructured substrate. The results show the important effect of substratum nature and topography on bacterial adhesion which depended on the relation between roughness characteristics dimensions and bacterial size.

  16. Comparison of microbial DNA enrichment tools for metagenomic whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoendel, Matthew; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Yao, Janet Z; Chia, Nicholas; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Metagenomic whole genome sequencing for detection of pathogens in clinical samples is an exciting new area for discovery and clinical testing. A major barrier to this approach is the overwhelming ratio of human to pathogen DNA in samples with low pathogen abundance, which is typical of most clinical specimens. Microbial DNA enrichment methods offer the potential to relieve this limitation by improving this ratio. Two commercially available enrichment kits, the NEBNext Microbiome DNA Enrichment Kit and the Molzym MolYsis Basic kit, were tested for their ability to enrich for microbial DNA from resected arthroplasty component sonicate fluids from prosthetic joint infections or uninfected sonicate fluids spiked with Staphylococcus aureus. Using spiked uninfected sonicate fluid there was a 6-fold enrichment of bacterial DNA with the NEBNext kit and 76-fold enrichment with the MolYsis kit. Metagenomic whole genome sequencing of sonicate fluid revealed 13- to 85-fold enrichment of bacterial DNA using the NEBNext enrichment kit. The MolYsis approach achieved 481- to 9580-fold enrichment, resulting in 7 to 59% of sequencing reads being from the pathogens known to be present in the samples. These results demonstrate the usefulness of these tools when testing clinical samples with low microbial burden using next generation sequencing. PMID:27237775

  17. Evidence for the biogenic origin of manganese-enriched layers in Lake Superior sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Christine; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe)-enriched sediment layers were discovered in Lake Superior within, above and below the oxic-anoxic interface. While the role of bacteria in redox reactions with Mn is known to be significant, little information exists about indigenous microbial communities in many freshwater environments. This study examined the bacterial communities of Mn-enriched layers in Lake Superior to identify the potential Mn(II) oxidizers responsible for the formation of Mn oxides. Anaerobic Mn(II) oxidation occurring in the Mn-enriched layers at the oxic-anoxic interface was investigated using Mn(II)-enriched cultures. High-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic investigations provided evidence of the biogenic formation of Mn oxides on cell surfaces. Spectroscopic mapping confirmed high levels of Mn in structures resembling biogenic Mn oxides. These structures were observed in enrichment cultures and in Mn-enriched layer sediment samples, indicating the significance of biogenic Mn oxidation occurring in situ. 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria potentially responsible for Mnoxide formation in the enrichment cultures and Mn-enriched layers, revealing that the Mn-enriched layer contains classes with known Mn(II)-oxidizing members. Pyrosequencing of bacterial cultures suggested that these bacteria may be Bacillus strains, and that anaerobic microbial-mediated Mn(II) oxidation contributes to the formation of the layers.

  18. Evidence for the biogenic origin of manganese-enriched layers in Lake Superior sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Christine; Dittrich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe)-enriched sediment layers were discovered in Lake Superior within, above and below the oxic-anoxic interface. While the role of bacteria in redox reactions with Mn is known to be significant, little information exists about indigenous microbial communities in many freshwater environments. This study examined the bacterial communities of Mn-enriched layers in Lake Superior to identify the potential Mn(II) oxidizers responsible for the formation of Mn oxides. Anaerobic Mn(II) oxidation occurring in the Mn-enriched layers at the oxic-anoxic interface was investigated using Mn(II)-enriched cultures. High-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic investigations provided evidence of the biogenic formation of Mn oxides on cell surfaces. Spectroscopic mapping confirmed high levels of Mn in structures resembling biogenic Mn oxides. These structures were observed in enrichment cultures and in Mn-enriched layer sediment samples, indicating the significance of biogenic Mn oxidation occurring in situ. 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing was used to identify the bacteria potentially responsible for Mnoxide formation in the enrichment cultures and Mn-enriched layers, revealing that the Mn-enriched layer contains classes with known Mn(II)-oxidizing members. Pyrosequencing of bacterial cultures suggested that these bacteria may be Bacillus strains, and that anaerobic microbial-mediated Mn(II) oxidation contributes to the formation of the layers. PMID:26636960

  19. Establishment of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating microbial consortium, specific for doubly flanked chlorines, in a defined, sediment-free medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Sowers, K.R.; May, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    Estuarine sediment from Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, was used as inoculum for the development of an anaerobic enrichment culture that specifically dechlorinates doubly flanked chlorines (i.e., chlorines bound to carbon that are flanked on both sides by other chlorine-carbon bonds) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dechlorination was restricted to the para chlorine in cultures enriched with 10 mM fumarate, 50 ppm (173 {micro}M) 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and no sediment. Initially the rate of dechlorination decreased upon the removal of sediment from the medium. However, the dechlorinating activity was sustainable, and following sequential transfer in a defined, sediment-free estuarine medium, the activity increased to levels near that observed with sediment. The culture was nonmethanogenic, and molybdate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, and streptomycin inhibited dechlorination activity; bromethanesulfonate and vancomycin did not. Addition of 17 PCB congeners indicated that the culture specifically removes double flanked chlorines, preferably in the para position, and does not attack ortho chlorines. This is the first microbial consortium shown to para or meta dechlorinate a PCB congener in a defined sediment-free medium. It is the second PCB-dechlorinating enrichment culture to be sustained in the absence of sediment, but its dechlorinating capabilities are entirely different from those of the other sediment-free PCB-dechlorinating culture, an ortho-dechlorinating consortium, and do not match any previously published Aroclor-dechlorinating patterns.

  20. Assessing the influence of the carbon oxidation-reduction state on organic pollutant biodegradation in algal-bacterial photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Melanie; Garcia-Encina, Pedro A.; Munoz, Raul [Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Stams, Alfons J.M. [Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Microbiology; Rosa, Francisco de la [Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2011-05-15

    The influence of the carbon oxidation-reduction state (CORS) of organic pollutants on their biodegradation in enclosed algal-bacterial photobioreactors was evaluated using a consortium of enriched wild-type methanotrophic bacteria and microalgae. Methane, methanol and glucose (with CORS -4, -2 and 0, respectively) were chosen as model organic pollutants. In the absence of external oxygen supply, microalgal photosynthesis was not capable of supporting a significant methane and methanol biodegradation due to their high oxygen demands per carbon unit, while glucose was fully oxidized by photosynthetic oxygenation. When bicarbonate was added, removal efficiencies of 37 {+-} 4% (20 days), 65 {+-} 4% (11 days) and 100% (2 days) were recorded for CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}OH and C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6}, respectively due to the additional oxygen generated from photosynthetic bicarbonate assimilation. The use of NO{sub 3}{sup -} instead of NH{sub 4}{sup +} as nitrogen source (N oxidation-reduction state of +5 vs. -3) resulted in an increase in CH4 degradation from 0 to 33 {+-} 3% in the absence of bicarbonate and from 37 {+-} 4% to 100% in the presence of bicarbonate, likely due to a decrease in the stoichiometric oxygen requirements and the higher photosynthetic oxygen production. Hypothetically, the CORS of the substrates might affect the CORS of the microalgal biomass composition (higher lipid content). However, the total lipid content of the algal-bacterial biomass was 19 {+-} 7% in the absence and 16 {+-} 2% in the presence of bicarbonate. (orig.)

  1. A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, Dennis; Atreya, Arvind; Bowman, Craig; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Cheng, Wai; Davidson, David; Dibble, Robert; Edwards, Chris; Filipi, Zoran; Golden, David; Green, William; Hanson, Ronald; Hedrick, J Karl; Heywood, John; Im, Hong; Lavoie, George; Sick, Volker; Wooldridge, Margaret

    2007-03-31

    Over the course of this four year project, the consortium team members from UM, MIT, Stanford, and Berkeley along with contributors from Sandia National Labs and LLNL, have produced a wide range of results on gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The work spanned a wide range of activities including engine experiments, fundamental chemical kinetics experiments, and an array of analytical modeling techniques and simulations. Throughout the project a collaborative approach has produced a many significant new insights into HCCI engines and their behavior while at the same time we achieved our key consortium goal: to develop workable strategies for gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The major accomplishments in each task are summarized, followed by detailed discussion.

  2. FLYSUB-Consortium Tracking and RICH Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Azumoun, Bob [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blatnik, Marie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pak, Robert [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Di Ruzza, Benedetto [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Woody, Craig [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bhopatkar, Vallary [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Twigger, Jessie [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Zhang, Aiwu [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Dehmelt, Klaus [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Deshpande, Abhay [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Feege, Nils [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Hemmick, Thomas [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Bai, Xinzhang [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Gnanvo, Kondo [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Gu, Chao [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Liyanage, Nilanga [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Majka, Richard [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smirnov, Nikolai [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-09-23

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experiments of FLYSUB-Consortium who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013-2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The ultimate goal of this test-beam effort is to test and verify the performance of the individual components according to their expectation.

  3. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry—The 2012 Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Timothy; Wax, Paul; Smith, Eric; Hart, Katherine; Brent, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) established its Case Registry, the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). All cases are entered prospectively and include only suspected and confirmed toxic exposures cared for at the bedside by board-certified or board-eligible medical toxicologists at its participating sites. The primary aims of establishing this Registry include the development of a realtime toxico-surveillance system in order to identify and describe current...

  4. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Akers, Amy L.; Ball, Karen L.; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M.; Faughnan, Marie E.; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P.; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Charles E McCulloch; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S.; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla

    2013-01-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in “research silos” with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, i...

  5. p-Cresol mineralization by a nitrifying consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrification and denitrification processes are considered economically feasible technologies for nitrogen removal from wastewater. Knowledge of the toxic or inhibitory effects of cresols on the nitrifying respiratory process is still insufficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic behavior and oxidizing ability of a nitrifying consortium exposed to p-cresol in batch cultures. Biotransformation of p-cresol was investigated by identifying the different intermediates formed. (Author)

  6. Ultrasonically enhanced delivery and degradation of PAHs in a polymer-liquid partitioning system by a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Pedro A; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The current study examined the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on mass transfer and degradation of PAHs, by an enriched consortium, when delivered from polymeric matrices. Rates of release into methanol under sonicated conditions, relative to unmixed cases, for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were increased approximately fivefold, when delivered from Desmopan 9370 A (polyurethane). Similar effects were observed in Hytrel and Kraton D4150 K polymers as well as recycled Bridgestone tires. Enhancements were also displayed as shifts to higher release equilibria under sonicated conditions, relative to non-sonicated cases, agreeing with current knowledge in sonochemistry and attributed to cavitation. Ultrasonic effects on microbial activity were also investigated and cell damage was found to be non- permanent with consortium re-growth being observed after sonic deactivation. Finally, the lumped effect of sonication on degradation of phenanthrene delivered from Desmopan was examined under the absence and presence of sonication. Rates of degradation were found to be increased by a factor of four demonstrating the possibility of using ultrasonic irradiation for improved mass transport in solid-liquid systems. Cellular inactivation effects were not evident, and this was attributed to the attenuation of sonic energy arising from the presence of solid polymer materials in the medium. The findings of the study demonstrate that sonication can be used to improve mass transport of poorly soluble compounds in microbial degradations, and alleviate limiting steps of soil remediation processes proposed in previous research. PMID:19418561

  7. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Smyth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  8. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal–bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal–bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. -- Highlights: •Presence of fungi increased the rate of BAM mineralization by Aminobacter sp. MSH1. •Fungal–bacterial consortium enhanced BAM degradation at low moisture contents. •Mortierella hyphae facilitated transport of the BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1. -- This study brings new knowledge to the benefits of applying bacterial–fungal consortia for bioremediation

  9. DNA Methylation in Newborns and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Genome-wide Consortium Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Bonnie R; Felix, Janine F; Yousefi, Paul; Bakulski, Kelly M; Just, Allan C; Breton, Carrie; Reese, Sarah E; Markunas, Christina A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Küpers, Leanne K; Oh, Sam S; Hoyo, Cathrine; Gruzieva, Olena; Söderhäll, Cilla; Salas, Lucas A; Baïz, Nour; Zhang, Hongmei; Lepeule, Johanna; Ruiz, Carlos; Ligthart, Symen; Wang, Tianyuan; Taylor, Jack A; Duijts, Liesbeth; Sharp, Gemma C; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Nilsen, Roy M; Vaez, Ahmad; Fallin, M Daniele; Hu, Donglei; Litonjua, Augusto A; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Huen, Karen; Kere, Juha; Kull, Inger; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Gehring, Ulrike; Bustamante, Mariona; Saurel-Coubizolles, Marie José; Quraishi, Bilal M; Ren, Jie; Tost, Jörg; Gonzalez, Juan R; Peters, Marjolein J; Håberg, Siri E; Xu, Zongli; van Meurs, Joyce B; Gaunt, Tom R; Kerkhof, Marjan; Corpeleijn, Eva; Feinberg, Andrew P; Eng, Celeste; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Bradman, Asa; Merid, Simon Kebede; Bergström, Anna; Herceg, Zdenko; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Brunekreef, Bert; Pinart, Mariona; Heude, Barbara; Ewart, Susan; Yao, Jin; Lemonnier, Nathanaël; Franco, Oscar H; Wu, Michael C; Hofman, Albert; McArdle, Wendy; Van der Vlies, Pieter; Falahi, Fahimeh; Gillman, Matthew W; Barcellos, Lisa F; Kumar, Ashish; Wickman, Magnus; Guerra, Stefano; Charles, Marie-Aline; Holloway, John; Auffray, Charles; Tiemeier, Henning W; Smith, George Davey; Postma, Dirkje; Hivert, Marie-France; Eskenazi, Brenda; Vrijheid, Martine; Arshad, Hasan; Antó, Josep M; Dehghan, Abbas; Karmaus, Wilfried; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sunyer, Jordi; Ghantous, Akram; Pershagen, Göran; Holland, Nina; Murphy, Susan K; DeMeo, Dawn L; Burchard, Esteban G; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Snieder, Harold; Nystad, Wenche; Koppelman, Gerard H; Relton, Caroline L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Wilcox, Allen; Melén, Erik; London, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The mechanisms are largely unknown, but epigenetics most likely plays a role. We formed the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium and meta-analyzed, across 13 cohorts (n = 6,685), the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and newborn blood DNA methylation at over 450,000 CpG sites (CpGs) by using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Over 6,000 CpGs were differentially methylated in relation to maternal smoking at genome-wide statistical significance (false discovery rate, 5%), including 2,965 CpGs corresponding to 2,017 genes not previously related to smoking and methylation in either newborns or adults. Several genes are relevant to diseases that can be caused by maternal smoking (e.g., orofacial clefts and asthma) or adult smoking (e.g., certain cancers). A number of differentially methylated CpGs were associated with gene expression. We observed enrichment in pathways and processes critical to development. In older children (5 cohorts, n = 3,187), 100% of CpGs gave at least nominal levels of significance, far more than expected by chance (p value smoking in pregnancy with persistence into later childhood and provide insights into mechanisms underlying effects of this important exposure.

  10. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  11. Short-Term Response of Soil Bacteria to Carbon Enrichment in Different Soil Microsites ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Monard, C; Binet, F.; Vandenkoornhuyse, P.

    2008-01-01

    The response of bacteria in bulk soil and earthworm casts to carbon enrichment was studied by an RNA stable-isotope probing/terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy with 13C-labeled glucose and acetate. Both the soil microsite status and the carbon enrichment selected rapidly for different active bacterial communities, which resulted in different degradation kinetics. Our study clearly illustrates the biases that are generated by adding C substrates to detect metabolically a...

  12. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  13. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...

  14. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  15. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author)

  16. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  17. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Unkefer, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  18. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  19. Geodesy and the UNAVCO Consortium: Three Decades of Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L. R.; Miller, M. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, a non-profit, university consortium that supports geoscience research using geodesy, began with the ingenious recognition that the nascent Global Positioning System constellation (GPS) could be used to investigate earth processes. The consortium purchased one of the first commercially available GPS receivers, Texas Instrument's TI-4100 NAVSTAR Navigator, in 1984 to measure plate deformation. This early work was highlighted in a technology magazine, GPSWorld, in 1990. Over a 30-year period, UNAVCO and the community have helped advance instrument design for mobility, flexibility, efficiency and interoperability, so research could proceed with higher precision and under ever challenging conditions. Other innovations have been made in data collection, processing, analysis, management and archiving. These innovations in tools, methods and data have had broader impacts as they have found greater utility beyond research for timing, precise positioning, safety, communication, navigation, surveying, engineering and recreation. Innovations in research have expanded the utility of geodetic tools beyond the solid earth science through creative analysis of the data and the methods. For example, GPS sounding of the atmosphere is now used for atmospheric and space sciences. GPS reflectrometry, another critical advance, supports soil science, snow science and ecological research. Some research advances have had broader impacts for society by driving innovations in hazards risk reduction, hazards response, resource management, land use planning, surveying, engineering and other uses. Furthermore, the geodetic data is vital for the design of space missions, testing and advancing communications, and testing and dealing with interference and GPS jamming. We will discuss three decades (and counting) of advances by the National Science Foundation's premiere geodetic facility, consortium and some of the many geoscience principal investigators that have driven innovations in

  20. Overview of the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, S S; Akolkar, B; Concannon, P; Erlich, H; Hilner, J E; Julier, C; Morahan, G; Nerup, J; Nierras, C; Pociot, F; Todd, J A

    2009-12-01

    The Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) is an international, multicenter research program with two primary goals. The first goal is to identify genomic regions and candidate genes whose variants modify an individual's risk of type I diabetes (T1D) and help explain the clustering of the disease in families. The second goal is to make research data available to the research community and to establish resources that can be used by, and that are fully accessible to, the research community. To facilitate the access to these resources, the T1DGC has developed a Consortium Agreement (http://www.t1dgc.org) that specifies the rights and responsibilities of investigators who participate in Consortium activities. The T1DGC has assembled a resource of affected sib-pair families, parent-child trios, and case-control collections with banks of DNA, serum, plasma, and EBV-transformed cell lines. In addition, both candidate gene and genome-wide (linkage and association) studies have been performed and displayed in T1DBase (http://www.t1dbase.org) for all researchers to use in their own investigations. In this supplement, a subset of the T1DGC collection has been used to investigate earlier published candidate genes for T1D, to confirm the results from a genome-wide association scan for T1D, and to determine associations with candidate genes for other autoimmune diseases or with type II diabetes that may be involved with beta-cell function.

  1. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  2. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Relative abundance of the culture members, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were 87 +/- 5% and 13 +/- 5% for Bacillus and Clostridium, respectively. An extreme thermophilic, strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with H-2-producing potential was enriched...

  3. The IRIS consortium: international cooperation in advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice

  4. Overview of the Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, SS; Akolkar, B; Concannon, P; Erlich, H.; Hilner, JE; Julier, C.; Morahan, G; J. Nerup; Nierras, C.; Pociot, F; Todd, JA.

    2009-01-01

    The Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) is an international, multicenter research program with two primary goals. The first goal is to identify genomic regions and candidate genes whose variants modify an individual’s risk of type I diabetes (T1D) and help explain the clustering of the disease in families. The second goal is to make research data available to the research community and to establish resources that can be used by, and that are fully accessible to, the research community...

  5. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  6. Kinetics of Phenol Biodegradation by an Immobilized Methanogenic Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Daryl F.; Krumme, Mary Lou; Boyd, Stephen A.; Tiedje, James M

    1986-01-01

    A phenol-degrading methanogenic enrichment was successfully immobilized in agar as shown by the stoichiometric conversion of phenol to CH4 and CO2. The enrichment contained members of three physiological groups necessary for the syntrophic mineralization of phenol: a phenol-oxidizing bacterium, a Methanothrix-like bacterium, and an H2-utilizing methanogen. The immobilization technique resulted in the cells being embedded in a long, thin agar strand (1 mm in diameter by 2 to 50 cm in length) t...

  7. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  8. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  9. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-11

    The numbers of individuals with adequate education and training to participate effectively in the highly technical aspects of environmental site cleanup are insufficient to meet the increasing demands of industry and government. Young people are particularly sensitive to these issues and want to become better equipped to solve the problems which will confront them during their lives. Educational institutions, on the other hand, have been slow in offering courses and curricula which will allow students to fulfill these interests. This has been in part due to the lack of federal funding to support new academic programs. This Consortium has been organized to initiate focused educational effort to reach inner-city youth with interesting and useful energy and environmental programs which can lead to well-paying and satisfying careers. Successful Consortium programs can be replicated in other parts of the nation. This report describes a pilot program in Washington, DC, Philadelphia, and Baltimore with the goal to attract and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas, environmental restoration, and waste management.

  10. A programmable Escherichia coli consortium via tunable symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Kerner

    Full Text Available Synthetic microbial consortia that can mimic natural systems have the potential to become a powerful biotechnology for various applications. One highly desirable feature of these consortia is that they can be precisely regulated. In this work we designed a programmable, symbiotic circuit that enables continuous tuning of the growth rate and composition of a synthetic consortium. We implemented our general design through the cross-feeding of tryptophan and tyrosine by two E. coli auxotrophs. By regulating the expression of genes related to the export or production of these amino acids, we were able to tune the metabolite exchanges and achieve a wide range of growth rates and strain ratios. In addition, by inverting the relationship of growth/ratio vs. inducer concentrations, we were able to "program" the co-culture for pre-specified attributes with the proper addition of inducing chemicals. This programmable proof-of-concept circuit or its variants can be applied to more complex systems where precise tuning of the consortium would facilitate the optimization of specific objectives, such as increasing the overall efficiency of microbial production of biofuels or pharmaceuticals.

  11. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  12. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

    2014-01-01

    The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment. PMID:24600849

  13. Comparative pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial community change in biofilm formed on seawater reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In S; Lee, Jinwook; Kima, Sung-Jo; Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am

    2014-01-01

    The change in bacterial community structure induced by bacterial competition and succession was investigated during seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) in order to elucidate a possible link between the bacterial consortium on SWRO membranes and biofouling. To date, there has been no definitive characterization of the microbial diversity in SWRO in terms of distinguishing time-dependent changes in the richness or abundance of bacterial species. For bacterial succession within biofilms on the membrane surface, SWRO using a cross-flow filtration membrane test unit was operated for 5 and 100h, respectively. As results of the pyrosequencing analysis, bacterial communities differed considerably among seawater and the 5 and 100 h samples. From a total of 33,876 pyrosequences (using a 95% sequence similarity), there were less than 1% of shared species, confirming the influence of the operational time factor and lack of similarity of these communities. During SWRO operation, the abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri BBSPN3 (GU594474) belonging to gamma-Proteobacteria suggest that biofouling of SWRO membrane might be driven by the dominant influence of a specific species. In addition, among the bacterial competition of five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp., Rhodobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Mycobacterium sp.) competing for bacterial colonization on the SWRO membrane surfaces, it was exhibited that Bacillus sp. was the most dominant. The dominant influences ofPseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. on biofouling during actual SWRO is decisive depending on higher removal efficiency of the seawater pretreatment.

  14. Isolation of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater from a waste disposal site contaminated with chlorinated alkenes was examined for the presence of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading the suspected carcinogen, trichloroethylene (TCE). Consortia were readily isolated from all of four test wells. They contained free-living amoebae, and heterotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. Electron microscopic examination showed bacteria localized throughout the amoebic cytoplasm and an abundance of hyphomicrobium, but not Type I methanotrophs. The presence of Type II methanotrophs was indirectly indicated by lipid analysis of one consortium. The consortia have been passaged for over two years on mineral salts media in a methane atmosphere, which would not be expected to maintain the heterotrophs or amoebae separately. The methanotrophic bacteria apparently provided a stable nutrient source, allowing the persistence of the various genera. By use of 14C-radiotracer techniques, the degradation of TCE by the consortia was observed with 14C eventuating predominantly in CO2 and water-soluble products. In a more detailed examination of one consortia, the amoebae and heterotrohic components did not degrade TCE, while a mixed culture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs did degrade TCE, suggesting the latter component was the primary cause for the consortium's ability to degrade TCE. Amoebic-bacterial consortia may play a role in stabilizing and preserving methylotrophic bacteria in hostile environments

  15. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  16. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  17. The Launch of the Philadelphia Education Research Consortium: Lessons Learned from the First Year of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The Philadelphia Education Research Consortium (PERC) was launched in July 2014 as an innovative place-based consortium of educational research partners from multiple sectors. Its primary objective is to provide research and analyses on some of the city's most pressing education issues. As such, PERC's research agenda is driven by both traditional…

  18. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  19. 77 FR 38770 - Notice of Consortium on “nSoft Consortium”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... thereafter. Non-profit organizations in lieu of membership fees will contribute personal expertise and... meeting, revisions have ] been made to the membership fee structure and the initial period of time for the consortium. Also, the consortium is open to a limited number of for-profit and not-for-profit...

  20. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  1. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  2. Treatment of engine-oil polluted wastewater with a mixed bacterial flora and kinetics of biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; WANG Lei; LI Feng-ting; LIU Hua

    2007-01-01

    A mixed bacterial flora was isolated from the soil of two petroleum-contaminated sites, then cultivated and domesticated in an open environment. The bacteria were used to degrade engine oil in wastewater. The optimum biodegradation conditions for all engine oil concentrations of respectively 489 mg L(1, 1 075 mg L(1 and 2 088 mg L(1 are bacterial inoculum concentration of 0.1%, temperature at 30 (C to 35 (C, pH 7.0 to 7.5, and rotation at 190 r min(1 to 240 r min(1. The second-order kinetic model proposed by Quiroga and Sales describes the characteristics of the biodegradation of the engine oil very well. Engine oil concentration barely changes the growth rate of the bacterial consortium. The mixed bacterial flora has a high biodegrading capability for engine oil.

  3. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  4. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  5. 25 CFR 1000.16 - What criteria must a Tribe/Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../Consortium satisfy to be eligible for admission to the “applicant pool”? To be admitted into the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must either be an Indian Tribe or a Consortium of Indian Tribes and...

  6. Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

  7. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yi; Wu, Si; Zhao, Rui; Zink, Erika M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Meng, Da; Clauss, Therese RW; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2013-06-05

    Enrichment of bacterial phosphopeptides is an essential step prior to bottom-up mass spectrometry-based analysis of the phosphoproteome, which is fundamental to understanding the role of phosphoproteins in cell signaling and regulation of protein activity. We developed an automated IMAC system to enrich strong cation exchange-fractionated phosphopeptides from the soluble proteome of Escherichia coli MG1655 grown on minimal medium. Initial demonstration of the system resulted in identification of 75 phosphopeptides covering 52 phosphoproteins. Consistent with previous studies, many of these phosphoproteins are involved in the carbohydrate portion of central metabolism. The automated system utilizes a large capacity IMAC column that can effectively enrich phosphopeptides from a bacterial sample by increasing peptide loading and reducing the wash time. An additional benefit of the automated IMAC system is reduced labor and associated costs.

  8. 海洋石油降解菌的筛选及复合菌系的构建%Screening of Marine Crude Oil-degrading Bacteria and Construction of Microbial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秉奇; 刘淑杰; 陈福明; 周楚莹

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of controlling marine oil contamination by biological treatment technology,using crude oil acting as sole carbon source and enrichment and spread plate method,high-performance oil-grading bacteria were isolated from five sampling points in the sea near Shenzhen,and bacterial consortium was constructed by mixing and orthogonal experiments. Physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were used to identify the strains. Single-factor experiment was employed to optimize the conditions of oil biodegradation by the consortium,and gas chromatography and mass spectrum(GC-MS)were utilized to analyze its biodegradation characteristics. The results showed that 22 strains of high-performance oil-degrading bacteria were isolated,and the degrading rates varied from 34.5% to 52.2%. The degrading rate by microbial consortium SQ1 composed of S1-30,S1-38,and S2-13 strains reached 68.3%. These three strains were identified as Corynebacterium sp.,Dietzia sp. and Labrenzia sp. SQ1 was able to degrade the oil by 73.5% in 11 days under optimized conditions,referring to 30℃,pH7.6,oil concentration 20 g/L. The GC-MS results showed that consortium SQ1 was able to degrade the total alkane by 91.7%,and the more refractory C21-C35 by nearly 100%. The study shows that consortium SQ1 has great application potential of bioremediation for marine oil contamination.%为采用生物法治理海洋石油污染,以原油为唯一碳源,从深圳海域5个采样点取样,通过富集、涂布平板分离高效石油降解菌,并以复配、正交等方式构建石油降解复合菌系;通过生理生化实验和16S rRNA 基因序列分析对菌株进行鉴定;采用单因素实验对复合菌系降解石油的条件进行优化,并使用气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)研究其对石油的降解特性。结果显示,共分离得到22株高效石油降解菌,对石油的降解率为34.5%-52.2%;由 S1-30、S1-38和 S2-13

  9. DNA Methylation in Newborns and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Genome-wide Consortium Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Bonnie R.; Felix, Janine F.; Yousefi, Paul; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Just, Allan C.; Breton, Carrie; Reese, Sarah E.; Markunas, Christina A.; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Küpers, Leanne K.; Oh, Sam S.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Gruzieva, Olena; Söderhäll, Cilla; Salas, Lucas A.; Baïz, Nour; Zhang, Hongmei; Lepeule, Johanna; Ruiz, Carlos; Ligthart, Symen; Wang, Tianyuan; Taylor, Jack A.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Sharp, Gemma C.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Nilsen, Roy M.; Vaez, Ahmad; Fallin, M. Daniele; Hu, Donglei; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Huen, Karen; Kere, Juha; Kull, Inger; Munthe-Kaas, Monica Cheng; Gehring, Ulrike; Bustamante, Mariona; Saurel-Coubizolles, Marie José; Quraishi, Bilal M.; Ren, Jie; Tost, Jörg; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Peters, Marjolein J.; Håberg, Siri E.; Xu, Zongli; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Corpeleijn, Eva; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Eng, Celeste; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Bradman, Asa; Merid, Simon Kebede; Bergström, Anna; Herceg, Zdenko; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Brunekreef, Bert; Pinart, Mariona; Heude, Barbara; Ewart, Susan; Yao, Jin; Lemonnier, Nathanaël; Franco, Oscar H.; Wu, Michael C.; Hofman, Albert; McArdle, Wendy; Van der Vlies, Pieter; Falahi, Fahimeh; Gillman, Matthew W.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Kumar, Ashish; Wickman, Magnus; Guerra, Stefano; Charles, Marie-Aline; Holloway, John; Auffray, Charles; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Smith, George Davey; Postma, Dirkje; Hivert, Marie-France; Eskenazi, Brenda; Vrijheid, Martine; Arshad, Hasan; Antó, Josep M.; Dehghan, Abbas; Karmaus, Wilfried; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sunyer, Jordi; Ghantous, Akram; Pershagen, Göran; Holland, Nina; Murphy, Susan K.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Snieder, Harold; Nystad, Wenche; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Relton, Caroline L.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Wilcox, Allen; Melén, Erik; London, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, represent a potential mechanism for environmental impacts on human disease. Maternal smoking in pregnancy remains an important public health problem that impacts child health in a myriad of ways and has potential lifelong consequences. The mechanisms are largely unknown, but epigenetics most likely plays a role. We formed the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium and meta-analyzed, across 13 cohorts (n = 6,685), the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and newborn blood DNA methylation at over 450,000 CpG sites (CpGs) by using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. Over 6,000 CpGs were differentially methylated in relation to maternal smoking at genome-wide statistical significance (false discovery rate, 5%), including 2,965 CpGs corresponding to 2,017 genes not previously related to smoking and methylation in either newborns or adults. Several genes are relevant to diseases that can be caused by maternal smoking (e.g., orofacial clefts and asthma) or adult smoking (e.g., certain cancers). A number of differentially methylated CpGs were associated with gene expression. We observed enrichment in pathways and processes critical to development. In older children (5 cohorts, n = 3,187), 100% of CpGs gave at least nominal levels of significance, far more than expected by chance (p value < 2.2 × 10−16). Results were robust to different normalization methods used across studies and cell type adjustment. In this large scale meta-analysis of methylation data, we identified numerous loci involved in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy with persistence into later childhood and provide insights into mechanisms underlying effects of this important exposure. PMID:27040690

  10. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields. PMID:26860878

  11. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields.

  12. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  13. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Brandon J.; Christiansen, Niels; Schauperl, Richard;

    2012-01-01

    Employing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC has been the objective of various development efforts. The EU-sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements towards implementing this strategy. These include robust...... metal supported cells (MSCs) having low ASR at low temperature, incorporation into small stacks of powers approaching ½kW, and stack tolerance to various operation cycles. DTU Energy Conversion's (formerly Risø DTU) research into planar MSCs has produced an advanced cell design with high performance...... outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  14. Creating Future Stem Leaders: The National Astronomy Consortium:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Benjamin, Robert A.; Brisbin, Drew; Giles, Faye; National Astronomy Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and Associated Universities Inc., (AUI) in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), and a number of minority and majority universities to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented groups and those otherwise overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM or STEM-related careers. The seed for the NAC was a partnership between NRAO and Howard University which began with an exchange of a few summer students five years ago. Since then the NAC has grown tremendously. Today the NAC aims to host between 4 to 5 cohorts nationally in an innovative model in which the students are mentored throughout the year with multiple mentors and peer mentoring, continued engagement in research and professional development / career training throughout the academic year and throughout their careers. We will summarize the results from this innovative and highly succesful program and provide lessons learned.

  15. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.M.; Barnes, R.I. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Gerken, S.C.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shiang, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Jabs, E.W.; Warren, A.C.; Antonarakis, S. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Retief, A.E. [Univ. of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg (South Africa); Vergnaud, G. [Centre d`Etudes du Bouchet, Vert le Petit (France)] [and others

    1993-05-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 13 is presented. This map contains 59 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 94 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 9 laboratories. A total of 25 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 13 to the terminal band of the long arm. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 158, 203, and 178cM respectively. The largest interval is 24 cM and is between D13Z1 (alphaRI) and ATP1AL1. The mean genetic distance between the 25 uniquely placed loci is 7 cM. 76 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  17. On the Need to Establish an International Soil Modeling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.; Schnepf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society. To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key

  18. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.

    2014-11-04

    Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. IMPORTANCE This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper

  19. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization o

  20. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  1. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  2. 34 CFR 614.4 - Which member of the consortium must act as the lead applicant and fiscal agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TEACHERS TO USE TECHNOLOGY § 614.4 Which member of the consortium must act as the lead applicant and fiscal agent? (a) For purposes of 34 CFR 75.127, the lead applicant for the consortium must be a nonprofit member of the consortium. (b) The lead applicant must serve as the fiscal agent. (Authority: 20...

  3. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  4. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-03-15

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments. PMID:26849913

  5. Morphomechanics of bacterial biofilms undergoing anisotropic differential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Bo; Huang, Xiao; Ni, Yong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    Growing bacterial biofilms exhibit a number of surface morphologies, e.g., concentric wrinkles, radial ridges, and labyrinthine networks, depending on their physiological status and nutrient access. We explore the mechanisms underlying the emergence of these greatly different morphologies. Ginzburg-Landau kinetic method and Fourier spectral method are integrated to simulate the morphological evolution of bacterial biofilms. It is shown that the morphological instability of biofilms is triggered by the stresses induced by anisotropic and heterogeneous bacterial expansion, and involves the competition between membrane energy and bending energy. Local interfacial delamination further enriches the morphologies of biofilms. Phase diagrams are established to reveal how the anisotropy and spatial heterogeneity of growth modulate the surface patterns. The mechanics of three-dimensional microbial morphogenesis may also underpin self-organization in other development systems and provide a potential strategy for engineering microscopic structures from bacterial aggregates.

  6. Enhancing the biofiltration of geosmin by seeding sand filter columns with a consortium of geosmin-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Bridget; Hoefel, Daniel; Newcombe, Gayle; Saint, Christopher P; Ho, Lionel

    2009-02-01

    Geosmin is a secondary metabolite that can be produced by many species of cyanobacteria and Actinomycetes. It imparts a musty/earthy taste and odour to drinking water which can result in consumer complaints and a general perception that there is a problem with the water quality. As geosmin is recalcitrant to conventional water treatment, processes are sought to ensure effective removal of this compound from potable water. Biological filtration (biofiltration) is an attractive option for geosmin removal as this compound has been shown to be biodegradable. However, effective biofiltration of geosmin can be site specific as it is highly dependent upon the types of organism present and there is often an extended acclimation period before efficient removals are achieved. We report here, a novel approach to enhance the biofiltration of geosmin by seeding sand filter columns with a bacterial consortium previously shown to be capable of effectively degrading geosmin. Geosmin removals of up to 75% were evident through sand columns which had been inoculated with the geosmin-degrading bacteria, when compared with non-inoculated sand columns where geosmin removals were as low as 25%. These low geosmin removals through the non-inoculated sand columns are consistent with previous studies and were attributed to physical/abiotic losses. The presence of an existing biofilm was shown to influence geosmin removal, as the biofilm allowed for greater attachment of the geosmin-degrading consortium (as determined by an ATP assay), and enhanced removals of geosmin. Minimal difference in geosmin removal was observed when the geosmin-degrading bacteria were inoculated into the sand columns containing either an active or inactive biofilm.

  7. Job enrichment in job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  8. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  9. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    OpenAIRE

    James D Stephenson; Lydia J Hallis; Kazuhide Nagashima; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest minera...

  10. Enrichment of lanthanides in aragonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿成利; 路波; 刘刚

    2009-01-01

    Using the constant addition technique,the coprecipitation of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium with aragonite in seawater was experimentally investigated at 25 ℃.Their concentrations in aragonite overgrowths were determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer.All these lanthanides were strongly enriched in aragonite overgrowths.The amount of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium incorporated into aragonite accounted for 57%-99%,50%-89%,and 40%-91% of their initial total amount,respectively.With the in...

  11. Putative bacterial interactions from metagenomic knowledge with an integrative systems ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordron, Philippe; Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, Maria-Paz; González, Mauricio; Thiele, Sven; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro; Eveillard, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, we first reconstructed a global metabolic network. Next, using a parsimony assumption, we deciphered sets of genes, called Sets from Genome Segments (SGS), that (1) are close on their respective genomes, (2) take an active part in metabolic pathways and (3) whose associated metabolic reactions are also closely connected within metabolic networks. Overall, this SGS paradigm depicts genomic functional units that emphasize respective roles of bacterial strains to catalyze metabolic pathways and environmental processes. Our analysis suggested that only few functional metabolic genes are horizontally transferred within the consortium and that no single bacterial strain can accomplish by itself the whole copper bioleaching. The use of SGS pinpoints a functional compartmentalization among the investigated species and exhibits putative bacterial interactions necessary for promoting these pathways. PMID:26677108

  12. Environmental signatures of enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental sampling is a potentially useful tool that could be used for the detection of undeclared enrichment facilities. However, this would be likely to require the use of sophisticated and expensive analytical techniques to evaluate 235U/238U ratios. It would be, therefore, unlikely to be an inexpensive approach to detect proliferation. The probability of detecting an enrichment operation will depend on the type of facility. A gaseous diffusion operation will be relatively difficult to detect in relation to an EMIS facility and a gaseous centrifuge plant will be more difficult still. Releases from an enrichment operation are likely to be restricted to atmospheric discharges. Aquatic discharges would be relatively easy to contain and it would be unwise to devise a sampling strategy based on the measurement of these. The detection of atmospheric discharges is likely to be dependent on meteorological conditions, in particular stability. Stable atmospheric conditions are the most favourable for detecting releases at significant distances from the plant. Given stable conditions, detection of an EMIS facility might be possible at a distance of several 10s of km

  13. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  14. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  15. Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

  16. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  17. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  18. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  19. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  20. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U3O8; conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. NEAT: an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    OpenAIRE

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    Background Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be computationally slow and are based on normality assumptions. Results We propose NEAT, a test for network enrichment analysis. The test is based on the hypergeometric distribution, which naturally arises ...

  2. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.;

    2013-01-01

    The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells (M......, and tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.......The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells...... (MSCs) has produced an advanced cell design with high performance and mechanical robustness. At low operation temperatures (650 °C), these cells have shown low Area‐specific resistances (ASRs): 0.35 Ω cm2 in cell tests (16 cm2 active area) and under 0.3 Ω cm2 in button cells (0.5 cm2 active area...

  3. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, S.J.; Vierkant, R.A.; Johnatty, S.E.;

    2008-01-01

    The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H...... was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded...... [ordinal OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) p = 0.027; dominant OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.24) p = 0.03]. The other 5 SNPs in BRCA2, CDKN2A, SRD5A2, CASP8 and TGFB1 showed no association with ovarian cancer risk; given the large sample size, these results can also be considered to be informative. These null results...

  4. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  5. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes-from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components-the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components are intensely researched partly because of their involvement in various human diseases. While far less is known about these in plants, the last few years have seen a significant increase in research activity in this area. Plant biologists are not only catching up with the animal field, but recent findings are pushing our advances in this field globally. In recognition of this developing field, the Annual Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Salzburg kindly hosted a session co-organized by Katja Graumann and David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University) highlighting new insights into plant nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions. This session brought together leading researchers with expertise in topics such as epigenetics, meiosis, nuclear pore structure and functions, nucleoskeleton and nuclear envelope composition. An open and friendly exchange of ideas was fundamental to the success of the meeting, which resulted in founding the International Plant Nucleus Consortium. This review highlights new developments in plant nuclear envelope research presented at the conference and their importance for the wider understanding of metazoan, yeast and plant nuclear envelope functions and properties.

  6. The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium: Identification of ocular mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, Monica M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Wang, Xiaofei [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2005-06-01

    The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) is in its fifth year of a ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-based mutagenesis screen to detect recessive mutations that affect the eye and brain. Each pedigree is tested by various phenotyping domains including the eye, neurohistology, behavior, aging, ethanol, drug, social behavior, auditory, and epilepsy domains. The utilization of a highly efficient breeding protocol and coordination of various universities across Tennessee makes it possible for mice with ENU-induced mutations to be evaluated by nine distinct phenotyping domains within this large-scale project known as the TMGC. Our goal is to create mutant lines that model human diseases and disease syndromes and to make the mutant mice available to the scientific research community. Within the eye domain, mice are screened for anterior and posterior segment abnormalities using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, eye weight, histology, and immunohistochemistry. As of January 2005, we have screened 958 pedigrees and 4800 mice, excluding those used in mapping studies. We have thus far identified seven pedigrees with primary ocular abnormalities. Six of the mutant pedigrees have retinal or subretinal aberrations, while the remaining pedigree presents with an abnormal eye size. Continued characterization of these mutant mice should in most cases lead to the identification of the mutated gene, as well as provide insight into the function of each gene. Mice from each of these pedigrees of mutant mice are available for distribution to researchers for independent study.

  7. The National Astronomy Consortium - An Adaptable Model for OAD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kartik

    2015-08-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and Associated Universities Inc., (AUI) in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), and a number of minority and majority universities to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented groups and those otherwise overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM or STEM-related careers. The seed for the NAC was a partnership between NRAO and Howard University which began with an exchange of a few summer students five years ago. Since then the NAC has grown tremendously. Today the NAC aims to host between 4 to 5 cohorts nationally in an innovative model in which the students are mentored throughout the year with multiple mentors and peer mentoring, continued engagement in research and professional development / career training throughout the academic year and throughout their careers.The NAC model has already shown success and is a very promising and innovative model for increasing participation of young people in STEM and STEM-related careers. I will discuss how this model could be adapted in various countries at all levels of education.

  8. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  9. How Did the IGM Become Enriched?

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A; Aguirre, Anthony; Schaye, Joop

    2006-01-01

    The enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements is a process that lies at the nexus of poorly-understood aspects of physical cosmology. We review current understanding of the processes that may remove metals from galaxies, the basic predictions of these models, the key observational constraints on enrichment, and how intergalactic enrichment may be used to test cosmological simulations.

  10. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  11. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  12. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  13. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  14. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  16. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  17. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  18. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  19. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  20. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  1. Clinical-histological associations in gastroparesis : results from the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grover, M.; Bernard, C. E.; Pasricha, P. J.; Lurken, M. S.; Faussone-Pellegrini, M. S.; Smyrk, T. C.; Parkman, H. P.; Abell, T. L.; Snape, W. J.; Hasler, W. L.; Mccallum, R. W.; Nguyen, L.; Koch, K. L.; Calles, J.; Lee, L.; Tonascia, J.; Uenalp-Arida, A.; Hamilton, F. A.; Farrugia, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cellular changes associated with diabetic (DG) and idiopathic gastroparesis (IG) have recently been described from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. The association of these cellular changes with gastroparesis symptoms and gastric emptying is unknown. Th

  2. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  3. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  4. Bacterial dynamics within the mucus, tissue and skeleton of the coral Porites lutea during different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Qi; Long, Li-Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Si

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of the response of coral microbial communities to seasonal ecological environment at the microscale will advance our understanding of the relationship between coral-associated bacteria community and coral health. In this study, we examined bacteria community composition from mucus, tissue and skeleton of Porites lutea and surrounding seawater every three months for 1 year on Luhuitou fringing reef. The bacterial communities were analyzed using pyrosequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which demonstrated diverse bacterial consortium profiles in corals. The bacterial communities in all three coral compartments studied were significantly different from the surrounding seawater. Moreover, they had a much more dynamic seasonal response compared to the seawater communities. The bacterial communities in all three coral compartments collected in each seasonal sample tended to cluster together. Analysis of the relationship between bacterial assemblages and the environmental parameters showed that the bacterial community correlated to dissolved oxygen and rainfall significantly at our study site. This study highlights a dynamic relationship between the high complexity of coral associated bacterial community and seasonally varying ecosystem parameters.

  5. The FaceBase Consortium: A comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research

    OpenAIRE

    Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression pat...

  6. Highly migratory shark fisheries research by the National Shark Research Consortium (NSRC), 2002-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E Hueter; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Ebert, David A.; Musick, John A.; Burgess, George H.

    2007-01-01

    The National Shark Research Consortium (NSRC) includes the Center for Shark Research at Mote Marine Laboratory, the Pacific Shark Research Center at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, the Shark Research Program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, and the Florida Program for Shark Research at the University of Florida. The consortium objectives include shark-related research in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the U.S., education and scientific cooperation.

  7. Washoe Tribe Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca

    2014-11-06

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.

  8. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  9. Soybean after the consortium corn with tropical forages in the savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia; Marcelo Andreotti; Marcelo Carvalho Minhoto Teixeira Filho; Keny Samejima Mascarenha Lopes; Ciniro Costa; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The biggest limitation to sustainable tillage in the Savannah region is the low biomass accumulation during autumn up to spring, due to low water availability and high temperatures characterizing these regions as having a warm and dry winter. The consortium of grains crops with tropical forages mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa is an alternative, to this situation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the straw production of Panicum and Urochloa after consortium with corn in the ...

  10. Clinical utilization of genomics data produced by the international Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Freschi, Luca; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Dupont, Marie-Josée; Laroche, Jérôme; Larose, Stéphane; Maaroufi, Halim; Fothergill, Joanne L.; Moore, Matthew; Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Shawn D Aaron; Barbeau, Jean; Bell, Scott C.; Burns, Jane L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are available through the International Pseudomonas Consortium Database (http://ipcd.ibis.ulaval.ca/). Here, we present our strategy and the results that emerged from the analysis of the first 389 genomes....

  11. Clinical utilization of genomics data produced by the international Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Luca eFreschi; Julie eJeukens; Irena eKukavica-Ibrulj; Brian eBoyle; Marie-Josée eDupont; Jérôme eLaroche; Stéphane eLarose; Halim eMaaroufi; Fothergill, Joanne L.; Matthew eMoore; Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Shawn D Aaron; Jean eBarbeau; Bell, Scott C.; Burns, Jane L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are available through the International Pseudomonas Consortium Database (http://ipcd.ibis.ulaval.ca/). Here, we present our strategy and the results that emerged from the analysis of the first 389 genomes....

  12. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, K

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  13. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  14. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  15. Optimized cultivation of highly-efficient degradation bacterial strains and their degradation ability towards pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shuyu; ZHANG Qingmin; DUO Miao; ZHANG Yang; SUN Hongwen

    2007-01-01

    Two bacterial strains,Pyl and Py4,have been tamed and isolated through long cultivation with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-pyrene as the single carbon source.It has been proven that they are both highly-efficient pyrene degrading bacteria and both Bacillus sp..The pyrene degradation ability of separated Pyl,Py4 and the consortium of equal Pyl and Py4 was studied in this project.It is shown that pyrene degradation rates were 88% in 10hr by Py1,84% in 14hr by Py4,and 88% in 8hr by the consortium.It was also determined that the best degradation temperatures were 37℃ and pH 7.0 respectively.The influence of different nutrient substrates added in the degradation experiments was also studied.It was shown that sodium salicylate,sodium acetate and yeast exuact had obvious simulative effect,but glucose had no obvious effect.

  16. EMIS: Enrichment Management Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the effort was the development of a calculational tool which would permit DOE to make realistic projections of the separative work demands of its customers as an aid in planning for the future operation of the enrichment facilities. The calculational methods were to recognize the flexibility in scheduling, etc., available to DOE customers under their enrichment contreacts as well as the ability to pool separative work withdrawn under two or more contracts. It was also to be designed to permit the user to add new customers or delete existing contracts as well as to allow variation of the estimated start-up dates for those reactors currently under construction. The output of the model was to display projections of separative work demand as SWU and in triplet form for several categories of reactors. These included, in addition to the total demand on the enrichment complex, separate totals for domestic and foreign customers, for reactors with Requirements and Adjustable Fixed Commitment contracts and for reactors in operation, under construction and projected new reactors designated by the user. The foundations upon which the system is based are described in this report. This includes a discussion of the available alternatives for customer management of separative work and the assumptions and guidelines established for development of the model. The report also contains a description of the computational procedures used in the model, and a description of the EMIS system itself, which also serves as a users' manual for the code. Finally, samples demonstrating the use of the system and indicating the form of the input and output are included

  17. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Environmental and anthropogenic controls over bacterial communities in wetland soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Wyatt H.; Curtis J Richardson; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruland, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    Soil bacteria regulate wetland biogeochemical processes, yet little is known about controls over their distribution and abundance. Bacteria in North Carolina swamps and bogs differ greatly from Florida Everglades fens, where communities studied were unexpectedly similar along a nutrient enrichment gradient. Bacterial composition and diversity corresponded strongly with soil pH, land use, and restoration status, but less to nutrient concentrations, and not with wetland type or soil carbon. Sur...

  19. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  20. Results From the John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium. A Success Story for NASA and Northeast Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha M.; Barna, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium was established by NASA in 2002 to formulate and implement an integrated, interdisciplinary research program to address risks faced by astronauts during long-duration space missions. The consortium is comprised of a preeminent team of Northeast Ohio institutions that include Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, The National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the NASA Glenn Research Center. The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium research is focused on fluid physics and sensor technology that addresses the critical risks to crew health, safety, and performance. Effectively utilizing the unique skills, capabilities and facilities of the consortium members is also of prime importance. Research efforts were initiated with a general call for proposals to the consortium members. The top proposals were selected for funding through a rigorous, peer review process. The review included participation from NASA's Johnson Space Center, which has programmatic responsibility for NASA's Human Research Program. The projects range in scope from delivery of prototype hardware to applied research that enables future development of advanced technology devices. All of the projects selected for funding have been completed and the results are summarized. Because of the success of the consortium, the member institutions have extended the original agreement to continue this highly effective research collaboration through 2011.

  1. Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R. Stokes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement. This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria.

  2. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  3. DOE enrichment plant hums ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's $10-billion gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant, after three years of construction, is rising on schedule near Piketon, Ohio. A detailed conceptual design, smart management, liberal design fees, hungry contractors and cooperative unions are combining to get the job done. One reason for completing the task is that this will be a far more efficient process - 135 MW will be required to operate the centrifuge plant vs more than 2100 MW to produce the same amount of fuel at the mile-square diffusion plant near Portsmouth, Ohio

  4. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  5. Uranium enrichment plant risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for risk analysis of enrichment facilities is presented and applied to a small scale ultracentrifuge plant. Internal events are identified and the consequences of accidental releases of U F6 are quantified in terms of its toxicological and radiological impact. It is shown that releases in the feed and the cascade areas offers no hazards to the public . Releases of liquefied U F6 in the withdrawal areas, associated with failures in the building isolation systems, may cause undesirable consequences. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The bacterial lipocalins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R E

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalins were once regarded as a eukaryotic protein family, but new members have been recently discovered in bacteria. The first bacterial lipocalin (Blc) was identified in Escherichia coli as an outer membrane lipoprotein expressed under conditions of environmental stress. Blc is distinguished from most lipocalins by the absence of intramolecular disulfide bonds, but the presence of a membrane anchor is shared with two of its closest homologues, apolipoprotein D and lazarillo. Several common features of the membrane-anchored lipocalins suggest that each may play an important role in membrane biogenesis and repair. Additionally, Blc proteins are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and in the activation of immunity. Recent genome sequencing efforts reveal the existence of at least 20 bacterial lipocalins. The lipocalins appear to have originated in Gram-negative bacteria and were probably transferred horizontally to eukaryotes from the endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion. The genome sequences also reveal that some bacterial lipocalins exhibit disulfide bonds and alternative modes of subcellular localization, which include targeting to the periplasmic space, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cytosol. The relationships between bacterial lipocalin structure and function further illuminate the common biochemistry of bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  7. Thirty Years of Innovation in Seismology with the IRIS Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Ahern, T. K.; Anderson, K. R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Evers, B.; Frassetto, A.; Hafner, K.; Simpson, D. W.; Sweet, J. R.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States academic seismology community, through the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Consortium, has promoted and encouraged a rich environment of innovation and experimentation in areas such as seismic instrumentation, data processing and analysis, teaching and curriculum development, and academic science. As the science continually evolves, IRIS helps drive the market for new research tools that enable science by establishing a variety of standards and goals. This has often involved working directly with manufacturers to better define the technology required, co-funding key development work or early production prototypes, and purchasing initial production runs. IRIS activities have helped establish de-facto international standards and impacted the commercial sector in areas such as seismic instrumentation, open-access data management, and professional development. Key institutional practices, conducted and refined over IRIS' thirty-year history of operations, have focused on open-access data availability, full retention of maximum-bandwidth, continuous data, and direct community access to state-of-the-art seismological instrumentation and software. These practices have helped to cultivate and support a thriving commercial ecosystem, and have been a key element in the professional development of multiple generations of seismologists who now work in both industry and academia. Looking toward the future, IRIS is increasing its engagement with industry to better enable bi-directional exchange of techniques and technology, and enhancing the development of tomorrow's workforce. In this presentation, we will illustrate how IRIS has promoted innovations grown out of the academic community and spurred technological advances in both academia and industry.

  8. Computerized comprehensive data analysis of Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) is the largest public CT image database of lung nodules. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive and the most updated analysis of this dynamically growing database under the help of a computerized tool, aiming to assist researchers to optimally use this database for lung cancer related investigations. Methods: The authors developed a computer scheme to automatically match the nodule outlines marked manually by radiologists on CT images. A large variety of characteristics regarding the annotated nodules in the database including volume, spiculation level, elongation, interobserver variability, as well as the intersection of delineated nodule voxels and overlapping ratio between the same nodules marked by different radiologists are automatically calculated and summarized. The scheme was applied to analyze all 157 examinations with complete annotation data currently available in LIDC dataset. Results: The scheme summarizes the statistical distributions of the abovementioned geometric and diagnosis features. Among the 391 nodules, (1) 365 (93.35%) have principal axis length ≤20 mm; (2) 120, 75, 76, and 120 were marked by one, two, three, and four radiologists, respectively; and (3) 122 (32.48%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios ≥80% for the delineations of two radiologists, while 198 (50.64%) have the maximum volume overlapping ratios <60%. The results also showed that 72.89% of the nodules were assessed with malignancy score between 2 and 4, and only 7.93% of these nodules were considered as severely malignant (malignancy ≥4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that LIDC contains examinations covering a diverse distribution of nodule characteristics and it can be a useful resource to assess the performance of the nodule detection and/or segmentation schemes.

  9. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  10. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  11. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  12. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production. PMID:27262722

  13. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of Kombucha beverage enriched with Coffeeberry® extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essawet Najmi Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which represents a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Also, CoffeeBerry® products, which derived from the whole fruit of the coffee plant, are valuable ingredients with nutritional and health-enhancing potential. Samples of fermentation broths enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract and traditional Kombucha were analysed. The fermentation was performed in a bioreactor at 28±1°C for nine days. The results showed that the CoffeeBerry® extract has contributed to a faster fermentation of cultivation medium. Some individual polyphenolic compounds and catehins in fermentation broth samples were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Among the bioactive compounds present in investigated samples obtained during Kombucha fermentation of the sweetened black tea enriched with CoffeeBerry® extract, chlorogenic acid (188.94-458.56 μg/mL was the predominant. The antioxidant activity of investigated samples was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were increased with duration of fermentation. IC50 values for Kombucha fermentation broth enriched with CoffeBerry®, based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, were in the range 26.33-170.13 μL/mL and 11.33-102.22 μL/mL, respectively.

  14. Bacterial glycosyltransferase toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Mono-glycosylation of host proteins is a common mechanism by which bacterial protein toxins manipulate cellular functions of eukaryotic target host cells. Prototypic for this group of glycosyltransferase toxins are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which modify guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the Rho family. However, toxin-induced glycosylation is not restricted to the Clostridia. Various types of bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Photorhabdus and Legionella species produce glycosyltransferase toxins. Recent studies discovered novel unexpected variations in host protein targets and amino acid acceptors of toxin-catalysed glycosylation. These findings open new perspectives in toxin as well as in carbohydrate research.

  15. Microbial hydrogen production from sewage sludge bioaugmented with a constructed microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-10-15

    A constructed microbial consortium was formulated from three facultative H{sub 2}-producing anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1. This consortium was tested as the seed culture for H{sub 2} production. In the initial studies with defined medium (MYG), E. cloacae produced more H{sub 2} than the other two strains and it also was found to be the dominant member when consortium was used. On the other hand, B. coagulans as a pure culture gave better H{sub 2} yield (37.16 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub consumed}) than the other two strains using sewage sludge as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization (15% v/v), dilution and supplementation with 0.5% w/v glucose, which was found to be essential to screen out the H{sub 2} consuming bacteria and ameliorate the H{sub 2} production. Considering (1:1:1) defined consortium as inoculum, COD reduction was higher and yield of H{sub 2} was recorded to be 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/g COD{sub reduced}. Microbial profiling of the spent sludge showed that B. coagulans was the dominant member in the constructed consortium contributing towards H{sub 2} production. Increase in H{sub 2} yield indicated that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The H{sub 2} yield from pretreated sludge (35.54 ml H{sub 2}/g sludge) was comparatively higher than that reported in literature (8.1-16.9 ml H{sub 2}/g sludge). Employing formulated microbial consortium for biohydrogen production is a successful attempt to augment the H{sub 2} yield from sewage sludge. (author)

  16. Temporal dynamics of sediment bacterial communities in monospecific stands of Juncus maritimus and Spartina maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, D F R; Polónia, A R M; Sousa, A I; Lillebø, A I; Queiroga, H; Gomes, N C M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we used 16S rRNA barcoded pyrosequencing to investigate to what extent monospecific stands of different salt marsh plant species (Juncus maritimus and Spartina maritima), sampling site and temporal variation affect sediment bacterial communities. We also used a bioinformatics tool, PICRUSt, to predict metagenome gene functional content. Our results showed that bacterial community composition from monospecific stands of both plant species varied temporally, but both host plant species maintained compositionally distinct communities of bacteria. Juncus sediment was characterised by higher abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Myxococcales, Rhodospirillales, NB1-j and Ignavibacteriales, while Spartina sediment was characterised by higher abundances of Anaerolineae, Synechococcophycidae, Desulfobacterales, SHA-20 and Rhodobacterales. The differences in composition and higher taxon abundance between the sediment bacterial communities of stands of both plant species may be expected to affect overall metabolic diversity. In line with this expectation, there were also differences in the predicted enrichment of selected metabolic pathways. In particular, bacterial communities of Juncus sediment were predicted to be enriched for pathways related to the degradation of various (xenobiotic) compounds. Bacterial communities of Spartina sediment in turn were predicted to be enriched for pathways related to the biosynthesis of various bioactive compounds. Our study highlights the differences in composition and predicted functions of sediment-associated bacterial communities from two different salt marsh plant species. Loss of salt marsh habitat may thus be expected to both adversely affect microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning and have consequences for environmental processes such as nutrient cycling and pollutant remediation. PMID:27061465

  17. Uranium enrichment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three gaseous diffusion plants comprise one of the largest industrial complexes in the free world. Since all of the enrichment is done inside a very large plumbing maze, the control of radioactivity does not present a serious problem. Conventional, nonexotic engineering and administrative measures adequately control the minor levels of radioactivity associated with support activities such as equipment decontamination and maintenance. The treatment and control of chemical waste streams to comply with Federal and state regulations has required the commitment of 47 million dollars since 1974. Through 1982, an additional 84 million dollars may be required. The high cost is not a reflection of initially poor conditions but is rather the result of providing large treatment systems to meet very low discharge limits. Examples that will be discussed include airborne particulate removal, recirculating cooling water treatment, and hazardous waste disposal concepts

  18. Microplate Subtractive Hybridization To Enrich for Bacteroidales Genetic Markers for Fecal Source Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Linda K.; Simonich, Michael T.; Field, Katharine G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to identify sources of fecal pollution plays a key role in the analysis of human health risk and the implementation of water resource management strategies. One approach to this problem involves the identification of bacterial lineages or gene sequences that are found exclusively in a particular host species or group. We used subtractive hybridization to enrich for target host-specific fecal Bacteroidales rRNA gene fragments that were different from those of very closely related r...

  19. Contribution of enrichments and resampling for sulfate reducing bacteria diversity assessment by high-throughput cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2015-03-01

    The development of new high-throughput cultivation methods aims to increase the isolation efficiency as compared to standard techniques that often require enrichment procedures to compensate the low microbial recovery. In the current study, estuarine sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated using an anaerobic isolation procedure in 384-well microplates. Ninety-nine strains were recovered from initial sediments. Isolates were identified according to their partial 16S rRNA sequences and clustered into 13 phylotypes. Besides, the increase in species richness obtained through enrichments or resampling was investigated. Forty-four enrichment procedures were conducted and shifts in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities were investigated through dsrAB gene fingerprinting. Despite efforts in conducting numerous enrichment conditions only few of them were statistically different from initial sample. The cultural diversity obtained from 3 of the most divergent enrichments, as well as from resampled sediments equally contributed to raise the sulfate-reducing diversity up to 22 phylotypes. Enrichments (selection of metabolism) or resampling (transient populations and micro-heterogeneity) may still be helpful to assess new microbial phylotypes. Nevertheless, all the newly cultivated strains were all representatives of minor Operational Taxonomic Units and could eventually be recovered by maintaining high-throughput isolation effort from the initial sediments.

  20. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The member institutions of the Consortium continue to play a significant role in increasing the number of African Americans who enter the environmental professions through the implementation of the Consortium`s RETT Plan for Research, Education, and Technology Transfer. The four major program areas identified in the RETT Plan are as follows: (1) minority outreach and precollege education; (2) undergraduate education and postsecondary training; (3) graduate and postgraduate education and research; and (4) technology transfer.

  1. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education From the SW Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the final expenditures for the INIE project during FY 08/09. (There were no expenditures during FY09/10 or during FY10/11.) To see the list of accomplishments done using the INIE funds, please see the reports included here. The last of the FY 07/08 funds were brought forward and used to complete two distance education modules teaching reactor experiments. These modules and parts from the modules are still being used and are being disseminated off-campus as a part of our distance education effort. The second largest expenditure was sending students to the ANS to present student papers on work that they had done the previous year underwritten by INIE funds. The remaining expenditures were IDC charges and minor travel expenses to give students a tour of a medical facility. Once again we wish to express of sincere appreciation of the INIE program and hope that the return on investment is appreciated by the DOE. Although INIE has come to a close, looking back at all the Consortium has accomplished is astounding. And, as was hoped, these funds have proved to be a springboard for continuing work, particularly at Texas A and M. With the resurgence of nuclear power, the utilities have realized that the nuclear workforce in the near future will be too small for the task of bringing dozens of new plants on line and have turned their attention to the URRs to help feed the workforce pipeline. The distance education modules developed at the A and M are soon to be broadcast throughout the country to help train a new generation of nuclear workers. Our students at the Nuclear Science Center at being snapped up by the nuclear power plants after graduating. Our research projects at A and M have all ended with new data, new ways of looking at old problems, and produced a covey of good students. I want to say 'Thanks' with utmost sincerity because without the INIE funds our efforts would yield a small fraction of the accomplishments you see in this report.

  2. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education From the SW Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren Reece

    2011-03-22

    This report describes the final expenditures for the INIE project during FY 08/09. (There were no expenditures during FY09/10 or during FY10/11.) To see the list of accomplishments done using the INIE funds, please see the reports included here. The last of the FY 07/08 funds were brought forward and used to complete two distance education modules teaching reactor experiments. These modules and parts from the modules are still being used and are being disseminated off-campus as a part of our distance education effort. The second largest expenditure was sending students to the ANS to present student papers on work that they had done the previous year underwritten by INIE funds. The remaining expenditures were IDC charges and minor travel expenses to give students a tour of a medical facility. Once again we wish to express of sincere appreciation of the INIE program and hope that the return on investment is appreciated by the DOE. Although INIE has come to a close, looking back at all the Consortium has accomplished is astounding. And, as was hoped, these funds have proved to be a springboard for continuing work, particularly at Texas A&M. With the resurgence of nuclear power, the utilities have realized that the nuclear workforce in the near future will be too small for the task of bringing dozens of new plants on line and have turned their attention to the URRs to help feed the workforce pipeline. The distance education modules developed at the A&M are soon to be broadcast throughout the country to help train a new generation of nuclear workers. Our students at the Nuclear Science Center at being snapped up by the nuclear power plants after graduating. Our research projects at A&M have all ended with new data, new ways of looking at old problems, and produced a covey of good students. I want to say 'Thanks' with utmost sincerity because without the INIE funds our efforts would yield a small fraction of the accomplishments you see in this report.

  3. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members

  4. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition

  5. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  6. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  7. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scraped, the injury should be washed with soap and water and covered with a sterile bandage. Petrolatum may be applied to open areas to keep the tissue moist and to try to prevent bacterial invasion. Doctors recommend that people do not use ...

  8. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  9. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  10. Modeling intraocular bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Roger A; Coburn, Phillip S; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  11. Selective enrichment of commensal gut bacteria protects against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Linda; Pinnell, Lee J; Määttänen, Pekka; Yeung, C William; Lurz, Eberhard; Sherman, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping the host immune system. Perturbation of gut microbial composition, termed dysbiosis, is associated with an increased susceptibility to intestinal pathogens and is a hallmark of a number of inflammatory, metabolic, and infectious diseases. The prospect of mining the commensal gut microbiota for bacterial strains that can impact immune function represents an attractive strategy to counteract dysbiosis and resulting disease. In this study, we show that selective enrichment of commensal gut lactobacilli protects against the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, a well-characterized model of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. The lactobacilli-enriched bacterial culture prevented the expansion of Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and was associated with improved indexes of epithelial barrier function (dextran flux), transmissible crypt hyperplasia, and tissue inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, cultivation of gut bacteria from Citrobacter rodentium-infected mice reveals the differential capacity of bacterial subsets to mobilize neutrophil oxidative burst and initiate the formation of weblike neutrophil extracellular traps. Our findings highlight the beneficial effects of a lactobacilli-enriched commensal gut microenvironment and, in the context of an intestinal barrier breach, the ability of neutrophils to immobilize both commensal and pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Development of a consortium for water security and safety: Planning for an early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.M.; Adam, N.R.; Atluri, V.; Halem, M.; Vowinkel, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 have raised concerns over the safety and security of the Nation's critical infrastructure including water and waste water systems. In June 2002, the U.S. EPA's Region II Office (New York City), in response to concerns over water security, in collaboration with Rutgers University agreed to establish a Regional Drinking Water Security and Safety Consortium (RDWSSC). Members of the consortium include: Rutgers University's Center for Information Management, Integration and Connectivity (CIMIC), American Water (AW), the Passaic Valley Water Commission (PVWC), the North Jersey District Water Supply Commission (NJDWSC), the N.J. Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencies, Region II Office. In December of 2002 the consortium members signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to pursue activities to enhance regional water security. Development of an early warning system for source and distributed water was identified as being of primary importance by the consortium. In this context, an early warning system (EWS) is an integrated system of monitoring stations located at strategic points in a water utilities source waters or in its distribution system, designed to warn against contaminants that might threaten the health and welfare of drinking water consumers. This paper will discuss the consortium's progress in achieving these important objectives.

  13. [Intensification capability of dominant consortium on landscaping water remediation by compound ecological filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yu; Fang, Ma; Jiang, Qin-Peng

    2007-06-01

    Zeolite and coal cinder were took as main substrates to construct micro-ecological filter to remedy landscaping water. Screening and domesticating dominant consortium to intensify remedying process, aboriginal colony and naked substrate was contrast. It was showed that, removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N, TN, and TP by and dominant colony increased with rest time. Removal efficiency of NH4(+) -N by naked system was the highest, then dominant consortium system. Removal efficiency of TN by dominant consortium system was the highest and increased evidently with rest time. TP removal by aboriginal colony system was the best. NO2(-) -N in naked system was the lowest, which in dominant consortium system was lower than aboriginal system. TN concentration along hydraulic distance kept falling in dominant colony system; TP concentration along hydraulic distance in aboriginal system kept the lowest. Abundant nitrous and nitride bacterium in dominant colony made nitrification swift and thoroughly, cut accumulation of middle production and hasten nitrogen removal. Dominant consortium kept high activity in long time, which intensified removal of nitrogenous contamination. Cooperation of multi-colony enhanced P removal capacity of system.

  14. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  15. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10−7. Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits. PMID:22791748

  16. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  17. Basic uranium-235 enrichment by the Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP) led to the establishment of basic process technology permitting attainment of 3% enrichment within several months of operation by the mid-1980s, through advances which brought increased electron-exchange and adsorption-desorption reaction rates, effective uranium adsorption band formation and maintenance, and equilibrium plate height reductions based on the elucidation of mobile-phase dispersion. The theoretical and experimental development of redox agent self-regeneration led to a new 'Super Process' characterized by greater simplicity and efficiency than previously thought possible. A semi-commercial plant with enrichment columns of 1 m in diameter and 3 m in height, constructed at Hyuga City in Miyazaki Prefecture, demonstrated 3% uranium enrichment in April 1988. Through the improvement of enrichment efficiency, overall enrichment costs have been greatly lowered. The advantage of the chemical enrichment process, and its low cost of enrichment, have now been clearly demonstrated. (author)

  18. Development of a bioreactor for remediation of textile effluent and dye mixture: a plant-bacterial synergistic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Akhil N; Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a plant-bacterial synergistic system for efficient treatment of the textile effluents. Decolorization of the dye Scarlet RR and a dye mixture was studied under in vitro conditions using Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc., Pseudomonas monteilii ANK and their consortium. Four reactors viz. soil, bacteria, plant and consortium were developed that were subjected for treatment of textile effluents and dye mixture. Under in vitro conditions G. pulchella and P. monteilii showed decolorization of the dye Scarlet RR (SRR) by 97 and 84%, within 72 and 96 h respectively, while their consortium showed 100% decolorization of the dye within 48 h. In case of dye mixture G. pulchella, P. monteilii and consortium-PG showed an ADMI removal of 78, 67 and 92% respectively within 96 h. During decolorization of SRR G. pulchella showed induction in the activities of enzymes lignin peroxidase and DCIP reductase while P. monteilii showed induction of laccase, DCIP reductase and tyrosinase, indicating their involvement in the dye metabolism. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) confirmed the biotransformation of SRR and dye mixture into different metabolites. Soil, bacteria, plant and consortium reactors performed an ADMI removal of 42, 46, 62 and 93% in the first decolorization cycle while it showed an average ADMI removal of 21, 27, 59 and 93% in the next three (second, third and fourth) decolorization cycles respectively for the dye mixture within 24 h. Consortium reactor showed an average ADMI removal of 95% within 48 and 60 h for textile effluents A and B respectively for three decolorization cycles, while it showed an average TOC, COD and BOD removal of 74, 70 and 70%, 66, 72 and 67%, and 70, 70 and 66% for three decolorization cycles of the dye mixture (second, third and fourth decolorization cycles), effluent A and

  19. Institutional support for the Utah Consortium for Energy Research and Education. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The Utah Consortium for Energy Research and Education is made up of three colleges and universities in Utah. The scope of the Consortium plan is the marshalling of the academic research resources, as well as the appropriate non-academic resources within Utah to pursue, as appropriate, energy-related research activities. The heart of this effort has been the institutional contract between DOE and the University of Utah, acting as fiscal agent for the Consortium. Sixteen programs are currently being funded, but only ten of the projects are described in this report. Three projects are on fission/fusion; three on environment and safety; four on fossil energy; three on basic energy sciences; one each on conservation, geothermal, and solar.

  20. Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S; Theuns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a CDM universe predict that massive galaxies are surrounded by a hot, quasi-hydrostatic circumgalactic corona of slowly cooling gas, predominantly accreted from the IGM. This prediction is borne out by the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Crain et al., which reproduce scaling relations between the X-ray and optical properties of nearby disc galaxies. Such coronae are metal poor, but observations of the X-ray emitting circumgalactic medium (CGM) of local galaxies typically indicate enrichment to near-solar iron abundance, potentially signalling a shortcoming in galaxy formation models. We show here that, while the hot CGM of galaxies formed in the simulations is metal poor in a mass-weighted sense, its X-ray luminosity-weighted metallicity is often close to solar. This bias arises because the soft X-ray emissivity of a typical 0.1 keV corona is dominated by collisionally-excited metal ions that are synthesised in stars and recycled into the hot CGM. We find that these me...

  1. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  2. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry--the 2012 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Timothy; Wax, Paul; Smith, Eric; Hart, Katherine; Brent, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) established its Case Registry, the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). All cases are entered prospectively and include only suspected and confirmed toxic exposures cared for at the bedside by board-certified or board-eligible medical toxicologists at its participating sites. The primary aims of establishing this Registry include the development of a realtime toxico-surveillance system in order to identify and describe current or evolving trends in poisoning and to develop a research tool in toxicology. ToxIC allows for extraction of data from medical records from multiple sites across a national and international network. All cases seen by medical toxicologists at participating institutions were entered into the database. Information characterizing patients entered in 2012 was tabulated and data from the previous years including 2010 and 2011 were included so that cumulative numbers and trends could be described as well. The current report includes data through December 31st, 2012. During 2012, 38 sites with 68 specific institutions contributed a total of 7,269 cases to the Registry. The total number of cases entered into the Registry at the end of 2012 was 17,681. Emergency departments remained the most common source of consultation in 2012, accounting for 61 % of cases. The most common reason for consultation was for pharmaceutical overdose, which occurred in 52 % of patients including intentional (41 %) and unintentional (11 %) exposures. The most common classes of agents were sedative-hypnotics (1,422 entries in 13 % of cases) non-opioid analgesics (1,295 entries in 12 % of cases), opioids (1,086 entries in 10 % of cases) and antidepressants (1,039 entries in 10 % of cases). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was the most common antidote administered in 2012, as it was in previous years, followed by the opioid antagonist naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, physostigmine and flumazenil. Anti-crotalid Fab

  3. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry--the 2012 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Timothy; Wax, Paul; Smith, Eric; Hart, Katherine; Brent, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) established its Case Registry, the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). All cases are entered prospectively and include only suspected and confirmed toxic exposures cared for at the bedside by board-certified or board-eligible medical toxicologists at its participating sites. The primary aims of establishing this Registry include the development of a realtime toxico-surveillance system in order to identify and describe current or evolving trends in poisoning and to develop a research tool in toxicology. ToxIC allows for extraction of data from medical records from multiple sites across a national and international network. All cases seen by medical toxicologists at participating institutions were entered into the database. Information characterizing patients entered in 2012 was tabulated and data from the previous years including 2010 and 2011 were included so that cumulative numbers and trends could be described as well. The current report includes data through December 31st, 2012. During 2012, 38 sites with 68 specific institutions contributed a total of 7,269 cases to the Registry. The total number of cases entered into the Registry at the end of 2012 was 17,681. Emergency departments remained the most common source of consultation in 2012, accounting for 61 % of cases. The most common reason for consultation was for pharmaceutical overdose, which occurred in 52 % of patients including intentional (41 %) and unintentional (11 %) exposures. The most common classes of agents were sedative-hypnotics (1,422 entries in 13 % of cases) non-opioid analgesics (1,295 entries in 12 % of cases), opioids (1,086 entries in 10 % of cases) and antidepressants (1,039 entries in 10 % of cases). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was the most common antidote administered in 2012, as it was in previous years, followed by the opioid antagonist naloxone, sodium bicarbonate, physostigmine and flumazenil. Anti-crotalid Fab

  4. Enrichment technology. Dependable vendor of gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrichment Technology is an innovative, high-tech company that develops, manufactures and installs gas centrifuges for enriching uranium. In addition, Enrichment Technology designs enrichment plants that use gas centrifuge technology. This technology offers the most efficient and cost-effective method for enriching uranium yet: high-performance, safe technology that dominates the market with a global share of 45 percent. A determining factor in Enrichment Technology's success is its mission: supplying its customers with safe, reliable technology. Production of the centrifuges requires versatile know-how and collaboration between different departments as well as interdisciplinary teams at the various sites. More than 2000 operators at 8 sites in 5 countries contribute their individual knowledge and personal skills in order to produce this exceptional technology. The head office is in Beaconsfield near London and the operational headquarters are in Almelo in the Netherlands. There are other sites in Germany (Juelich und Gronau), Great Britain (Capenhurst) as well as project sites in the USA and France. Capenhurst is where experienced engineers design new enrichment plants and organise their construction. Centrifuge components are manufactured in Almelo and Juelich, while the pipework needed to connect up the centrifuges is produced at the site in Gronau. In Juelich, highly qualified scientists in interdisciplinary teams are continuously researching ways of improving the current centrifuges. Communication between specialists in the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering forms the basis for the company's success and the key to extending this leading position in the global enrichment market. (orig.)

  5. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  6. Perspectives for the uranium enrichment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through an analysis of the electrical energy future in Brazil, the needs for enriched uranium are discussed, and therefore the importance of developing local capability for self-production. A description of the production processes that are well established is given first, then the analysis itself is performed and finally a visualization of the International Market for enriched uranium is shown. (author)

  7. A Component Analysis of Marriage Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Beverley G.; And Others

    Although marriage enrichment programs have been shown to be effective for many couples, a multidimensional approach to assessment is needed in investigating these groups. The components of information and social support in successful marriage enrichment programs were compared in a completely crossed 2 x 2 factorial design with repeated measures.…

  8. Bacterial chemoreceptors and chemoeffectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuangyu; Lai, Luhua

    2015-02-01

    Bacteria use chemotaxis signaling pathways to sense environmental changes. Escherichia coli chemotaxis system represents an ideal model that illustrates fundamental principles of biological signaling processes. Chemoreceptors are crucial signaling proteins that mediate taxis toward a wide range of chemoeffectors. Recently, in deep study of the biochemical and structural features of chemoreceptors, the organization of higher-order clusters in native cells, and the signal transduction mechanisms related to the on-off signal output provides us with general insights to understand how chemotaxis performs high sensitivity, precise adaptation, signal amplification, and wide dynamic range. Along with the increasing knowledge, bacterial chemoreceptors can be engineered to sense novel chemoeffectors, which has extensive applications in therapeutics and industry. Here we mainly review recent advances in the E. coli chemotaxis system involving structure and organization of chemoreceptors, discovery, design, and characterization of chemoeffectors, and signal recognition and transduction mechanisms. Possible strategies for changing the specificity of bacterial chemoreceptors to sense novel chemoeffectors are also discussed.

  9. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  10. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  11. Stability of the rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities associated with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh under impact of cosmic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordium, V. A.; Adamchuk-Chala, N. I.; Moshinec, H. V.

    The orbital experiment will involve a growing of Arabidopsis plant seed to seed in the presence of a plant probiotic bacteria consortium introduced into the system The purpose of experiment is to characterize microbial community associated with Arabidopsis thaliana and determine how consortium of introduced bacteria along with the endemic plant-associated bacteria influences the plant development reproductive system and seed formation in spaceflight conditions The first study will be an examination of the survival of model bacteria in on the inoculated plant The second complex study is to examine the plant traits in particular the ultrastructure of root statocytes in order to determine whether the plant development proceeds normally under microgravity conditions on background of introduced bacteria and to assess the structural changes occurring in the cotyledons generative organs and seeds The third set of observations will concern studies of the structure of microbial community associated with Arabidopsis plants with traditional and molecular tools The fourth part of the work will be an examination of mobile genetic elements that can play a role in adaptation of bacteria to the spaceflight conditions however they may affect the stability of bacterial endo- and rhizosphere communities The final part of the proposal initiates the study of possible risk of the bacterial consortium use for a plant inoculation in spaceflight conditions An evaluation of this risk will be performed via examination of expression of the Klebsiella

  12. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references

  13. Supramolecular bacterial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    For nearly over a decade, a wide variety of dynamic and responsive supramolecular architectures have been investigated and developed to address biological systems. Since the non-covalent interactions between individual molecular components in such architectures are similar to the interactions found in living systems, it was possible to integrate chemically-synthesized and naturally-occurring components to create platforms with interesting bioactive properties. Bacterial cells and recombinant ...

  14. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Niu; Hong Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO). BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism i...

  15. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J;

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  16. A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Douglas C.

    1992-06-01

    A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

  17. Burden of cancer in a large consortium of prospective cohorts in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tsilidis, KK; Papadimitriou, N; Capothanassi, D; Bamia, C.; Benetou, V; Jenab, M; Freisling, H; Kee, F.; Nelen, A; O'Doherty, MG; Scott, A.; Soerjomataram, I; Tjønneland, A; May, AM; Ramón Quirós, J

    2016-01-01

    Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) are an indicator of mortality, morbidity, and disability. We calculated DALYs for cancer in middle-aged and older adults participating in the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) consortium.A total of 90 199 participants from five European cohorts with 10 455 incident cancers and 4399 deaths were included in this study. DALYs were calculated as the sum of the years of life lost because of premature ...

  18. Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

  19. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas;

    of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population...... was derived from a full scale biogas reactor (Hashøj, Denmark), fed with 75% animal manure and 25% food industries organic waste. Basal anaerobic medium was used for the enrichment along with sodium acetate (1 g HAc L-1) as a carbon source. Fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) was used to determine...... microbial community composition. The outcome of the enrichment process was a mesophilic aceticlastic methanogenic enriched culture able to withstand high ammonia loads and utilize acetate and form methane stoichiometrically. FISH analysis showed that the methanogens of the enriched culture belonged...

  20. The low-enrichment fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s, low-power research reactors were built around the world utilized MTR-type fuel elements containing 20% enriched uranium. However, the demand for higher specific power created a need for greater uranium-235 concentrations. Early difficulties in increasing uranium content led to the substitution of highly enriched uranium in place of the 20% enriched fuel previously utilized. The highly enriched material also yielded other benefits including longer core residence time, higher specific reactivity, and somewhat lower cost. Highly enriched material then became readily available and was used for high-power reactors as well as in low-power reactors where 20% enriched material would have sufficed. The trend toward higher and higher specific power also led to the development of the dispersion-type fuels which utilized highly enriched uranium at a concentration of about 40 wt%. In the 1970's, however, concerns were raised about the proliferation resistance of fuels and fuel cycles. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of State has recently prohibited the foreign shipment of highly enriched material, except where prior contractual obligation or special merit exists. This will impact on the availability and utilization of highly enriched uranium for research and test reactor fuel. It has also stimulated development programs on fuels with higher uranium content which would allow the use of uranium of lower enrichment. The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the overall fuel development program which is coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, and to indicate the current and potential uranium loadings. Other reports will address the individual fuel-development activities in greater detail

  1. The low-enrichment fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s, low-power research reactors were built around the world utilized MTR-type fuel elements containing 20% enriched uranium. However, the demand for higher specific power created a need for greater uranium-235 concentrations. Early difficulties in increasing uranium content led to the substitution of highly enriched uranium in place of the 20% enriched fuel previously utilized. The highly enriched material also yielded other benefits including longer core residence time, higher specific reactivity, and somewhat lower cost. Highly enriched material then became readily available and was used for high-power reactors as well as in low-power reactors where 20% enriched material would have sufficed. The trend toward higher and higher specific power also led to the development of the dispersion-type fuels which utilized highly enriched uranium at a concentration of about 40 wt%. In the 1970's, however, concerns were raised about the proliferation resistance of fuels and fuel cycles. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of State has recently prohibited the foreign shipment of highly enriched material, except where prior contractual obligation or special merit exists. This will impact on the availability and utilization of highly enriched uranium for research and test reactor fuel. It has also stimulated development programs on fuels with higher uranium content which would allow the use of uranium of lower enrichment. The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the overall fuel-development program which is coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, and to indicate the current and potential uranium loadings. Other reports will address the individual fuel-development activities in greater detail

  2. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    enzymatic conversion. All three of these processes are of particular interest to states in the Southeastern US since the agricultural products produced in this region are highly variable in terms of actual crop, production quantity, and the ability of land areas to support a particular type of crop. This greatly differs from the Midwestern US where most of this region's agricultural land supports one to two primary crops, such as corn and soybean. Therefore, developing processes which are relatively flexible in terms of biomass feedstock is key to the southeastern region of the US if this area is going to be a 'player' in the developing biomass to chemicals arena. With regard to the fermentation of syngas, research was directed toward developing improved biocatalysts through organism discovery and optimization, improving ethanol/acetic acid separations, evaluating potential bacterial contaminants, and assessing the use of innovative fermentors that are better suited for supporting syngas fermentation. Acid hydrolysis research was directed toward improved conversion yields and rates, acid recovery using membranes, optimization of fermenting organisms, and hydrolyzate characterization with changing feedstocks. Additionally, a series of development efforts addressed novel separation techniques for the separation of key chemicals from fermentation activities. Biogas related research focused on key factors hindering the widespread use of digester technologies in non-traditional industries. The digestion of acetic acids and other fermentation wastewaters was studied and methods used to optimize the process were undertaken. Additionally, novel laboratory methods were designed along with improved methods of digester operation. A search for better performing digester consortia was initiated coupled with improved methods to initiate their activity within digester environments. The third activity of the consortium generally studied the production of &apos

  3. Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J.F.; Oremland, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichment culture suggest that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Although the bacterial species that have been isolated and characterized are still few in number, they are scattered throughout the bacterial domain and include Gram- positive bacteria, beta, gamma and epsilon Proteobacteria and the sole member of a deeply branching lineage of the bacteria, Chrysiogenes arsenatus. The oxidation of a number of organic substrates (i.e. acetate, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, ethanol) or hydrogen can be coupled to the reduction of arsenate and selenate, but the actual donor used varies from species to species. Both periplasmic and membrane-associated arsenate and selenate reductases have been characterized. Although the number of subunits and molecular masses differs, they all contain molybdenum. The extent of the environmental impact on the transformation and mobilization of arsenic and selenium by microbial dissimilatory processes is only now being fully appreciated.

  4. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  5. Italian activities in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes Italian activities in uranium enrichment, which have mainly developed along the lines of the two classical processes: gaseous diffusion and centrifuges. Research, development and industrial activities play different roles in the two methods, and a special working group, GIAU, was established by CNEN to help co-ordinate this activity. In the field of gaseous diffusion, R and D effort was, from the start of the programme in 1968, mainly devoted to barriers and compressors, with the object of fully understanding the process and of demonstrating that it was capable of overcoming the main problems in this technology. Isotope separation of UF6 was demonstrated in 1974 at experimental plant level. Cost-sharing contracts were signed between CNEN and industries to build prototypes and ''first-of-a-kind'' components; small production lines have been set up to evaluate economics and assess production quality. Eurodif is partially associated with the development of this activity. On the industrial level, AGIP Nucleare and CNEN were among the promoters of the Eurodif venture from the beginning in 1973 and now own 25% of the shares. In the field of ultracentrifugation, work is still devoted mainly to R and D on the machines. The separation process was demonstrated in 1973 at laboratory level with a Zippe type centrifuge. Later activities aimed at developing high-capacity machines; different solutions are under close scrutiny. Carbon fibres and multiplerotor machines have been mechanically tested, and the first reference design of a small cascade plant has been completed. In the field of laser separation, after a complete and critical survey of different processes under development in other countries, experimental research work is now being undertaken, and experiments on basic aspects of the process are in progress. (author)

  6. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. Longitudinally, the enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From the Marquesas plateau (8° W to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (43±24 times in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates by a factor of 5.6±3.6, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (enhancement factor 49±32 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. While iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre, heterotrophic bacteria were only limited by availability of labile DOC in those environments.

  7. The Consortium and the Commissioner: A Grass Roots Tale of Fighting High Stakes Graduation Testing in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The following paper provides a case study of the resistance of the New York Performance Standards Consortium to the state's unitary high stakes testing policy from 1998 to 2006. After detailing the history of the grass roots actions undertaken by the group of alternative high schools called "The Consortium," the analysis seeks to apply…

  8. 77 FR 25406 - Consortium on “Concrete Rheology: Enabling Metrology (CREME)”: Membership Fee Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... in participating in the CREME Consortium discussed membership fees and agreed to the following revisions to the membership fee structure. Initial membership fees will be Twenty Five Thousand Dollars ($25... membership fees for participation in the CREME consortium would be Twenty-five Thousand ($25,000) per...

  9. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C cellulosomes and cellulase consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša VODOVNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ruminococcus flavefaciens is among the most important cellulolytic bacterial species in rumen and gastrointestinal tract of monogastric herbivorous animals. Its efficiency in degradation of (hemicellulosic substrates is associated with the production of remarkably intricate extracellular multienzyme complexes, named cellulosomes. In the present work we investigated the cellulolytic system of 007C. The bioinformatic analysis of the draft genome sequence revealed identical organization of sca gene cluster as has previously been found in four other strains of R. flavefaciens. The cluster consists of five genes in the following order: scaC-scaA-scaB-cttA-scaE. The cellulases of R. flavefaciens 007C belong to four families of glycoside hydrolases, namely GH48, GH44, GH9 in GH5. Majority of these enzymes are putative endoglucanases, belonging to families GH5 and GH9, whereas only one gene encoding GH44 and GH48 was found. Apart from catalytic domains, most of these proteins also contain dockerins – signature sequences, which indicate their attachement to cellulosomes. On the other hand, carbohydrate-binding modules were only found coupled to GH9 catalytic domains. Zymogram analysis showed that larger endoglucanases were mostly constitutively expressed, wheras smaller enzymes were only detected in later phases of Avicel-grown cultures.

  10. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  11. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  12. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report draft, 1995--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The HBCU/MI ET Consortium was established in January 1990, through a memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among its member institutions. This group of research-oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCUs/MIs) agreed to work together to initiate or revise educational programs, develop research partnerships with public and private sector organizations, and promote technology development and transfer to address the nation`s critical environmental problems. While the Consortium`s Research, Education and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan is the cornerstone of its overall program efforts, the initial programmatic activities of the Consortium focused on environmental education at all levels with the objective of addressing the underrepresentation of minorities in the environmental professions. This 1996 Annual Report provides an update on the activities of the Consortium with a focus on environmental curriculum development for the Technical Qualifications Program (TQP) and Education for Sustainability.

  13. World enrichment services market 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth in world enrichment capacity, already in oversupply, will lead to a very competitive enrichment services market by the second half of the 1990s. Three of the four primary enrichment suppliers (USDOE, Eurodif, and Urenco) already have the capacity to produce 33 million SWU per year. Explorts from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China (PRC) currently make available an additional six million SWU per year, and that figure could rise substantially. With additional supply capability expected from China, the Soviet Union, Louisiana Energy Services (LES) and Isotope Technologies (ITI), and the increased capacity of Urenco, and possibly even AVLIS from DOE, enrichment supply capability could exceed 46 million SWU per year by the year 2000. Yet annual enrichment requirements are only estimated to grow from 23.5 million SWU in 1990, to 28.9 million SWU by 2000. Total unfilled enrichment requirements will rise significantly in the second half of the 1990s, particularly from US utilities, creating sales opportunities for which suppliers will compete aggressively. These factors foretell a very competitive market in which sellers will offer low prices and flexible contracts. The anticipation of such strong competition also raises the question of which enrichment technology will succeed, and puts tremendous pressure on all suppliers to find cost-effective means of production as quickly as possible

  14. Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ying ZHANG; Qing-feng WANG; Rui WAN; Shu-guang XIE

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site.Knowledge of changes in microbial structure is useful to identify particular PAH degraders.However,the microbial community in the MSW composting soil and its change associated with prolonged exposure to PAHs and subsequent biodegradation remain largely unknown.In this study,anthracene was selected as a model compound.The bacterial community structure was investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.The two bimolecular tools revealed a large shift of bacterial community structure after anthracene amendment and subsequent biodegradation.Genera Methylophilus,Mesorhizobium,and Terrimonas had potential links to anthracene biodegradation,suggesting a consortium playing an active role.

  15. The US Enrichment Corp.. Looking towards privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) was launched in 1993 with the intention of bringing private sector disciplines into the US enrichment industry. It is charged with operating as a business enterprise on a profitable and efficient basis, with maximizing the long term value of the Corporation to the Treasury and taxpayer, and with maintaining a reliable and economic source of enriched uranium. Though acting like a commercial business, it remains for the moment in US government ownership. The directors have an obligation, however, to recommend to the government in 1995 if, how and when the Corporation should be privatized. (UK)

  16. Metal enrichment of the CGM through outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows enrich the circumgalactic medium through the redistribution of metals from the disks of galaxies. We examine the history of this enrichment by analyzing the outflows of twenty high-resolution simulated galaxies spanning two and a half orders of magnitude in halo mass. These simulations match many observed trends, including the mass-metallicity relation. By tracking particles in the simulations, we follow the removal and reaccretion of metals between redshift 3.5 and 0. We also determine the enrichment of the outflowing gas compared to the local interstellar media. Finally we compare the redshift zero metal census to observed values.

  17. Consortia for Engineering, Science and Technology Libraries in India: A Case Study of INDEST Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S. K.; Deshpande, N. J.

    2007-10-01

    The present scenario of the INDEST Consortium among engineering, science and technology (including astronomy and astrophysics) libraries in India is discussed. The Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences & Technology (INDEST) Consortium is a major initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. The INDEST Consortium provides access to 16 full text e-resources and 7 bibliographic databases for 166 institutions as members who are taking advantage of cost effective access to premier resources in engineering, science and technology, including astronomy and astrophysics. Member institutions can access over 6500 e-journals from 1092 publishers. Out of these, over 150 e-journals are exclusively for the astronomy and physics community. The current study also presents a comparative analysis of the key features of nine major services, viz. ACM Digital Library, ASCE Journals, ASME Journals, EBSCO Databases (Business Source Premier), Elsevier's Science Direct, Emerald Full Text, IEEE/IEE Electronic Library Online (IEL), ProQuest ABI/INFORM and Springer Verlag's Link. In this paper, the limitations of this consortium are also discussed.

  18. A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science Consortium and Its Model Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kim B.; Cupper, Robert D.; Scot Drysdale, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation, nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges. Over the years the membership has grown and changed, but the focus has remained…

  19. Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium. NWLP Wave 6. Annual Performance Report, June 12, 1996-June 12, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium, Boston.

    This performance report, presented in chart form, outlines progress on five goals of the Massachusetts Workplace Literacy Consortium. Under each goal are a number of objectives, and for each objective the chart describes activities, accomplishments, responsible party, and time frame. Goals are as follows: (1) "Enhance the Productivity and Quality…

  20. The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Jason L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Renteria, Miguel E.; Toro, Roberto; Jahanshad, Neda; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agartz, Ingrid; Alda, Martin; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Almeida, Jorge; Alpert, Kathryn; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Apostolova, Liana G.; Appel, Katja; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Aribisala, Benjamin; Bastin, Mark E.; Bauer, Michael; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bergmann, Orjan; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Blangero, John; Bockholt, Henry J.; Boen, Erlend; Bois, Catherine; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Booth, Tom; Bowman, Ian J.; Bralten, Janita; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Brohawn, David G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Carless, Melanie A.; Caseras, Xavier; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chang, Kiki D.; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Christoforou, Andrea; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Vincent P.; Conrod, Patricia; Coppola, Giovanni; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Deary, Ian J.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; den Braber, Anouk; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Depondt, Chantal; de Haan, Lieuwe; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dima, Danai; Dimitrova, Rali; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dong, Hongwei; Donohoe, Gary; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Ekman, Carl Johan; Elvsashagen, Torbjorn; Emsell, Louise; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fagerness, Jesen; Fears, Scott; Fedko, Iryna; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Foroud, Tatiana; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Frey, Eva Maria; Frodl, Thomas; Frouin, Vincent; Garavan, Hugh; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Glahn, David C.; Godlewska, Beata; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Gollub, Randy L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grimm, Oliver; Gruber, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Goering, Harald H. H.; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hajek, Tomas; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Hall, Jeremy; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hass, Johanna; Hatton, Sean N.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hickie, Ian B.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoehn, David; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J.; Homuth, Georg; Hoogman, Martine; Hong, L. Elliot; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Hwang, Kristy S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnston, Caroline; Joensson, Erik G.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kelly, Sinead; Kim, Sungeun; Kochunov, Peter; Koenders, Laura; Kraemer, Bernd; Kwok, John B. J.; Lagopoulos, Jim; Laje, Gonzalo; Landen, Mikael; Landman, Bennett A.; Lauriello, John; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lee, Phil H.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Lemaitre, Herve; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Li, Chiang-shan; Liberg, Benny; Liewald, David C.; Liu, Xinmin; Lopez, Lorna M.; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Luciano, Michelle; Macciardi, Fabio; Machielsen, Marise W. J.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Malt, Ulrik F.; Mandl, Rene; Manoach, Dara S.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Moses, Eric K.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Mwangi, Benson; Nauck, Matthias; Nho, Kwangsik; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars-Goeran; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyberg, Lars; Olvera, Rene L.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina; Papmeyer, Martina; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peterson, Charles P.; Pfennig, Andrea; Phillips, Mary; Pike, G. Bruce; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Potkin, Steven G.; Puetz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rietschel, Marcella; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Salami, Alireza; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Savitz, Jonathan; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scanlon, Cathy; Schmaal, Lianne; Schnack, Hugo G.; Schork, Andrew J.; Schulz, S. Charles; Schuer, Remmelt; Seidman, Larry; Shen, Li; Shoemaker, Jody M.; Simmons, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soares, Jair C.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Sprooten, Emma; Starr, John M.; Steen, Vidar M.; Strakowski, Stephen; Strike, Lachlan; Sussmann, Jessika; Saemann, Philipp G.; Teumer, Alexander; Toga, Arthur W.; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trost, Sarah; Turner, Jessica; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J.; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes; Veltman, Dick J.; Versace, Amelia; Voelzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Lei; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whalley, Heather C.; Whelan, Christopher D.; White, Tonya; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Zilles, David; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Schofield, Peter R.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Drevets, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics