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Sample records for bacterial chromate reduction

  1. Bacterial chromate reduction and product characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, R.J.; Buchanan, B.B.; Leighton, T.

    1992-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis reduced hexavalent chromate to trivalent chromium under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Reduction of CR(VI) and appearance of extracellular Cr(III) were demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spectrophotometry. Chromate reduction was stimulated more than five-fold by freeze-thawing, indicating that intracellular reductases or chemical reductants reduce chromate more rapidly than do intact cells. Moderately concentrated cells (10% pellet volume after centrifugation) reduced approximately 40 μM chromate/min (2 mg Cr/1-min) when exposed to 100 μM chromate (5 mg Cr/1). Highly concentrated cells (70% pellet volume) reduced more than 99.8% of 2 mM chromate (100 mg Cr/1) within 15 min. This rate of chromate reduction was of the same order of magnitude as the rate of respiration in aerobic cells. A substantial fraction of the reduction product (ca. 75%) was extracellular Cr(M), which could readily be separated from the cells by centrifugation. At high chromate concentrations, some fraction of reduced CR(VI) appeared to be taken up by cells, consistent with a detection of intracellular paramagnetic products. At low chromate concentrations, undefined growth medium alone reduced Cr(VI), but at a slow rate, relative to cells. Under appropriate conditions, B. subtilis appears to be an organism of choice for detoxifying chromate-contaminated soil and water

  2. Paper-based chromatic toxicity bioassay by analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Guerrero-Navarro, A; Jiménez, S; Gómez, D; Fernández, M; Bori, J; Vallès, B; Riva, M C; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2016-03-03

    Water quality assessment requires a continuous and strict analysis of samples to guarantee compliance with established standards. Nowadays, the increasing number of pollutants and their synergistic effects lead to the development general toxicity bioassays capable to analyse water pollution as a whole. Current general toxicity methods, e.g. Microtox(®), rely on long operation protocols, the use of complex and expensive instrumentation and sample pre-treatment, which should be transported to the laboratory for analysis. These requirements delay sample analysis and hence, the response to avoid an environmental catastrophe. In an attempt to solve it, a fast (15 min) and low-cost toxicity bioassay based on the chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction is here presented. E. coli cells (used as model bacteria) were stably trapped on low-cost paper matrices (cellulose-based paper discs, PDs) and remained viable for long times (1 month at -20 °C). Apart from bacterial carrier, paper matrices also acted as a fluidic element, allowing fluid management without the need of external pumps. Bioassay evaluation was performed using copper as model toxic agent. Chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction were determined by three different transduction methods, i.e. (i) optical reflectometry (as reference method), (ii) image analysis and (iii) visual inspection. In all cases, bioassay results (in terms of half maximal effective concentrations, EC50) were in agreement with already reported data, confirming the good performance of the bioassay. The validation of the bioassay was performed by analysis of real samples from natural sources, which were analysed and compared with a reference method (i.e. Microtox). Obtained results showed agreement for about 70% of toxic samples and 80% of non-toxic samples, which may validate the use of this simple and quick protocol in the determination of general toxicity. The minimum instrumentation

  3. Studies on biological reduction of chromate by Streptomyces griseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poopal, Ashwini C.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is a toxic heavy metal used in various industries and leads to environmental pollution due to improper handling. The most toxic form of chromium Cr(VI) can be converted to less toxic Cr(III) by reduction. Among the actinomycetes tested for chromate reduction, thirteen strains reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), of which one strain of Streptomyces griseus (NCIM 2020) was most efficient showing complete reduction within 24 h. The organism was able to use a number of carbon sources as electron donors. Sulphate, nitrate, chloride and carbonate had no effect on chromate reduction during growth while cations such as Cd, Ni, Co and Cu were inhibitory to varying degrees. Chromate reduction was associated with the bacterial cells and sonication was the best method of cell breakage to release the enzyme. The enzyme was constitutive and did not require presence of chromate during growth for expression of activity. Chromate reduction with cell free extract (CFE) was observed without added NADH. However, addition of NAD(P)H resulted in 2-3-fold increase in activity. Chromate reductase showed optimum activity at 28 deg. C and pH 7.

  4. Chromate Reduction in Serratia marcescens Isolated from Tannery Effluent and Potential Application for Bioremediation of Chromate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mondaca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of aquatic systems by heavy metals has resulted in increasing environmental concern because they cannot be biodegraded. One metal that gives reason for concern due to its toxicity is chromium. Cr(VI and Cr(III are the principal forms of chromium found in natural waters. A chromate-resistant strain of the bacterium S. marcescens was isolated from tannery effluent. The strain was able to reduce Cr(VI to Cr(III, and about 80% of chromate was removed from the medium. The reduction seems to occur on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopic examination of cells revealed that particles were deposited on the outside of bacterial cells. A stable biofilm was formed in less than 10 h, reaching around 1010 cfu attached per milligram of activated carbon. These findings demonstrate that immobilized S. marcescens might be used in industrial waste treatment processes.

  5. Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiducci, S.

    1991-01-01

    A simple calculation of the contribution of quadrupoles and sextupoles to storage ring chromaticity is given. Problems arising from chromaticity carrection are discussed. An accurate derivation of chromaticity formulae for a general bending magnet, exact also for small machines with small radius of curvature, is given

  6. Electrochemical reduction of dilute chromate solutions on carbon felt electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, Hans; Barmashenko, Vladimir; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Carbon felt is a potential material for electrochemical reduction of chromates. Very dilute solutions may be efficiently treated due to its large specific surface area and high porosity. In this work, the up-scaling of this technology is investigated using a new type of separated cell and

  7. Chromate reduction and heavy metal fixation in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitzgebel, K.

    1992-06-01

    In situ reduction of chromates and the fixation of the metals Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni in soil was investigated using Fe II and soluble silica. Fe II fulfills two functions. It reduces chromates (CrVI) at soil pH to CrIII and the reaction products, Fe(OH) 3 and Cr(OH) 3 , coprecipitate/adsorb heavy metals. In the absence of CrVI iron is added as FeIII. Destabilized silica also fulfills two functions. It reacts with the metal and metal hydroxides and reduces the soil permeability. The leaching rate (mg/m 2 s) of a metal is the product of leachate flow rate (ell/M 2 s) and the leachate concentration (mg/ell). The leachate flow rate is directly proportional to the hydraulic coefficient (Darcy's Law). Treatment with destabilized silica reduces the hydraulic coefficient of virgin soil (K h = 10 -2 ...10 -4 ) to K h =10 -7 (cm/s) resulting in a flow rate reduction of 3--5 orders of magnitude. Iron plus silica treatment results in a leachate concentration reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude (Cr:95--99%;Pb:99%;Zn 95--99%; Cd:93--99%; Ni:75--94%). Combined effect of flow rate reduction and leachate concentration reduction results in a potential leaching rate reduction of five to seven orders of magnitude. Iron-silica treatment may be developed into an efficient containment technology, provided the silica gel integrity does not change with time

  8. Photon Sieve Bandwidth Broadening by Reduction of Chromatic Aberration Effects Using Second-Stage Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-086 PHOTON SIEVE BANDWIDTH BROADENING BY REDUCTION OF CHROMATIC ABERRATION...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-086 PHOTON SIEVE BANDWIDTH BROADENING BY REDUCTION OF CHROMATIC ABERRATION EFFECTS USING...A photon sieve is a lightweight diffractive optic which can be useful for space- based imaging applications. It is limited by chromatic

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Tan, Xiaoqing; Wu, Ying; Bai, Qunhua; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica , which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function.

  10. Cloning and sequence analysis demonstrate the chromate reduction ability of a novel chromate reductase gene from Serratia sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENG, PENG; TAN, XIAOQING; WU, YING; BAI, QUNHUA; JIA, YAN; XIAO, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The ChrT gene encodes a chromate reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Cr(VI). The chromate reductase is also known as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase (FMN_red). The aim of the present study was to clone the full-length ChrT DNA from Serratia sp. CQMUS2 and analyze the deduced amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. The putative ChrT gene fragment of Serratia sp. CQMUS2 was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the known FMN_red gene sequence from Serratia sp. AS13. The flanking sequences of the ChrT gene were obtained by high efficiency TAIL-PCR, while the full-length gene of ChrT was cloned in Escherichia coli for subsequent sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of ChrT was submitted onto GenBank under the accession number, KF211434. Sequence analysis of the gene and amino acids was conducted using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, and open reading frame (ORF) analysis was performed using ORF Finder software. The ChrT gene was found to be an ORF of 567 bp that encodes a 188-amino acid enzyme with a calculated molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. In addition, the ChrT protein was hypothesized to be an NADPH-dependent FMN_red and a member of the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. The amino acid sequence of ChrT showed high sequence similarity to the FMN reductase genes of Klebsiella pneumonia and Raoultella ornithinolytica, which belong to the flavodoxin-2 superfamily. Furthermore, ChrT was shown to have a 85.6% similarity to the three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli ChrR, sharing four common enzyme active sites for chromate reduction. Therefore, ChrT gene cloning and protein structure determination demonstrated the ability of the gene for chromate reduction. The results of the present study provide a basis for further studies on ChrT gene expression and protein function. PMID:25667630

  11. Hexavalent chromate reduction during growth and by immobilized cells of arthrobacter sp. suk 1205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Paul, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The chromate reducing actinomycetes, Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205, isolated from chromite mine overburden of Odisha, India exhibited significant chromate reduction during growth with characteristic formation of pale green insoluble precipitate. Reduction of chromate increased with increase in inoculum density but the reduction potential declined as and when Cr(VI) concentration in the medium was increased. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose were used as electron donors and pH and temperature were maintained at 7.0 and 35 degree C, respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II), Mn(II) and DNP. Among the matrices tested for whole cell immobilization, Ca-alginate immobilized whole cells were found to be most effective and were comparable with non-immobilized cells. Minimal salts (MS) medium was the most effective base for Cr(VI) reduction studies with immobilized cells. Under such conditions, the immobilized cells retained their enzymatic activity at least for 4 consecutive cycles indicating the potential of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1205 in bioremediation of environmental chromium pollution. (author)

  12. Chromate reduction is expedited by bacteria engineered to produce the compatible solute trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Tamlyn M; Taylor, Erin A; Willis, Jennifer L; Shultz, Matthew S; Woodruff, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    The toxicity and solubility of chromium(VI) can be decreased by certain microbes that reduce chromium(VI) to chromium(III). However, these bacteria do not escape unscathed from this process. Chromium(VI) reduction damages the essential macromolecules of living systems. Trehalose protects organisms from chemical stress but has not been tested in the context of bioremediation. We engineered bacteria to produce trehalose and found that they then reduced 1 mM chromium(VI) to chromium(III), whereas wild-type cells were only able to reduce half that amount. Thus, by providing bacteria with a biochemical defense against the side-effects of chromate reduction may be a new approach to cleaning up sites that are contaminated with high levels of chromate.

  13. Nitrate effects on chromate reduction in a methane-based biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liang; Lai, Chun-Yu; Shi, Ling-Dong; Wang, Kai-Di; Dai, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yao-Wei; Ma, Fang; Rittmann, Bruce E; Zheng, Ping; Zhao, He-Ping

    2017-05-15

    The effects of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) were studied when CH 4 was the sole electron donor supplied with a non-limiting delivery capacity. A high surface loading of NO 3 - gave significant and irreversible inhibition of Cr(VI) reduction. At a surface loading of 500 mg Cr/m 2 -d, the Cr(VI)-removal percentage was 100% when NO 3 - was absent (Stage 1), but was dramatically lowered to PCoA and UniFrac analyses proved that the introduction of NO 3 - had a strong impact on the microbial community in the biofilms, and the changes possibly were linked to the irreversible inhibition of Cr(VI) reduction. For example, Meiothermus, the main genus involved in Cr(VI) reduction at first, declined with introduction of NO 3 - . The denitrifier Chitinophagaceae was enriched after the addition of NO 3 - , while Pelomonas became important when nitrate was removed, suggesting its potential role as a Cr(VI) reducer. Moreover, introducing NO 3 - led to a decrease in the number of genes predicted (by PICRUSt) to be related to chromate reduction, but genes predicted to be related to denitrification, methane oxidation, and fermentation increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of chromate from electroplating wastewater from pH 1 to 2 using fluidized zero valent iron process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-S.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Li, C.-W.; Chai, P.-H.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Fluidized zero valent iron (ZVI) process was conducted to reduce hexavalent chromium (chromate, CrO 4 2- ) to trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) from electroplating wastewater due to the following reasons: (1) Extremely low pH (1-2) for the electroplating wastewater favoring the ZVI reaction. (2) The ferric ion, produced from the reaction of Cr(VI) and ZVI, can act as a coagulant to assist the precipitation of Cr(OH) 3(s) to save the coagulant cost. (3) Higher ZVI utilization for fluidized process due to abrasive motion of the ZVI. For influent chromate concentration of 418 mg/L as Cr 6+ , pH 2 and ZVI dosage of 3 g (41 g/L), chromate removal was only 29% with hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 1.2 min, but was increased to 99.9% by either increasing HRT to 5.6 min or adjusting pH to 1.5. For iron species at pH 2 and HRT of 1.2 min, Fe 3+ was more thermodynamically stable since oxidizing agent chromate was present. However, if pH was adjusted to 1.5 or 1, where chromate was completely removed, high Fe 2+ but very low Fe 3+ was present. It can be explained that ZVI reacted with chromate to produce Fe 2+ first and the presence of chromate would keep converting Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ . Therefore, Fe 2+ is an indicator for complete reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(III). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to exam the remained species at pH 2. ZVI, iron oxide and iron sulfide were observed, indicating the formation of iron oxide or iron sulfide could stop the chromate reduction reaction

  15. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium and Detection of Chromate Reductase (ChrR in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Baldiris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An Gram negative strain of S. maltophilia, indigenous to environments contaminated by Cr(VI and identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene analysis, reduced chromate by 100%, 98–99% and 92% at concentrations in the 10–70, 80–300, and 500 mg/L range, respectively at pH 7 and temperature 37 °C. Increasing concentrations of Cr(VI in the medium lowered the growth rate but could not be directly correlated with the amount of Cr(VI reduced. The strain also exhibited multiple resistance to antibiotics and tolerance and resistance to various heavy metals (Ni, Zn and Cu, with the exception of Hg. Hexavalent chromium reduction was mainly associated with the soluble fraction of the cell evaluated with crude cell-free extracts. A protein of molecular weight around 25 kDa was detected on SDS-PAGE gel depending on the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the medium (0, 100 and 500 mg/L. In silico analysis in this contribution, revealed the presence of the chromate reductase gene ChrR in S. maltophilia, evidenced through a fragment of around 468 bp obtained experimentally. High Cr(VI concentration resistance and high Cr(VI reducing ability of the strain make it a suitable candidate for bioremediation.

  16. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Satarupa, E-mail: dey1919@gmail.com [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Paul, A.K., E-mail: amalk_paul@yahoo.co.in [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 10{sup 10} cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise

  17. Microbial minimalism: genome reduction in bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy A

    2002-03-08

    When bacterial lineages make the transition from free-living or facultatively parasitic life cycles to permanent associations with hosts, they undergo a major loss of genes and DNA. Complete genome sequences are providing an understanding of how extreme genome reduction affects evolutionary directions and metabolic capabilities of obligate pathogens and symbionts.

  18. Chromate (CrO2-4) Reduction in Groundwaters by Using Reductive Bacteria in Fixed-Bed Bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia-Brunet, F.; Foucher, S.; Morin, D.; Ignatiadis, I.

    2004-01-01

    A biological method for the reduction Cr(VI), using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was tested in 2-L then 20-L fixed-bed reactors, with H 2 as a low-cost and clean substrate. The systems were inoculated with Desulfomicrobium norvegicum, that proved to be particularly efficient for direct Cr(VI) enzymatic reduction. The bacterial reduction was efficient when some SO 2- 4 was provided in the feeding, in order to allow their growth and to combine the direct enzymatic reduction to the indirect chemical reduction by dissolved H 2 S. The Cr(VI)/SO 2- 4 , ratio in the influent was adjusted in order to avoid excess sulphide production. A real polluted groundwater and an industrial electroplating effluent were treated in the 20-L pilot plant

  19. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, Flynn William [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using 14C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  20. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  1. Ponceau 6R dye decoloration and chromate reduction simultaneously in acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddique M. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation efficiency and kinetic degradation reaction of Ponceau 6R dye using potassium chromate have been investigated under various experimental conditions: different concentrations of H2SO4 and temperatures. The immediate change of the red coloration (λmax = 518 nm to colorless was observed after addition of inorganic oxidizing agent (K2CrO4 into the protonated form of Ponceau 6R dye after 48 h. This observation could be attributed to the highest oxidized form of this dye obtained (the quinoid one, which undergoes a hydrolysis reaction to produce p-hydroquinone (H2Q by a mechanism similar to Schiff-base hydrolysis. The cationic form of this matrix is a crucial feature for the hydrolysis process. A kinetic model for oxidation of Ponceau 6R by the combination of chromate was developed based on experimental results. The observed kinetic reaction coefficient was determined and correlated as a function of UV spectral intensity of Ponceau 6R at 518 nm. The degradation rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dye concentration.

  2. Reduction of chromatic aberration influences in vertical scanning white-light interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Peter; Kühnhold, Peter; Xie, Weichang

    2014-01-01

    Vertical scanning white-light interferometry (SWLI) is a well-established method that is widely used in high precision surface topography measurement. However, SWLI results show characteristic slope-dependent errors due to dispersion effects and lateral chromatic aberrations of the optical imaging system. In this paper, we present methods to characterize these systematic errors related to dispersion and lateral colour. Lateral colour leads to field-dependent systematic discrepancies of the topography data obtained from the envelope position of a low-coherence interference signal and the data resulting from its interference phase. Hence, an erroneous fringe order obtained from the envelope position leads to a 2π phase jump and thus to a so-called ghost step in the measured topography. Our first approach to solve this problem is based on the measurement of a surface standard of well-known geometry. By comparison of measurement results related to the envelope position and the phase of SWLI signals, the systematic error is estimated and a numerical error compensation method is proposed. Both experimental and simulation results confirm the validity of this numerical method. In addition, using an improved design of a white-light Michelson interferometer we demonstrate experimentally that lateral chromatic aberrations and dispersion influences can be reduced also in a physical way. In this context, a conventional long working distance microscope objective is used which was not originally designed for a Michelson interference microscope. (paper)

  3. Potential Remobilization of Toxic Anions during Reduction of Arsenated and Chromated Schwertmannite by the Dissimilatory Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenspurg, Simona; Goessner, Anita; Peiffer, Stefan; Kuesel, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    Schwertmannite, an iron(III)-oxyhydroxysulfate formed in acidic mining-impacted stream or lake waters often contaminated with toxic elements like arsenate or chromate, is able to incorporate high amounts of these oxyanions. Detoxification of the water might be achieved if precipitated arsenated or chromated schwertmannite is fixed in the sediment. However, under reduced conditions, reductive dissolution of iron oxides mediated by the activity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria might mobilize arsenate and chromate again. In this study, the reduction of synthesized arsenated or chromated schwertmannite by the acidophilic Fe(III)-reducer Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, isolated from an acidic mining-impacted sediment, was investigated. In TSB medium at pH 2.7 with glucose as electron donor, A. cryptum JF-5 reduced about 10% of the total Fe(III) present in pure synthetic schwertmannite but only 5% of Fe(III) present in arsenated schwertmannite. In contrast to sulfate that was released during the reductive dissolution of pure schwertmannite, arsenate was not released during the reduction of arsenated schwertmannite probably due to the high surface complexation constant of arsenate and Fe(III). In medium containing chromated schwertmannite, no Fe(II) was formed, and no glucose was consumed indicating that chromate might have been toxic to cells of A. cryptum JF-5. Both As(V) or Cr(VI) could not be utilized as electron acceptor by A. cryptum JF-5. A comparison between autoclaved (121 o C for 20 min) and non-autoclaved schwertmannite samples demonstrated that nearly 100%of the bound sulfate was released during heating, and FTIR spectra indicated a transformation of schwertmannite to goethite. This structural change was not observed with autoclaved arsenated or chromated schwertmannite. These results suggest that the mobility of arsenate and chromate is not enhanced by the activity of acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in mining-impacted sediments. In contrast, the presence of

  4. Beneficial role of hydrophytes in removing Cr(VI) from wastewater in association with chromate-reducing bacterial strains Ochrobactrum intermedium and Brevibacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the use of three chromium-resistant bacterial strains (Ochrobactrum intermedium CrT-1, Brevibacterium CrT-13, and CrM-1) in conjunction with Eichornia crassipes for the removal of toxic chromium from wastewater. Bacterial strains resulted in reduced uptake of chromate into inoculated plants as compared to noninoculated control plants. In the presence of different heavy metals, chromium uptake into the plants was 28.7 and 7.15% less at an initial K2CrO4 concentration of 100 and 500 microg ml(-1) in comparison to a metal free chromium solution. K2CrO4 uptake into the plant occurred at different pHs tested, but maximum uptake was observed at pH 5. Nevertheless, the bacterial strains caused some decrease in chromate uptake into the plants, but the combined effect of plants and bacterial strains conduce more removal of Cr(VI) from the solution.

  5. Chromatic completion

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    We study the limit of the chromatic tower for not necessarily finite spectra, obtaining a generalization of the chromatic convergence theorem of Hopkins and Ravenel. Moreover, we prove that in general this limit does not coincide with harmonic localization, thereby answering a question of Ravenel's.

  6. Reduction and immobilization of chromate in chromite ore processing residue with nanoscale zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jingjing; Lu, Jinsuo; Wu, Qiong; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► COPR remediation mechanism using nZVI was investigated. ► PHREEQC model calculation agreed well with our GANC experimental results. ► Incubation COPR and nZVI with >27% water content could reduce Cr(VI) in solids. ► Water content is the key factor to assist electron transfer between nZVI and COPR. - Abstract: Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) poses a great environmental and health risk with persistent Cr(VI) leaching. To reduce Cr(VI) and subsequently immobilize in the solid matrix, COPR was incubated with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and the Cr(VI) speciation and leachability were studied. Multiple complementary analysis methods including leaching tests, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the immobilization mechanism. Geochemical PHREEQC model calculation agreed well with our acid neutralizing capacity experimental results and confirmed that when pH was lowered from 11.7 to 7.0, leachate Cr(VI) concentrations were in the range 358–445 mg L −1 which contributed over 90% of dissolved Cr from COPR. Results of alkaline digestion, XANES, and XPS demonstrated that incubation COPR with nZVI under water content higher than 27% could result in a nearly complete Cr(VI) reduction in solids and less than 0.1 mg L −1 Cr(VI) in the TCLP leachate. The results indicated that remediation approaches using nZVI to reduce Cr(VI) in COPR should be successful with sufficient water content to facilitate electron transfer from nZVI to COPR.

  7. Skew chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Dell, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The on-momentum description of linear coupling between horizontal and vertical betatron motion is extended to include off-momentum particles, introducing a vector quantity called the ''skew chromaticity''. This vector tends to be long in large superconducting storage rings, where it restricts the available working space in the tune plane, and modifies collective effect stability criteria. Skew chromaticity measurements at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) and at the Fermilab Tevatron are reported, as well as tracking results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The observation of anomalous head-tail beam Iowa new the tune diagonal in the Tevatron are explained in terms of the extended theory, including modified criteria for headtail stability. These results are confirmed in head-tail simulations. Sources of skew chromaticity are investigated

  8. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  9. Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Carroll, S. L.; Kennedy, David W.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid kinetics of bacterial U(VI) reduction and low solubility of uraninite (UO2,cr) make this process an attractive option for removing uranium from groundwater. Nevertheless, conditions that may promote or inhibit U(VI) reduction are not well-defined. Recent descriptions of Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes indicate that these species may dominate the aqueous speciation of U(VI) in many environments. We monitored the bacterial reduction of U(VI) in bicarbonate-buffered solution in the presence and absence of Ca. XAFS measurements confirmed the presence of a Ca-U(VI)-CO3 complex in the initial solutions containing calcium. Calcium, at millimolar concentrations (0.45-5 mM), caused a significant decrease in the rate and extent of bacterial U(VI) reduction. Both facultative (Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32) and obligate (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Geobacter sulfurreducens) anaerobic bacteria were affected by the presence of calcium. Reduction of U(VI) ceased when the calculated system Eh re ached -0.046+/- 0.001 V, based on the Ca2UO2(CO3)(3) -- > UO2,cr couple. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that U is a less energetically favorable electron acceptor when the Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes are present. The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O-4(-) under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca

  10. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  11. Bacterial reduction of mercury in the high arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Annette Klæstrup

    than the rare phyla, suggesting that the ecological success of a bacterial phylum depends on the diversity rather than the dominance of a few genera. The most dominant phyla included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes in the snow and Proteobacteria......, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes in freshwater. The bacteria identified in this study both included phylotypes commonly found in cold environments as well as rare phylotypes. During the time of sampling atmospheric ozone measurements and total Hg measurements in the snow indicated......, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. It was found that 25% of the isolates resistant to Hg also reduced HgII to Hg0, although there was no correlation between level of resistance, ability to reduce HgII, and taxonomic group. An estimation of the potential bacterial reduction of HgII in snow...

  12. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. NF ISO 7097-1. Nuclear fuel technology - Uranium dosimetry in solutions, in uranium hexafluoride and in solids - Part 1: reduction with iron (II) / oxidation with potassium bi-chromate / titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This standard document describes the mode of operation of three different methods for the quantitative dosimetry of uranium in solutions, in UF 6 and in solids: reduction by iron (II), oxidation by potassium bi-chromate and titration. (J.S.)

  14. Thermal reactions of some calcium, strontium, and barium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarska-Piesse, B.; Gontarz, Z.; Ostrowski, A.; Kucharski, R.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of calcium chromates and solid state reactions of barium and strontium chromates(VI) with barium and strontium hydroxides and carbonates, as well as the reduction of chromates by carbon and hydrogen, have been investigated. The mechanisms of individual stages of the thermal decomposition have been proposed on the basis of morphological classification. (author)

  15. Bacterial reduction by cell salvage washing and leukocyte depletion filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan H; Tuohy, Marion J; Hobson, Donna F; Procop, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Blood conservation techniques are being increasingly used because of the increased cost and lack of availability of allogeneic blood. Cell salvage offers great blood savings opportunities but is thought to be contraindicated in a number of areas (e.g., blood contaminated with bacteria). Several outcome studies have suggested the safety of this technique in trauma and colorectal surgery, but many practitioners are still hesitant to apply cell salvage in the face of frank bacterial contamination. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of bacterial removal when cell salvage was combined with leukocyte depletion filtration. Expired packed erythrocytes were obtained and inoculated with a fixed amount of a stock bacteria (Escherichia coli American Type Culture Collections [ATCC] 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, or Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285) in amounts ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 colony forming units/ml. The blood was processed via a cell salvage machine. The washed blood was then filtered using a leukocyte reduction filter. The results for blood taken during each step of processing were compared using a repeated-measures design. Fifteen units of blood were contaminated with each of the stock bacteria. From the prewash sample to the postfiltration sample, 99.0%, 99.6%, 100%, and 97.6% of E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. fragilis were removed, respectively. Significant but not complete removal of contaminating bacteria was seen. An increased level of patient safety may be added to cell salvage by including a leukocyte depletion filter when salvaging blood that might be grossly contaminated with bacteria.

  16. Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

  17. Chromatic polynomials for simplicial complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper Michael; Nord, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider s s -chromatic polynomials for finite simplicial complexes. When s=1 s=1 , the 1 1 -chromatic polynomial is just the usual graph chromatic polynomial of the 1 1 -skeleton. In general, the s s -chromatic polynomial depends on the s s -skeleton and its value at r...

  18. Enzymatic Reductive Dehalogenation Controls the Biosynthesis of Marine Bacterial Pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Rahman, Imran; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-10-12

    Enzymes capable of performing dehalogenating reactions have attracted tremendous contemporary attention due to their potential application in the bioremediation of anthropogenic polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants. Nature, in particular the marine environment, is also a prolific source of polyhalogenated organic natural products. The study of the biosynthesis of these natural products has furnished a diverse array of halogenation biocatalysts, but thus far no examples of dehalogenating enzymes have been reported from a secondary metabolic pathway. Here we show that the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the highly brominated marine bacterial product pentabromopseudilin is catalyzed by an unusual debrominase Bmp8 that utilizes a redox thiol mechanism to remove the C-2 bromine atom of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromopyrrole to facilitate oxidative coupling to 2,4-dibromophenol. To the best of our knowledge, Bmp8 is first example of a dehalogenating enzyme from the established genetic and biochemical context of a natural product biosynthetic pathway.

  19. Fructose-enhanced reduction of bacterial growth on nanorough surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmus NG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Naside Gozde Durmus1, Erik N Taylor1, Fatih Inci3,4, Kim M Kummer1, Keiko M Tarquinio5, Thomas J Webster1,21School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA; 4Istanbul Technical University, Molecular Biology-Genetics and Biotechnology Program, Mobgam, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Patients on mechanical ventilators for extended periods of time often face the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. During the ventilation process, patients incapable of breathing are intubated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC endotracheal tubes (ETTs. PVC ETTs provide surfaces where bacteria can attach and proliferate from the contaminated oropharyngeal space to the sterile bronchoalveolar area. To overcome this problem, ETTs can be coated with antimicrobial agents. However, such coatings may easily delaminate during use. Recently, it has been shown that changes in material topography at the nanometer level can provide antibacterial properties. In addition, some metabolites, such as fructose, have been found to increase the efficiency of antibiotics used to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections. In this study, we combined the antibacterial effect of nanorough ETT topographies with sugar metabolites to decrease bacterial growth and biofilm formation on ETTs. We present for the first time that the presence of fructose on the nanorough surfaces decreases the number of planktonic S. aureus bacteria in the solution and biofilm formation on the surface after 24 hours. We thus envision that this method has the potential to impact the future of surface engineering of

  20. Hexavalent chromium reduction by bacterial consortia and pure strains from an alkaline industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón-Castillo, H A; Brito, E M S; Goñi-Urriza, M; Guyoneaud, R; Duran, R; Nevarez-Moorillon, G V; Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Caretta, C A; Reyna-López, G E

    2010-12-01

    To characterize the bacterial consortia and isolates selected for their role in hexavalent chromium removal by adsorption and reduction. Bacterial consortia from industrial wastes revealed significant Cr(VI) removal after 15 days when incubated in medium M9 at pH 6·5 and 8·0. The results suggested chromium reduction. The bacterial consortia diversity (T-RFLP based on 16S rRNA gene) indicated a highest number of operational taxonomic units in an alkaline carbonate medium mimicking in situ conditions. However, incubations under such conditions revealed low Cr(VI) removal. Genomic libraries were obtained for the consortia exhibiting optimal Cr(VI) removal (M9 medium at pH 6·5 and 8·0). They revealed the dominance of 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the genera Pseudomonas/Stenotrophomonas or Enterobacter/Halomonas, respectively. Isolates related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter aerogenes were efficient in Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption to the biomass. Cr(VI) reduction was better at neutral pH rather than under in situ conditions (alkaline pH with carbonate). Isolated strains exhibited significant capacity for Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption. Bacterial communities from chromium-contaminated industrial wastes as well as isolates were able to remove Cr(VI). The results suggest a good potential for bioremediation of industrial wastes when optimal conditions are applied. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Mexican Government works.

  1. Bacterial sulfate reduction in hydrothermal sediments of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, A.; Jørgensen, BB

    2002-01-01

    Depth distribution and temperature dependence of bacterial sulfate reduction were studied in hydrothermal surface sediments of the southern trough of the Guaymas Basin at 2000 m water depth. In situ temperatures ranged from 2.8 degreesC at the sediment surface to > 130degreesC at 30 cm depth in t...

  2. Chromatic analysis and possible local chromatic correction in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we will answer the following questions for the RHIC polarized proton (p-p) and Au-Au run lattices: (1) what are the sources of second order chromaticities? (2) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on the on-momentum β-beat? (3) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on β* at IP6 and IP8? To answer these questions, we use the perturbation theory to numerically calculate the contributions of each quadrupole and sextupole to the first, second, and third order chromaticities. Possible local methods to reduce chromatic effects in RHIC ring are shortly discussed.

  3. Role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, J.T.; Berner, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory study of the bacterial decomposition of Long Island Sound plankton in oxygenated seawater over a period of 2 years shows that the organic material undergoes decomposition via first-order kinetics and can be divided into two decomposable fractions, of considerably different reactivity, and a nonmetabolized fraction. This planktonic material, after undergoing varying degrees of oxic degradation, was added in the laboratory to anoxic sediment taken from a depth of 1 m at the NWC site of Long Island Sound and the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment measured by the 35 S radiotracer technique. The stimulated rate of sulfate reduction was in direct proportion to the amount of planktonic carbon added. This provides direct confirmation of the first-order decomposition, or G model, for marine sediments and proves that the in situ rate of sulfate reduction is organic-matter limited. Slower sulfate reduction rates resulted when oxically degraded plankton rather than fresh plankton was added, and the results confirm the presence of the same two fractions of organic matter deduced from the oxic degradation studies. Near-surface Long Island Sound sediment, which already contains abundant readily decomposable organic matter, was also subjected to anoxic decomposition by bacterial sulfate reduction. The decrease in sulfate reduction rate with time parallels decreases in the amount of organic matter, and these results also indicate the presence of two fractions of organic carbon of distinctly different reactivity. From plots of the log of reduction rate vs. time two first-order rate constants were obtained that agree well with those derived from the plankton addition experiment. Together, the two experiments confirm the use of a simple multi-first-order rate law for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments

  4. Chromatic graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chartrand, Gary; Rosen, Kenneth H

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the origin of the four color problem in 1852, the field of graph colorings has developed into one of the most popular areas of graph theory. Introducing graph theory with a coloring theme, Chromatic Graph Theory explores connections between major topics in graph theory and graph colorings as well as emerging topics. This self-contained book first presents various fundamentals of graph theory that lie outside of graph colorings, including basic terminology and results, trees and connectivity, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matchings and factorizations, and graph embeddings. The remainder of the text deals exclusively with graph colorings. It covers vertex colorings and bounds for the chromatic number, vertex colorings of graphs embedded on surfaces, and a variety of restricted vertex colorings. The authors also describe edge colorings, monochromatic and rainbow edge colorings, complete vertex colorings, several distinguishing vertex and edge colorings, and many distance-related vertex coloring...

  5. NF ISO 7097-1. Nuclear fuel technology - Uranium dosimetry in solutions, in uranium hexafluoride and in solids - Part 1: reduction with iron (II) / oxidation with potassium bi-chromate / titration method; NF ISO 7097-1. Technologie du combustible nucleaire. Dosage de l'uranium dans des solutions, l'hexafluorure d'uranium et des solides. Partie 1: reduction par fer (II) / oxydation par bichromate de potassium / methode par titrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This standard document describes the mode of operation of three different methods for the quantitative dosimetry of uranium in solutions, in UF{sub 6} and in solids: reduction by iron (II), oxidation by potassium bi-chromate and titration. (J.S.)

  6. Chromates (3) and chromates (5) of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Data on preparation methods, structure and properties of chromates (3, 5) and mixed chromates (3) of rare earths, scandium and yttrium are generalized. Phase diagrams of systems Ln 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 (Ln - rare earths, Sc, Y), chemical and thermodynamic properties of chromates (3, 5), their crystal structure and character of thermal decomposition are considered. Application fields of the compounds mentioned are suggested

  7. Effect of chromate action on morphology of basalt-inhabiting bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhang; Zhu Ying; Kalabegishvili, Tamaz L.; Tsibakhashvili, Nelly Y.; Holman, Hoi-Ying

    2006-01-01

    Basalt-inhabiting bacteria isolated from polluted basalts have been demonstrated to be able to tolerate moderate to high concentrations of chromium oxyanions such as chromate. Previous results have shown that macromolecules outside the cell wall of bacteria may play an important role in this survival ability. In this paper, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were applied to study the chromate-induced morphological changes in chromate-resistant basalt-inhabiting Arthrobacter K-2 and K-4, which were isolated from the Republic of Georgia. The surfaces of both strains changed in the presence of chromate. TEM thin sections show that chromate stimulates the appearance of bacteria capsular polysaccharide outside the cell wall, although the chromate concentration does not have a strong effect on the capsular thickness. These results, in conjunction with those reported earlier, provide direct evidence to show that capsular polysaccharides of the bacteria play very important role for the reduction and localization of chromate

  8. Physical and photoelectrochemical properties of Sb-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition: application to chromate reduction under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outemzabet, R.; Doulache, M.; Trari, M.

    2015-05-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 thin films (Sb-SnO2) are prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The X-ray diffraction indicates a rutile phase, and the SEM analysis shows pyramidal grains whose size extends up to 200 nm. The variation of the film thickness shows that the elaboration technique needs to be optimized to give reproducible layers. The films are transparent over the visible region. The dispersion of the optical indices is evaluated by fitting the diffuse reflectance data with the Drude-Lorentz model. The refractive index ( n) and absorption coefficient ( k) depend on both the conditions of preparation and of the doping concentration and vary between 1.4 and 2.0 and 0.2 and 0.01, respectively. Tin oxide is nominally non-stoichiometric, and the conduction is dominated by thermally electrons jump with an electron mobility of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Sb-SnO2 (1 %). The ( C 2- V) characteristic in aqueous electrolyte exhibits a linear behavior from which an electrons density of 4.15 × 1018 cm-3 and a flat-band potential of -0.83 V SCE are determined. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows a semicircle attributed to a capacitive behavior with a low density of surface states. The center lies below the real axis with a depletion angle (12°), due to a constant phase element, i.e., a deviation from a pure capacitive behavior, presumably attributed to the roughness and porosity of the film. The straight line at low frequencies is attributed to the Warburg diffusion. The energy diagram reveals the photocatalytic feasibility of Sb-SnO2. As application, 90 % of the chromate concentration (20 mg L-1, pH ~3) disappears after 6 h of exposure to solar light.

  9. [New container of sample: role in the reduction of bacterial contamination of standard platelet units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, S; Tazi, I; Loukhmass, L; Benchemsi, N

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of unstable blood products constitutes today the most frequent infectious risk transmitted by blood transfusion. Platelet concentrates are often incrimineted. As responsible germs are in general of cutaneous origin, a sample procedure with diversion of the first 20 ml during blood donation is studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of this technique on bacterial contamination rate of standard platelet units prepared at the regional blood transfusion center in Casablanca. A comparative study of two types of sample pockets is made: 500 Standard Platelet concentrates (CPS) are prepared after collection using standard triple bags (Baxter) (group 1) and 560 pockets of CPS were prepared after collection using triple bags with Sample Diversion Pouch sampling system for elimination of the first 20 ml of donation (Macopharma and Terumo) (group 2). The skin was disinfected in two times with alcohol 70%. The bacteriological study was made in the two groups at the third day of conservation. Six CPS of group 1 were contaminated, of which five were staphylococci coagulase negative and one bacillus sp. Six CPS of group 2 were contaminated, of which five were staphylococci coagulase negative and one staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria isolated were those of cutaneous flora at 100%. Diversion of first 20 ml of blood donation results in a 16.6% reduction in bacterial contamination of CPS (P>0.05). The non-significant reduction in the prevalence of the bacterial infection of CP formulates the problem of the indication of the sampling devices with derivation of first 20 ml during blood collection.

  10. Calcium chromate process related investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    A pilot plant for production of calcium chromate has been scaled up to a small production facility at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department. In preparation for this scale-up, the process and final product were studied in order to evaluate problems not considered previously. The variables and processes studied included: (1) the determination of optimum drying temperature and time for product analysis; (2) the effect of the grade of lime used as the precipitating agent on the purity of the calcium chromate; (3) product purity when calcium chromate is precipitated by the addition of ammonium chromate to slaked lime; (4) the reagents best suited for cleaning calcium chromate spills; and (5) methods for determining hydroxide ion concentration in calcium chromate. The optimum drying time for the product before analysis is four hours at 600 0 C. Gases evolved at various temperatures during the drying process were carbon dioxide and water vapor. Technical grade lime produced calcium chromate of the highest purity. Both nitric and acetic acids were efficient dissolvers of calcium chromate spills. Direct titration of hydroxide ion with sulfuric acid gave an average recovery of 93% for samples spiked with calcium hydroxide. 1 figure, 17 tables

  11. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  12. Regulation of bacterial sulfate reduction and hydrogen sulfide fluxes in the central Namibian coastal upwelling zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruchert, V.; Jørgensen, BB; Neumann, K.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system off central Namibia is one of the most productive regions of the oceans and is characterized by frequently occurring shelf anoxia with severe effects for the benthic life and fisheries. We present data on water column dissolved oxygen, sulfide, nitrate and nitrite, pore......-depleted bottom waters, the oxygen minimum zone on the continental slope, and the lower continental slope below the oxygen minimum zone. High concentrations of dissolved sulfide, up to 22 mM, in the near-surface sediments of the inner shelf result from extremely high rates of bacterial sulfate reduction...

  13. Stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction is controlled by reoxidation of intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald; Einsiedl, Florian

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction is one of the most important respiration processes in anoxic habitats and is often assessed by analyzing the results of stable isotope fractionation. However, stable isotope fractionation is supposed to be influenced by the reduction rate and other parameters, such as temperature. We studied here the mechanistic basics of observed differences in stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction. Batch experiments with four sulfate-reducing strains ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfobacca acetoxidans, Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, and strain TRM1) were performed. These microorganisms metabolize different carbon sources (lactate, acetate, formate, and toluene) and showed broad variations in their sulfur isotope enrichment factors. We performed a series of experiments on isotope exchange of 18O between residual sulfate and ambient water. Batch experiments were conducted with 18O-enriched (δ 18O water = +700‰) and depleted water (δ 18O water = -40‰), respectively, and the stable 18O isotope shift in the residual sulfate was followed. For Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, which are both characterized by low sulfur isotope fractionation ( ɛS > -13.2‰), δ 18O values in the remaining sulfate increased by only 50‰ during growth when 18O-enriched water was used for the growth medium. In contrast, with Desulfobacca acetoxidans and strain TRM1 ( ɛS factor ( ɛS exchange with water during sulfate reduction. However, this neither takes place in the sulfate itself nor during formation of APS (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate), but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway. These may in turn be partially reoxidized to form sulfate. This reoxidation leads to an incorporation of oxygen from water into the "recycled" sulfate changing the overall 18O isotopic composition of the remaining sulfate fraction. Our study shows that such incorporation of 18O is correlated with the

  14. Roots of the Chromatic Polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    The chromatic polynomial of a graph G is a univariate polynomial whose evaluation at any positive integer q enumerates the proper q-colourings of G. It was introduced in connection with the famous four colour theorem but has recently found other applications in the field of statistical physics...... extend Thomassen’s technique to the Tutte polynomial and as a consequence, deduce a density result for roots of the Tutte polynomial. This partially answers a conjecture of Jackson and Sokal. Finally, we refocus our attention on the chromatic polynomial and investigate the density of chromatic roots...

  15. Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Alessandra; Araujo Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries. Twenty four rats were orally inoculated with Streptococcus mutans cells (ATCC 25175) for three consecutive days. The animals were fed with a cariogenic diet and water with 10% of sucrose ad libitum, during all experimental period. Caries lesion formation was confirmed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 5 days after the beginning of the experiment. Then, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: Control Group: twelve animals were untreated by either light or photosensitizer; and PDT Group: twelve animals were treated with 100μM of methylene blue for 5min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) at λ = 640+/-30nm, fluence of 172J/cm2, output power of 240mW, and exposure time of 3min. Microbiological samples were collected before, immediately after, 3, 7 and 10 days after treatment and the number of total microaerophiles was counted. OCT images showed areas of enamel demineralization on rat molars. Microbiological analysis showed a significant bacterial reduction after PDT. Furthermore, the number of total microaerophiles in PDT group remained lower than control group until 10 days posttreatment. These findings suggest that PDT could be an alternative approach to reduce bacteria in dental caries.

  16. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to discriminate among different sorption sites of micas: With implications for heterogeneous reduction of chromate at the mica-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, E.S.; Moses, C.O.; Veblen, D.R.

    2000-04-01

    This contribution uses Cr2p and 3p binding energies (BEs) determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to distinguish Cr{sup III} sorbed to different mica sorption sites. The results were used to better understand mechanisms for coupled sorption-reduction of Cr{sub (aq)}{sup VI} by ferrous micas. The research is important because: (1) Cr contamination is a serious and wide spread problem associated with a variety of industries; (2) Micas are important sorbents for Cr because they are ubiquitous, sorb cations and anions over a wide range of pH, and participate in heterogeneous redox reactions via structural Fe{sup II} and FE{sup III}; and (3) The mobility of cations sorbed by micas will depend, in part, on the dominant sorption site. Micas (two biotites, end member phologopite and muscovite) were reacted with Cr{sup III} solutions that contained variable concentrations of NaCl and KCl. Samples were extracted at times intervals and mica edge orientations were analyzed by ZPS. Cr{sub (aq)}{sup III} sorption was greater in Cr{sup III}-NaCl solutions relative to Cr{sup III}-KCl solutions. Cr2p and 3p BEs were bracketed by those for Cr{sup III} in the structure of silicates and in Cr{sup III}-oxyhydroxides. The BE of Cr{sup III} sorbed to micas was higher by about 0.3 eV after reaction with Cr{sup III}-NaCl solutions compared to Cr{sup III}-KCl aqueous solutions. At the experimental conditions, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} differentially block permanent charge sites but not variably charged edge sites of micas. Using the constraints inherent in the experimental design, the authors interpret the difference in CR{sup III} BE between the Cr{sup III}-NaCl and Cr{sup III}-KCl experiments to reflect a change in the dominant sorption site, where high and low Cr BEs indicate Cr sorbed by the interlamellar region and variably charged functional groups at mica edges, respectively. They conclude that small BE shifts for cations sorbed to silicates can be interpreted with

  17. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the correct interpolation method is described. For the chromatic issues of calibration we present the acquisition of colour and multi-spectral images, the chromatic aberrations and the various lens/camera based non-uniformities of the illumination of the image plane. It is described how the monochromatic...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...

  18. Exploring a Chromatic Oblique Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curran, Paul

    1997-01-01

    .... The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the role of certain spatial, temporal, and chromatic features on the human visual system and how these features may aid the quest for better camouflage. Methods...

  19. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ziuzina

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated 'inpack' using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence

  20. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bussel, Frank; Fliegner, Denny; Timme, Marc; Ehrlich, Christoph; Stolzenberg, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

  1. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

    2017-05-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses.

  2. Optimizing Chromatic Coupling Measurement in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing chromatic coupling measurement in the LHC Chromatic coupling introduces a dependency of transverse coupling with energy. LHC is equipped with skew sextupoles to compensate the possible adverse effects of chromatic coupling. In 2012 a beam-based correction was calculated and applied successfully for the fist time. However, the method used to reconstruct the chromatic coupling was dependent on stable tunes and equal chromaticities between the horizontal and vertical planes. In this article an improved method to calculate the chromatic coupling without these constraints is presented.

  3. Chromatic effects in the superconducting accelerator NUCLOTRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study of the chromatic effects in the superconducting heavy ion synchrotron NUCLOTRON in the JINR, Dubna has been performed. The natural chromaticity has been evaluated taking into account the effect of the dipole magnets. The impact of the systematic and random imperfections in the magnetic field of dipoles on the chromaticity and the dependence of the betatron tunes on the amplitude of oscillations have been investigated. The strengths of the sextupole corrections necessary to cancel the chromaticity have been calculated. The chromatic perturbations have been studied by the means of the Montague chromatic functions (author)

  4. Source of second order chromaticity in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this note we will answer the following questions: (1) what is the source of second order chromaticities in RHIC? (2) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on the on-momentum β-beat? (3) what is the dependence of second order chromaticity on β* at IP6 and IP8? To answer these questions, we use the perturbation theory to numerically calculate the contributions of each quadrupole and sextupole to the first, second, and third order chromaticities.

  5. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  6. Removal of chromate in a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Locht, T

    2002-01-01

    Chromate is a commonly found groundwater contaminant. Permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron as iron filings are able to remove the chromate by a combined reduction/precipitation reaction. However, due to the passivation of the reduction capability of the iron surfaces by the pre......). Mixing in sand had no significant enhancing effect on the removal capacity, in contrast to a pH adjustment of the groundwater to pH 4, which significantly increased the removal capacity....

  7. CHROMATE INHIBITION OF THE LOCALIZED CORROSION OF ALUMINUM: MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL TRANSIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, K.; ISAACS, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the inhibition by chromate ions of the localized corrosion of aluminum by electrochemical transient measurements. In agreement with other work, the measurements demonstrated that chromate is a cathodic inhibitor for aluminum in open circuit. The reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium is assumed to take place on catalyzed sites of the surface. The resulting products inhibit oxygen reduction reactions at these sites, thereby retarding pitting corrosion

  8. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  9. Bacterial Disproportionation of Elemental Sulfur Coupled to Chemical Reduction of Iron or Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S0) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that S0 was microbially disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O → SO42- + 3H2S + 2H+. Subsequent chemical reactions between the formed sulfide and the added FeOOH led to the observed precipitation of iron sulfides. Sulfate and iron sulfides were also produced when FeOOH was replaced by FeCO3. Further enrichment with manganese oxide, MnO2, instead of FeOOH yielded stable cultures which formed sulfate during concomitant reduction of MnO2 to Mn2+. Growth of small rod-shaped bacteria was observed. When incubated without MnO2, the culture did not grow but produced small amounts of SO42- and H2S at a ratio of 1:3, indicating again a disproportionation of S0. The observed microbial disproportionation of S0 only proceeds significantly in the presence of sulfide-scavenging agents such as iron and manganese compounds. The population density of bacteria capable of S0 disproportionation in the presence of FeOOH or MnO2 was high, > 104 cm-3 in coastal sediments. The metabolism offers an explanation for recent observations of anaerobic sulfide oxidation to sulfate in anoxic sediments. PMID:16348835

  10. Solubility of chromate in a hydrated OPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisinger, Sabine M.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Lothenbach, Barbara; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid solutions exist between gypsum and calcium chromate. • The cementitious matrix can bind chromate concentrations up to 0.1 mol/kg. • The chromate binding phase in the cementitious matrix is CrO 4 -ettringite. - Abstract: The knowledge of the chromate binding mechanisms is essential for the prediction of the long-term leachability of cement-based solidified waste containing increased chromate concentrations because of its toxicity and high mobility. In this paper pore water concentrations from OPC doped with varying CaCrO 4 concentrations (0.01–0.8 mol/kg), equilibrated for 28 days were reported. It could be shown that the cementitious matrix can bind chromate concentrations up to 0.1 mol/kg and that the chromate solubility limiting phase was CrO 4 -ettringite, while chromate containing AFm (monochromate) was unstable. Comparison with thermodynamic modelling indicated that at lower chromate dosages chromate was mainly bound by CrO 4 -ettringite while at very high dosages also a mixed CaCrO 4 –CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O phase precipitated. Additional experiments indicated a solubility product of 10 −3.66 for CaCrO 4 and verified the solid solution formation with CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O. Leaching tests indicated a strong chromate binding mainly in the pH range 10.5–13.5, while at pH < 10 very little chromate was bound as ettringite, monocarbonate and C–S–H phases were destabilized. Generally the thermodynamic modeling underestimated chromate uptake indicating that an additional chromate binding possibly on C–S–H or on mixed chromate–carbonate–hydroxide AFm phases

  11. Comparison of various clustered interaction regions with regard to chromatic and dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.; Wrulich, A.

    1986-05-01

    Clustered interaction regions for the SSC may be preferable from the viewpoint of costs and operation. In going from distributed to clustered IR's the superperiodicity of the machine is reduced and therefore the number of resonances induced by chromaticity correcting sextupoles is increased. This break in symmetry may cause a reduction in dynamic stability. The chromatic and dynamic behavior of the bare lattice is investigated for various cluster configurations. That means only chromaticity correcting sextupoles have been included and no magnetic imperfection errors have been considered. Then, the dynamic apertures of lattices with various IR clustering schemes are compared when random magnetic imperfections are included

  12. Reduction of Airborne Bacterial Burden in the OR by Installation of Unidirectional Displacement Airflow (UDF) Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Thieves, Martin; Hirsch, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Hubert, Helmine; Beppler, Steffen; Seipp, Hans-Martin

    2015-08-13

    Intraoperative bacterial contamination is a major risk factor for postoperative wound infections. This study investigated the influence of type of ventilation system on intraoperative airborne bacterial burden before and after installation of unidirectional displacement air flow systems. We microbiologically monitored 1286 surgeries performed by a single surgical team that moved from operating rooms (ORs) equipped with turbulent mixing ventilation (TMV, according to standard DIN-1946-4 [1999], ORs 1, 2, and 3) to ORs with unidirectional displacement airflow (UDF, according to standard DIN-1946-4, annex D [2008], ORs 7 and 8). The airborne bacteria were collected intraoperatively with sedimentation plates. After incubation for 48 h, we analyzed the average number of bacteria per h, peak values, and correlation to surgery duration. In addition, we compared the last 138 surgeries in ORs 1-3 with the first 138 surgeries in ORs 7 and 8. Intraoperative airborne bacterial burden was 5.4 CFU/h, 5.5 CFU/h, and 6.1 CFU/h in ORs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Peak values of burden were 10.7 CFU/h, 11.1 CFU/h, and 11.0 CFU/h in ORs 1, 2, and 3, respectively). With the UDF system, the intraoperative airborne bacterial burden was reduced to 0.21 CFU/h (OR 7) and 0.35 CFU/h (OR 8) on average (pAirborne bacterial burden increased linearly with surgery duration in ORs 1-3, but the UDF system in ORs 7 and 8 kept bacterial levels constantly low (airborne bacterial burden (5 CFU/h vs. 0.29 CFU/h, pairborne bacterial burden under real clinical conditions by more than 90%. Although decreased postoperative wound infection incidence was not specifically assessed, it is clear that airborne microbiological burden contributes to surgical infections.

  13. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  14. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  15. Quinone reduction via secondary B-branch electron transfer in mutant bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Kirmaier, Christine; Udawatte, Chandani S M; Hofman, Samuel J; Holten, Dewey; Hanson, Deborah K

    2003-02-18

    Symmetry-related branches of electron-transfer cofactors-initiating with a primary electron donor (P) and terminating in quinone acceptors (Q)-are common features of photosynthetic reaction centers (RC). Experimental observations show activity of only one of them-the A branch-in wild-type bacterial RCs. In a mutant RC, we now demonstrate that electron transfer can occur along the entire, normally inactive B-branch pathway to reduce the terminal acceptor Q(B) on the time scale of nanoseconds. The transmembrane charge-separated state P(+)Q(B)(-) is created in this manner in a Rhodobacter capsulatus RC containing the F(L181)Y-Y(M208)F-L(M212)H-W(M250)V mutations (YFHV). The W(M250)V mutation quantitatively blocks binding of Q(A), thereby eliminating Q(B) reduction via the normal A-branch pathway. Full occupancy of the Q(B) site by the native UQ(10) is ensured (without the necessity of reconstitution by exogenous quinone) by purification of RCs with the mild detergent, Deriphat 160-C. The lifetime of P(+)Q(B)(-) in the YFHV mutant RC is >6 s (at pH 8.0, 298 K). This charge-separated state is not formed upon addition of competitive inhibitors of Q(B) binding (terbutryn or stigmatellin). Furthermore, this lifetime is much longer than the value of approximately 1-1.5 s found when P(+)Q(B)(-) is produced in the wild-type RC by A-side activity alone. Collectively, these results demonstrate that P(+)Q(B)(-) is formed solely by activity of the B-branch carriers in the YFHV RC. In comparison, P(+)Q(B)(-) can form by either the A or B branches in the YFH RC, as indicated by the biexponential lifetimes of approximately 1 and approximately 6-10 s. These findings suggest that P(+)Q(B)(-) states formed via the two branches are distinct and that P(+)Q(B)(-) formed by the B side does not decay via the normal (indirect) pathway that utilizes the A-side cofactors when present. These differences may report on structural and energetic factors that further distinguish the functional

  16. Bacterial and Fungal Counts of Dried and Semi-Dried Foods Collected from Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Their Reduction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, Farahnaaz; Shimizu, Hiromi; Nishioka, Terumi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

     Food is a basic necessity for human survival, but it is still the vehicle for the transmission of food borne disease. Various studies have examined the roles of spices, herbs, nuts, and semi-dried fruits, making the need for safe and convenient methods of decontamination a necessity. The current study determined the bacterial and fungal loads of 26 spices and herbs, 5 nuts, 10 semi-dried fruits and 5 other foods. Spices, herbs and semi-dried foods demonstrated the highest bacterial and fungal loads with the majority showing over 10 4 CFU/mL. Nuts and other foods showed growths ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 CFU/mL. The current study also attempted to determine the effects of heat and plasma treatment. The log reduction of bacterial growth after heat treatment (maximum: 120 min for 60℃) was between 0.08 to 4.47, and the log reduction after plasma treatment (maximum: 40 min) ranged from 2.37 to 5.75. Spices showed the lowest rates of reduction, whereas the semi-dried and other foods showed moderate to high levels of decrease after heat treatment. The log reduction of fungal growth after heat treatment ranged from 0.27 to 4.40, and log reduction after plasma treatment ranged from 2.15 to 5.91.Furthermore, we validated the sterilization effect of plasma treatment against Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. by using scanning electron microscopy. Both treatment methods could prove to be advantageous in the agriculture related fields, enhancing the quality of the foods.

  17. Chromate-reducing activity of Hansenula polymorpha recombinant cells over-producing flavocytochrome b₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutok, Oleh; Broda, Daniel; Smutok, Halyna; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2011-04-01

    In spite of the great interest to studies of the biological roles of chromium, as well as the toxic influence of Cr(VI)-species on living organisms, the molecular mechanisms of chromate bioremediation remain vague. A reductive pathway resulting in formation of less toxic Cr(III)-species is suggested to be the most important among possible mechanisms for chromate biodetoxification. The yeast l-lactate:cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (flavocytochrome b(2), FC b(2)) has absolute specificity for l-lactate, yet is non-selective with respect to its electron acceptor. These properties allow us to consider the enzyme as a potential candidate for chromate reduction by living cells in the presence of l-lactate. A recombinant strain of thermotolerant, methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha with sixfold increased FC b(2) enzyme activity (up to 3μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) protein in cell-free extract) compared to the parental strain was used for approval our suggestion. The recombinant cells, stored in dried state, as well as living yeast cells were tested for chromate-reducing activity in vitro in the presence of l-lactate (as an electron donor for chromate reduction) and different low molecular weight, redox-active mediators facilitating electron transfer from the reduced form of the enzyme to chromate (as a final electron acceptor): dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP), Methylene blue, Meldola blue, and Nile blue. It was shown that the highest chromate-reducing activity of the cells was achieved in the presence of DCPIP. The ability of chromate to catch electrons from the reduced flavocytochrome b(2) was confirmed using purified enzyme immobilized on the surface of a platinum electrode. The increasing concentration of Cr(VI) resulted in a decrease of enzyme-mediated current generated on the electrode during l-lactate oxidation. The shift and drop in amplitude of the peak in the cyclic voltammogram are indicative of Cr(VI)-dependent competition between reaction of chromate with reduced FC

  18. Chromaticity correction for the SSC collider rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, T.; Nosochkov, Y.; Pilat, F.; Stiening, R.; Ritson, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address the issue of correcting higher order chromaticities of the collider with one or more low β insertions. The chromaticity contributed by the interaction regions (IRs) depends crucially on the maximum value of β in the two IRs in a cluster, the phase advance between adjacent interaction points (IPs), and the choice of global tune. They propose a correction scheme in which the linear chromaticity is corrected by a global distribution of sextupoles and the second order chromaticity of each IR is corrected by a more local set of sextupoles. Compared to the case where only the linear chromaticity is corrected, this configuration increases the momentum aperture more than three times and also reduces the β beat by this factor. With this scheme, the tune can be chosen to satisfy other constraints and the two IRs in a cluster can be operated independently at different luminosities without affecting the chromatic properties of the ring

  19. Chromaticity correction for the SSC Collider Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, T.; Nosochkov, Y.; Pilat, F.; Stiening, R.; Ritson, D.M.

    1993-05-01

    We address the issue of correcting higher order chromaticities of the collider with one or more low β insertions. The chromaticity contributed by the interaction regions (IRS) depends crucially on the maximum value of β in the two IRs in a cluster, the phase advance between adjacent interaction points (IPs), and the choice of global tune. We propose a correction scheme in which the linear chromaticity is corrected by a global distribution of sextupoles and the second order chromaticity of each IR is corrected by a more local set of sextupoles. Compared to the case where only the linear chromaticity is corrected, this configuration increases the momentum aperture more than three times and also reduces the β beat by this factor. With this scheme, the tune can be chosen to satisfy other constraints and the two IRs in a cluster can be operated independently at different luminosities without affecting the chromatic properties of the ring

  20. Bacterial diversity and reductive dehalogenase redundancy in a 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a contaminated aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittebolle Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria possess a reservoir of metabolic functionalities ready to be exploited for multiple purposes. The use of microorganisms to clean up xenobiotics from polluted ecosystems (e.g. soil and water represents an eco-sustainable and powerful alternative to traditional remediation processes. Recent developments in molecular-biology-based techniques have led to rapid and accurate strategies for monitoring and identification of bacteria and catabolic genes involved in the degradation of xenobiotics, key processes to follow up the activities in situ. Results We report the characterization of the response of an enriched bacterial community of a 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA contaminated aquifer to the spiking with 5 mM lactate as electron donor in microcosm studies. After 15 days of incubation, the microbial community structure was analyzed. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library showed that the most represented phylogenetic group within the consortium was affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes. Among them, known degraders of chlorinated compounds were identified. A reductive dehalogenase genes clone library showed that the community held four phylogenetically-distinct catalytic enzymes, all conserving signature residues previously shown to be linked to 1,2-DCA dehalogenation. Conclusions The overall data indicate that the enriched bacterial consortium shares the metabolic functionality between different members of the microbial community and is characterized by a high functional redundancy. These are fundamental features for the maintenance of the community's functionality, especially under stress conditions and suggest the feasibility of a bioremediation treatment with a potential prompt dehalogenation and a process stability over time.

  1. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  2. Chromaticity tracking using a phase modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.Y.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In the classical chromaticity measurement technique, chromaticity is measured by measuring the change in betatron tune as the RF frequency is varied. This paper will describe a novel way of measuring chromaticity: we will phase modulate the RF with a known sine wave and then phase demodulate the betatron frequency. The result is a line in Fourier space which corresponds to the frequency of our sine wave modulation. The peak of this sine wave is proportional to chromaticity. For this technique to work, a tune tracker PLL system is required because it supplies the betatron carrier frequency. This method has been tested in the Tevatron and we will show the results here

  3. Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur coupled to chemical reduction of iron or manganese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler

    1993-01-01

    A new chemolithotrophic bacterial metabolism was discovered in anaerobic marine enrichment cultures. Cultures in defined medium with elemental sulfur (S) and amorphous ferric hydroxide (FeOOH) as sole substrates showed intense formation of sulfate. Furthermore, precipitation of ferrous sulfide an...

  4. Reduction in bacterial ooze formation on immature fruitlets after preventive treatments of Fosethyl-Al against fire blight Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, T; Schoofs, H; Verjans, W; De Maeyer, L

    2010-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is a very important bacterial disease on apple and pear orchards with devastating effects in some production area and in some years. Fire blight control consists in a whole strategy of measures that should start with control measures in and around the fruit tree nurseries. Only the use of Vacciplant (Laminarin), an inducer of the self-defence mechanism, is registered in Belgium since 2009. In other European countries Fosethyl-Al has been registered for fire blight control. Recently, research trials have been done at Pcfruit research station for several years on the activity of ALiette (fosethyl-Al) against fire blight. Fosethyl-Al, also a plant defence enhancing molecule, applied preventively 3 times at a dose of 3.75 kg/ha standard orchard (3 x 3000 g a.i./ha standard orchard), showed a reduction in the host susceptibility and decreased the disease development on artificial inoculated flower clusters and shoots. Also a clear reduction in the ooze droplet formation on artificially inoculated immature fruitlets has been observed with this molecule. This reduction in the bacterial ooze formation is considered as a very important factor in the spread of the disease in the orchard.

  5. Effect of contaminant concentration on in situ bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in phenol-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Kieran M.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Thornton, Steven F.; Peel, Kate E.; Spence, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of dissolved O 2 can limit biodegradation of organic compounds in aquifers. Where O 2 is depleted, biodegradation proceeds via anaerobic processes, including NO 3 -, Mn(IV)-, Fe(III)- and SO 4 -reduction and fermentation/methanogenesis. The environmental controls on these anaerobic processes must be understood to support implementation of management strategies such as monitored natural attenuation (MNA). In this study stable isotope analysis is used to show that the relative significance of two key anaerobic biodegradation processes (bacterial SO 4 reduction (BSR) and methanogenesis) in a phenol-contaminated sandstone aquifer is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in total dissolved phenols concentration (TPC) (= phenol + cresols + dimethylphenols) over a 5-a period. In general, 34 SO 4 -enrichment (characteristic of bacterial SO 4 reduction) is restricted spatially to locations where TPC −1 . In contrast, 13 C-depleted CH 4 and 13 C-enriched CO 2 isotope compositions (characteristic of methanogenesis) were measured at TPC up to 8000 mg L −1 . This is consistent with previous studies that demonstrate suppression of BSR at TPC of >500 mg L −1 , and suggests that methanogenic microorganisms may have a higher tolerance for TPC in this contaminant plume. It is concluded that isotopic enrichment trends can be used to identify conditions under which in situ biodegradation may be limited by the properties of the biodegradation substrate (in this case TPC). Such data may be used to deduce the performance of MNA for contaminated groundwater in similar settings.

  6. Comparison of CIE chromaticity values

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tonder, N

    1999-02-02

    Full Text Available matter #1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0003-2670(98)00526-1 an opal glass white standard. Furthermore, the x and y CIE chromaticity values had to be calculated under the conditions of illuminants A, C and D65 with a 28 observer. 2... to the South African national measuring standards of light by an opal glass re?ectance standard (NPL calibration number AU87) calibrated by the National Physical Laboratory, UK (NPL). Re?ectance measurements were taken at three different positions on each...

  7. Skew chromaticity in large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Dell, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    The 2-D ''skew chromaticity'' vector k is introduced when the standard on-momentum description of linear coupling is extended to include off-momentum particles. A lattice that is well decoupled on-momentum may be badly decoupled off-momentum, inside the natural momentum spread of the beam. There are two general areas of concern: (1) the free space in the tune plane is decreased; (2) collective phenomena may be destabilized. Two strong new criteria for head-tail stability in the presence of off-momentum coupling are derived, which are consistent with experimental and operational observations at the Tevatron, and with tracking data from RHIC

  8. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. II. Laboratory experiments with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In waterlogged soils sulphate reduction was characterized by increases in counts of sulphate reducers, and increase in titratable alkalinity, insoluble carbonate, and soluble sulphides, and a decrease in soluble Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/. Presence of organic matter greatly enhanced sulphate reduction. A linear relationship between the amount of sulphate reduced and increases in titratable alkalinity and insoluble carbonate were apparent. The potential effects of sulphate reduction on soil fertility through the development of alkalinity are discussed.

  9. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  10. Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alagammai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H.

  11. Corrosion in artificial defects. II. Chromate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, S.A.; Scholes, F.H.; Hughes, A.E.; Jamieson, D.N.; Macrae, C.M.; Glenn, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial defects, in the form of slots, were milled through a chromate-containing protective paint system on AA2024-T3 and exposed to neutral salt spray (NSS). Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterise the primer and the alloy surface. Chromate was released by the primer to form a 40 μm depletion zone around the edge of the slot. Within the depletion zone, the chromate was reduced but not completely removed. Chromate was detected in the runoff from the slots and was also found to have reacted with the exposed alloy surface. Chromate was found to react with intermetallic particles, smears formed by the milling process, and pits

  12. Alternative substrates of bacterial sulphate reduction suitable for the biological-chemical treatment of acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptakova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of AMD pollution on biological systems are mostly severe and the problem may persist from many decadesto thousands of years. Consequently AMD prior to being released into the environment must be treated to meet government standardsfor the amount of metal and non-metal ions contained in the water. One of the best available technologies for the removal of metals fromAMD is precipitation as metal sulphides. SRB applications for AMD treatment involve a few principal stages. The first stageis the cultivation of SRB i.e. the bacterial sulphate reduction. At the laboratory conditions the sodium lactate is the energetic substratefor the growth of bacteria. Its price is not economic for the application in the practice and is needed investigate the alternativesubstitutes. The aim of this work was the cultivation of SRB using the selected energetic substrates such as: calcium lactate, ethanol,saccharose, glucose and whey. Experimental studies confirm that in the regard to the amount of reduced sulphates the calcium lactateand ethanol are the best alternative substrates for the bacterial sulphate-reduction.

  13. Bacterial Oxidation and Reduction of Iron in the Processes of Creation and Treatment of Acid Mining Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kupka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainages (AMDs arise at the weathering of sulphidic minerals. The occurrence of acidic streams is commonly associated with the human mining activities. Due to the disruption and excavation of sulphide deposits, the oxidation processes have initiated. Acidic products of sulphide oxidation accelerate the degradation of accompanying minerals. AMDs typically contain high concentrations of sulfuric acid and soluble metals and cause serious ecological problems due to the water pollution and the devastation of adjacent country. Microbial life in these extremely acidic environments may be considerably diverse. AMDs are abundant in bacteria capable to oxidize and/or to reduce iron. The rate of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron released from pyrite surfaces is up to one million times faster than the chemical oxidation rate at low pH. Bacterial regeneration of ferric iron maintains the continuity of pyrite oxidation and the production of AMDs. Another group of microorganisms living in these environments are acidophilic ferric iron reducing bacteria. This group of microorganisms has been discovered only relatively recently. Acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria reduce ferric iron in either soluble or solid forms to ferrous iron. The reductive dissolution of ferric iron minerals brings about a mobilization of iron as well as associated heavy metals. The Bacterial oxidation and reduction of iron play an important role in the transformation of either crystalline or amorphous iron-containing minerals, including sulphides, oxides, hydroxysulfates, carbonates and silicates. This work discusses the role of acidophilic bacteria in the natural iron cycling and the genesis of acidic effluents. The possibilities of application of iron bacteria in the remediation of AMDs are also considered.

  14. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. I. Experiments with synthetic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In liquid cultures of desulphovibrio desulphuricans the effects of the following on sulphate reduction were determined: The type of cation (ca++ or na+) attached to the sulphate ion; the presence of calcium carbonate alone and with sodium chloride; the concentration of sodium sulphate, sodium lactate and sodium chloride; and the initial pH. The titratable alkalinity formed as a result of sulphate reduction was found to be quantitatively related to the sulphate reduced, and apparently unaffected by strain variation or energy source.

  15. Visual sensitivity for luminance and chromatic stimuli during the execution of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-07-01

    Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pursuit Latency for Chromatic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of eye movement response to a change in direction of stimulus motion has been used to compare the processing speeds of different types of stimuli (Mulligan, ARVO '97). In this study, the pursuit response to colored targets was measured to test the hypothesis that the slow response of the chromatic system (as measured using traditional temporal sensitivity measures such as contrast sensitivity) results in increased eye movement latencies. Subjects viewed a small (0.4 deg) Gaussian spot which moved downward at a speed of 6.6 deg/sec. At a variable time during the trajectory, the dot's direction of motion changed by 30 degrees, either to the right or left. Subjects were instructed to pursue the spot. Eye movements were measured using a video ophthalmoscope with an angular resolution of approximately 1 arc min and a temporal sampling rate of 60 Hz. Stimuli were modulated in chrominance for a variety of hue directions, combined with a range of small luminance increments and decrements, to insure that some of the stimuli fell in the subjects' equiluminance planes. The smooth portions of the resulting eye movement traces were fit by convolving the stimulus velocity with an exponential having variable onset latency, time constant and amplitude. Smooth eye movements with few saccades were observed for all stimuli. Pursuit responses to stimuli having a significant luminance component are well-fit by exponentials having latencies and time constants on the order of 100 msec. Increases in pursuit response latency on the order of 100-200 msec are observed in response to certain stimuli, which occur in pairs of complementary hues, corresponding to the intersection of the stimulus section with the subjects' equiluminant plane. Smooth eye movements can be made in response to purely chromatic stimuli, but are slower than responses to stimuli with a luminance component.

  17. Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Cleo M; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Gagin, Galina; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-10-24

    Chromatic mechanisms have been studied extensively with psychophysical techniques in humans, but the number and nature of the mechanisms are still controversial. Appeals to monkey neurophysiology are often used to sort out the competing claims and to test hypotheses arising from the experiments in humans, but psychophysical chromatic mechanisms have never been assessed in monkeys. Here we address this issue by measuring color-detection thresholds in monkeys before and after chromatic adaptation, employing a standard approach used to determine chromatic mechanisms in humans. We conducted separate experiments using adaptation configured as either flickering full-field colors or heterochromatic gratings. Full-field colors would favor activity within the visual system at or before the arrival of retinal signals to V1, before the spatial transformation of color signals by the cortex. Conversely, gratings would favor activity within the cortex where neurons are often sensitive to spatial chromatic structure. Detection thresholds were selectively elevated for the colors of full-field adaptation when it modulated along either of the two cardinal chromatic axes that define cone-opponent color space [L vs M or S vs (L + M)], providing evidence for two privileged cardinal chromatic mechanisms implemented early in the visual-processing hierarchy. Adaptation with gratings produced elevated thresholds for colors of the adaptation regardless of its chromatic makeup, suggesting a cortical representation comprised of multiple higher-order mechanisms each selective for a different direction in color space. The results suggest that color is represented by two cardinal channels early in the processing hierarchy and many chromatic channels in brain regions closer to perceptual readout.

  18. Structure determination and functional analysis of a chromate reductase from Gluconacetobacter hansenii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Jin

    Full Text Available Environmental protection through biological mechanisms that aid in the reductive immobilization of toxic metals (e.g., chromate and uranyl has been identified to involve specific NADH-dependent flavoproteins that promote cell viability. To understand the enzyme mechanisms responsible for metal reduction, the enzyme kinetics of a putative chromate reductase from Gluconacetobacter hansenii (Gh-ChrR was measured and the crystal structure of the protein determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Gh-ChrR catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of chromate, ferricyanide, and uranyl anions under aerobic conditions. Kinetic measurements indicate that NADH acts as a substrate inhibitor; catalysis requires chromate binding prior to NADH association. The crystal structure of Gh-ChrR shows the protein is a homotetramer with one bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN per subunit. A bound anion is visualized proximal to the FMN at the interface between adjacent subunits within a cationic pocket, which is positioned at an optimal distance for hydride transfer. Site-directed substitutions of residues proposed to involve in both NADH and metal anion binding (N85A or R101A result in 90-95% reductions in enzyme efficiencies for NADH-dependent chromate reduction. In comparison site-directed substitution of a residue (S118A participating in the coordination of FMN in the active site results in only modest (50% reductions in catalytic efficiencies, consistent with the presence of a multitude of side chains that position the FMN in the active site. The proposed proximity relationships between metal anion binding site and enzyme cofactors is discussed in terms of rational design principles for the use of enzymes in chromate and uranyl bioremediation.

  19. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  20. Joint denoising, demosaicing, and chromatic aberration correction for UHD video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Philips, Wilfried; Damstra, Klaas Jan; Ellenbroek, Frank

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution video capture is crucial for numerous applications such as surveillance, security, industrial inspection, medical imaging and digital entertainment. In the last two decades, we are witnessing a dramatic increase of the spatial resolution and the maximal frame rate of video capturing devices. In order to achieve further resolution increase, numerous challenges will be facing us. Due to the reduced size of the pixel, the amount of light also reduces, leading to the increased noise level. Moreover, the reduced pixel size makes the lens imprecisions more pronounced, which especially applies to chromatic aberrations. Even in the case when high quality lenses are used some chromatic aberration artefacts will remain. Next, noise level additionally increases due to the higher frame rates. To reduce the complexity and the price of the camera, one sensor captures all three colors, by relying on Color Filter Arrays. In order to obtain full resolution color image, missing color components have to be interpolated, i.e. demosaicked, which is more challenging than in the case of lower resolution, due to the increased noise and aberrations. In this paper, we propose a new method, which jointly performs chromatic aberration correction, denoising and demosaicking. By jointly performing the reduction of all artefacts, we are reducing the overall complexity of the system and the introduction of new artefacts. In order to reduce possible flicker we also perform temporal video enhancement. We evaluate the proposed method on a number of publicly available UHD sequences and on sequences recorded in our studio.

  1. Application Of Bacterial Iron Reduction For The Removal Of Iron Impurities From Industrial Silica Sand And Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A.; Yahaya, S.; Fialips, C. I.; White, M.; Manning, D. A.; Gray, N.

    2008-12-01

    Biogeochemical evidence exists to support the potential importance of crystalline or amorphous Fe minerals as electron acceptor for Fe reducing bacteria in soils and subsurface sediments. This microbial metabolic activity can be exploited as alternative method in different industrial applications. For instance, the removal of ferric iron impurities from minerals for the glass and paper industries currently rely on physical and chemical treatments having substantial economical and environmental disadvantages. The ability to remove iron by other means, such as bacterial iron reduction, may reduce costs, allow lower grade material to be mined, and improve the efficiency of mineral processing. Kaolin clay and silica sand are used in a wide range of industrial applications, particularly in paper, ceramics and glass manufacturing. Depending on the geological conditions of deposition, they are often associated with iron (hydr)oxides that are either adsorbed to the mineral surfaces or admixed as separate iron bearing minerals. In this study, we have examined the Fe(III) removal efficiency from kaolin and silica sand by a series of iron- reducing bacteria from the Shewanella species (S. alga BrY, S. oneidensis MR-1, S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. putrefaciens ATCC 8071) in the presence of anthraquinone 2,6 disulfonate (AQDS). We have also investigated the effectiveness of a natural organic matter, extracted with the silica sand, as a substitute to AQDS for enhancing Fe(III) reduction kinetics. The microbial reduction of Fe(III) was achieved using batch cultures under non-growth conditions. The rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction was monitored as a function of the initial Fe(III) content, Shewanella species and temperature. The bacterially- treated minerals were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe any textural and mineralogical transformation. The whiteness and ISO brightness of the kaolin was also measured by

  2. Proteomic analysis of chromate response in Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... analysis was performed to identify proteins involved in chromate stress response of Staphylococcus saprophyticus .... Proteins were visualized by PharosFXTM molecular imager and scanner ..... Molecular dynamics of the.

  3. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T

    2011-01-01

    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  4. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  5. Chromatic Dispersion Estimation in Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Ruben Andres; Hauske, Fabian N.; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Polarization-diverse coherent demodulation allows to compensate large values of accumulated linear distortion by digital signal processing. In particular, in uncompensated links without optical dispersion compensation, the parameter of the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) is vital to set...

  6. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; ISAKSEN, MF; JANNASCH, HW

    1992-01-01

    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  7. Chromate dermatitis from a boiler lining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, R J; Calnan, C D

    1977-08-01

    Chromate dermatitis is described in a mechanical fitter working inside boiler combustion chambers. A source of hexavalent chromate is traced to the action of the heat and alkaline fuel ash on trivalent chrome ore in parts of the refractory lining. Removal of the patient from this contact has resulted in almost complete clearing of his dermatitis, without any relapse, during a 9-month follow-up period.

  8. Chromatic correction for the final transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Peterson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The final transport and focusing of the heavy-ion beam onto the fusion pellet in vacuum is complicated by several non-linear effects - namely, chromatic (momentum dependent) effects, geometric aberrations, and space-charge forces. This paper gives an example of how the chromatic effects can be nullified, at least to second order. Whether third- or higher-order terms are important is not yet clear. Space-charge effects are important but are not considered here

  9. Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-03-01

    A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO ₄⁻ and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (∼250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO₄⁻ reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO₄⁻ reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO₄⁻ in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO₄⁻ of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur coupled to chemical reduction of iron or manganese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Bo; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Jens Würgler

    1993-01-01

    and pyrite was observed. The transformations were accompanied by growth of slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. The quantification of the products revealed that S was microbially disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, as follows: 4S + 4H(2)O --> SO(4) + 3H(2)S + 2H. Subsequent chemical reactions between...... reduction of MnO(2) to Mn. Growth of small rod-shaped bacteria was observed. When incubated without MnO(2), the culture did not grow but produced small amounts of SO(4) and H(2)S at a ratio of 1:3, indicating again a disproportionation of S. The observed microbial disproportionation of S only proceeds...... significantly in the presence of sulfide-scavenging agents such as iron and manganese compounds. The population density of bacteria capable of S disproportionation in the presence of FeOOH or MnO(2) was high, > 10 cm in coastal sediments. The metabolism offers an explanation for recent observations of anaerobic...

  11. The chromatic class and the chromatic number of the planar conjugated triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Malinina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This material is dedicated to the estimation of the chromatic number and chromatic class of the conjugated triangulation (first conversion) and also of the second conversion of the planar triangulation. Also this paper introduces some new hypotheses, which are equivalent to Four Color Problem.

  12. Reduction in bacterial counts in infected root canals after rotary or hand nickel-titanium instrumentation--a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Lima, K C; Siqueira, J F

    2013-07-01

    To compare the antibacterial efficacy of two instrumentation techniques, one using hand nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments and the other using rotary NiTi instruments, in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis. Root canals from single-rooted teeth were instrumented using either hand NiTi instruments in the alternated rotation motion technique or rotary BioRaCe instruments. The irrigant used in both groups was 2.5% NaOCl. DNA extracts from samples taken before and after instrumentation were subjected to quantitative analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Qualitative analysis was also performed using presence/absence data from culture and qPCR assays. Bacteria were detected in all S1 samples by both methods. In culture analysis, 45% and 35% of the canals were still positive for bacterial presence after hand and rotary NiTi instrumentation, respectively (P > 0.05). Rotary NiTi instrumentation resulted in significantly fewer qPCR-positive cases (60%) than hand NiTi instrumentation (95%) (P = 0.01). Intergroup comparison of quantitative data showed no significant difference between the two techniques. There was no significant difference in bacterial reduction in infected canals after instrumentation using hand or rotary NiTi instruments. In terms of incidence of positive results for bacteria, culture also showed no significant differences between the groups, but the rotary NiTi instrumentation resulted in more negative results in the more sensitive qPCR analysis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mechanisms of chromate adsorption on boehmite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Chad P.; Chrysochoou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We characterized chromate adsorption on boehmite using molecular modeling and spectroscopy. • Chromate forms a mixture of outer-sphere and inner-sphere complexes. • Inner-sphere complexes are in monodentate and bidentate configuration. - Abstract: Adsorption reactions play an important role in the transport behavior of groundwater contaminants. Molecular-scale information is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which ions coordinate to soil mineral surfaces. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of chromate adsorption on boehmite (γ-AlOOH) using a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and aqueous chromate concentration were investigated. Our overall findings were that chromate primarily forms outer-sphere complexes on boehmite over a broad range of pH and aqueous concentrations. Additionally, a small fraction of monodentate and bidentate inner-sphere complexes are present under acidic conditions, as evidenced by two sets of chromate stretching vibrations at approximately 915, 870, and 780 cm −1 , and 940, 890, 850, and 780 cm −1 , respectively. The bidentate complex is supported by a best-fit Cr-Al distance in the EXAFS of 3.2 Å. Results from DFT also support the formation of monodentate and bidentate complexes, which are predicted to results in Gibbs energy changes of −140.4 and −62.5 kJ mol −1 , respectively. These findings are consistent with the intermediate binding strength of chromate with respect to similar oxyanions such as sulfate and selenite. Overall, the surface species identified in this work can be used to develop a more accurate stoichiometric framework in mechanistic adsorption models

  14. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2014-07-18

    The intake system can play a significant role in improving the feed water quality and ultimately influence the performance of downstream components of the seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes. In most cases, open-ocean intakes produce poor feed water quality in terms of the abundance of naturally occurring organic matter, which increases the risk of membrane fouling. An alternative intake is the subsurface system, which is based on the riverbank filtration concept that provides natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Therefore, the risk of biofouling caused by these substances can be reduced by implementing the appropriate type of intake system. The use of well intake systems was investigated along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia in the Jeddah region. Data were collected from a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant with a capacity of 10,000 m3/d. The well system produces feed water from an artificial-fill peninsula that was constructed atop of the seabed. Ten wells have been constructed on the peninsula for extracting raw seawater. Water samples were collected from nearby surface seawater as a reference and from selected individual wells. The percentage of algae and bacterial removal by induced filtration process was evaluated by comparison of the seawater concentrations with the well discharges. Transparent exopolymer particles and organic carbon fractions reduction was also measured. The quality of raw water extracted from the well systems was highly improved compared with the raw seawater source. It was observed that algae were virtually 100% removed and the bacterial concentration was significantly removed by the aquifer matrix. The detailed analysis of organic carbon fraction using liquid

  15. Implementation of fluidized granulated iron reactors in a chromate remediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, P.; Lorber, K.E.; Mischitz, R.; Weiß, C.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach concerning in-situ remediation on source (‘hot-spot’) decontamination of a chromate damage in connection with an innovative pump-and-treat-technique has been developed. Iron granulates show significant higher reduction rates, using fluidized bed conditions, than a literature study with a fixed bed installation of small-sized iron granules. First results from an abandoned tannery site concerning injections of sodium dithionite as a chromate reductant for the vadose zone in combination with a pump-and-treat-method, allying the advantages of granulated zero valent iron (ZVI), are reported. Reduction amounts of chromate have been found up to 88% compared with initial values in the soil after a soil water exchange of 8 pore volumes within 2.5 months. Chromate concentrations in the pumped effluent have been reduced to under the detection limit of 0.005 mg/L by treatment with ZVI in the pilot plant. - Highlights: • Fe-granules show high Cr(VI)-reduction rates using fluidized bed conditions. • No respective negligible passivation effects on the surface of the iron granulates. • P and T-method by using ZVI in a FBR is very effective for Cr(VI) remediation. • The process provides no increase in salinity of the treated effluent

  16. Arsenate and chromate incorporation in schwertmannite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenspurg, Simona; Peiffer, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    High concentrations of Cr (up to 812 ppm) and As (up to 6740 ppm) were detected in precipitates of the mineral schwertmannite in areas influenced by acid mine drainage. Schwertmannite may act as well as a natural filter for these elements in water as well as their source by releasing the previously bound elements during its dissolution or mineral-transformation. The mechanisms of uptake and potential release for the species arsenate and chromate were investigated by performing synthesis and stability experiments with schwertmannite. Schwertmannite, synthesized in solutions containing arsenate in addition to sulphate, was enriched by up to 10.3 wt% arsenate without detectable structural changes as demonstrated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). In contrast to arsenate, a total substitution of sulphate by chromate was possible in sulphate-free solutions. Thereby, the chromate content in schwertmannite could reach 15.3 wt%. To determine the release of oxyanions from schwertmannite over time, synthetic schwertmannite samples containing varying amounts of sulphate, chromate and arsenate were kept at a stable pH of either 2 or 4 over 1 year in suspension. At several time intervals Fe and the oxyanions were measured in solution and alterations of the solid part were observed by XRD and Fourier-Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. At pH 2 schwertmannite partly dissolved and the total release of arsenate (24%) was low in contrast to chromate (35.4-57.5%) and sulphate (67-76%). Accordingly, the ionic activity product (log IAP) of arsenated schwertmannite was lowest (13.5), followed by the log IAP for chromated schwertmannite (16.2-18.5) and the log IAP for regular (=non-substituted) schwertmannite (18). At pH 4 schwertmannite transformed to goethite, an effect which occurred at the fastest rate for regular schwertmannite (=arsenate- and chromate-free), followed by chromate and arsenate containing schwertmannite. Both chromate and more evidently arsenate have a

  17. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing.

  18. β-lactam antibiotics promote bacterial mutagenesis via an RpoS-mediated reduction in replication fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, A.; Laureti, L.; Crussard, S.; Abida, H.; Rodríguez-Rojas, A.; Blázquez, J.; Baharoglu, Z.; Mazel, D.; Darfeuille, F.; Vogel, J.; Matic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Regardless of their targets and modes of action, subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics can have an impact on cell physiology and trigger a large variety of cellular responses in different bacterial species. Subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics cause reactive oxygen species production and induce PolIV-dependent mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. Here we show that subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics induce the RpoS regulon. RpoS-regulon induction is required for PolIV-dependent mutagenesis because it diminishes the control of DNA-replication fidelity by depleting MutS in E. coli, Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also show that in E. coli, the reduction in mismatch-repair activity is mediated by SdsR, the RpoS-controlled small RNA. In summary, we show that mutagenesis induced by subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics is a genetically controlled process. Because this mutagenesis can generate mutations conferring antibiotic resistance, it should be taken into consideration for the development of more efficient antimicrobial therapeutic strategies. PMID:23511474

  19. Color constancy by characterization of illumination chromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, Jarno T.

    2011-05-01

    Computational color constancy algorithms play a key role in achieving desired color reproduction in digital cameras. Failure to estimate illumination chromaticity correctly will result in invalid overall colour cast in the image that will be easily detected by human observers. A new algorithm is presented for computational color constancy. Low computational complexity and low memory requirement make the algorithm suitable for resource-limited camera devices, such as consumer digital cameras and camera phones. Operation of the algorithm relies on characterization of the range of possible illumination chromaticities in terms of camera sensor response. The fact that only illumination chromaticity is characterized instead of the full color gamut, for example, increases robustness against variations in sensor characteristics and against failure of diagonal model of illumination change. Multiple databases are used in order to demonstrate the good performance of the algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art color constancy algorithms.

  20. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel P. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

  1. The chromatic polynomial and list colorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph.......We prove that, if a graph has a list of k available colors at every vertex, then the number of list-colorings is at least the chromatic polynomial evaluated at k when k is sufficiently large compared to the number of vertices of the graph....

  2. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  3. Measurement and correction of chromaticity in Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Baogen; Xu Hongliang; He Duohui; Wang Junhua; Lu Ping

    2001-01-01

    The measurement and correction of chromaticity for Hefei light source is introduced. The natural chromaticity is obtained by detecting the variation of the betatron tune with the main dipole field strength. The correction chromaticity is obtained by detecting the variation of the betatron tune with the RF frequency. The theoretic analysis and formula for the two methods is given. The measurement results of chromaticity are given

  4. Halomonas desiderata as a bacterial model to predict the possible biological nitrate reduction in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquier, Marjorie; Kassim, Caroline; Bertron, Alexandra; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Rafrafi, Yan; Albrecht, Achim; Erable, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    After closure of a waste disposal cell in a repository for radioactive waste, resaturation is likely to cause the release of soluble species contained in cement and bituminous matrices, such as ionic species (nitrates, sulfates, calcium and alkaline ions, etc.), organic matter (mainly organic acids), or gases (from steel containers and reinforced concrete structures as well as from radiolysis within the waste packages). However, in the presence of nitrates in the near-field of waste, the waste cell can initiate oxidative conditions leading to enhanced mobility of redox-sensitive radionuclides (RN). In biotic conditions and in the presence of organic matter and/or hydrogen as electron donors, nitrates may be microbiologically reduced, allowing a return to reducing conditions that promote the safety of storage. Our work aims to analyze the possible microbial reactivity of nitrates at the bitumen - concrete interface in conditions as close as possible to radioactive waste storage conditions in order (i) to evaluate the nitrate reaction kinetics; (ii) to identify the by-products (NO2(-), NH4(+), N2, N2O, etc.); and (iii) to discriminate between the roles of planktonic bacteria and those adhering as a biofilm structure in the denitrifying activity. Leaching experiments on solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) were first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface, e.g. highly alkaline pH conditions (10 < pH < 11) imposed by the cement matrix. The screening of a range of anaerobic denitrifying bacterial strains led us to select Halomonas desiderata as a model bacterium capable of catalyzing the reaction of nitrate reduction in these particular conditions of pH. The denitrifying activity of H. desiderata was quantified in a batch bioreactor in the presence of solid matrices and/or leachate from bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement

  5. Mercury mobilization and speciation linked to bacterial iron oxide and sulfate reduction: A column study to mimic reactive transfer in an anoxic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, Jennifer; Guédron, Stéphane; Huguet, Lucie; Schäfer, Jörg; Laperche, Valérie; Joulian, Catherine; Lanceleur, Laurent; Burnol, André; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Garrido, Francis; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility and speciation in subsurface aquifers is directly linked to its surrounding geochemical and microbial environment. The role of bacteria on Hg speciation (i.e., methylation, demethylation and reduction) is well documented, however little data is available on their impact on Hg mobility. The aim of this study was to test if (i) Hg mobility is due to either direct iron oxide reduction by iron reducing bacteria (IRB) or indirect iron reduction by sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), and (ii) to investigate its subsequent fate and speciation. Experiments were carried out in an original column setup combining geochemical and microbiological approaches that mimic an aquifer including an interface of iron-rich and iron depleted zones. Two identical glass columns containing iron oxides spiked with Hg(II) were submitted to (i) direct iron reduction by IRB and (ii) to indirect iron reduction by sulfides produced by SRB. Results show that in both columns Hg was leached and methylated during the height of bacterial activity. In the column where IRB are dominant, Hg methylation and leaching from the column was directly correlated to bacterial iron reduction (i.e., Fe(II) release). In opposition, when SRB are dominant, produced sulfide induced indirect iron oxide reduction and rapid adsorption of leached Hg (or produced methylmercury) on neoformed iron sulfides (e.g., Mackinawite) or its precipitation as HgS. At the end of the SRB column experiment, when iron-oxide reduction was complete, filtered Hg and Fe concentrations increased at the outlet suggesting a leaching of Hg bound to FeS colloids that may be a dominant mechanism of Hg transport in aquifer environments. These experimental results highlight different biogeochemical mechanisms that can occur in stratified sub-surface aquifers where bacterial activities play a major role on Hg mobility and changes in speciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  7. Development of Chromatic Induction in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hiromi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2007-01-01

    The perception of colour in an embedded field is affected by the surround colour. This phenomenon is known as chromatic induction. In the present study we investigated whether the colour perception by infants aged 5-7 months could be affected by the surround colour. In Experiments 1 and 2 each stimulus was composed of an array of six squares in…

  8. Chromatic Dimensions Earthy, Watery, Airy, and Fiery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In our study, for a small number of antonyms, we investigate whether they are cross-modally or ideaesthetically related to the space of colors. We analyze the affinities of seven antonyms (cold-hot, dull-radiant, dead-vivid, soft-hard, transparent-chalky, dry-wet, and acid-treacly) and their intermediate connotations (cool-warm, matt-shiny, numb-lively, mellow-firm, semi-transparent-opaque, semi-dry-moist, and sour-sweet) as a function of color. We find that some antonyms relate to chromatic dimensions, others to achromatic ones. The cold-hot antonym proves to be the most salient dimension. The dry-wet dimension coincides with the cold-hot dimension, with dry corresponding to hot and wet to cold. The acid-treacly dimension proves to be transversal to the cold-hot dimension; hence, the pairs mutually span the chromatic domain. The cold-hot and acid-treacly antonyms perhaps recall Hering's opponent color system. The dull-radiant, transparent-chalky, and dead-vivid pairs depend little upon chromaticity. Of all seven antonyms, only the soft-hard one turns out to be independent of the chromatic structure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Chromatic roots and limits of dense graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, P. E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012365X16303661

  10. Chromatic Roots and Limits of Dense Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016

  11. Chromaticity measurement during beam energy ramp in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Riyasat; Vats, D.K.; Ghodke, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Chromaticity is one of the important parameters of circular accelerators and plays crucial role in its operation. In Indus-2 storage ring the natural chromaticity is -19 and -12 in horizontal and vertical planes respectively. For the good injection at 550 MeV in Indus-2, chromaticity needs to be kept at (+1, +1). The corrected chromaticity does not remain constant during the energy ramp up to 2.5 GeV. We measured Indus-2 storage ring chromaticity by the conventional RF frequency change method. The measurement method and the result of the measurement are reported in this paper. (author)

  12. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial numbers over refrigerated shelf-life were enumerated in high-temperature, short-time (HTST) commercially pasteurized fluid milk for 15 mo before and 15 mo after reducing pasteurization temperature from 79.4°C (175°F) [corrected] to 76.1°C (169°F). Total bacterial counts were measured in whole fat, 2% fat, and fat-free milk products on the day of processing as well as throughout refrigerated storage (6°C) at 7, 14, and 21 d postprocessing. Mean total bacterial counts were significantly lower immediately after processing as well as at 21 d postprocessing in samples pasteurized at 76.1°C versus samples pasteurized at 79.4°C. In addition to mean total bacterial counts, changes in bacterial numbers over time (i.e., bacterial growth) were analyzed and were lower during refrigerated storage of products pasteurized at the lower temperature. Lowering the pasteurization temperature for unflavored fluid milk processed in a commercial processing facility significantly reduced bacterial growth during refrigerated storage. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional shape perception from chromatic orientation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Qasim; Li, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The role of chromatic information in 3-D shape perception is controversial. We resolve this controversy by showing that chromatic orientation flows are sufficient for accurate perception of 3-D shape. Chromatic flows required less cone contrast to convey shape than did achromatic flows, thus ruling out luminance artifacts as a problem. Luminance artifacts were also ruled out by a protanope’s inability to see 3-D shape from chromatic flows. Since chromatic orientation flows can only be extracted from retinal images by neurons that are responsive to color modulations and selective for orientation, the psychophysical results also resolve the controversy over the existence of such neurons. In addition, we show that identification of 3-D shapes from chromatic flows can be masked by luminance modulations, indicating that it is subserved by orientation-tuned neurons sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulations. PMID:16961963

  14. Sorting chromatic sextupoles for easily and effectively correcting second order chromaticity in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.; Tepikian, S.; Fischer, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the contributions of the chromatic sextupole families to the half-integer resonance driving terms, we discuss how to sort the chromatic sextupoles in the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to easily and effectively correct the second order chromaticities. We propose a method with 4 knobs corresponding to 4 pairs of chromatic sextupole families to online correct the second order chromaticities. Numerical simulation justifies this method, showing that this method reduces the unbalance in the correction strengths of sextupole families and avoids the reversal of sextupole polarities. Therefore, this method yields larger dynamic apertures for the proposed RHIC 2009 100GeV polarized proton run lattices

  15. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Kammourie, Nizar; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved

  16. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  17. Study of chromate coatings by radioisotope tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozda, T.; Maleczki, E.; Farkas, G.

    1984-01-01

    New radioactive tracer methods were developed to determine chromium(III) and total chromium [chromium(III)+chromium(VI)] content simultaneously. They are capable of investigating solutions and the conversion coating itself in the solid phase, respectively. The increase of chromium(III) concentration in the yellow chromate coating, and the chromium(III) to total chromium ratio in the conversion coating were determined as a function of the treating period. (author)

  18. Schottky signal analysis: tune and chromaticity computation

    CERN Document Server

    Chanon, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Schottky monitors are used to determine important beam parameters in a non-destructive way. The Schottky signal is due to the internal statistical fluctuations of the particles inside the beam. In this report, after explaining the different components of a Schottky signal, an algorithm to compute the betatron tune is presented, followed by some ideas to compute machine chromaticity. The tests have been performed with offline and/or online LHC data.

  19. Forcing clique immersions through chromatic number

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Gregory; Le, Tien-Nam; Wollan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent work of Dvo\\v{r}\\'ak and Yepremyan, we show that every simple graph of minimum degree $7t+7$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion and that every graph with chromatic number at least $3.54t + 4$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion. We also show that every graph on $n$ vertices with no stable set of size three contains $K_{2\\lfloor n/5 \\rfloor}$ as an immersion.

  20. V1 mechanisms underlying chromatic contrast detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the cortical mechanisms of color vision, we recorded from individual primary visual cortex (V1) neurons in macaque monkeys performing a chromatic detection task. Roughly 30% of the neurons that we encountered were unresponsive at the monkeys' psychophysical detection threshold (PT). The other 70% were responsive at threshold but on average, were slightly less sensitive than the monkey. For these neurons, the relationship between neurometric threshold (NT) and PT was consistent across the four isoluminant color directions tested. A corollary of this result is that NTs were roughly four times lower for stimuli that modulated the long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones out of phase. Nearly one-half of the neurons that responded to chromatic stimuli at the monkeys' detection threshold also responded to high-contrast luminance modulations, suggesting a role for neurons that are jointly tuned to color and luminance in chromatic detection. Analysis of neuronal contrast-response functions and signal-to-noise ratios yielded no evidence for a special set of “cardinal color directions,” for which V1 neurons are particularly sensitive. We conclude that at detection threshold—as shown previously with high-contrast stimuli—V1 neurons are tuned for a diverse set of color directions and do not segregate naturally into red–green and blue–yellow categories. PMID:23446689

  1. Ultrafine nano-network structured bacterial cellulose as reductant and bridging ligands to fabricate ultrathin K-birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; He, Mingqian; He, Ping; Li, Caixia; Liu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xingquan; Ma, Yongjun

    2018-03-01

    In this work, nanostructured ultrathin K-birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets are successfully prepared by a rapid and environmently friendly hydrothermal method, which involves only a facile redox reaction between KMnO4 and nano-network structured bacterial cellulose with abundant hydroxyl groups. The results show that the unique three-dimensional interwoven structured bacterial cellulose acts as not only reductant but also bridging ligands for assembling nanoscaled building units to control the desired morphology of prepared MnO2. Furthermore, electrochemical performances of prepared MnO2 are investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum in 1.0 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The resulting ultrathin K-birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets based electrode exhibits higher capacitance (328.2 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1), excellent rate capability (328.2 F g-1 and 200.4 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and 2.0 A g-1, respectively) and satisfactory cyclic stability (91.6% of initial capacitance even after 2000 cycles at 3.0 A g-1). This work suggests that bacterial cellulose as reductant is a promising candidate in the development of nanostructures of metal oxides.

  2. Chromate coating of zinc-aluminum plating on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, I.; Khan, A.; Nadeem, A.

    2005-01-01

    The chromate coating on zinc-aluminium deposits has been studied. Zinc-aluminium deposition from non-cyanide bath was carried out at current density 3-3.5 A/dm/sup 2/, plating voltage approx. equal to 1.25 V, temperature 18-20 deg. C, for 15 min. The effect of aluminium chloride on the rest potentials of golden, colorless and non-chromated zinc-aluminium alloy deposits was observed. It was found that rest potential was slightly increased with the increase in the concentration of aluminium chloride, only in the case of golden chromating. The rest potential of colorless chromated zinc-aluminium deposits on mild steel were observed to have no correlation with aluminium chloride concentration. The abrasion resistance of colorless chromating was better than golden chromating. (author)

  3. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  4. Reductions in bacterial microorganisms by filtration and ozonation of the surface water supply at the USFWS Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozonation system was recently installed to treat creek water used to culture species of concern at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center, Lamar National Fish Hatchery (NFH). Past experience with fish culture indicates that the following bacterial pathog...

  5. Mobile laminar air flow screen for additional operating room ventilation: reduction of intraoperative bacterial contamination during total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, D; Dagnino, G; Sanguineti, F; Franchin, F

    2011-12-01

    Surgical site infections are important complications in orthopedic surgery. A mobile laminar air flow (LAF) screen could represent a useful addition to an operating room (OR) with conventional turbulent air ventilation (12.5 air changes/h), as it could decrease the bacterial count near the operating field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LAF efficacy at reducing bacterial contamination in the surgical area during 34 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The additional unit was used in 17 operations; the LAF was positioned beside the operating table between two of the surgeons, with the air flow directed towards the surgical area (wound). The whole team wore conventional OR clothing and the correct hygiene procedures and rituals were used. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m(3)) was evaluated in the wound area in 17 operations with the LAF unit and 17 without the LAF unit. The LAF unit reduced the mean bacterial count in the wound area from 23.5 CFU/m(3) without the LAF to 3.5 CFU/m(3) with the LAF (P contamination of the wound area significantly decreased to below the accepted level for an ultraclean OR, preventing SSI infections.

  6. Effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity on the measurement of linear chromaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Ranjbar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity can act on the beam in a nontrivial manner which can cause a tune shift which depends on the relative momenta with respect to the “on momentum” particle (Δp/p. Experimentally, this tune shift affects the measurement of the linear chromaticity which is traditionally measured with a change of Δp/p. The theory behind this effect will be derived in this paper. Computer simulations and experimental data from the Tevatron will be used to support the theory.

  7. Effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity on the measurement of linear chromaticity

    OpenAIRE

    V. H. Ranjbar; C. Y. Tan

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity can act on the beam in a nontrivial manner which can cause a tune shift which depends on the relative momenta with respect to the “on momentum” particle (Δp/p). Experimentally, this tune shift affects the measurement of the linear chromaticity which is traditionally measured with a change of Δp/p. The theory behind this effect will be derived in this paper. Computer simulations and experimental data from the Tevatron will be used ...

  8. Scaling Laws for Dynamic Aperture due to Chromatic Sextupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    1997-01-01

    Scaling laws for the dynamic aperture due to chromatic sextupoles are investigated. The problem is addressed in a simplified lattice model containing 4 N identical cells and one linear betatron phase shifter to break the overall cell-lattice symmetry. Two families of chromatic sextupoles are used to compensate the natural chromaticity. Analytical formulae for the dynamic apertur as a function of the number of cells and of the cell length are found and confirmed through computer tracking.

  9. Infinitely connected subgraphs in graphs of uncountable chromatic number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Erdős and Hajnal conjectured in 1966 that every graph of uncountable chromatic number contains a subgraph of infinite connectivity. We prove that every graph of uncountable chromatic number has a subgraph which has uncountable chromatic number and infinite edge-connectivity. We also prove that......, if each orientation of a graph G has a vertex of infinite outdegree, then G contains an uncountable subgraph of infinite edge-connectivity....

  10. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  11. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromaticity measurement via the fourier spectrum of transverse oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yang

    2004-01-01

    Turn-by-turn data from a single BPM includes information on the chromaticity in sidebands displaced above and below the betatron frequency by an amount of the synchrotron frequency. It may be necessary to induce small amplitude synchrotron oscillation by giving the beam a small kick. Power spectrum of the BPM data gives clear chromatic sidebands, and they can be applied to the chromaticity measurement in the Fermilab Booster

  13. DESIGN OF A FAST CHROMATICITY JUMP IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONTAG, C.; KEWISCH, J.; BRUNO, D.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.

    2003-01-01

    During transition crossing in the .Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), chromaticities have to change sign. This sign change is partially accomplished by the γ t quadrupole jump; however, the resulting chromaticity jump is only Δξ x = 2.1 in the horizontal and Δξ y = 2.4 in the vertical plane. To increase the jump height, a dedicated chromaticity jump scheme has been designed, consisting of fast power supplies connected to six sextupoles per ring, which is capable of providing a chromaticity jump of Δξ = 6

  14. The b-chromatic number of power graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Effantin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The b-chromatic number of a graph G is defined as the maximum number k of colors that can be used to color the vertices of G, such that we obtain a proper coloring and each color i, with 1 ≤ i≤ k, has at least one representant x i adjacent to a vertex of every color j, 1 ≤ j ≠ i ≤ k. In this paper, we discuss the b-chromatic number of some power graphs. We give the exact value of the b-chromatic number of power paths and power complete binary trees, and we bound the b-chromatic number of power cycles.

  15. Investigation of zinc chromatation Part II. Electrochemical impedance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, C.; Keddam, M.; Minouflet-Laurent, F.; Ogle, K.; Perrot, H.

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism to explain the formation of a chromate layer on zinc is proposed. It assumes that a ZnO inner film blocks the zinc surface on which the chromate layer grows. This layer has gel-like properties. The diffusion of the protons across the chromate layer and across the solution is supposed to be the kinetically limiting steps. This model was derived and experimentally tested in terms of impedance. The influences of the immersion time, mass transport, and pH of the chromatation solution were examined. A rather good agreement was found between the predictions of the model and the experimental results

  16. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    1993-01-01

    Cucumber was grown in a partially sterilized sand-soil mixture with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum or left uninoculated. Fresh soil extract was places in polyvinyl chloride tubes without propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Root tips and root segments...... and top of tubes, and of cocci with a diameter of 0.55-0.78 mum in the bulk soil in the center of tubes, were significantly reduced by VAM fungi. The extremely high bacterial biomass (1-7 mg C g-1 dry weight soil) was significant reduced by mycorrhizal colonization on root segments and in bulk soil...... biomass, and changed the spatial pattern of bacterial growth compared to non-mycorrhizal cucumbers. The [H-3]-thymidine incorporation was significantly higher on root tips in the top of tubes, and on root segments and bulk soil in the center of tubes on non-mycorrhizal plants compared to mycorrhizal...

  17. Potassium permanganate cleansing is an effective sanitary method for the reduction of bacterial bioload on raw Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, Supram Hosuru; Pai, Vasudha; Bairy, Indira; Nayak, Niranjan; Gokhale, Shishir; Sathian, Brijesh

    2018-02-13

    Raw vegetables including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots are important carriers of food borne pathogens. We evaluated the bacteriological contamination of unwashed coriander leaves, and effectiveness of cleansing with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution as decontamination method. Significant bacterial contamination including pathogens like Salmonella species and Aeromonas species were isolated from unwashed coriander leaves. Decontamination with 0.1% potassium permanganate was found to be more effective than three steps wash with sterile water.

  18. Smarandachely Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge Chromatic Number of Cm∨Kn

    OpenAIRE

    Shunqin Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number. And we focus on the smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic...

  19. Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

  20. PSB Chromaticity Correction in both Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In view of the LHC injector upgrade program (LIU[1]), all LHC pre-accelerators and in particular the CERN Booster (PSB) are being reviewed for potential lattice optics and equipment optimizations. The option to correct the chromaticity in both planes would be very helpful for a better control of the beam in the presence of both non-linearities and space charge. Moreover, one could reduce decoherence phenomena that otherwise limit the usefulness of resonance measurement techniques based on a turn-by-turn BPM system.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on shellstock oysters. Extension of shelf-life and reduction in bacterial numbers, with particular reference to Vibrio vulnificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Rodrick, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    Shellstock oysters from Apalachicola Bay, Florida, United States of America, were irradiated at the nation's first commercial food irradiator, Vindicator, Inc. in Mulberry, Florida, with four doses, and analysed for their shelf-life and bacterial levels. A 2-3 log cycle reduction in bacterial numbers was observed at all the doses immediately after irradiation. The shelf-life was limited in that the D 50 values were found to be 30, 25, 7 and 6 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. The D 20 values were calculated as 17, 9, 4 and 4 days at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Even though the bacterial numbers were significantly lower in the irradiated oysters, the shelf-life was reduced markedly at doses higher than 1 kGy. The irradiated shellstock did not demonstrate any extension in shelf-life, above that of the non-irradiated controls; in fact, they experienced a reduction in shelf-life and there was a growing back of the surviving organisms, which reached levels that were higher than those observed in the controls. Vibrio vulnificus demonstrated high radiosensitivity, with D 10 values of 0.062 and 0.037 kGy for the virulent and avirulent forms, respectively. Preliminary data indicate that the viable but non-culturable form of V. vulnificus is more radioresistant than the corresponding viable and culturable forms, but this needs further elucidation. Also, current research is directed at analysing the effects of the shell to meat ratio of the oysters, and how this affects their radioresistance. Furthermore, oysters from different locations have different shell to meat weight ratios, and this can influence the efficiency of radiation treatment. (author)

  2. Determination of chromate ion in drilling mud filtrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfill, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method of determining the amount of chromate ion in an aqueous drilling mud filtrate containing organic color bodies such as lignosulfate wherein the method comprises: (A) treating the aqueous filtrate with an effective amount of hydrogen peroxide to destroy said color bodies, and (B) measuring the amount of chromate ion in the filtrate by means of a spectrophotometer

  3. Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases

  4. Chromatic aberrations of two-electrode transaxial mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejzina, L.G.; Karetskaya, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Second order chromatic aberrations of electrostatic two-electrode transaxial mirrors in case the beam axial trajectory of charged particles is curvilinear are considered. Interrelations between coefficients of linear and angular chromatic aberrations are determined. Values of these coefficients for concave and convex transaxial mirrors with plane electrodes in dependence on potential ratio on electrodes by different onnular clearance radii are presented

  5. Understanding and controlling chromaticity shift in LED devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Perkins, Curtis; Bobashev, Georgiy; Young, Joseph; Yaga, Robert; Johnson, Cortina

    2017-05-30

    Chromaticity shift in light-emitting diode (LED) devices arises from multiple mechanisms, and at least five different chromaticity shift modes (CSMs) have been identified to date. This paper focuses on the impacts of irreversible phosphor degradation as a cause of chromaticity shifts in LED devices. The nitride phosphors used to produce warm white LEDs are especially vulnerable to degradation due to thermal and chemical effects such as reactions with oxygen and water. As a result, LED devices utilizing these phosphors were found to undergo either a green shift or, less commonly, a red shift depending on the phosphor mix in the LED devices. These types of chromaticity shifts are classified as CSM-2 (green shift) and CSM-5 (red shift). This paper provides an overview of the kinetic processes responsible for green and red chromaticity shifts along with examples from accelerated stress testing of 6” downlights. Both CSMs appear to proceed through analogous mechanisms that are initiated at the surface of the phosphor. A green shift is produced by the surface oxidation of the nitride phosphor that changes the emission profile to lower wavelengths. As the surface oxidation reaction proceeds, reactant limitations slow the rate and bulk oxidation processes become more prevalent. We found that a red chromaticity shift arises from quenching of the green phosphor, also possibly due to surface reactions of oxygen, which shift the emission chromaticity in the red direction. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings on projecting chromaticity.

  6. Cement-Induced Chromate Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridin, Khalaf; Bergman, Reuven; Khamaisi, Mogher; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Weltfriend, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium in cement is a common cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). Analysis of patch test data during 1999 to 2013 was done. Patients with cement-induced chromate OACD filled the Dermatology Life Quality Index, graded 1 to 5. Of 4846 consecutive patients who were patch tested, 146 (3%) were chromate-sensitive. Of 46 (31.5%) who presented with chromate OACD, 27 (59%) had cement-induced chromate OACD. The proportion of chromate-sensitive patients with clinically relevant cement exposure increased from 7.7% in 2002 to 2004 to 28.7% in 2011 to 2013 (P = 0.04). The median age of presentation was younger than for other chromate-sensitive patients (32 vs 42 years). Hand eczema (88.9%) was the most frequent clinical presentation. Of the 27 with cement-induced chromate OACD, 21 (77.8%) had ongoing dermatitis at the time of the review. Although 14/27 (51.9%) changed their occupation to avoid exposure to cement, symptoms persisted in 9/14 (64.3%). Prolonged exposure to cement before development of symptoms was associated with chronicity. All the symptomatic patients experienced at least a moderate effect on their quality of life (grade 3 or higher on the Dermatology Life Quality Index). We recommend the adoption of the European legislation in Israel, to reduce the prevalence of chromate OACD from cement.

  7. On the chromatic number of general Kneser hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In a break-through paper, Lovász [20] determined the chromatic number of Kneser graphs. This was improved by Schrijver [27], by introducing the Schrijver subgraphs of Kneser graphs and showing that their chromatic number is the same as that of Kneser graphs. Alon, Frankl, and Lovász [2] extended...... their chromatic number as an approach to a supposition of Ziegler [35] and a conjecture of Alon, Drewnowski, and Łuczak [3]. In this work, our second main result is to improve this by computing the chromatic number of a large family of Schrijver hypergraphs. Our last main result is to prove the existence...... of a completely multicolored complete bipartite graph in every coloring of a graph which extends a result of Simonyi and Tardos [29].The first two results are proved using a new improvement of the Dol'nikov-Kříž [7,18] bound on the chromatic number of general Kneser hypergraphs....

  8. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  9. The effect of chromatic and luminance information on reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donell, Beatriz M; Barraza, Jose F; Colombo, Elisa M

    2010-07-01

    We present a series of experiments exploring the effect of chromaticity on reaction time (RT) for a variety of stimulus conditions, including chromatic and luminance contrast, luminance, and size. The chromaticity of these stimuli was varied along a series of vectors in color space that included the two chromatic-opponent-cone axes, a red-green (L-M) axis and a blue-yellow [S - (L + M)] axis, and intermediate noncardinal orientations, as well as the luminance axis (L + M). For Weber luminance contrasts above 10-20%, RTs tend to the same asymptote, irrespective of chromatic direction. At lower luminance contrast, the addition of chromatic information shortens the RT. RTs are strongly influenced by stimulus size when the chromatic stimulus is modulated along the [S - (L + M)] pathway and by stimulus size and adaptation luminance for the (L-M) pathway. RTs are independent of stimulus size for stimuli larger than 0.5 deg. Data are modeled with a modified version of Pieron's formula with an exponent close to 2, in which the stimulus intensity term is replaced by a factor that considers the relative effects of chromatic and achromatic information, as indexed by the RMS (square-root of the cone contrast) value at isoluminance and the Weber luminance contrast, respectively. The parameters of the model reveal how RT is linked to stimulus size, chromatic channels, and adaptation luminance and how they can be interpreted in terms of two chromatic mechanisms. This equation predicts that, for isoluminance, RTs for a stimulus lying on the S-cone pathway are higher than those for a stimulus lying on the L-M-cone pathway, for a given RMS cone contrast. The equation also predicts an asymptotic trend to the RT for an achromatic stimulus when the luminance contrast is sufficiently large.

  10. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alklinity. III. Experiments under natural conditions in the Wadi Natrun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    Evidence that microbial sulphate reduction is mainly responsible for the formation of the natron (hydrated Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) deposits in Wadi Natrun is presented. The sulphate in the infiltrating water is reduced during passage through the surrounding waterlogged soil and the bicarbonate formed is later concentrated by evaporation in the lakes.

  11. METHOD OF SOFTWARE-BASED COMPENSATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL VARIATION IN CHROMATICITY COORDINATES OF LCD PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2015-05-01

    chromaticity coordinates of liquid crystal panel was estimated by the ratio criterion of the areas of cross sections of the histograms p(x,y at a given probability confidence level, calculated before and after compensation procedure. The sections of histograms, representing distributions of chromaticity coordinates were obtained by mathematical simulation in MathCad 15.0. The simulation software of the method of software-based compensation gives the possibility to obtain the mutual arrangement between the figures formed by sections of the histograms of (x,y-chromaticity coordinates, and it may be observed as significant reduction of the area after compensation procedure is performed, and changes in the geometry of the cross section shape as well. Sets of dependency curves were obtained, depicting the efficiency criterion value versus resolution of the colorimeter that is used for measuring the chromaticity coordinates. Practical relevance. Research results are usable for engineers who are designing modern indication equipment based on LCD-panels and by manufacturers for colorimetric calculations and for estimation of technological tolerance of chromaticity coordinates among display units in mass production as well.

  12. Investigation of cleaning reagents for calcium chromate spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning of calcium chromate spills can be a problem due to the insolubility of the material and the corrosiveness of several possible cleaning agents on the stainless steel equipment. Because of OSHA Standards for Cr(VI) exposure, it is necessary to remove spills as efficiently as possible in order to prevent the contaminant from becoming airborne. This study involved the comparison of several possible cleaning agents by studying the solubility of calcium chromate in each reagent. Two general types of reagents for dissolution of calcium chromate were investigated; those which act by conversion of the insoluble calcium chromate to a more soluble salt and to H 2 CrO 4 , and those which appear to act as complexing agents and thereby dissolve the calcium chromate. The most efficient of the reagents investigated was hydrochloric acid. However, even dilute solutions of halide acids destroy passivity of stainless steel causing pitting and stress-corrosion. Acetic acid and nitric acid were somewhat less efficient than hydrochloric acid in dissolving calcium chromate. However, both reagents are noncorrosive with stainless steel, nitric acid tending to favor passivity of the materials. Therefore, it is recommended that dilute solutions of either of these two acids be used for removal of calcium chromate spills in conjunction with mechanical methods that might be necessary, depending on the magnitude of the spill

  13. Influence of Spatial and Chromatic Noise on Luminance Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquilini, Leticia; Walker, Natalie A; Odigie, Erika A; Guimarães, Diego Leite; Salomão, Railson Cruz; Lacerda, Eliza Maria Costa Brito; Cortes, Maria Izabel Tentes; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Ventura, Dora Fix; Souza, Givago Silva

    2017-12-05

    Pseudoisochromatic figures are designed to base discrimination of a chromatic target from a background solely on the chromatic differences. This is accomplished by the introduction of luminance and spatial noise thereby eliminating these two dimensions as cues. The inverse rationale could also be applied to luminance discrimination, if spatial and chromatic noise are used to mask those cues. In this current study estimate of luminance contrast thresholds were conducted using a novel stimulus, based on the use of chromatic and spatial noise to mask the use of these cues in a luminance discrimination task. This was accomplished by presenting stimuli composed of a mosaic of circles colored randomly. A Landolt-C target differed from the background only by the luminance. The luminance contrast thresholds were estimated for different chromatic noise saturation conditions and compared to luminance contrast thresholds estimated using the same target in a non-mosaic stimulus. Moreover, the influence of the chromatic content in the noise on the luminance contrast threshold was also investigated. Luminance contrast threshold was dependent on the chromaticity noise strength. It was 10-fold higher than thresholds estimated from non-mosaic stimulus, but they were independent of colour space location in which the noise was modulated. The present study introduces a new method to investigate luminance vision intended for both basic science and clinical applications.

  14. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  15. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  16. Chromatic bifocus alignment system for SR stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    A new alignment system developed for synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray stepper is described. The alignment system has three key elements as follows. The first is a chromatic bifocus optics which observe high contrast bright images of alignment marks printed on a mask and a wafer. The second is broad band light illumination to observe the wafer alignment mark images which is unaffected by resist film coated on a wafer. The third is a new correlation function which is used in measuring of displacement between a mask and a wafer. The alignment system has achieved alignment accuracy on the order of 0.01 μm. The experimental results of this alignment system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Effect of radiation on hydrotalcites with chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, S.; Bulbulian, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the generation of radioactive wastes is matter of several studies. In this work anion material, chromates, in hydrotalcite are retained which are anion exchangers. It was proposed to heat the hydrotalcite until temperature of 1200 C with the purpose to form the (MgAl 2 O 4 ) spinel is very stable and in this way to immobilize strongly the anions. The effect of radiation on this compound and in particular the chromium lixiviation with solution 1N NaCl. It was found that in all case, the anions are strongly retained in the spinel formed. The radiation dose used for this was 100 Mrad, the samples were treated with NaCl 1N for studying the Cr lixiviation. The results show that for the calcined samples at 1200 C and irradiated there are not chromium escapes, which indicates that it is strongly retained in the spinel that is the formed structure after of the material calcination. (Author)

  18. Reduction and shaping of graphene-oxide by laser-printing for controlled bone tissue regeneration and bacterial killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Valentina; Barba, Marta; Di Pietro, Lorena; Gentilini, Silvia; Chiara Braidotti, Maria; Ciancico, Carlotta; Bugli, Francesca; Ciasca, Gabriele; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lattanzi, Wanda; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; De Spirito, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Papi, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are capable of inducing stem cells differentiation into bone tissue with variable efficacy depending on reductive state of the material. Thus, modulation of osteogenic process and of bone mineral density distribution is theoretically possible by controlling the GO oxidative state. In this study, we laser-printed GO surfaces in order to obtain both a local photo-thermal GO reduction and the formation of nano-wrinkles along precise geometric pattern. Initially, after cells adhered on the surface, stem cells migrated and accumulated on the reduced and wrinkled surface. When the local density of the stem cells on the reduced stripes was high, cells started to proliferate and occupy the oxidized/flat area. The designed surfaces morphology guided stem cell orientation and the reduction accelerated differentiation. Furthermore the reduced sharp nano-wrinkles were able to enhance the GO antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a common cause of prosthetic joints infections. This strategy can offer a revolution in present and future trends of scaffolds design for regenerative medicine.

  19. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  20. Mercuric ion reduction and resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a modified bacterial merA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, C L; Wilde, H D; Stack, N M; Thompson, D M; Summers, A O; Meagher, R B

    1996-01-01

    With global heavy metal contamination increasing, plants that can process heavy metals might provide efficient and ecologically sound approaches to sequestration and removal. Mercuric ion reductase, MerA, converts toxic Hg2+ to the less toxic, relatively inert metallic mercury (Hg0) The bacterial merA sequence is rich in CpG dinucleotides and has a highly skewed codon usage, both of which are particularly unfavorable to efficient expression in plants. We constructed a mutagenized merA sequence, merApe9, modifying the flanking region and 9% of the coding region and placing this sequence under control of plant regulatory elements. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds expressing merApe9 germinated, and these seedlings grew, flowered, and set seed on medium containing HgCl2 concentrations of 25-100 microM (5-20 ppm), levels toxic to several controls. Transgenic merApe9 seedlings evolved considerable amounts of Hg0 relative to control plants. The rate of mercury evolution and the level of resistance were proportional to the steady-state mRNA level, confirming that resistance was due to expression of the MerApe9 enzyme. Plants and bacteria expressing merApe9 were also resistant to toxic levels of Au3+. These and other data suggest that there are potentially viable molecular genetic approaches to the phytoremediation of metal ion pollution. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622910

  1. Genetic algorithm for chromaticity correction in diffraction limited storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ehrlichman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective genetic algorithm is developed for optimizing nonlinearities in diffraction limited storage rings. This algorithm determines sextupole and octupole strengths for chromaticity correction that deliver optimized dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. The algorithm makes use of dominance constraints to breed desirable properties into the early generations. The momentum aperture is optimized indirectly by constraining the chromatic tune footprint and optimizing the off-energy dynamic aperture. The result is an effective and computationally efficient technique for correcting chromaticity in a storage ring while maintaining optimal dynamic aperture and beam lifetime.

  2. Lower and upper chromatic numbers for BSTSs(2h - 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Buratti

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In [Discrete Math. 174, (1997 247-259] an infinite class of STSs(2h - 1 was found with the upper chromatic number not(χ=h. We prove that in this class, for all STSs(2h - 1 with h<10, the lower chromatic number coincides with the upper chromatic number, i.e. χ=not(χ=h and moreover, there exists a infinite sub-class of STSs with χ=not(χ=h for any value of h.

  3. Chromatic Aberration Correction for Atomic Resolution TEM Imaging from 20 to 80 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linck, Martin; Hartel, Peter; Uhlemann, Stephan; Kahl, Frank; Müller, Heiko; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Max; Niestadt, Marcel; Bischoff, Maarten; Biskupek, Johannes; Lee, Zhongbo; Lehnert, Tibor; Börrnert, Felix; Rose, Harald; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-08-12

    Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations. Over the entire voltage range, optimum phase-contrast imaging conditions for weak signals from light atoms can be adjusted for an optical aperture of at least 55 mrad. The information transfer within this aperture is no longer limited by chromatic aberrations. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using the examples of 30 kV phase-contrast TEM images of graphene and molybdenum disulfide, showing unprecedented contrast and resolution that matches image calculations.

  4. Bacterial sulphate reduction and mixing processes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory indicated by groundwater δ34S isotope signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Bill

    2011-04-01

    This report includes data mostly obtained from δ 34 S isotope measurements of groundwater at the Aespoe Island and one sampling from the Laxemar site, southeastern Sweden, during tunnel construction. Early sampling at Aespoe (up to 1992), before tunnel excavation, indicates a groundwater system with multiple sulphur sources. The isotope changes over time in the dissolved sulphate were studied during a sampling campaign in the monitoring phase from 1993 to 1995. A total of 88 samples were collected by SKB between 1992 and 1995 from core-drilled surface boreholes and from boreholes drilled in the tunnel (34 of these samples were collected from the tunnel boreholes). The results of the analyses have been the focus of discussion of the isotope changes with time in the dissolved sulphate (SO 4 2- ). The results indicate that the sulphur isotope signatures in the dissolved sulphate of the groundwater and those from fracture-filling sulphides at Aespoe originate from multiple sulphur sources in the groundwater at Aespoe and Laxemar. The data may be grouped as follows: a) typically homogeneous marine signatures of dissolved SO 4 2- are observed, with δ 34 S values of approximately +21 per mille CDT at intermediate depths of approximately 100-250 m; b) dissolved sulphate in the groundwater at greater depths (below 600 m) with average values of approximately +10 per mille CDT; and c) a dissolved SO 4 2- originating from a mixture of these sulphur sources (100-600m), although there is a difference between a mixture and modification by reduction. Reduced sulphur with low δ 34 S values is also recorded in fracture-filling sulphides, with δ 34 S values of approximately 0 to -10 per mille CDT. This may contribute to small changes in the isotope signature of the dissolved SO 4 2- , probably by sulphide oxidation in the past. The changes in the δ 34 S isotope data for dissolved SO 4 2- over the 1992-1996 period suggest a complex situation, indicating both sulphate reduction by

  5. Reductive electrografting of in situ produced diazopyridinium cations: Tailoring the interface between carbon electrodes and electroactive bacterial films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Hassiba; Lebègue, Estelle; Bergamini, Jean-François; Barrière, Frédéric; Lagrost, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    Carbon electrodes were functionalized through the reduction of diazopyridinium cations that are produced from in situ diazotization of 2-, 3- and 4-aminopyridine. Diazopyridinium salts were much more rarely employed for surface functionalization than other aryldiazonium derivatives. A study combining X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, ellipsometry, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements and electrochemical analyses demonstrates that films obtained from 4-diazopyridinium cations are hydrophilic, dense, compact but sufficiently thin to preserve fast electronic transfer rate, being then relevant to efficiently tailor the interface between the anode surface and an electroactive biofilm. Microbial Fuels Cells (MFCs) with pyridine-functionalized graphite anodes exhibit faster development and improved performances than MFCs operating with bare graphite anodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Symplectic maps and chromatic optics in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-10-11

    We have applied the nonlinear map method to comprehensively characterize the chromatic optics in particle accelerators. Our approach is built on the foundation of symplectic transfer maps of magnetic elements. The chromatic lattice parameters can be transported from one element to another by the maps. We introduce a Jacobian operator that provides an intrinsic linkage between the maps and the matrix with parameter dependence. The link allows us to directly apply the formulation of the linear optics to compute the chromatic lattice parameters. As an illustration, we analyze an alternating-gradient cell with nonlinear sextupoles, octupoles, and decapoles and derive analytically their settings for the local chromatic compensation. As a result, the cell becomes nearly perfect up to the third-order of the momentum deviation.

  7. Local chromatic correction scheme for LER of PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Sullivan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the interaction point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher-order chromatic aberrations. Here we consider the approach for ampersand PEP-II B Factory low energy ring (LER) where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. For the IP straight section the lattice is designed in such a way that the chromatic aberrations are made small and sextupole-like aberrations are eliminated. The results of dimensional tracking simulations are presented

  8. Spectrally-balanced chromatic approach-lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Approach lighting system employing combinations of red and blue lights reduces problem of color-based optical illusions. System exploits inherent chromatic aberration of eye to create three-dimensional effect, giving pilot visual clues of position.

  9. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  10. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  11. In vivo chromatic aberration in eyes implanted with intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Llorente, Lourdes; Durán, Sonia; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-04-12

    To measure in vivo and objectively the monochromatic aberrations at different wavelengths, and the chromatic difference of focus between green and infrared wavelengths in eyes implanted with two models of intraocular lenses (IOL). EIGHTEEN EYES PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY: nine implanted with Tecnis ZB99 1-Piece acrylic IOL and nine implanted with AcrySof SN60WF IOL. A custom-developed laser ray tracing (LRT) aberrometer was used to measure the optical aberrations, at 532 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. The monochromatic wave aberrations were described using a fifth-order Zernike polynomial expansion. The chromatic difference of focus was estimated as the difference between the equivalent spherical errors corresponding to each wavelength. Wave aberration measurements were highly reproducible. Except for the defocus term, no significant differences in high order aberrations (HOA) were found between wavelengths. The average chromatic difference of focus was 0.46 ± 0.15 diopters (D) in the Tecnis group, and 0.75 ± 0.12 D in the AcrySof group, and the difference was statistically significant (P Chromatic difference of focus in the AcrySof group was not statistically significantly different from the Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) previously reported in a phakic population (0.78 ± 0.16 D). The impact of LCA on retinal image quality (measured in terms of Strehl ratio) was drastically reduced when considering HOA and astigmatism in comparison with a diffraction-limited eye, yielding the differences in retinal image quality between Tecnis and AcrySof IOLs not significant. LRT aberrometry at different wavelengths is a reproducible technique to evaluate the chromatic difference of focus objectively in eyes implanted with IOLs. Replacement of the crystalline lens by the IOL did not increase chromatic difference of focus above that of phakic eyes in any of the groups. The AcrySof group showed chromatic difference of focus values very similar to physiological values in

  12. Reduction of Bacterial Pathogens and Potential Surrogates on the Surface of Almonds Using High-Intensity 405-Nanometer Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Gurtler, Joshua B; Tyrell, Breanna; Fleck, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    The disinfecting properties of high-intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and nonpathogenic bacteria inoculated onto the surface of almonds. MBL was generated from an array of narrow-band 405-nm light-emitting diodes. Almonds were inoculated with higher or lower levels (8 or 5 CFU/g) of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella , as well as nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 and an avirulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium, for evaluation as potential surrogates for their respective pathogens. Inoculated almonds were treated with MBL for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min at a working distance of 7 cm. Simultaneous to treatment, cooling air was directed onto the almonds at a rate of 4 ft 3 /min (1.89 ×10 -3 m 3 /s), sourced through a container of dry ice. An infrared camera was used to monitor the temperature readings after each run. For E. coli K-12, reductions of up to 1.85 or 1.63 log CFU/g were seen for higher and lower inoculum levels, respectively; reductions up to 2.44 and 1.44 log CFU/g were seen for E. coli O157:H7 (higher and lower inoculation levels, respectively). Attenuated Salmonella was reduced by up to 0.54 and 0.97 log CFU/g, whereas pathogenic Salmonella was reduced by up to 0.70 and 0.55 log CFU/g (higher and lower inoculation levels, respectively). Inoculation level did not significantly impact minimum effective treatment times, which ranged from 1 to 4 min. Temperatures remained below ambient throughout treatment, indicating that MBL is a nonthermal antimicrobial process. The nonpathogenic strains of E. coli and Salmonella each responded to MBL in a comparable manner to their pathogenic counterparts. These results suggest that these nonpathogenic strains may be useful in experiments with MBL in which a surrogate is required, and that MBL warrants further investigation as a potential antimicrobial treatment for low-moisture foods.

  13. Chromaticity and Glossiness of Gold, Silver, and Bronze Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Matsumoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of metallic colors, such as gold, silver and bronze, depends on chromaticity and glossiness of a surface. We aim to obtain the chromaticity region of gold, silver, and bronze by using CG simulated surfaces with various glossiness. The physical glossiness was defined by the intensity ratio of specular reflectance of the surface stimulus. The observer estimated degree of perceived glossiness, and also degree of gold, silver, or bronze appearance of the stimulus with a physical glossiness and a chromaticity. The results showed that the stimulus began to appear gold, silver or bronze at a certain chromaticity point only when the stimulus had glossiness. The chromaticity range, where gold, silver and bronze colors were observed, expanded as the degree of glossiness increased. Furthermore the ratio of the degree of gold, silver or bronze colors to that of glossiness of the stimulus was found to be different among the chromaticity points of the stimulus. This ratio was highest with highly saturated stimuli for gold and bronze colors, and with achromatic stimuli for silver color.

  14. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  15. Chromatic assimilation unaffected by perceived depth of inducing light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Steven K; Cao, Dingcai

    2004-01-01

    Chromatic assimilation is a shift toward the color of nearby light. Several studies conclude that a neural process contributes to assimilation but the neural locus remains in question. Some studies posit a peripheral process, such as retinal receptive-field organization, while others claim the neural mechanism follows depth perception, figure/ground segregation, or perceptual grouping. The experiments here tested whether assimilation depends on a neural process that follows stereoscopic depth perception. By introducing binocular disparity, the test field judged in color was made to appear in a different depth plane than the light that induced assimilation. The chromaticity and spatial frequency of the inducing light, and the chromaticity of the test light, were varied. Chromatic assimilation was found with all inducing-light sizes and chromaticities, but the magnitude of assimilation did not depend on the perceived relative depth planes of the test and inducing fields. We found no evidence to support the view that chromatic assimilation depends on a neural process that follows binocular combination of the two eyes' signals.

  16. Acidic electrolyzed water as a novel transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure reduction of bacterial loads on shelled fresh shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping eDu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW, a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products.

  17. Acidic Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Transmitting Medium for High Hydrostatic Pressure Reduction of Bacterial Loads on Shelled Fresh Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Suping; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xiao, Lili; Lou, Yang; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP) processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products. PMID:27014228

  18. Bio-reduction of Cr(VI) by exopolysaccharides (EPS) from indigenous bacterial species of Sukinda chromite mine, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, R; Samuel, Jastin; Mishra, R; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, A

    2012-07-01

    Chrome mining activity has contributed intensively towards pollution of hexavalent chromium around Sukinda Valley, Orissa, India. In an attempt to study the specific contribution of exopolysaccharides (EPS) extracted from indigenous isolates towards Cr(VI) reduction, three chromium (VI) tolerant strains were isolated from the effluent mining sludge. Based on the tolerance towards Cr(VI) and EPS production capacity, one of them was selected for further work. The taxonomic identity of the selected strain was confirmed to be Enterobacter cloacae (showing 98% similarity in BLAST search to E. cloacae) through 16S rRNA analysis. The EPS production was observed to increase with increasing Cr(VI) concentration in the growth medium, highest being 0.078 at 100 mg/l Cr(VI). The extracted EPS from Enterobacter cloacae SUKCr1D was able to reduce 31.7% of Cr(VI) at 10 mg/l concentration, which was relevant to the prevailing natural concentrations at Sukinda mine effluent sludge. The FT-IR spectral studies confirmed the surface chemical interactions of hexavalent chromium with EPS.

  19. How daylight influences high-order chromatic descriptors in natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Juan; Nieves, Juan Luis; Romero, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Despite the global and local daylight changes naturally occurring in natural scenes, the human visual system usually adapts quite well to those changes, developing a stable color perception. Nevertheless, the influence of daylight in modeling natural image statistics is not fully understood and has received little attention. The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of daylight changes in different high-order chromatic descriptors (i.e., color volume, color gamut, and number of discernible colors) derived from 350 color images, which were rendered under 108 natural illuminants with Correlated Color Temperatures (CCT) from 2735 to 25,889 K. Results suggest that chromatic and luminance information is almost constant and does not depend on the CCT of the illuminant for values above 14,000 K. Nevertheless, differences between the red-green and blue-yellow image components were found below that CCT, with most of the statistical descriptors analyzed showing local extremes in the range 2950 K-6300 K. Uniform regions and areas of the images attracting observers' attention were also considered in this analysis and were characterized by their patchiness index and their saliency maps. Meanwhile, the results of the patchiness index do not show a clear dependence on CCT, and it is remarkable that a significant reduction in the number of discernible colors (58% on average) was found when the images were masked with their corresponding saliency maps. Our results suggest that chromatic diversity, as defined in terms of the discernible colors, can be strongly reduced when an observer scans a natural scene. These findings support the idea that a reduction in the number of discernible colors will guide visual saliency and attention. Whatever the modeling is mediating the neural representation of natural images, natural image statistics, it is clear that natural image statistics should take into account those local maxima and minima depending on the daylight illumination and

  20. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  1. Reduction of bacterial surface contamination in the hospital environment by application of a new product with persistent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, G; Rynbäck, J; Loré, B

    2010-06-01

    The benefit of routine surface disinfection in hospitals has been discussed. In this study we have investigated a new product, Appeartex. After application on surfaces a remnant effect is achieved due to the positive charge of the active molecule. We studied the persistent effect of Appeartex one day after application in both an experimental study in the laboratory and a field study in a hospital ward. Surfaces of bedside tables were investigated. In the experimental study, large inocula of >or=10(6)cfu of S. aureus or enterococci were inoculated on to well-defined areas which had been treated/not treated with Appeartex. One hour later, samples were taken with a swab rinse technique. A reduction in the number of viable bacteria in the magnitude 10-10(3) cfu was seen due to the effect of Appeartex. In the field study the effect on naturally occurring low level contamination was studied. Defined surfaces on bedside tables used by patients were treated/not treated with Appeartex. One day later, samples were taken with contact agar plates and with a new swab method using two sequential nylon flocked swabs. Significantly fewer bacteria were found on Appeartex-treated surfaces compared with untreated surfaces. The median counts on Appeartex-treated surfaces were 10 cfu/50 cm(2), and on untreated surfaces 20 cfu/50 cm(2). There was no significant difference in the number of bacteria found by culture of samples taken with the contact agar method compared with samples taken using the nylon flocked swab method. (c) 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ammonium chloride and urea application on soil bacterial communities closely related to the reductive transformation of pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Wang, Yong-kui; Chen, Peng-cheng; Li, Fang-bai; Chen, Man-jia; Hu, Min

    2014-05-15

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is widely distributed in the soil, and nitrogen fertilizer is extensively used in agricultural production. However, studies on the fate of organic contaminants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer application have been rare and superficial. The present study aimed to examine the effect of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and urea (CO(NH2)2) application on the reductive transformation of PCP in a paddy soil. The study showed that the addition of low concentrations of NH4Cl/CO(NH2)2 enhanced the transformation of PCP, while the addition of high concentrations of NH4Cl/CO(NH2)2 had the opposite effect. The variations in the abundance of soil microbes in response to NH4Cl/CO(NH2)2 addition showed that both NH4Cl and CO(NH2)2 had inhibitory effects on the growth of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) of the genus Comamonas. In contrast, for the genus Shewanella, low concentrations of NH4Cl inhibited growth, and high concentrations of NH4Cl enhanced growth, whereas all concentrations of CO(NH2)2 showed enhancement effects. In addition, consistent patterns of variation were found between the abundances of dechlorinating bacteria in the genus Dehalobacter and PCP transformation rates under NH4Cl/CO(NH2)2 addition. In conclusion, nitrogen application produced variations in the structure of the soil microbial community, especially in the abundance of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria and dechlorinating bacteria, which, in turn, affected PCP dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma irradiation effects of 51Cr(III) isotope exchange in doped magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfouz, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma irradiation effects of 51 Cr(III) isotope exchange in magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures doped with 51 Cr(III) were investigated. It was found that γ irradiation has an oxidation effect and the percentage of exchanged 51 Cr(VI) increases with the increasing γ-ray dose. The data are explained in terms of mechanistic model involving metal and ligand vacancies exchange and substitution reactions. (author)

  4. Representation of chromatic distribution for lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Maurizio; Musante, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    For the luminaire manufacturer, the measurement of the lighting intensity distribution (LID) emitted by lighting fixture is based on photometry. So light is measured as an achromatic value of intensity and there is no the possibility to discriminate the measurement of white vs. colored light. At the Laboratorio Luce of Politecnico di Milano a new instrument for the measurement of spectral radiant intensities distribution for lighting system has been built: the goniospectra- radiometer. This new measuring tool is based on a traditional mirror gonio-photometer with a CCD spectraradiometer controlled by a PC. Beside the traditional representation of photometric distribution we have introduced a new representation where, in addition to the information about the distribution of luminous intensity in space, new details about the chromaticity characteristic of the light sources have been implemented. Some of the results of this research have been applied in developing and testing a new line of lighting system "My White Light" (the research project "Light, Environment and Humans" funded in the Italian Lombardy region Metadistretti Design Research Program involving Politecnico di Milano, Artemide, Danese, and some other SME of the Lighting Design district), giving scientific notions and applicative in order to support the assumption that colored light sources can be used for the realization of interior luminaries that, other than just have low power consumption and long life, may positively affect the mood of people.

  5. The influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry: Perception and neural representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Wook; Shevell, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    The predominance of rivalrous targets is affected by surrounding context when stimuli rival in orientation, motion or color. This study investigated the influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry. The predominance of rivalrous chromatic targets was measured in various surrounding contexts. The first experiment showed that a chromatic surround's influence was stronger when the surround was uniform or a grating with luminance contrast (chromatic/black grating) compared to an equiluminant grating (chromatic/white). The second experiment revealed virtually no effect of the orientation of the surrounding chromatic context, using chromatically rivalrous vertical gratings. These results are consistent with a chromatic representation of the context by a non-oriented, chromatically selective and spatially antagonistic receptive field. Neither a double-opponent receptive field nor a receptive field without spatial antagonism accounts for the influence of context on binocular color rivalry. PMID:18331750

  6. Chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations, the Tutte upper bound and chromatic zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Tutte proved that if G pt is a planar triangulation and P(G pt , q) is its chromatic polynomial, then |P(G pt , τ + 1)| ⩽ (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5 )/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt . Here we study the ratio r(G pt ) = |P(G pt , τ + 1)|/(τ − 1) n−5 for a variety of planar triangulations. We construct infinite recursive families of planar triangulations G pt,m depending on a parameter m linearly related to n and show that if P(G pt,m , q) only involves a single power of a polynomial, then r(G pt,m ) approaches zero exponentially fast as n → ∞. We also construct infinite recursive families for which P(G pt,m , q) is a sum of powers of certain functions and show that for these, r(G pt,m ) may approach a finite nonzero constant as n → ∞. The connection between the Tutte upper bound and the observed chromatic zero(s) near to τ + 1 is investigated. We report the first known graph for which the zero(s) closest to τ + 1 is not real, but instead is a complex-conjugate pair. Finally, we discuss connections with the nonzero ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet on these families of graphs. (paper)

  7. The effect of chromate on the synthesis of plastid pigments and lipoquinones in Zea mays L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize plants cultivated on nutrient solutions containing increasing amounts of CrO42- (from 10-7 to 10-4 M showed growth inhibition, strong reduction of the root system and an increase of dry matter of leaves. The highest accumulation of chromium in plant organs appeared in the roots. Chromate taken up into leaves caused changes in the content of plastid pigments and lipoquinones similar, in general, to those in senescent plants.

  8. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo longitudinal chromatic aberration of pseudophakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Damian; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Zając, Marek; Hill-Bator, Aneta; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of longitudinal chromatic aberration measurements on two groups of pseudophakic eyes in comparison to healthy eyes. The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye, defined as chromatic difference of refraction with disabled accommodation, was measured with the use of a visual refractometer with a custom-designed target illuminator consisting of a narrow-band RGB diode (blue λb = 470 ± 15 nm; green λg = 525 ± 18 nm; red λr = 660 ± 10 nm). The measurements were performed on nine eyes implanted with AcrySof IQ SN60WF, 14 eyes implanted with AcrySof SA60AT, and 10 phakic eyes under cycloplegia. The mean values of the longitudinal chromatic aberration between 470 and 660 nm for the control group was 1.12 ± 0.14 D. For SA60AT group, it was 1.45 ± 0.42 D whereas for SN60WF it was 1.17 ± 0.52 D. The statistical test showed significant difference between SA60AT and the control group (p chromatic aberration in vivo can be easily and reliably estimated with an adapted visual refractometer. The two groups of pseudophakic eyes measured in this study showed different values of chromatic aberration. Its magnitude for SA60AT group was significantly larger than for the control group whereas for SN60WF the difference was not significant. The optical material used for intraocular lens design may have significant influence on the magnitude of the chromatic aberration of the pseudophakic eye, and therefore on its optical and visual performance in polychromatic light.

  10. Chromatically unique 6-bridge graph theta(a,a,a,b,b,c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.A. Karim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For a graph $G$, let $P(G,\\lambda$ denote the chromatic polynomial of $G$. Two graphs $G$ and $H$ are chromatically equivalent if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A graph $G$ is chromatically unique if for any graph chromatically equivalent to $G$ is isomorphic to $G$. In this paper, the chromatically unique of a new family of 6-bridge graph $\\theta(a,a,a,b,b,c$ where $2\\le a\\le b\\le c$ is investigated.

  11. Chromate Binding and Removal by the Molybdate-Binding Protein ModA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpus, Jason; Bosscher, Michael; Ajiboye, Ifedayo; Zhang, Liang; He, Chuan

    2017-04-04

    Effective and cheap methods and techniques for the safe removal of hexavalent chromate from the environment are in increasingly high demand. High concentrations of hexavalent chromate have been shown to have numerous harmful effects on human biology. We show that the E. coli molybdate-binding protein ModA is a genetically encoded tool capable of removing chromate from aqueous solutions. Although previously reported to not bind chromate, we show that ModA binds chromate tightly and is capable of removing chromate to levels well below current US federal standards. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. DNA-protein complexes induced by chromate and other carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.

    1991-01-01

    DNA-protein complexes induced in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by chromate have been isolated, analyzed, and compared with those induced by cis-platinum, ultraviolet light, and formaldehyde. Actin has been identified as one of the major proteins complexed to DNA by chromate based upon its molecular weight, isoelectric point, positive reaction with an actin polyclonal antibody, and proteolytic mapping. Chromate and cis-platinum both complex proteins of similar molecular weight and isoelectric point, positive reaction with an actin polyclonal antibody, and proteolytic mapping. Chromate and cis-platinum both complex proteins of similar molecular weight and isoelectric points, and these complexes can be disrupted by chelating agents and sulfhydryl reducing agents, suggesting that the metal itself is participating in binding rather than having a catalytic or indirect role (i.e., oxygen radicals). In contrast, formaldehyde complexed histones to the DNA, and these complexes were not disrupted by chelating or reducing agents. An antiserum raised to chromate-induced DNA-protein complexes reacted primarily with 97,000 kDa protein that did not silver stain. Slot blots, as well as Western blots, were used to detect formation of p97 DNA crosslinks. This protein was complexed to the DNA by all four agents studied

  13. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  14. A linear chromatic mechanism drives the pupillary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, S.; Wolffsohn, J. S.; Gilmartin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a chromatic mechanism can drive pupil responses. The aim of this research was to clarify whether a linear or nonlinear chromatic mechanism drives pupillary responses by using test stimuli of various colours that are defined in cone contrast space. The pupil and accommodation responses evoked by these test stimuli were continuously and simultaneously objectively measured by photorefraction. The results with isochromatic and isoluminant stimuli showed that the accommodative level remained approximately constant (< 0.25 D change in mean level) even when the concurrent pupillary response was large (ca. 0.30 mm). The pupillary response to an isoluminant grating was sustained, delayed (by ca. 60 ms) and larger in amplitude than that for a isochromatic uniform stimulus, which supports previous work suggesting that the chromatic mechanism contributes to the pupillary response. In a second experiment, selected chromatic test gratings were used and isoresponse contours in cone contrast space were obtained. The results showed that the isoresponse contour in cone contrast space is well described (r(2) = 0.99) by a straight line with a positive slope. The results indicate that a /L - M/ linear chromatic mechanism, whereby a signal from the long wavelength cone is subtracted from that of the middle wavelength cone and vice versa, drives pupillary responses. PMID:11674867

  15. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  16. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  17. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung; Vetráková, Ľubica; Seo, Jiwon; Heger, Dominik; Lee, Changha; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-05-05

    The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at -20°C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25°C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV-vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (γ-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem(®) Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant.

  19. Electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coating on electrodeposited zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencer, Michal

    2006-01-01

    For certain applications of galvanized steel protected with conversion coatings it is important that the surface is electrically conductive. This is especially important with mating surfaces for electromagnetic compatibility. This paper addresses electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coatings. A cross-matrix study using different zinc plating techniques by different labs showed that the main deciding factor is the type of zinc-plating bath used rather than the subsequent chromating process. Thus, chromated zinc plate electrodeposited from cyanide baths is non-conductive while that from alkaline (non-cyanide) and acid baths is conductive, even though the plate from all the bath types is conductive before conversion coating. The results correlate well with the microscopic structure of the surfaces as observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and could be further corroborated and rationalized using EDX and Auger spectroscopies

  20. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Roschuk, Tyler R; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a method to measure chromatic aberrations of microscope objectives with metallic nanoparticles using white light. Extinction spectra are recorded while scanning a single nanoparticle through a lens's focal plane. We show a direct correlation between the focal wavelength and the longitudinal chromatic focal shift through our analysis of the variations between the scanned extinction spectra at each scan position and the peak extinction over the entire scan. The method has been tested on achromat and apochromat objectives using aluminum disks varying in size from 260-520 nm. Our method is straightforward, robust, low cost, and broadband with a sensitivity suitable for assessing longitudinal chromatic aberrations in high-numerical-aperture apochromatic corrected lenses.

  1. The effect of chromatic decoherence on transverse injection oscillation damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to eliminate or reduce transverse emittance growth during transfers between accelerators, transverse damper systems are used to eliminate residual dipole oscillations before phase space dilution takes place. In transfers where the target accelerator has high chromaticity or the beam has a large momentum spread, phase space dilution due to chromatic decoherence can take place on a scale short compared to the damping time of the transverse injection oscillation damper. The effect of the damper on the beam phase space is not clear while the coherent oscillation is suppressed by this decoherence. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness of dampers at eliminating emittance blowup at transfers in the presence of chromatic decoherence

  2. Low chromatic aberration hexapole for molecular state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    In molecular beam state-selection experiments, the electrostatic hexapole acts as an optical lens, imaging molecules from the source to the focus. The molecular longitudinal velocity spread induces the phenomenon of chromatic aberration, which will reduce the state-selection purity. We propose a scheme which can effectively reduce the chromatic aberration by changing the hexapole voltage operating manner. The hexapole is already charged before molecules arrive at the entrance of the hexapole. When molecules are completely inside the hexapole, the voltage is switched off rapidly at an appropriate time. In this manner, faster molecules travel a longer hexapole focusing region than slower molecules. Therefore the focusing positions of molecules with different velocities become close. Numerical trajectory simulations of molecular state selection are carried out, and the results show that this low chromatic aberration hexapole can significantly improve the state purity from 46.2% to 87.0%. (paper)

  3. Second order chromaticity of the interaction regions in the collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, T.; Syphers, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The collider in the SSC has large second order chromaticity (ξ 2 ) with the interaction regions (IRs) contributing substantially to it. The authors calculate the general expression for ξ 2 in a storage ring and find that it is driven by the first order chromatic beta wave. Specializing to the interaction regions, they show that ξ 2 is a minimum when the phase advance (Δμ IP -IP) between adjacent interaction points is an odd multiple of π/2 and both IRs are identical. In this case the first order chromatic beta wave is confined within the IRs. Conversely, ξ 2 is large either if δμ IP -IP = (2n + 1)π/2 and the two IRs are very far from equality or if the two IRs are equal but Δμ IP -IP = nπ

  4. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Mapping chromatic pathways in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yang; Luo, Jiangnan; Shinomiya, Kazunori; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, color vision and wavelength-selective behaviors are mediated by the compound eye's narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R7 and R8 and their downstream medulla projection (Tm) neurons Tm5a, Tm5b, Tm5c, and Tm20 in the second optic neuropil or medulla. These chromatic Tm neurons project axons to a deeper optic neuropil, the lobula, which in insects has been implicated in processing and relaying color information to the central brain. The synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons in the lobula are not known, however. Using a modified GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) method to probe connections between the chromatic Tm neurons and 28 known and novel types of lobula neurons, we identify anatomically the visual projection neurons LT11 and LC14 and the lobula intrinsic neurons Li3 and Li4 as synaptic targets of the chromatic Tm neurons. Single-cell GRASP analyses reveal that Li4 receives synaptic contacts from over 90% of all four types of chromatic Tm neurons, whereas LT11 is postsynaptic to the chromatic Tm neurons, with only modest selectivity and at a lower frequency and density. To visualize synaptic contacts at the ultrastructural level, we develop and apply a "two-tag" double-labeling method to label LT11's dendrites and the mitochondria in Tm5c's presynaptic terminals. Serial electron microscopic reconstruction confirms that LT11 receives direct contacts from Tm5c. This method would be generally applicable to map the connections of large complex neurons in Drosophila and other animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun

    2016-03-07

    As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.

  7. The effect of chromate on IGSCC in boiling water reactors - a SSRT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of chromate on IGSCC in Type 304 stainless steel was investigated using the Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT). It was found that low concentrations of chromate raises the corrosion potential of SS and causes IGSCC. The effect of chromate was compared to that of the main oxidant in BWRs, hydrogen peroxide. Chromate was found to have less tendency than hydrogen peroxide, at one and the same corrosion potential, to cause IGSCC in SSRT tests. This is interpreted as due to chromate being a better anodic inhibitor than hydrogen peroxide. As a consequence, initiation of IGSCC is slower in the presence of chromate. At least during normal water chemistry, chromate is a secondary oxidant in all of the BWR reactor coolant system. The ECP is then determined by the primary oxidant, hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, the chromate transients which may occur in BWR reactor coolant systems should have no significant effect on IGSCC

  8. Effect of radioactive chromate on the corrosion and polarisation of mild steel in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyan, N.; Ramakrishnaiah, K.; Iyer, S.V.; Kapali, V.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion tests of mild steel in 0.01% sodium chloride containing radioactive chromate and non-radioactive chromate have been carried out. It has been observed that the labelled sodium chromate has a deleterious effect on the inhibitive action of non-radioactive chromate. The effect of radioactive chromate on the potentiostatic polarization of m.s. in sodium chloride solution containing non-radioactive sodium chromate has also been studied. It is observed that both the cathodic and the anodic polarisation of the metal is diminished in the presence of radioactive chromate. The behaviour of the system in the presence of radioactive chromate is attributed both to the action of depolarisers produced by radiolysis of water and to the effect of gamma radiation on the metal. (author)

  9. Chromatic correction in the SLC bunch length compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.E.; Emma, P.J.; Fieguth, T.H.; Spence, W.L.

    1991-06-01

    The SLC Ring to Linac (RTL) transport lines employ intense bending and strong transverse focusing to produce the momentum compaction needed for bunch length compression prior to S-band acceleration. In the presence of the large rf induced energy spread needed for compression the consequent chromatic effects -- viz. the variation with energy of residual output dispersion and of the RTL transfer matrix, threaten to destroy the small emittances produced by the damping rings. We report on the tuning methods that have been developed and used to implement the sextupole based chromatic correction scheme. 6 refs., 4 figs

  10. Chromatic aberrations of electrostatic axisymmetric lenses produced by circular cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beams both to test material and for technological processes have being used lately in science and technology more and more. Electrostatic lenses are used, as a rule, for such beam production. Coefficients of chromatic aberrration for a wide range of changes in lense parameters are calculated on the basis of analytical expressions to determine the potential in immerse and isolated lenses. The chromatic aberration coefficient is presented as a polynomial according to the degrees of reverse increase, that permits to calculate a circle of blurring of subject arbitrary position

  11. Effect of pressure on the radiation annealing of recoil atoms in chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamouli, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the annealing of recoil atoms by gamma radiation in neutron irradiated potassium chromate, ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate was studied. In potassium chromate the pressure applied before the gamma-irradiation was found to retard the radiation annealing process. In ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate the radiation annealing was found to be enhanced in the compressed samples in comparison to the noncompressed ones. (author)

  12. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, L C; Ackerson, C J; Cornelis, P; Ye, L; Berendsen, R L; Hunter, W J; Noblitt, S D; Henry, C S; Cappa, J J; Montenieri, R L; Wong, A O; Musilova, L; Sura-de Jong, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L; Reynolds, R J B; Pilon-Smits, E A H

    2015-08-01

    To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous soils in Colorado, USA. Based on fatty acid methyl ester analysis and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes, the isolate was identified as a subspecies of Pseudomonas moraviensis (97.3% nucleotide identity) and named P. moraviensis stanleyae. The isolate exhibited extreme tolerance to SeO3(2-) (up to 120 mmol l(-1)) and SeO4(2-) (>150 mmol l(-1)). Selenium oxyanion removal from growth medium was measured by microchip capillary electrophoresis (detection limit 95 nmol l(-1) for SeO3(2-) and 13 nmol l(-1) for SeO4(2-)). Within 48 h, P. moraviensis stanleyae aerobically reduced SeO3(2-) to red Se(0) from 10 mmol l(-1) to below the detection limit (removal rate 0.27 mmol h(-1) at 30 °C); anaerobic SeO3(2-) removal was slower. No SeO4(2-) removal was observed. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae stimulated the growth of crop species Brassica juncea by 70% with no significant effect on Se accumulation. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae can tolerate extreme levels of selenate and selenite and can deplete high levels of selenite under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae may be useful for stimulating plant growth and for the treatment of Se-laden wastewater. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the rat after intratracheal administration of chromates of different solubilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragt, P.C.; Dura, E.A. van

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of chromium in the rat after a single intratracheal dose of sodium, zinc or lead 51Cr-chromate have been investigated. Sodium chromate and the less soluble zinc chromate were absorbed into the blood and this resulted in increased excretion of chromium into the urine. The insoluble lead

  14. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat

  15. Formulation of nonlinear chromaticity in circular accelerators by canonical perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of nonlinear chromaticity in circular accelerators based on the canonical perturbation method is presented. Since the canonical perturbation method directly relates the tune shift to the perturbation Hamiltonian, it greatly simplifies the calculation of the nonlinear chromaticity. The obtained integral representation for nonlinear chromaticity can be systematically extended to higher orders

  16. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Van Brunt, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  17. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  18. Effects of visual attention on chromatic and achromatic detection sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Keiji; Sato, Masayuki; Kuwamura, Keiko

    2014-05-01

    Visual attention has a significant effect on various visual functions, such as response time, detection and discrimination sensitivity, and color appearance. It has been suggested that visual attention may affect visual functions in the early visual pathways. In this study we examined selective effects of visual attention on sensitivities of the chromatic and achromatic pathways to clarify whether visual attention modifies responses in the early visual system. We used a dual task paradigm in which the observer detected a peripheral test stimulus presented at 4 deg eccentricities while the observer concurrently carried out an attention task in the central visual field. In experiment 1, it was confirmed that peripheral spectral sensitivities were reduced more for short and long wavelengths than for middle wavelengths with the central attention task so that the spectral sensitivity function changed its shape by visual attention. This indicated that visual attention affected the chromatic response more strongly than the achromatic response. In experiment 2 it was obtained that the detection thresholds increased in greater degrees in the red-green and yellow-blue chromatic directions than in the white-black achromatic direction in the dual task condition. In experiment 3 we showed that the peripheral threshold elevations depended on the combination of color-directions of the central and peripheral stimuli. Since the chromatic and achromatic responses were separately processed in the early visual pathways, the present results provided additional evidence that visual attention affects responses in the early visual pathways.

  19. Strong oriented chromatic number of planar graphs without short cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Montassier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let M be an additive abelian group. A strong oriented coloringof an oriented graph G is a mapping φ from V(G to M such that (1 φ(u ≠ φ(v whenever uv is an arc in G and (2 φ(v - φ(u ≠ -(φ(t - φ(z whenever uv and zt are two arcs in G. We say that G has a M-strong-oriented coloring. The strong oriented chromatic number of an oriented graph, denoted by χ s (G, is the minimal order of a group M, such that G has M-strong-oriented coloring. This notion was introduced by Nešetřil and Raspaud. In this paper, we pose the following problem: Let i ≥ 4 be an integer. Let G be an oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to i. Which is the strong oriented chromatic number of G ? Our aim is to determine the impact of triangles on the strong oriented coloring. We give some hints of answers to this problem by proving that: (1 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to 12 is at most 7, and (2 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of length 4 or 6 is at most 19.

  20. On the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kayathri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs in several classes of 5-critical graphs. In most of the classes of 5-critical graphs in this paper, we have obtained their exact size and in the other classes of 5-critical graphs, we give new bounds on their number of major vertices and size.

  1. Totally odd K-4-subdivisions in 4-chromatic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by Bjarne Toft in 1975 that every 4-chromatic graph contains a subdivision of K-4 in which each edge of K-4 corresponds to a path of odd length. As an auxiliary result we characterize completely the subspace of the cycle space generated by all cycles through two fixed...

  2. Refractive and diffractive neutron optics with reduced chromatic aberration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Bentley, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    by the use of optics for focusing and imaging. Refractive and diffractive optical elements, e.g. compound refractive lenses and Fresnel zone plates, are attractive due to their low cost, and simple alignment. These optical elements, however, suffer from chromatic aberration, which limit their effectiveness...

  3. Reduced Chromatic Discrimination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley,…

  4. The hot-atom chemistry of crystalline chromates. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.H.; Collins, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Chromates in general and potassium chromate in particular, have been attractive as compounds for hot-atom chemical study because of the favourable nuclear properties of chromium, the great thermal and radiation stability of the compounds, the apparent structural simplicity of the crystals and the presumed known and simple chemistry of the expected recoil products. A wealth of information has been accumulated over the past 25 years, from which the anticipation of a straightforward chemistry has given way to an expanding realization that these systems are actually quite complex. More solid-state hot-atom chemical studies have dealt with potassium chromate than with any other compound. Thus, a major fraction of this review is given to this compound. The emphasis is on recent literature and on the pesent views of phenomena which affect the chemical fate of recoil chromium atoms in chromates. Many other data are tabulated so that the interested reader can speculate independently on the results of a wide variety of experiments. (Auth.)

  5. On threshold mechanisms for achromatic and chromatic vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the achromatic zone for red light in the fovea and for green light in the periphery, a discussion is given on the possible difference in threshold mechanisms for the achromatic (scotopic) and chromatic (photopic) retinal systems. A specific suggestion for this

  6. Chromatic roots and minor-closed families of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Given a minor-closed class of graphs G, what is the in mum of the non-trivial roots of the chromatic polynomial of G ε G? When G is the class of all graphs, the answer is known to be 32/27. We answer this question exactly for three minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we conjecture precis...

  7. The chromatic correction in RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum

  8. Molecular basis of chromatic adaptation in pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herbstová, Miroslava; Bína, David; Koník, P.; Gardian, Zdenko; Vácha, František; Litvín, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1847, 6-7 (2015), s. 534-543 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chromatic adaptation * Diatom * Heterokonta * Light harvesting antenna Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2015

  9. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng

    2017-12-25

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  10. Functionalized granular activated carbon and surface complexation with chromates and bi-chromates in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Somdutta; Sarkar, Ujjaini; Luharuka, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Cr(VI) is present in the aqueous medium as chromate (CrO 4 2− ) and bi-chromate (HCrO 4 − ). Functionalized granular activated carbons (FACs) are used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewaters containing hexavalent chromium. The FACs are prepared by chemical modifications of granular activated carbons (GACs) using functionalizing agents like HNO 3 , HCl and HF. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface areas of FAC-HCl (693.5 m 2 /g), FAC-HNO 3 (648.8 m 2 /g) and FAC-HF (726.2 m 2 /g) are comparable to the GAC (777.7 m 2 /g). But, the adsorption capacity of each of the FAC-HNO 3 , FAC-HCl and FAC-HF is found to be higher than the GAC. The functional groups play an important role in the adsorption process and pH has practically no role in this specific case. The FACs have hydrophilic protonated external surfaces in particular, along with the functional surface sites capable to make complexes with the CrO 4 2− and HCrO 4 − present. Surface complex formation is maximized in the order FAC-HNO 3 > FAC-HF > FAC-HCl, in proportion to the total surface acidity. This is also confirmed by the well-known pseudo second-order kinetic model. Physi-sorption equilibrium isotherms are parameterized by using standard Freundlich and Langmuir models. Langmuir fits better. The formation of surface complexes with the functional groups and hexavalent chromium is also revealed in the images of field emission scanning electron micrograph; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis after adsorption. The intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-controlling factor. The Boyd's film diffusion model fits very well with R 2 as high as 98.1% for FAC-HNO 3 . This result demonstrates that the functionalization of the GAC by acid treatments would increase the diffusion rate, predominantly with a boundary layer diffusion effect. - Highlights: ► Physico-chemical adsorption using functionalized activated carbon (FACs) is applied. ► FACs

  11. Simultaneous bioreduction of nitrate and chromate using sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan, E-mail: erkansahinkaya@yahoo.com [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, Adem [Harran University, Environmental Engineering Department, Osmanbey Campus, 63000 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Calimlioglu, Beste; Toker, Yasemin [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification was stimulated. • Simultaneous bioreduction of nitrate and chromate was achieved. • Total chromium decreased <50 μg/L when the influent Cr(VI) was ≤5 mg/L. -- Abstract: This study aims at evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction using sulfur-based mixotrophic denitrification process in a column reactor packed with elemental sulfur and activated carbon. The reactor was supplemented with methanol at C/N ratio of 1.33 or 2. Almost complete denitrification was achieved at influent NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N and Cr(VI) concentrations of 75 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively, and 3.7 h HRT. Maximum denitrification rate was 0.5 g NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N/(L.d) when the bioreactor was fed with 75 mg/L NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N, 150 mg/L methanol and 10 mg/L Cr(VI). The share of autotrophic denitrification was between 12% and 50% depending on HRT, C/N ratio and Cr(VI) concentration. Effluent total chromium was below 50 μg/L provided that influent Cr(VI) concentration was equal or below 5 mg/L. DGGE results showed stable microbial community throughout the operation and the presence of sulfur oxidizing denitrifying bacteria (Thiobacillus denitrificans) and Cr(VI) reducing bacteria (Exiguobacterium spp.) in the column bed.

  12. On the growth of conversion chromate coatings on 2024-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, S.A.; Akhtar, A.S.; Susac, D.; Wong, P.C.; Wong, K.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The initial growth of chromate conversion coatings on aluminium 2024-T3 alloy has been investigated by scanning Auger microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coating initiation is shown to be influenced by the alloy microstructure. In agreement with previously proposed growth models, Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduction begins on the Al-Cu-Fe-Mn intermetallic second-phase particles, which act as cathodic sites, and then over the entire Al matrix surface. The less noble Al-Cu-Mg second-phase particles demonstrate dual behaviour during the initial stage of coating; some dealloy, with formation of a Cu-rich sponge-like structure, while others show no evidence for etching during the first few seconds and coating deposits on them similar to the situation for the Al-Cu-Fe-Mn particles. XPS measurements show more Cr(III) at the very initial stage of nucleation and growth, whereas the amount of Cr(VI) in the coating increases with the length of the chromating treatment. This is discussed in relation to Raman spectroscopy measurements made in a separate study

  13. Volatile profiles and chromatic characteristics of red wines produced with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2018-07-01

    The use of mixed fermentations with Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is gaining attention in recent years due to their ability to modulate the metabolites production of enological interest. In the present study, four of the most popular planted red grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Shiraz) were fermented using the aforementioned species and two different inoculation protocols (inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 and 48 h from the Starm. bacillaris inoculation), in order to evaluate their impact on the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics of wines. Analysis from chemical composition showed that titratable acidity and glycerol content exhibited marked differences among wines after fermentation. For volatile compounds, mixed fermented wines using an inoculation delay of 48 h led to reduction of volatile compounds (mainly esters). A shorter 24 h delay produced wines with higher values of color intensity than pure fermented wines. The differences observed between the inoculation protocols can be explained by the growth dynamics of both species during fermentation. These findings suggest that mixed fermentations posed a great potential in reducing metabolites which are considered negative for wine quality (mainly ethyl acetate and volatile fatty acids) and with an improvement of the chromatic profile of the wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC CHROMATIC EFFECTS ON WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma

  15. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC CHROMATIC EFFECTS ON WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R., E-mail: jmeyers314@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma.

  16. Chromate ion-exchange study for cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of high chromate selectivity, the ion-exchange process for Cr(IV) recovery from cooling tower blowdown is yet to be commercially popular. Possible degradation of the ion-exchange resin by the oxidative action of Cr(IV) during ion exchange has been considered as the prime obstacle. Resins have been manufactured with fairly acceptable properties to withstand both physical attrition and chemical oxidation. Demonstrated during the course of this research is early, gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough during fixed-bed column runs at acidic pH in the presence of competing sulfate and chloride anions. The advantage of high chromate selectivity is essentially lost due to the early Cr(VI) breakthrough because the column runs are always terminated after a pre-determined level of Cr(VI) has appeared in the treated water. Experimental results provide sufficient evidence that this is not due to poor column kinetics or electrolyte penetration. The chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been investigated in order to explain the foregoing anomalies for the chromate-exchange process. The knowledge of chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been used to overcome the shortcoming of gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough. This study shows that: (a) a continuous counter-current ion-exchange system theoretically offers much higher Cr(VI) removal capacity compared to conventional single-unit fixed-bed system for any pre-determined level of Cr(VI) breakthrough; (b) by modifying the resin composition, the gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough can be greatly eliminated

  17. Unique Optoelectronic Structure and Photoreduction Properties of Sulfur-Doped Lead Chromates Explaining Their Instability in Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahemi, Vanoushe; Sarmadian, Nasrin; Anaf, Willemien; Janssens, Koen; Lamoen, Dirk; Partoens, Bart; De Wael, Karolien

    2017-03-21

    Chrome yellow refers to a group of synthetic inorganic pigments that became popular as an artist's material from the second quarter of the 19th century. The color of the pigment, in which the chromate ion acts as a chromophore, is related to its chemical composition (PbCr 1-x S x O 4 , with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) and crystalline structure (monoclinic/orthorhombic). Their shades range from the yellow-orange to the paler yellow tones with increasing sulfate amount. These pigments show remarkable signs of degradation after limited time periods. Pure PbCrO 4 (crocoite in its natural form) has a deep yellow color and is relatively stable, while the coprecipitate with lead sulfate (PbCr 1-x S x O 4 ) has a paler shade and seems to degrade faster. This degradation is assumed to be related to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). We show that, when the the sulfur(S)-content in chrome yellow increases, the band gap increases. Typically, when increasing the band gap, one might assume that a decrease in photoactivity is the result. However, the photoactivity relative to the Cr content and, thus, Cr reduction of sulfur-rich PbCr 1-x S x O 4 is found to be much higher compared to the sulfur-poor or nondoped lead chromates. This discrepancy can be explained by the evolution of the crystal and electronic structure as a function of the sulfur content: first-principles density functional theory calculations show that both the absorption coefficient and reflection coefficients of the lead chromates change as a result of the sulfate doping in such a way that the generation of electron-hole pairs under illumination relative to the total Cr content increases. These changes in the material properties explain why paler shade yellow colors of this pigment are more prone to discoloration. The electronic structure calculations also demonstrate that lead chromate and its coprecipitates are p-type semiconductors, which explains the observed reduction reaction. Because understanding this phenomenon is

  18. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Vetráková, Ľubica [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Seo, Jiwon [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Heger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Lee, Changha [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Il [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kitae, E-mail: ktkim@kopri.re.kr [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwon, E-mail: jwk@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was significantly accelerated during freezing. • Accelerated redox conversion in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect. • 4-CP, Cr(VI), and protons are concentrated in the liquid brine by freezing. • Redox conversions of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) were significant in ice. • Freezing-accelerated redox conversion was observed in real polluted water. - Abstract: The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at −20 °C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25 °C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV–vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions.

  19. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung; Vetráková, Ľubica; Seo, Jiwon; Heger, Dominik; Lee, Changha; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was significantly accelerated during freezing. • Accelerated redox conversion in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect. • 4-CP, Cr(VI), and protons are concentrated in the liquid brine by freezing. • Redox conversions of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) were significant in ice. • Freezing-accelerated redox conversion was observed in real polluted water. - Abstract: The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at −20 °C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25 °C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV–vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions.

  20. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  1. Functionalized granular activated carbon and surface complexation with chromates and bi-chromates in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Somdutta; Sarkar, Ujjaini, E-mail: usarkar@chemical.jdvu.ac.in; Luharuka, Pallavi

    2013-03-01

    Cr(VI) is present in the aqueous medium as chromate (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) and bi-chromate (HCrO{sub 4}{sup −}). Functionalized granular activated carbons (FACs) are used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewaters containing hexavalent chromium. The FACs are prepared by chemical modifications of granular activated carbons (GACs) using functionalizing agents like HNO{sub 3}, HCl and HF. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface areas of FAC-HCl (693.5 m{sup 2}/g), FAC-HNO{sub 3} (648.8 m{sup 2}/g) and FAC-HF (726.2 m{sup 2}/g) are comparable to the GAC (777.7 m{sup 2}/g). But, the adsorption capacity of each of the FAC-HNO{sub 3}, FAC-HCl and FAC-HF is found to be higher than the GAC. The functional groups play an important role in the adsorption process and pH has practically no role in this specific case. The FACs have hydrophilic protonated external surfaces in particular, along with the functional surface sites capable to make complexes with the CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −} present. Surface complex formation is maximized in the order FAC-HNO{sub 3} > FAC-HF > FAC-HCl, in proportion to the total surface acidity. This is also confirmed by the well-known pseudo second-order kinetic model. Physi-sorption equilibrium isotherms are parameterized by using standard Freundlich and Langmuir models. Langmuir fits better. The formation of surface complexes with the functional groups and hexavalent chromium is also revealed in the images of field emission scanning electron micrograph; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis after adsorption. The intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-controlling factor. The Boyd's film diffusion model fits very well with R{sup 2} as high as 98.1% for FAC-HNO{sub 3}. This result demonstrates that the functionalization of the GAC by acid treatments would increase the diffusion rate, predominantly with a boundary layer diffusion effect. - Highlights: ► Physico

  2. Investigation of the chromate conversion coating on Alclad 2024 aluminium alloy: effect of the pH of the chromate bath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campestrini, P.; Westing, E.P.M. van; Hovestad, A.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2002-01-01

    The parameters of the chromate bath, like temperature, pH, and fluoride content, strongly affect the morphology and chemical composition of the chromate conversion coating and as a consequence have a large influence on its corrosion performance. In this paper, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  3. Towards Bio-Inspired Chromatic Behaviours in Surveillance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Karutaa Gnaniar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Robotics is ever growing at the same time as posing enormous challenges. Numerous works has been done in biologically inspired robotics emulating models, systems and elements of nature for the purpose of solving traditional robotics problems. Chromatic behaviours are abundant in nature across a variety of living species to achieve camouflage, signaling, and temperature regulation. The ability of these creatures to successfully blend in with their environment and communicate by changing their colour is the fundamental inspiration for our research work. In this paper, we present dwarf chameleon inspired chromatic behaviour in the context of an autonomous surveillance robot, “PACHONDHI”. In our experiments, we successfully validated the ability of the robot to autonomously change its colour in relation to the terrain that it is traversing for maximizing detectability to friendly security agents and minimizing exposure to hostile agents, as well as to communicate with fellow cooperating robots.

  4. Chromatic dispersion compensation and Coherent Direct-Sequence OCDMA operation on a single super structured FBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rocío; Pastor, Daniel; Amaya, Waldimar; Garcia-Munoz, Victor

    2012-06-18

    We have proposed, fabricated and demonstrated experimentally a set of Coherent Direct Sequence-OCDMA en/decoders based on Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings (SSFBGs) which are able to compensate the fiber chromatic dispersion at the same time that they perform the en/decoding task. The proposed devices avoid the use of additional dispersion compensation stages reducing system complexity and losses. This performance was evaluated for 5.4, 11.4 and 16.8 km of SSMF. The twofold performance was verified in Low Reflectivity regime employing only one GVD compensating device at decoder or sharing out the function between encoder and decoder devices. Shared functionality requires shorter SSFBGs designs and also provides added flexibility to the optical network design. Moreover, dispersion compensated en/decoders were also designed into the High Reflectivity regime employing synthesis methods achieving more than 9 dB reduction of insertion loss for each device.

  5. Implementing New Non-Chromate Coatings Systems (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    Initiate Cr6+ authorization process for continued Cr6+ use using the form, Authorization to Use Hexavalent Chromium. YES NO • Approval of...Aluminum and magnesium anodizing • Hard Chrome Plating • Type II conversion coating on aluminum alloys under chromated primer • Type II conversion coating...Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium 80% 5% 14% 1% Type II Type III Type IC Type IC Fatigue Critical 50% 50% Type II Type IC FRC-SE (JAX) Fully Integrated FRC

  6. Chromate abatement in the Y-12 Plant's New Hope Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMonbrum, J.R.; Muenzer, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a 15-months field study that utilized four nonchromate-based water-treatment programs in 16 low-temperature (less than 100 0 F) cooling towers using corrosion and deposition studies, microbiological control, and plant effluent creek analyses as evaluation parameters. The study succeeded in bringing the chromate content of effluent of the New Hope Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency. (auth)

  7. Chromatic monitoring of dc plasma torches: The latest developments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djakov, B. E.; Enikov, R.; Oliver, D.H.; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2006), s. 170-173 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : chromatic monitoring * on-line control * plasma jet * plasma torch * powder Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.298, year: 2006

  8. Modelling of chromatic contrast for retrieval of wallpaper images

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaohong W.; Wang, Yuanlei; Qian, Yu; Gao, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Colour remains one of the key factors in presenting an object and consequently has been widely applied in retrieval of images based on their visual contents. However, a colour appearance changes with the change of viewing surroundings, the phenomenon that has not been paid attention yet while performing colour-based image retrieval. To comprehend this effect, in this paper, a chromatic contrast model, CAMcc, is developed for the application of retrieval of colour intensive images, cementing t...

  9. The Role of Luminance and Chromaticity on Symmetry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of luminance and chromaticity on symmetry detection with the noise masking paradigm. In each trial, a random dot noise mask was presented in both intervals. A symmetric target was randomly presented in one interval while a random dot control was presented in the other. The orientation of the symmetric axis of the target was either 45°or −45° diagonal. The task of the observer was to determine which interval contained a symmetric target. The dots in both the target and the mask was painted with 1 to 4 colors selected from white, black, red, green, blue and yellow. We measured the target density threshold at various noise densities. Our results showed that when the number of the colors in the images was equal, the thresholds were lower in the luminance conditions than in the chromaticity conditions. In addition, the thresholds decreased with the increment of the number of the colors in the images. This suggests that (1 the luminance symmetry detection mechanism is more sensitive than chromaticity one and (2 that, contrasted to the prediction of an uncertainty model, the diversity in color facilitates symmetry detection.

  10. Speed and the coherence of superimposed chromatic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosten, J M; Smith, L; Mollon, J D

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of measurements of the perceived coherence of superimposed drifting gratings, Krauskopf and Farell (1990) proposed that motion is analysed independently in different chromatic channels. They found that two gratings appeared to slip if each modulated one of the two 'cardinal' color mechanisms S/(L+M) and L/(L+M). If the gratings were defined along intermediate color directions, observers reported a plaid, moving coherently. We hypothesised that slippage might occur in chromatic gratings if the motion signal from the S/(L+M) channel is weak and equivalent to a lower speed. We asked observers to judge coherence in two conditions. In one, S/(L+M) and L/(L+M) gratings were physically the same speed. In the other, the two gratings had perceptually matched speeds. We found that the relative incoherence of cardinal gratings is the same whether gratings are physically or perceptually matched in speed. Thus our hypothesis was firmly contradicted. In a control condition, observers were asked to judge the coherence of stationary gratings. Interestingly, the difference in judged coherence between cardinal and intermediate gratings remained as strong as it was when the gratings moved. Our results suggest a possible alternative interpretation of Krauskopf and Farell's result: the processes of object segregation may precede the analysis of the motion of chromatic gratings, and the same grouping signals may prompt object segregation in the stationary and moving cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of chromatic cues for trapping Bactrocera tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ma, Huabo; Niu, Liming; Han, Dongyin; Zhang, Fangping; Chen, Junyu; Fu, Yueguan

    2017-01-01

    Trapping technology based on chromatic cues is an important strategy in controlling Tephritidae (fruit flies). The objectives of this present study were to evaluate the preference of Bactrocera tau for different chromatic cues, and to explore an easy method to print and reproduce coloured paper. Chromatic cues significantly affected the preference of adult B. tau. Wavelengths in the 515-604 nm range were the suitable wavelengths for trapping B. tau. Different-day-old B. tau had different colour preferences. Virtual wavelengths of 595 nm (yellow) and 568 nm (yellowish green) were the optimum wavelengths for trapping 5-7-day-old B. tau and 30-32-day-old B. tau respectively. The trap type and height significantly influenced B. tau attraction efficiency. The number of B. tau on coloured traps hung perpendicular to plant rows was not significantly higher than the number on traps hung parallel to plant rows. The quantisation of colour on the basis of Bruton's wavelength to RGB function can serve as an alternative method for printing and reproducing coloured paper, but a corrected equation should be established between the theoretical wavelength and actual wavelength of coloured paper. Results show that a compound paper coloured yellow (595 nm) and yellowish green (568 nm) installed at 60 and 90 cm above the ground shows the maximum effect for trapping B. tau. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The Frequency and Antibiotic Resistance of Chromate Tolerating Microorganisms in Qom Industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Zolfaghary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Chromium is one of the major sources of environmental pollution and a potent occupational carcinogen. The hexavalent chromium compounds are more toxic than those of trivalent. Recent studies have suggested that reduction of Cr(VI to its lower oxidation states and related free radical reactions play an important role in carcinogenic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in human and animals.

     This paper reports occurrence of chromium tolerant and antibiotic resistant organism of four industrial wastewaters including electroplating, textile, galvanization, and dye manufacturing in Qom.

     

    Methods: In this study 241 isolates including 23 gram positive coccus, 3 gram negative bacilli and 215 gram positive bacilli were obtained by using of LB Agar plus determined concentration of potassium chromate.

     

    Results: A gram positive coccus, chromate reducing bacteria strain isolated from effluent of chromo plaiting could tolerate up to 760mM concentration in 34°c and pH=7 within 24h and showed resistance to some antibiotics. Biochemical, physiological, morphological and 16SrRNA tests showed this bacteria belongs to staphylococcus arlettae strain R1-7A.

     

    Conclusion: the result indicates that the indigenous microbial isolates can be useful for hexavalent chromium detoxification of chromium contamination environment and reduction of its pathogenicity and carcinogenicity, on the other hand the control of these bacteria is important from the medical view.

     

  13. Study of chromatic adaptation via neutral white matches on different viewing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiyan; Luo, Ming R

    2018-03-19

    Two experiments were carried out to study the neutral white and the chromatic adaptation in human vision and color science. After matching neutral whites under different illuminants using both surface and self-luminous colors, the result were used to verify the previous study about the chromatic adaptation. Not all the white illuminants were found neutral even the adaptation time is long. The baseline illuminant of the two-step chromatic adaptation transform was found as the illuminant with the same chromaticity of the neutral white under it and depended on viewing medium in the present study. The results were also used as corresponding colors to derive models of the effective degree of chromatic adaptation, which were found highly associated with the chromaticity of the adapting illuminant.

  14. Psychophysical and physiological responses to gratings with luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Sun, Hao; Lee, Barry B

    2012-02-01

    Gratings that contain luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies were used to study the segregation of signals in luminance and chromatic pathways. Psychophysical detection and discrimination thresholds to these compound gratings, with luminance and chromatic components of the one either half or double the spatial frequency of the other, were measured in human observers. Spatial frequency tuning curves for detection of compound gratings followed the envelope of those for luminance and chromatic gratings. Different grating types were discriminable at detection threshold. Fourier analysis of physiological responses of macaque retinal ganglion cells to compound waveforms showed chromatic information to be restricted to the parvocellular pathway and luminance information to the magnocellular pathway. Taken together, the human psychophysical and macaque physiological data support the strict segregation of luminance and chromatic information in independent channels, with the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways, respectively, serving as likely the physiological substrates. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  15. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  16. Multi-Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0194 Multi- Chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics Jeremy Gulley KENNESAW STATE...Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi- chromatic Ultrashort Pulse Filamentation and Bulk Modification in Dielectrics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...in, and modification of, dielectric solids by multi- chromatic ultrashort laser pulses. It was a theoretical effort to develop models of multi

  17. Fast online simultaneous monitoring of PMD and chromatic dispersion with reduced polarization dependent gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, G.; Shum, P.; Aditya, S.; Gong, Yandong

    2006-09-01

    We use the expression relating the output state of polarization and PMD vector. Based on this expression we get the power fading including first-order PMD and chromatic dispersion, which is dependent on the angle of precession of output state of polarization around the PMD vector. From the expression for power fading, we get the average power penalty for chromatic dispersion and PMD. We propose a novel and fast PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring technology. Measured results agree well with theoretical analysis.

  18. Chromatic characterization of a three-channel colorimeter using back-propagation neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, P. J.; Pérez, A. L.; Suero, M. I.

    2004-09-01

    This work describes a method for the chromatic characterization of a three-channel colorimeter of recent design and construction dedicated to color vision research. The colorimeter consists of two fixed monochromators and a third monochromator interchangeable with a cathode ray tube or any other external light source. Back-propagation neural networks were used for the chromatic characterization to establish the relationship between each monochromator's input parameters and the tristimulus values of each chromatic stimulus generated. The results showed the effectiveness of this type of neural-network-based system for the chromatic characterization of the stimuli produced by any monochromator.

  19. Chromatic aberrations correction for imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filter with two transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Wang, Ziye; Jia, Guorui; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Zefu

    2017-10-02

    The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with wide wavelength range and high spectral resolution has long crystal and two transducers. A longer crystal length leads to a bigger chromatic focal shift and the double-transducer arrangement induces angular mutation in diffracted beam, which increase difficulty in longitudinal and lateral chromatic aberration correction respectively. In this study, the two chromatic aberrations are analyzed quantitatively based on an AOTF optical model and a novel catadioptric dual-path configuration is proposed to correct both the chromatic aberrations. The test results exhibit effectiveness of the optical configuration for this type of AOTF-based imaging spectrometer.

  20. On the capacity to the complexing of alkaline earth metal and magnesium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orekhov, O.L.

    1978-01-01

    Considered is the capacity to the complexing of magnesium chromates and alkaline earth metal chromates with ammonium chromates in aqueous solutions. It has been established that the complexing of alkaline earth metal and magnesium chromates is effected by a nature of initial salts as well as their solubilities and the presence of crystallization water. Capacity of magnesium ions and alkaline rare earth metals to the complexing decreases in a series of Mg-Ca-Sr-Ba. Ca complexes exceed magnesium derivatives in respect of stability

  1. Optical and chromaticity characteristics of adsorbates of the thorium complex of arsenazo I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Figurovskaya, V.N.; Ershova, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    Immobilized reagent Arsenazo I was used for the direct determination of trace thorium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry and chromaticity measurements. Silica gel Silochrom C-120 and C 18 were studied as supports. Optimal conditions of sorption were found. The dependence of chromaticity functions (chromaticity coordinates, color lightness, saturation, yellowness, and whiteness) on different chemical factors was studied. Advantages of the use of yellowness, color hue, and total color difference in comparison with other chromaticity functions was demonstrated. A method was developed for the determination of thorium with a detection limit of 0.02 μg/mL [ru

  2. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of 14C-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo, Issabella Vitoria Abduche

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production ( 14 C-leucine), sulfate reduction ( 35 SO 4 ) and mercury methylation ( 203 Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using 14 C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times higher than tho one

  3. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  4. Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions from dilute solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njau, K.N.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions in dilute solution using a divided GBC-cell is of interest for purification of waste waters. A typical solution to be treated is the effluent from steel etching processes which contain low quantities of nickel, chromate and chromium ions. Reduction of

  5. Chromatic Shadow Detection and Tracking for Moving Foreground Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerta, Ivan; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    are usually detected as part of moving objects, thus affecting the performance of the final detection. In this paper we address the detection of both penumbra and umbra shadow regions. First, a novel bottom-up approach is presented based on gradient and colour models, which successfully discriminates between...... chromatic moving cast shadow regions and those regions detected as moving objects. In essence, those regions corresponding to potential shadows are detected based on edge partitioning and colour statistics. Subsequently (i) temporal similarities between textures and (ii) spatial similarities between...

  6. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  7. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Using Photonic Crystal Fibers with Hexagonal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick E. Reyes-Vera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show various configurations of photonic crystal fiber with hexagonal holes distribution for compensation of chromatic dispersion in optical communications links. The vectorial finite element method with scattering boundary condition was used for the analysis of the fibers. From these results it was estimated variation of the dispersion and the dispersion slope with respect to change in the diameter of the holes in the microstructure. With the above was possible to obtain values of dispersion in the C and L bands of telecommunications close to -850 ps / nm * km, with confinement losses 10-3 dB / km

  8. A portable system for identifying urinary tract infection in primary care using a PC-based chromatic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deakin, A G; Jones, G R; Spencer, J W; Sufian, A T; Bongard, E J; Gal, M; Butler, C C

    2014-01-01

    An approach is described for monitoring urine samples using a portable system based on chromatic techniques and for predicting urinary tract infection (UTI) from the results. The system uses a webcam–computer combination with the screen of a computer visual display unit as a tuneable illumination source. It is shown that the system can operate in a robust manner under ambient lighting conditions and with potential for use as a point of care test in primary care. The present approach combines information on urine liquid concentration and turbidity. Its performance in an exploratory study is compared with microbiological culture of 200 urine samples, of which 79 had bacterial growth >10 5  colony forming unit/millilitre (cfu ml −1 ) indicative of UTI. It is shown that both sensitivity and negative predictive value of 0.92 could be achieved. (paper)

  9. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) for berberine reduction from wastewater and the effects of berberine on bacterial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yonghui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu

    2013-02-15

    Berberine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic extensively used in personal medication. The production of berberine results in the generation of wastewater containing concentrated residual berberine. However, few related studies up to date focus on berberine removal from wastewaters. In this study, a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was developed for berberine removal from synthetic wastewater. The performance of the UASB-MBR system on berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N removal was investigated at different berberine loadings. And the effects of berberine on bacterial communities were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, as the increase of berberine loadings, UASB performance was affected remarkably, whereas, efficient and stable performance of MBR ensured the overall removal rates of berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N consistently reached up to 99%, 98% and 98%, respectively. Significant shifts of bacterial community structures were detected in both UASB and MBR, especially in the initial operations. Along with the increase of berberine loadings, high antibiotic resisting species and some functional species, i.e. Acinetobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp., and Sphingomonas sp. in UASB, as well as Sphingomonas sp., Methylocystis sp., Hydrogenophaga sp. and Flavobacterium sp. in MBR were enriched in succession. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection and Removal of Chromatic Moving Shadows in Surveillance Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casado, Ivan Huerta; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    . Consequently, umbra shadows are usually detected as part of moving objects. In this paper we present a novel technique based on gradient and colour models for separating chromatic moving cast shadows from detected moving objects. Firstly, both a chromatic invariant colour cone model and an invariant gradient...

  11. A "Green" Passivation of Zinc containing surfaces as an alternative to chromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    comparable performance to chromate in the prohesion test. However no combination in the Molyphos system could compare with the performance of yellow chromate in the neutral salt spray test or humidity test, although Molyphos performs very well in the prohesion test. Welding tests have shown that components...... coated with sealers cause equipment problems during welding....

  12. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products.......A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products....

  13. Uncertainty of chromatic dispersion estimation from transmitted waveforms in direct detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Zbigniew T.

    2017-08-01

    A possibility is shown of a non-disruptive estimation of chromatic dispersion in a fiber of an intensity modulation communication line under work conditions. Uncertainty of the chromatic dispersion estimates is analyzed and quantified with the use of confidence intervals.

  14. Efficient removal of chromate and arsenate from individual and mixed system by malachite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Jiban; Saha, Bedabrata; Das, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Malachite nanoparticles of 100-150 nm, have been efficiently and for the first time used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic arsenate and chromate in pH range 4-5. - Abstract: Malachite nanoparticles of 100-150 nm have been efficiently and for the first time used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic arsenate and chromate. We report a high adsorption capacity for chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticle from both individual and mixed solution in pH ∼4-5. However, the adsorption efficiency decreases with the increase of solution pH. Batch studies revealed that initial pH, temperature, malachite nanoparticles dose and initial concentration of chromate and arsenate were important parameters for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that adsorption of chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticles is endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorption of these anions has also been investigated quantitatively with the help of adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and selectivity coefficient (K) analysis. The adsorption data for both chromate and arsenate were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm and preferentially followed the second order kinetics. The binding affinity of chromate is found to be slightly higher than arsenate in a competitive adsorption process which leads to the comparatively higher adsorption of chromate on malachite nanoparticles surface.

  15. Chromatic dispersion of liquid crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We consider chromatic dispersion of capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with liquid crystals. A perturbative scheme for inclusion of material dispersion of both liquid crystal and the surrounding waveguide material is derived. The method is used to calculate the chromatic...

  16. Delays in using chromatic and luminance information to correct rapid reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Wade, Alex; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2011-09-07

    People can use feedback to make online corrections to movements but only if there is sufficient time to integrate the new information and make the correction. A key variable in this process is therefore the speed at which the new information about the target location is coded. Conduction velocities for chromatic signals are lower than for achromatic signals so it may take longer to correct reaches to chromatic stimuli. In addition to this delay, the sensorimotor system may prefer achromatic information over the chromatic information as delayed information may be less valuable when movements are made under time pressure. A down-weighting of chromatic information may result in additional latencies for chromatically directed reaches. In our study, participants made online corrections to reaches to achromatic, (L-M)-cone, and S-cone stimuli. Our chromatic stimuli were carefully adjusted to minimize stimulation of achromatic pathways, and we equated stimuli both in terms of detection thresholds and also by their estimated neural responses. Similar stimuli were used throughout the subjective adjustments and final reaching experiment. Using this paradigm, we found that responses to achromatic stimuli were only slightly faster than responses to (L-M)-cone and S-cone stimuli. We conclude that the sensorimotor system treats chromatic and achromatic information similarly and that the delayed chromatic responses primarily reflect early conduction delays.

  17. Spatio-chromatic adaptation via higher-order canonical correlation analysis of natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Michael U; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation.

  18. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion perfor...

  19. Chromatic discrimination: differential contributions from two adapting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether a retinal or cortical mechanism sums contributions from two adapting fields to chromatic discrimination, L/M discrimination was measured with a test annulus surrounded by an inner circular field and an outer rectangular field. A retinal summation mechanism predicted that the discrimination pattern would not change with a change in the fixation location. Therefore, the fixation was set either in the inner or the outer field in two experiments. When one of the adapting fields was “red” and the other was “green,” the adapting field where the observer fixated always had a stronger influence on chromatic discrimination. However, when one adapting field was “white” and the other was red or green, the white field always weighted more heavily than the other adapting field in determining discrimination thresholds, whether the white field or the fixation was in the inner or outer adapting field. These results suggest that a cortical mechanism determines the relative contributions from different adapting fields. PMID:22330364

  20. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  1. Monitoring of Optical Emission from High Temperature Plasma Based on Chromatic Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrios, Tomtsis

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental approach is presented for processing the optical emission produced from electric arc plasma. The method is based on chromatic modulation techniques to provide a holistic measurement of the persistence of particle decays within the environment of high power circuit breakers. Chromaticity changes in a number of chromatic parameters are related to changes in physical electric arc plasma environment (e.g. particle concentration). The results are in the form of chromatic maps which show how the overall electric arc plasma and its environment behave and respond. Such maps show the totality of information which can be accessed about the arcing event and the level of monitoring discrimination which is achievable with the chromatic methodology in a simple and easy to understand manner. The suggested method provides easier data analysis and high levels of data compression.

  2. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  3. Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2014-04-01

    Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment of luminance and chromatic gratings matched or mismatched in contrast polarity or grating type. Thresholds with matched gratings were low while all mismatched pairs were elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of constant contrast components of the other type. For in-phase components, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions, which suggested that luminance can override chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

  4. Chromatic-achromatic perimetry in four clinic cases: Glaucoma and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, Inmaculada; Luque, Maria Jos; de Fez, Dolores; Moncho, Vicenta; Camps, Vicente

    2015-02-01

    Some diseases that affect the visual system may show loss of chromatic-achromatic sensitivity before obvious physical signs appear in the usual examination of the eye's posterior segment. A perimetric study has been conducted with four typical patients with glaucoma and diabetes, at different stages of the disease. In addition to the standard white-on-white (standard automated perimetry [SAP]), a test battery has been used to study patient's contrast sensitivity, using stimuli with different chromatic, spatial, and temporal content (multichannel perimetry). The choice of stimuli tries to maximize the response of different visual mechanisms: Achromatic (parvocellular and magnocellular origin); chromatic red-green (parvocellular origin); and chromatic blue-yellow (koniocellular origin). The results seem to indicate losses in the achromatic-parvocellular perimetry and both chromatic perimetry tests, undetected by conventional SAP. Our results illustrate that our patients without visible retinal alterations show signs of suspicion in multichannel perimetry.

  5. The efficacy of chemical sanitizers on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli affected by bacterial cell history and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels, van der Ine; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Washing fresh produce with potable water helps to remove microorganisms, providing about a 1- to 2-log reduction, but this process can also pose an opportunity for cross-contamination of bacteria in the washing tank. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three chemical

  6. Effects of common groundwater ions on chromate removal by magnetite: importance of chromate adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Amanda H; Arai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Reductive precipitation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with magnetite is a well-known Cr(VI) remediation method to improve water quality. The rapid (important as the reductive precipitation of Cr(III) in describing the removal of Cr(VI) by magnetite, and these interfacial adsorption processes could be impacted by common groundwater ions like sulfate and nitrate. The results of this study highlight new information about the large quantity of adsorbed Cr(VI) surface complexes at the magnetite-water interface. It has implications for predicting the long-term stability of Cr at the magnetite-water interface.Graphical abstractEffects of background anions (sulfate and nitrate) on the Cr(VI) surface coverage at the magnetite-water interface at pH 4 and 9.

  7. Color-motion feature-binding errors are mediated by a higher-order chromatic representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Steven K; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral and central moving objects of the same color may be perceived to move in the same direction even though peripheral objects have a different true direction of motion [Nature429, 262 (2004)10.1038/429262a]. The perceived, illusory direction of peripheral motion is a color-motion feature-binding error. Recent work shows that such binding errors occur even without an exact color match between central and peripheral objects, and, moreover, the frequency of the binding errors in the periphery declines as the chromatic difference increases between the central and peripheral objects [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, A60 (2014)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.31.000A60]. This change in the frequency of binding errors with the chromatic difference raises the general question of the chromatic representation from which the difference is determined. Here, basic properties of the chromatic representation are tested to discover whether it depends on independent chromatic differences on the l and the s cardinal axes or, alternatively, on a more specific higher-order chromatic representation. Experimental tests compared the rate of feature-binding errors when the central and peripheral colors had the identical s chromaticity (so zero difference in s) and a fixed magnitude of l difference, while varying the identical s level in center and periphery (thus always keeping the s difference at zero). A chromatic representation based on independent l and s differences would result in the same frequency of color-motion binding errors at everyslevel. The results are contrary to this prediction, thus showing that the chromatic representation at the level of color-motion feature binding depends on a higher-order chromatic mechanism.

  8. Chromatic Modulator for a High-Resolution CCD or APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank; Hull, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A chromatic modulator has been proposed to enable the separate detection of the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of the same scene by a single charge-coupled device (CCD), active-pixel sensor (APS), or similar electronic image detector. Traditionally, the RGB color-separation problem in an electronic camera has been solved by use of either (1) fixed color filters over three separate image detectors; (2) a filter wheel that repeatedly imposes a red, then a green, then a blue filter over a single image detector; or (3) different fixed color filters over adjacent pixels. The use of separate image detectors necessitates precise registration of the detectors and the use of complicated optics; filter wheels are expensive and add considerably to the bulk of the camera; and fixed pixelated color filters reduce spatial resolution and introduce color-aliasing effects. The proposed chromatic modulator would not exhibit any of these shortcomings. The proposed chromatic modulator would be an electromechanical device fabricated by micromachining. It would include a filter having a spatially periodic pattern of RGB strips at a pitch equal to that of the pixels of the image detector. The filter would be placed in front of the image detector, supported at its periphery by a spring suspension and electrostatic comb drive. The spring suspension would bias the filter toward a middle position in which each filter strip would be registered with a row of pixels of the image detector. Hard stops would limit the excursion of the spring suspension to precisely one pixel row above and one pixel row below the middle position. In operation, the electrostatic comb drive would be actuated to repeatedly snap the filter to the upper extreme, middle, and lower extreme positions. This action would repeatedly place a succession of the differently colored filter strips in front of each pixel of the image detector. To simplify the processing, it would be desirable to encode information on

  9. Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Wolf M; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin; Sincich, Lawrence C

    2012-09-01

    A special challenge arises when pursuing multi-wavelength imaging of retinal tissue in vivo, because the eye's optics must be used as the main focusing elements, and they introduce significant chromatic dispersion. Here we present an image-based method to measure and correct for the eye's transverse chromatic aberrations rapidly, non-invasively, and with high precision. We validate the technique against hyperacute psychophysical performance and the standard chromatic human eye model. In vivo correction of chromatic dispersion will enable confocal multi-wavelength images of the living retina to be aligned, and allow targeted chromatic stimulation of the photoreceptor mosaic to be performed accurately with sub-cellular resolution.

  10. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  11. Efficient removal of chromate and arsenate from individual and mixed system by malachite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Jiban; Saha, Bedabrata; Das, Gopal

    2011-02-15

    Malachite nanoparticles of 100-150 nm have been efficiently and for the first time used as an adsorbent for the removal of toxic arsenate and chromate. We report a high adsorption capacity for chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticle from both individual and mixed solution in pH ∼4-5. However, the adsorption efficiency decreases with the increase of solution pH. Batch studies revealed that initial pH, temperature, malachite nanoparticles dose and initial concentration of chromate and arsenate were important parameters for the adsorption process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that adsorption of chromate and arsenate on malachite nanoparticles is endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorption of these anions has also been investigated quantitatively with the help of adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and selectivity coefficient (K) analysis. The adsorption data for both chromate and arsenate were fitted well in Langmuir isotherm and preferentially followed the second order kinetics. The binding affinity of chromate is found to be slightly higher than arsenate in a competitive adsorption process which leads to the comparatively higher adsorption of chromate on malachite nanoparticles surface. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Luminance and chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task: isolation by contrast polarity and target separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2012-03-01

    Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (-Lum-Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum-Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (-Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the -Lum-Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pupillometer-based objective chromatic perimetry in normal eyes and patients with retinal photoreceptor dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Sher, Ifat; Kolker, Andrew; Elyasiv, Sivan; Rosenfeld, Elkana; Mhajna, Mohamad; Melamed, Shlomo; Belkin, Michael; Rotenstreich, Ygal

    2013-04-17

    To evaluate a novel objective perimetry using multifocal chromatic pupil light reflex in normal participants and patients with photoreceptor dysfunction, and to relate this new technique with subjective dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Thirty-two eyes of 17 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or cone-rod dystrophy patients and 20 eyes of 12 healthy individuals were tested. A computerized infrared video pupillometer was used to record changes in pupil diameter in response to short- and long-wavelength stimuli (peak 485 and 640 nm, respectively; light intensity 40 cd/m(2)) at 13 different points of the 30° visual field (VF), under background illumination of 2.7 cd/m(2). The pupillary response (PR) of patients was compared with PR obtained from normal control participants. In 11 patients, the pupillary responses were also compared with their findings on dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Significantly reduced pupillary responses were obtained in RP patients in response to the short-wavelength stimulus in nearly all perimetric locations (P chromatic Goldmann perimetry. In all patients that were tested by the chromatic Goldmann, minimal PR was recorded in areas that were nondetected in the chromatic Goldmann perimetry. This study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using pupillometer-based chromatic perimetry for objectively assessing VF defects and retinal function in patients with retinal dystrophies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01021982.).

  14. Toward the identification of DSLR lenses by chromatic aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Craver, Scott; Li, Enping

    2011-02-01

    While previous work on lens identification by chromatic aberration succeeded in distinguishing lenses of different model, the CA patterns obtained were not stable enough to support distinguishing different copies of the same lens. This paper discusses on how to eliminate two major hurdles in the way of obtaining a stable lens CA pattern. The first hurdle was overcome by using a white noise pattern as shooting target to supplant the conventional but misalignment-prone checkerboard pattern. The second hurdle was removed by the introduction of the lens focal distance, which had not received the attention it deserves. Consequently, we were able to obtain a stable enough CA pattern distinguishing different copies of the same lens. Finally, with a complete view of the lens CA pattern feature space, it is possible to fulfil lens identification among a large lens database.

  15. Some relations between rank, chromatic number and energy of graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, S.; Ghorbani, E.; Zare, S.

    2006-08-01

    The energy of a graph G is defined as the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of G and denoted by E(G). Let G be a graph and rank(G) be the rank of the adjacency matrix of G. In this paper we characterize all the graphs with E(G) = rank(G). Among other results we show that apart from a few families of graphs, E(G) ≥ 2max(χ(G), n - χ(G--bar)), where G-bar and χ(G) are the complement and the chromatic number of G, respectively. Moreover some new lower bounds for E(G) in terms of rank(G) are given. (author)

  16. Correction of chromatic and geometric aberrations using sextupoles and octupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure for applying some chromatic corrections to a final transport line, neglecting space charge, utilizing the method suggested by Brown is described. The possibility of including octupoles into a point-to-point triplet system, as outlined by Fenster is studied. Positive results were obtained in both cases: (i) using 2 + I correcting sections with two pairs of non-interlaced sextupoles increased the fraction of beam with ΔP/P = 1% onto a 0.1 cm radius target by more than a factor of 1.75; (ii) six octupoles placed into a point-to-point triplet system increased the fraction of a full emittance ΔP/P = 0% beam striking a 0.1 cm radius target by a factor of 2.5

  17. Sorption mechanisms of chromate with coprecipitated ferrihydrite in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al, E-mail: mamun@toki.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Morita, Masao, E-mail: masao.swimer@akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Matsuoka, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-matsuoka@aoni.waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tokoro, Chiharu, E-mail: tokoro@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Coprecipitation showed twice the sorption density of simple adsorption at pH 5. • Mechanism shift from outer- to inner-sphere surface complexation at high Cr/Fe. • In coprecipitation the mechanism shift occurs at lower Cr/Fe ratios than adsorption. • Higher-molar-ratio bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds; yielded ferrihydrite expansion. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) attracted researchers’ interest for its toxicity, natural availability and removal difficulty. Nevertheless, its sorption mechanism is not clearly understood yet. In this work, we elucidated the sorption mechanism of the co-precipitation of chromates with ferrihydrite through quantitative analysis. The influence of Cr/Fe molar ratio on sorption was investigated by zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray adsorption fine-structure analysis (XAFS). Coprecipitation at pH 5 showed almost twice the sorption density of adsorption at pH 5. In co-precipitation, a shift of the XRD peak due to inner-sphere sorption of chromate was observed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.5. For adsorption, the same peak shift was confirmed at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1. Zeta potential at pH 5 suggested that the sorption mechanism changed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.25 for coprecipitation and at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1 for adsorption. Fitting of Cr and Fe K-edge extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure suggested that ferrihydrite immobilized Cr(VI) via outer sphere surface complexation for lower Cr/Fe ratios and via inner-sphere surface complexation for higher molar ratios. At higher molar ratios, bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds were well established, thus resulting in the expansion of the ferrihydrite structure.

  18. Pupillary response to direct and consensual chromatic light stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traustason, Sindri; Brondsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether the direct and consensual postillumination (ipRGC-driven) pupil light responses to chromatic light stimuli are equal in healthy subjects. Pupil responses in healthy volunteers were recorded using a prototype binocular chromatic pupillometer (IdeaMedical, Copenhagen), which is capable of both direct and consensual pupillometry measurements. The device uses a pair of dual monochromatic narrow bandwidth LED light sources, red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm). Pupil light responses were recorded with infrared video cameras and analysed using custom-made circuitry and software. Subjects were randomized to receive light stimuli at either the right or left eye after 5 min of dark adaptation. Pupil light responses were recorded in both eyes for 10 seconds before illumination, during illumination and 50 seconds after illumination with red and blue light. Three variables were defined for the recorded pupil responses: the maximal constriction amplitude (CAmax ), the pupil response during illumination and postillumination pupil response (PIPR). No difference was found in the pupil response to blue light. With red light, the pupil response during illumination was slightly larger during consensual illumination compared to direct illumination (0.54 and 0.52, respectively, p = 0.027, paired Wilcoxon's test, n = 12), while no differences were found for CAmax or the PIPR. No difference was found between direct and consensual pupil response to either red or blue light in the postillumination period. Direct and consensual responses can readily be compared when examining the postillumination pupil response to blue light as estimation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cell activation. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The structure of chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations and implications for chromatic zeros and asymptotic limiting quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the structure and properties of chromatic polynomials P(G pt,m-vector, q) of one-parameter and multi-parameter families of planar triangulation graphs G pt,m-vector , where m-vector = (m 1 ,…,m p ) is a vector of integer parameters. We use these to study the ratio of |P(G pt,m-vector, τ+1)| to the Tutte upper bound (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5)/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt,m-vector . In particular, we calculate limiting values of this ratio as n → ∞ for various families of planar triangulations. We also use our calculations to analyze zeros of these chromatic polynomials. We study a large class of families G pt,m-vector with p = 1 and p = 2 and show that these have a structure of the form P(G pt,m ,q) = c G pt ,1 λ 1 m + c G pt ,2 λ 2 m + c G pt ,3 λ 3 m for p = 1, where λ 1 = q − 2, λ 2 = q − 3, and λ 3 = −1, and P(G pt,m-vector ,q) =Σ i 1 =1 3 Σ i 2 =1 3 c G pt ,i 1 i 2 λ i 1 m 1 λ i 2 m 2 for p = 2. We derive properties of the coefficients c G pt ,i-vector and show that P(G pt,m-vector ,q) has a real chromatic zero that approaches (1/2)(3+√5) as one or more of the m i → ∞. The generalization to p ⩾ 3 is given. Further, we present a one-parameter family of planar triangulations with real zeros that approach 3 from below as m → ∞. Implications for the ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet are discussed. (paper)

  20. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  1. Corrosion of chromatic conversion coatings on Aluminium Alloys in electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.Sh.; Shahrabi, T.; Mozafarnia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Chromate conversion coating is applied on aluminum 6061. The optimum conditions for chromate bath composition and immersion time are also obtained for standard requirements provision such as corrosion resistance in salt spray test, electrical resistance and coating quality. The applied coatings are electrochemically tested in sea and distilled water. According to Tafel and cyclic polarization curves, the protection mechanism are evaluated in said environments. This evaluation has shown the formation of passive film layer, contains chromate and alumina on the base. The proper behavior of corrosion and electrical conductivity is probably due to this mechanism

  2. Effect of Kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W

    2000-07-01

    The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.

  3. Pretreatment of Cr(VI)-amended soil with chromate-reducing rhizobacteria decreases plant toxicity and increases the yield of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sumit K; Singh, Rakshapal; Singh, Mangal; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Wasnik, Kundan; Kalra, Alok

    2014-05-01

    Pot culture experiments were performed under controlled greenhouse conditions to investigate whether four Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strains (SUCR44, SUCR140, SUCR186, and SUCR188) were able to decrease Cr toxicity to Pisum sativum plants in artificially Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The effect of pretreatment of soil with chromate-reducing bacteria on plant growth, chromate uptake, bioaccumulation, nodulation, and population of Rhizobium was found to be directly influenced by the time interval between bacterial treatment and seed sowing. Pretreatment of soil with SUCR140 (Microbacterium sp.) 15 days before sowing (T+15) showed a maximum increase in growth and biomass in terms of root length (93 %), plant height (94 %), dry root biomass (99 %), and dry shoot biomass (99 %). Coinoculation of Rhizobium with SUCR140 further improved the aforementioned parameter. Compared with the control, coinoculation of SUCR140+R showed a 117, 116, 136, and 128 % increase, respectively, in root length, plant height, dry root biomass, and dry shoot biomass. The bioavailability of Cr(VI) decreased significantly in soil (61 %) and in uptake (36 %) in SUCR140-treated plants; the effects of Rhizobium, however, either alone or in the presence of SUCR140, were not significant. The populations of Rhizobium (126 %) in soil and nodulation (146 %) in P. sativum improved in the presence of SUCR140 resulting in greater nitrogen (54 %) concentration in the plants. This study shows the usefulness of efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterial strain SUCR140 in improving yields probably through decreased Cr toxicity and improved symbiotic relationship of the plants with Rhizobium. Further decrease in the translocation of Cr(VI) through improved nodulation by Rhizobium in the presence of efficient Cr-reducing bacterial strains could also decrease the accumulation of Cr in shoots.

  4. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  5. Ce对玻璃光谱曲线及色度指标的影响%Influence of Cerium on the Spectra and Chromaticity of Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽萍; 白晓华

    2011-01-01

    A golden glass was produced by combined coloration of CeO2 and TiO2. The amount of CeO2 additive and redox of the glass batch affect the optical properties and chromaticity of glass so that large chromatic - aberration appears. By changing Ce addition and redox agent in glass batch a splendid golden glass sample was obtained. The spectra and chromaticity analysis was carried out by using CARY500 spectrophotometer. Results indicate that the optical properties and chromaticity of this new golden yellow glass are highly dependent on those factors, such as, amount of colourants, oxidation -reduction of glass batch and addition of fluorite.%用CeO2及TiO2混合着色可以生产金黄色的玻璃,铈的用量及玻璃配合料氧化还原性都容易造成玻璃光学指标及色度指标的改变,使玻璃产生较大的色差.通过改变玻璃中铈的用量和氧化还原剂用量熔制玻璃样片,然后用CARY500分光光度计对玻璃样片进行光度及色度指标分析.结果表明:着色剂的用量、配合料的氧化还原性、萤石的添加量对玻璃的光学指标及色度指标都有较大影响.

  6. Metagenomic and functional analyses of the consequences of reduction of bacterial diversity on soil functions and bioremediation in diesel-contaminated microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Philippot, Laurent; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-14

    The relationship between microbial biodiversity and soil function is an important issue in ecology, yet most studies have been performed in pristine ecosystems. Here, we assess the role of microbial diversity in ecological function and remediation strategies in diesel-contaminated soils. Soil microbial diversity was manipulated using a removal by dilution approach and microbial functions were determined using both metagenomic analyses and enzymatic assays. A shift from Proteobacteria- to Actinobacteria-dominant communities was observed when species diversity was reduced. Metagenomic analysis showed that a large proportion of functional gene categories were significantly altered by the reduction in biodiversity. The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen cycle was significantly reduced in the low-diversity community, impairing denitrification. In contrast, the efficiency of diesel biodegradation was increased in the low-diversity community and was further enhanced by addition of red clay as a stimulating agent. Our results suggest that the relationship between microbial diversity and ecological function involves trade-offs among ecological processes, and should not be generalized as a positive, neutral, or negative relationship.

  7. Chromate Adsorption on Selected Soil Minerals: Surface Complexation Modeling Coupled with Spectroscopic Investigation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselská, V.; Fajgar, Radek; Číhalová, S.; Bolanz, R.M.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Siddique, J.A.; Komárek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 318, NOV 15 (2016), s. 433-442 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : surface complexation modeling * chromate * soil minerals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  8. Achromatic-chromatic colorimetric sensors for on-off type detection of analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2014-12-21

    We report the development of achromatic colorimetric sensors; sensors changing their colors from achromatic black to other chromatic colors. An achromatic colorimetric sensor was prepared by mixing a general colorimetric indicator, whose color changes between chromatic colors, and a complementary colored dye with no reaction to the targeted analyte. As the color of an achromatic colorimetric sensor changes from black to a chromatic color, the color change could be much easily recognized than general colorimetric sensors with naked eyes. More importantly, the achromatic colorimetric sensors enable on-off type recognition of the presence of analytes, which have not been achieved from most colorimetric sensors. In addition, the color changes from some achromatic colorimetric sensors (achromatic Eriochrome Black T and achromatic Benedict's solution) could be recognized with naked eyes at much lower concentration ranges than normal chromatic colorimetric sensors. These results provide new opportunities in the use of colorimetric sensors for diverse applications, such as harsh industrial, environmental, and biological detection.

  9. On the r-dynamic chromatic number of the corronation by complete graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah Kristiana, Arika; Imam Utoyo, M.; Dafik

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we will study the r-dynamic chromatic number of the coronation by complete graph. A proper k-coloring of graph G such that the neighbors of any vertex v receive at least min{r, d(v)} different colors. The r-dynamic chromatic number, χ r (G) is the minimum k such that graph G has an r-dynamic k-coloring. We will obtain lower bound of the r-dynamic chromatic number of {χ }r({K}nȯ H), and {χ }r(Hȯ {K}m) We also study the exact value of the r-dynamic chromatic number of {χ }r({K}nȯ {S}m),{χ }r({K}nȯ {F}m),{χ }r({S}nȯ {K}m),{χ }r({F}nȯ {K}m) and {χ }r({K}nȯ {K}m) for m, n > 3.

  10. Characterization of the main error sources of chromatic confocal probes for dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, H; El-Hayek, N; Yuan, X; Anwer, N

    2014-01-01

    Chromatic confocal probes are increasingly used in high-precision dimensional metrology applications such as roughness, form, thickness and surface profile measurements; however, their measurement behaviour is not well understood and must be characterized at a nanometre level. This paper provides a calibration bench for the characterization of two chromatic confocal probes of 20 and 350 µm travel ranges. The metrology loop that includes the chromatic confocal probe is stable and enables measurement repeatability at the nanometer level. With the proposed system, the major error sources, such as the relative axial and radial motions of the probe with respect to the sample, the material, colour and roughness of the measured sample, the relative deviation/tilt of the probe and the scanning speed are identified. Experimental test results show that the chromatic confocal probes are sensitive to these errors and that their measurement behaviour is highly dependent on them. (paper)

  11. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  12. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska Maja; Tomovska Elena; Bocevska Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA...

  13. Chelation in metal intoxication. VIII. Removal of chromium from organs of potassium chromate administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, J R; Tandon, S K

    1980-03-01

    Some polyaminocarboxylic acids were examined for their ability to mobilize chromium from certain vital organs, their subcellular fractions, and blood cells of potassium chromate administered rats. Hexamethylene 1,6-diamino tetraacetic acid (TDTA), triethylene tetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA), and ethylene diamine di (O-hydroxylphenyl acetic acid) (EDDHA) may be useful in preventing or reducing chromate toxicity. No definite relationship could be observed between the structure of the chelating agents and their chromium-removing capacity.

  14. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment.......A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  15. Chromatic aberration compensation in numerical reconstruction of digital holograms by Fresnel-Bluestein propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie, Diego; Velasquez, Daniel; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-12-15

    In this Letter, we present a method for chromatic compensation in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms based on Fresnel-Bluestein propagation. The proposed technique is applied to correct the chromatic aberration that arises in the reconstruction of RGB holograms of both millimeter- and micrometer-sized objects. The results show the feasibility of this strategy to remove the wavelength dependence of the size of the numerically propagated wavefields.

  16. Effects of intraocular lenses with different diopters on chromatic aberrations in human eye models

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hui; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Tang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, the effects of intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different diopters (D) on chromatic aberration were investigated in human eye models, and the influences of the central thickness of IOLs on chromatic aberration were compared. Methods A Liou-Brennan-based IOL eye model was constructed using ZEMAX optical design software. Spherical IOLs with different diopters (AR40e, AMO Company, USA) were implanted; modulation transfer function (MTF) values at 3?mm of pupil diameter and...

  17. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  18. The effects of luminance contribution from large fields to chromatic visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Rafal M; Duncan, Chad S; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Though useful from a clinical and practical standpoint uniform, large-field chromatic stimuli are likely to contain luminance contributions from retinal inhomogeneities. Such contribution can significantly influence psychophysical thresholds. However, the degree to which small luminance artifacts influence the chromatic VEP has been debated. In particular, claims have been made that band-pass tuning observed in chromatic VEPs result from luminance intrusion. However, there has been no direct evidence presented to support these claims. Recently, large-field isoluminant stimuli have been developed to control for intrusion from retinal inhomogeneities with particular regard to the influence of macular pigment. We report here the application of an improved version of these full-field stimuli to directly test the influence of luminance intrusion on the temporal tuning of the chromatic VEP. Our results show that band-pass tuning persists even when isoluminance is achieved throughout the extent of the stimulus. In addition, small amounts of luminance intrusion affect neither the shape of the temporal tuning function nor the major components of the VEP. These results support the conclusion that the chromatic VEP can depart substantially from threshold psychophysics with regard to temporal tuning and that obtaining a low-pass function is not requisite evidence of selective chromatic activation in the VEP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of storage duration and processing on chromatic attributes and flavonoid content of moxa floss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Min Yee; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Zou, Hui-qin; Yan, Yong-hong

    2016-01-01

    Moxibustion is an important traditional Chinese medicine therapy using heat from ignited moxa floss for disease treatment. The purpose of the present study is to establish a reproducible method to assess the color of moxa floss, discriminate the samples based on chromatic coordinates and explore the relationship between chromatic coordinates and total flavonoid content (TFC). Moxa floss samples of different storage years and production ratios were obtained from a moxa production factory in Henan Province, China. Chromatic coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were analyzed with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and the chroma (C*) and hue angle (h°) values were calculated. TFC was determined by a colorimetric method. Data were analyzed with correlation, principal component analysis (PCA). Significant differences in the chromatic values and TFC were observed among samples of different storage years and production ratios. Samples of higher production ratio displayed higher chromatic characteristics and lower TFC. Samples of longer storage years contained higher TFC. Preliminary separation of moxa floss production ratio was obtained by means of color feature maps developed using L*-a* or L*-b* as coordinates. PCA allowed the separation of the samples from their storage years and production ratios based on their chromatic characteristics and TFC. The use of a colorimetric technique and CIELAB coordinates coupled with chemometrics can be practical and objective for discriminating moxa floss of different storage years and production ratios. The development of color feature maps could be used as a model for classifying the color grading of moxa floss.

  20. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-29

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  2. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor. PMID:27021522

  3. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  4. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P. Evan; Qafoku, Nikolla; McKinley, James P.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S.; Phillips, J. L.

    2008-07-16

    of contaminant Cr travels fast through the sediments and appears as Cr(VI) in the effluents. The significance of this for groundwater concentrations would, however, depend on the mass flux of recharge to the water table. adsorption of Cr(VI) to sediments from spiked Cr(VI) solution is low; calculated retardation coefficients are close to one. Calcium polysulfide solutions readily reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in column experiments. However a significant amount of the Cr(VI) was mobilized ahead of the polysulfide solution front. This has significant implications for in-situ reductive remediation techniques. The experiments suggest that it would be difficult to design a remedial measure using infiltration of liquid phase reductants without increasing transport of Cr(VI) toward the water table. The microscopic characterization results are consistent with the column studies. Cr(VI) is found as ubiquitous coatings on sediment grain surfaces. Small, higher concentration, chromium sites are associated with secondary clay mineral inclusions, with occasional barium chromate minerals, and reduced to Cr(III) in association with iron oxides that are most likely magnetite primary minerals. Within the restricted access domains of sediment matrix, ferrous iron could also diffuse from in situ, high-surface-area minerals to cause the reductive immobilization of chromate. This process may be favored at microscale geochemical zones where ferrous iron could be supplied. Once nucleated, micrometer-scale precipitates are favored as growing locales for further accumulation, causing the formation of discrete zones of Cr(III).

  5. Microporous uranyl chromates successively formed by evaporation from acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siidra, Oleg I.; Nazarchuk, Evgeny V.; Bocharov, Sergey N.; Kayukov, Roman A. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Crystallography; Depmeier, Wulf [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften

    2018-04-01

    The first microporous framework structures containing uranium and chromium have been synthesized and characterized. Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (1) was crystallized from uranyl chromate solution by evaporation. Further evaporation led to increased viscosity of the solution and overgrowing of Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CrO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O) (2) on the crystals of 1. With respect to 1, the framework of 2 is partially dehydrated. Both frameworks differ compositionally by only one water molecule, but this seemingly small difference affects significantly the pore size and overall structural topology of the frameworks, which present very different flexibility of the U-O-Cr links. These are rigid in the pillared framework of 1, in contrast to 2 where the U-O-Cr angles range from 126.3 to 168.2 , reflecting the substantial flexibility of Cr-O-U connections which make them comparable to the corresponding Mo-O-U links in uranyl molybdates.

  6. Crystalline lens thickness determines the perceived chromatic difference in magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Since the origin of the high interindividual variability of the chromatic difference in retinal image magnification (CDM) in the human eye is not well understood, optical parameters that might determine its magnitude were studied in 21 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 58 years. Two psychophysical procedures were used to quantify CDM. They produced highly correlated results. First, a red and a blue square, presented on a black screen, had to be matched in size by the subjects with their right eyes. Second, a filled red and blue square, flickering on top of each other at 2 Hz, had to be adjusted in perceived brightness and then in size to minimize the impression of flicker. CDM varied widely among subjects from 0.0% to 3.6%. Biometric ocular parameters were measured with low coherence interferometry and crystalline lens tilt and decentration with a custom-built Purkinjemeter. Correlations were studied between CDM and corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens tilt and lens decentration, and vitreous chamber depths. Lens thickness was found significantly correlated with CDM and accounted for 64% of its variance. Vertical lens tilt and decentration were also significantly correlated. It was also found that CDM increased by 3.5% per year, and part of this change can be attributed to the age-related increase in lens thickness.

  7. Selection of Optical Glasses Using Buchdahl's Chromatic Coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation attempted to extend the method of reducing the size of glass catalogs to a global glass selection technique with the hope of guiding glass catalog offerings. Buchdahl's development of optical aberration coefficients included a transformation of the variable in the dispersion equation from wavelength to a chromatic coordinate omega defined as omega = (lambda - lambda(sub 0))/ 1 + 2.5(lambda - lambda(sub 0)) where lambda is the wavelength at which the wavelength is calculated and lambda(sub 0) is a base wavelength about which the expansion is performed. The advantage of this approach is that the dispersion equation may be written in terms of a simple power series and permits direct calculation of dispersion coefficients. While several promising examples were given, a systematic application of the technique to an entire glass catalog and analysis of the subsequent predictions was not performed. The goal of this work was to apply the technique in a systematic fashion to glasses in the Schoft catalog and assess the quality of the predictions.

  8. Gravity Chromatic Imaging of the Eta Car's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel

    2018-04-01

    Eta Car is one of the most massive, and intriguing, Luminous Blue Variables known. In its core resides a binary with a 5.54 years orbital period. Visible, infrared, and X-raobservations suggest that the primary star exhibits a very dense wind with a terminal velocity of about 420 km/s, while the secondary shows a much faster and less dense wind with a terminal velocity of 3000 km/s. The wind-wind collision zone at the core of Eta Car is thus a complex region that deserves a detailed study to understand the effect of the binary interaction in the evolution of the system. Here, we will present a unique imaging campaign with GRAVITY/VLTI of the Eta Car's core. The superb quality of our interferometric data, together with state-of-the-art image reconstruction techniques, allowed us to obtain, with milliarcsecond resolution, continuum and chromatic images cross the BrG and HeI lines in the Eta Car K-band spectrum (R 4000). These new data together with models of the primary wind of Eta Car has letting us to characterize the spatial distribution of the dust and gas in the inner 40 AU wind-wind collision zone of the target.

  9. Refractive and diffractive neutron optics with reduced chromatic aberration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, S.O., E-mail: stefan.poulsen@northwestern.edu [NEXMAP, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Poulsen, H.F. [NEXMAP, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bentley, P.M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-12-11

    Thermal neutron beams are an indispensable tool in physics research. The spatial and the temporal resolution attainable in experiments are dependent on the flux and collimation of the neutron beam which remain relatively poor, even for modern neutron sources. These difficulties may be mitigated by the use of optics for focusing and imaging. Refractive and diffractive optical elements, e.g. compound refractive lenses and Fresnel zone plates, are attractive due to their low cost, and simple alignment. These optical elements, however, suffer from chromatic aberration, which limit their effectiveness to highly monochromatic beams. This paper presents two novel concepts for focusing and imaging non-monochromatic thermal neutron beams with well-known optical elements: (1) a fast mechanical transfocator based on a compound refractive lens, which actively varies the number of individual lenses in the beam path to focus and image a time-of-flight beam, and (2) a passive optical element consisting of a compound refractive lens, and a Fresnel zone plate, which may focus and image both continuous and pulsed neutron beams.

  10. Pigment chromatic adaptation in Cyclotella caspia Grunow (Bacillariophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Seiji Abe

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatom Cyclotella caspia Grunow, isolated from surface waters of the Ubatuba region (São Paulo State, Brazil was submitted to different light spectral distributions for examination of its adaptative response. Growth rate and the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, carotenoids and phaeopigments were measured under white, blue and red light of the same intensity (8 and 20 µE.cm-2.s-1. Growth rate increased under blue light while red light increased chl a concentration. The relative proportion of chl a and carotenoids did not change, demonstrating the absence of complementary chromatic adaptation.A diatomácea Cyclotella caspia Grunow, isolada de águas superficiais da região de Ubatuba (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foi submetida a diferentes intervalos espectrais de luz com a finalidade de se examinar sua resposta adaptativa. Foram medidos a taxa de crescimento e os pigmentos fotossintéticos clorofila a, clorofila c, carotenóides e feopigmentos, sob luz branca, azul e vermelha de mesmas intensidades (8 e 20 µE.cm-2.s-1. A taxa de crescimento aumentou sob luz azul, sendo que a concentração de clorofila a aumentar sob luz vermelha. A proporção relativa de clα e carotenóides não variou, demonstrando a ausência de adapatação cromática complementar.

  11. Processing of chromatic information in a deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachot, Alban; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2018-04-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks are a class of machine-learning algorithms capable of solving non-trivial tasks, such as object recognition, with human-like performance. Little is known about the exact computations that deep neural networks learn, and to what extent these computations are similar to the ones performed by the primate brain. Here, we investigate how color information is processed in the different layers of the AlexNet deep neural network, originally trained on object classification of over 1.2M images of objects in their natural contexts. We found that the color-responsive units in the first layer of AlexNet learned linear features and were broadly tuned to two directions in color space, analogously to what is known of color responsive cells in the primate thalamus. Moreover, these directions are decorrelated and lead to statistically efficient representations, similar to the cardinal directions of the second-stage color mechanisms in primates. We also found, in analogy to the early stages of the primate visual system, that chromatic and achromatic information were segregated in the early layers of the network. Units in the higher layers of AlexNet exhibit on average a lower responsivity for color than units at earlier stages.

  12. Effect of the gamma radiation in hydrotalcite with chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, S.; Bulbulian, S.

    2004-01-01

    At the moment the generation of radioactive wastes is topic of numerous studies. In this work was retained anionic material, chromates, in hydrotalcite that are anionic exchangers. It was proposed to warm the HT at different temperatures of 600 C up to 1200 C with the purpose of immobilizing the chromium inside the hydrotalcite. To high temperatures (1000 and 1200 C) it was formed one spinel (MgCr 2 O 4 ) that is a very stable compound. It was found that when increasing the heating temperature, the anions are retained strongly. The immobilization of the Cr was determined through the chromium lixiviation with solutions 1N and 5N of NaCl. Also it was studied the effect of the radiation on the heated materials. The radiation dose used for it was of 1000 and 6000 kGy. The results show that for the calcined samples at 1000 and 1200 C irradiated or no irradiated, the chromium is strongly retained in form of spinels that is the structure formed after the calcination of the material. (Author)

  13. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  14. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  15. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  16. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  17. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgomyan, Heghine [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Trchounian, Armen, E-mail: Trchounian@ysu.am [Department of Biophysics of Biology Faculty, Yerevan State University, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. {yields} Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. {yields} EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. {yields} EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. {yields} The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm{sup -2}) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12({lambda}). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  18. Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation-reduction state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgomyan, Heghine; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low intensity 70.6 and 73 GHz electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) strongly suppressed Escherichia coli growth at 73 GHz and pH 7.3. → Reducer DL-dithiothreitol had bactericidal effect and disturbed the SH-groups number. → EMI enhanced E. coli sensitivity toward dithiothreitol. → EMI decreased the SH-groups number of membrane disturbed by ATP and N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide. → The changed membrane oxidation-reduction state could be the primary mechanisms in EMI effects. -- Abstract: Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies (flux capacity - 0.06 mW cm -2 ) had bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli. This EMI (1 h) exposure suppressed the growth of E. coli K-12(λ). The pH value (6.0-8.0) did not significantly affect the growth. The lag-phase duration was prolonged, and the growth specific rate was inhibited, and these effects were more noticeable after 73 GHz irradiation. These effects were enhanced by the addition of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducer of disulfide bonds in surface membrane proteins, which in its turn also has bactericidal effect. Further, the number of accessible SH-groups in membrane vesicles was markedly decreased by EMI that was augmented by N,N'-dicyclohexycarbodiimide and DTT. These results indicate a change in the oxidation-reduction state of bacterial cell membrane proteins that could be the primary membranous mechanism in the bactericidal effects of low-intensity EMI of the 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies.

  19. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Monurelle® and reduction of bacterial colonisation of the urinary tract by the inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Monurelle® and reduction of bacterial colonisation of the urinary tract by the inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells. The food that is the subject of the health claim, Monurelle®, which is a combination of 120 mg...... cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract (including 36 mg proanthocyanidins) and 60 mg of ascorbic acid, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is reduction of E.coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. The Panel considers that reduction of bacterial colonisation...... of the urinary tract by inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells is a beneficial physiological effect. Several health claim applications on cranberry products standardised by their proanthocyanidin content have already been evaluated by EFSA with an unfavourable outcome. The Panel...

  1. Fluctuations in the prevalence of chromate allergy in Denmark and exposure to chrome-tanned leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carøe, Caroline; Andersen, Klaus E; Thyssen, Jacob P; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2010-12-01

    A recent Danish study showed a significant increase in the prevalence of chromate contact allergy after the mid-1990s, probably as a result of exposure to leather products. To reproduce the results by analysing data from the period 1992-2009 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The temporal development in the occurrence of chromate contact allergy and assumed causative exposures were investigated. A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 8483), and medical charts from patients with chromate allergy (n = 231) were reviewed. Comparisons were made using the χ(2) -test. A test of the reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was also performed. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. No significant changes in the prevalence or exposure sources of chromate allergy during 1992-2009 were identified. Leather shoes (24.4%) were the most frequent exposure sources in chromate allergy, and were mainly registered in women, although the difference between men and women was not significant (P = 0.07). Cement and leather glove exposure occurred significantly more often in men than in women (P = 0.002). Foot dermatitis (40.3%) was the most frequent anatomical location, apart from hand eczema (60.6%). The reproducibility of the TRUE Test® was 93.3%. Apart from hand eczema, the most frequent clinical picture of chromate allergy was foot dermatitis caused by leather shoe exposure. A tendency for an increasing prevalence of chromate contact allergy from 1997 was shown, but no significant change was detectable. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tolaymat, Thabet; Stook, Kristin

    2003-06-20

    The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 microg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 microg/l with a maximum of 558 microg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 microg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 microg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

  3. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatic-achromatic perimetry in four clinic cases: Glaucoma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Cabezos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some diseases that affect the visual system may show loss of chromatic-achromatic sensitivity before obvious physical signs appear in the usual examination of the eye′s posterior segment. A perimetric study has been conducted with four typical patients with glaucoma and diabetes, at different stages of the disease. Materials and Methods: In addition to the standard white-on-white (standard automated perimetry [SAP], a test battery has been used to study patient′s contrast sensitivity, using stimuli with different chromatic, spatial, and temporal content (multichannel perimetry. The choice of stimuli tries to maximize the response of different visual mechanisms: Achromatic (parvocellular and magnocellular origin; chromatic red-green (parvocellular origin; and chromatic blue-yellow (koniocellular origin. Results: The results seem to indicate losses in the achromatic-parvocellular perimetry and both chromatic perimetry tests, undetected by conventional SAP. Conclusions: Our results illustrate that our patients without visible retinal alterations show signs of suspicion in multichannel perimetry.

  5. The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Bogacz, A.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.; Fang, S.J.; Martin, P.S.; Glass, H.D.; Sim, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are -33.6 and -33.9 respectively. The Δp/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the Δp/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be ±5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here

  6. Mixing of Chromatic and Luminance Retinal Signals in Primate Area V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Chen, Yao; Lashgari, Reza; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Lee, Barry B; Alonso, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Vision emerges from activation of chromatic and achromatic retinal channels whose interaction in visual cortex is still poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we recorded neuronal activity from retinal ganglion cells and V1 cortical cells in macaques and measured their visual responses to grating stimuli that had either luminance contrast (luminance grating), chromatic contrast (chromatic grating), or a combination of the two (compound grating). As with parvocellular or koniocellular retinal ganglion cells, some V1 cells responded mostly to the chromatic contrast of the compound grating. As with magnocellular retinal ganglion cells, other V1 cells responded mostly to the luminance contrast and generated a frequency-doubled response to equiluminant chromatic gratings. Unlike magnocellular and parvocellular retinal ganglion cells, V1 cells formed a unimodal distribution for luminance/color preference with a 2- to 4-fold bias toward luminance. V1 cells associated with positive local field potentials in deep layers showed the strongest combined responses to color and luminance and, as a population, V1 cells encoded a diverse combination of luminance/color edges that matched edge distributions of natural scenes. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary visual cortex combines magnocellular and parvocellular retinal inputs to increase cortical receptive field diversity and to optimize visual processing of our natural environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Localized chromaticity correction of low-beta insertions in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Moshammer, H.; Sullivan, M.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.

    1993-01-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in the storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring's arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the insertion point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher order chromatic aberrations. Here the authors consider the approach where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. Each family has two pairs of sextupoles which are located symmetrically on both sides of the IP. The sextupole-like aberrations of individual sextupoles are eliminated by utilizing optics forming a -I transformation between sextupoles in the pair. The optics also includes bending magnets which preserve equal dispersion functions at the two sextupoles in each pair. At sextupoles in one family, the vertical beta function is made large and the horizontal is made small. The situation is reversed in the sextupoles of the other family. The betatron phase advances from the IP to the sextupoles are chosen to eliminate a second order chromatic aberration. The application of the localized chromatic correction is demonstrated using as an example the lattice design for the Low Energy Ring of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL PEP-II B Factory

  8. Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Alexander L; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2016-07-19

    We present a mechanism by which organisms with only a single photoreceptor, which have a monochromatic view of the world, can achieve color discrimination. An off-axis pupil and the principle of chromatic aberration (where different wavelengths come to focus at different distances behind a lens) can combine to provide "color-blind" animals with a way to distinguish colors. As a specific example, we constructed a computer model of the visual system of cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) that have a single unfiltered photoreceptor type. We compute a quantitative image quality budget for this visual system and show how chromatic blurring dominates the visual acuity in these animals in shallow water. We quantitatively show, through numerical simulations, how chromatic aberration can be exploited to obtain spectral information, especially through nonaxial pupils that are characteristic of coleoid cephalopods. We have also assessed the inherent ambiguity between range and color that is a consequence of the chromatic variation of best focus with wavelength. This proposed mechanism is consistent with the extensive suite of visual/behavioral and physiological data that has been obtained from cephalopod studies and offers a possible solution to the apparent paradox of vivid chromatic behaviors in color blind animals. Moreover, this proposed mechanism has potential applicability in organisms with limited photoreceptor complements, such as spiders and dolphins.

  9. Chromatic aberration correction: an enhancement to the calibration of low-cost digital dermoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighton, Paul; Lee, Tim K; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David; Atkins, M Stella

    2011-08-01

    We present a method for calibrating low-cost digital dermoscopes that corrects for color and inconsistent lighting and also corrects for chromatic aberration. Chromatic aberration is a form of radial distortion that often occurs in inexpensive digital dermoscopes and creates red and blue halo-like effects on edges. Being radial in nature, distortions due to chromatic aberration are not constant across the image, but rather vary in both magnitude and direction. As a result, distortions are not only visually distracting but could also mislead automated characterization techniques. Two low-cost dermoscopes, based on different consumer-grade cameras, were tested. Color is corrected by imaging a reference and applying singular value decomposition to determine the transformation required to ensure accurate color reproduction. Lighting is corrected by imaging a uniform surface and creating lighting correction maps. Chromatic aberration is corrected using a second-order radial distortion model. Our results for color and lighting calibration are consistent with previously published results, while distortions due to chromatic aberration can be reduced by 42-47% in the two systems considered. The disadvantages of inexpensive dermoscopy can be quickly substantially mitigated with a suitable calibration procedure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Localized chromaticity correction of low-beta insertions in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Moshammer, H.; Sullivan, M.; Forest, E.; Robin, D.; Zholents, A.

    1993-04-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in the storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring's arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the insertion point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher order chromatic aberrations. Here we consider the approach where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. Each family has two pairs of sextupoles which are located symmetrically on both sides of the IP. The sextupole-like aberrations of individual sextupoles are eliminated by utilizing optics forming a -I transformation between sextupoles in the pair. The optics also includes bending magnets which preserve equal dispersion functions at the two sextupoles in each pair. At sextupoles in one family, the vertical beta function is made large and the horizontal is made small. The situation is reversed in the sextupoles of the other family. The betatron phase advances from the IP to the sextupoles are chosen to eliminate a second order chromatic aberration. The application of the localized chromatic correction is demonstrated using as an example the lattice design for the Low Energy Ring of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL PEP-II B Factory

  11. Optimization Of Chromaticity Compensation And Dynamic Aperture In MEIC Collider Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Fanglei; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Beard, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab relies on an ultra-small beta-star to achieve high luminosities of up to 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . A low-beta insertion for interaction regions unavoidably induces large chromatic effects that demand a proper compensation. The present approach of chromatic compensation in the MEIC collider rings is based on a local correction scheme using two symmetric chromatic compensation blocks that includes families of sextupoles, and are placed in a beam extension area on both sides of a collision point. It can simultaneously compensate the first order chromaticity and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant second order aberrations. In this paper, we investigate both the momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture in the MEIC ion collider ring by considering the aberration effects up to the third order, such as amplitude dependent tune shift. We also explore the compensation of the third order effects by introducing families of octupoles in the extended beam area.

  12. CHROMAT trademark Version 1.1--Soil Chromium Attenuation Evaluation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.; Zachara, J.M.; Thapa, M.; Gold, M.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the user's manual and technical reference for the Soil Chromium Attenuation Model (CHROMAT trademark), a computer code designed to calculate both the dissolved Cr concentration and the amount of Cr attenuated in soils as a result of the geochemical reactions that occur as Cr-containing leachates migrate through porous soils. The dissolved Cr concentration and the amount of Cr attenuated are calculated using thermodynamic (mechanistic) data for aqueous complexation reactions, adsorption/ desorption reactions, and precipitation/dissolution reactions involving both CR(III) and Cr(VI) species. Use of this mechanistic approach means that CHROMAT trademark requires a minimum amount of site-specific data on leachate and soil characteristics. CHROMAT trademark is distributed in executable form for IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers through a license from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The user interacts with CHROMAT trademark using menu-driven screen displays. Interactive on-line help options are available. Output from the code can be obtained in tabular or graphic form. This manual describes the development of CHROMAT trademark, including experimental data development in support of the model and model validation studies. The thermodynamic data and computational algorithm are also described. Example problems and results are included

  13. Bounds for the b-Chromatic Number of Subgraphs and Edge-Deleted Subgraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A b-coloring of a graph G with k colors is a proper coloring of G using k colors in which each color class contains a color dominating vertex, that is, a vertex which has a neighbor in each of the other color classes. The largest positive integer k for which G has a b-coloring using k colors is the b-chromatic number b(G of G. In this paper, we obtain bounds for the b- chromatic number of induced subgraphs in terms of the b-chromatic number of the original graph. This turns out to be a generalization of the result due to R. Balakrishnan et al. [Bounds for the b-chromatic number of G−v, Discrete Appl. Math. 161 (2013 1173-1179]. Also we show that for any connected graph G and any e ∈ E(G, b(G - e ≤ b(G + -2. Further, we determine all graphs which attain the upper bound. Finally, we conclude by finding bound for the b-chromatic number of any subgraph.

  14. ON-LINE NONLINEAR CHROMATICITY CORRECTION USING OFF-MOMENTUM TUNE RESPONSE MATRIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; FISCHER, W.; MALISKY, N.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TROBJEVIC, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we propose a method for the online nonlinear chromaticity correction at store in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). With 8 arc sextupole families in each RHIC ring, the nonlinear chromaticities can be minimized online by matching the off-momentum tunes onto the wanted tunes given by the linear chromaticities. The Newton method is used for this multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization, where the off-momentum tune response matrix with respect to sextupole strength changes is adopted. The off-momentum tune response matrix can be calculated with the online accelerator optics model or directly measured with the real beam. In this article, the correction algorithm for the RHIC is presented. Simulations are also carried out to verify the method. The preliminary results from the beam experiments taken place in the RHIC 2007 Au run are reviewed

  15. Chromate adsorption mechanism on nanodiamond-derived onion-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young-Jin [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Keunsu [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soonjae [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung-Min [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heon-Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok Won [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Woo, E-mail: plead36@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Mizuseki, Hiroshi, E-mail: mizuseki@kist.re.kr [Computational Science Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wook-Seong, E-mail: wsleemk@gmail.com [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The onion-like carbon (OLC) was prepared as adsorbent and tested for the removal of chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The OLC was thermally derived from nanodiamond by vacuum annealing at 1000-2000 °C. An investigation was conducted the chromate adsorption mechanism of OLC, by analysing the temperature-dependent evolution of the various oxygen-carbon bonds and the chemisorbed water by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, as well as by the first principle calculation of the bond energies for relevant bond configurations. The present work demonstrated the importance of the carbon-oxygen bond type and carbon dangling bonds for chromate adsorption, as well as for other anionic heavy metals adsorbed from wastewater and sewage.

  16. Measurement of chromatic dispersion of microstructured polymer fibers by white-light spectral interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlubina, Petr; Ciprian, Dalibor; Frosz, Michael Henoch

    2009-01-01

    We present a white-light spectral interferometric method for measuring the chromatic dispersion of microstructured fibers made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The method uses an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the fiber of known length placed in one of the interferometer arms...... of the method by measuring the wavelength dependence of the differential group refractive index of a pure silica fiber. We apply a five-term power series fit to the measured data and confirm by its differentiation that the chromatic dispersion of pure silica glass agrees well with theory. Second, we measure...... the chromatic dispersion for the fundamental mode supported by two different PMMA microstructured fibers, the multimode fiber and the large-mode area one....

  17. Contradictory effect of chromate inhibitor on corrosive wear of aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Zin, I.M.; Vynar, V.A.; Bily, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Corrosive wear of aluminium alloy in inhibited artificial acid rain was studied. → Tribometer with linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used.→ Corrosion potential, polarization current and friction coefficient were measured. → Chromate decreases corrosion of aluminium alloy under wear conditions. → Chromate in general accelerates corrosive wear of the alloy in acid rain. - Abstract: The corrosive wear of D16T aluminium alloy in artificial acid rain was studied. A special tribometer with the linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used. The setup allows to measure simultaneously an open circuit potential, to carry out potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization studies of the alloy corrosion and to record the friction coefficient. It was established that the addition of strontium chromate inhibitor to the working environment decreases an electrochemical corrosion of the aluminium alloy under wear conditions, but in general accelerates its destruction due to insufficient wear resistance of a formed surface film.

  18. Tune and Chromaticity Control During Snapback and Ramp in 2015 LHC Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Lamont, Mike; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Todesco, Ezio; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Because of current redistribution on the superconducting cables, the harmonic components of the magnetic fields of the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show decay during the low field injection plateau. This results in tune and chromaticity variations for the beams. In the first few seconds of the ramp the original hysteresis state of the magnetic field is restored - the field snaps back. These fast dynamic field changes lead to strong tune and chromaticity excursions that, if not properly controlled, induce beam losses and potentially trigger a beam dump. A feed-forward system applies predicted corrections during the injection plateau and to the first part of the ramp to avoid violent changes of beam conditions. This paper discusses the snapback of tune and chromaticity as observed in 2015, as well as the control of beam parameters during the ramp. It also evaluates the quality of the applied feed-forward corrections and their reproducibility.

  19. Chromatic-free spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics for microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liguo; Chen Wencong; Zhu Ximing; Pu Yikang; Li Zeren

    2009-01-01

    A chromatic-free spatially resolved diagnostic system for microplasma measurement is proposed and demonstrated, which consists of an optical chromatic-free microscope mirror system, an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD), and bandpass filters. The diagnostic system free of chromatic aberrations with a spatial resolution of about 6 μm is achieved. The factors that limit the resolution of this diagnostic system have been analyzed, which are optical diffraction, the pixel size of the EMCCD, and the thickness of the microplasma. In this paper, the optimal condition for achieving a maximum resolution power has been analyzed. With this diagnostic system, we revealed the spatial nonuniformity of a microwave atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the time-averaged effective electron temperature has been estimated from the intensity distributions of 750.4 and 415.8 nm emissions.

  20. Amino-functionalized MCM-41 and MCM-48 for the removal of chromate and arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, A; Basly, J P; Baudu, M; Derriche, Z; Hamacha, R

    2013-08-15

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficiency of three amino-functionalized (hexadecylamine, dodecylamine, and dimethyldodecylamine) mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and MCM-48) toward the adsorption of arsenate and chromate. Hexadecylamine-functionalized materials were characterized; BET surface areas, pore volumes, and sizes decreased with the functionalization, whereas XRD patterns show that the hexagonal structure of MCM-41 and the cubic structure of MCM-48 were not modified. The zeta potential decreases with pH and the highest arsenate and chromate removal was observed at the lowest pHs. Adsorption of chromium and arsenate was significantly enhanced after functionalization and amino-functionalized MCM-41 adsorb larger amounts of arsenate when compared to expanded MCM-48 materials. Chromate sorption capacities increased with the chain length and the larger capacities were obtained with hexadecylamine-functionalized mesoporous silicas. Mesoporous silicas modified by dimethyldodecylamine exhibited the higher arsenate sorption capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry with the use of chromaticity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Ershova, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Immobilized Eriochrome Cyanine R was used for the direct trace determination of aluminium and beryllium by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. Anion exchanger AV-17, silica gel Silochrom C-120, Chromaton N-Super, silica gel C 18 , and cellulose were examined as supports. Optimal sorption conditions were found. The dependence of chromaticity functions (chromaticity coordinates, lightness, color saturation, yellowness, and whiteness) on different factors was studied. Advantages of the use of chromaticity functions rather than the diffuse reflectance coefficient were demonstrated. A method is developed for the separate determination of aluminium and beryllium using cellulose as the support; the method was used for the analysis of real samples and tested with standard samples. When solution samples of 50 and 100 ml were used, the determination limit was 0.004 μg/ml for aluminium and 0.0002 μg/ml for beryllium, respectively [ru

  2. Obstructions to the realization of distance graphs with large chromatic numbers on spheres of small radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupavskii, A B; Raigorodskii, A M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-31

    We investigate in detail some properties of distance graphs constructed on the integer lattice. Such graphs find wide applications in problems of combinatorial geometry, in particular, such graphs were employed to answer Borsuk's question in the negative and to obtain exponential estimates for the chromatic number of the space. This work is devoted to the study of the number of cliques and the chromatic number of such graphs under certain conditions. Constructions of sequences of distance graphs are given, in which the graphs have unit length edges and contain a large number of triangles that lie on a sphere of radius 1/√3 (which is the minimum possible). At the same time, the chromatic numbers of the graphs depend exponentially on their dimension. The results of this work strengthen and generalize some of the results obtained in a series of papers devoted to related issues. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  3. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  4. [Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Zeng, Chang-chun; Cai, Xiu-yu; Guo, Rong-ping; Nie, Guang; Jin, Ying

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the optical data of tongue color of different syndromes in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) were detected by optical spectrum colorimetry, and the chromaticity of tongue color was compared and analyzed. The tongue color characteristics of different syndromes in PHC and the relationship between different syndromes and tongue color were also investigated. Tongue color data from 133 eligible PHC patients were collected by optical spectrum colorimetry and the patients were divided into 4 syndrome groups according to their clinical features. The syndrome groups were liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD), accumulation of damp-heat (ADH), deficiency of liver and kidney yin (DLKY), and qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS). The variation characteristics of chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength, excitation purity and the distribution in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) LAB uniform color space were measured. At the same time, the differences of overall chromatism, clarity, chroma, saturation and hue were also calculated and analyzed. PHC patients in different syndrome groups exhibited differences in chromaticity coordinates. The dominant wavelength of QSBS was distinctly different from that of the other 3 syndromes. Excitation purity in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (Pcolorimetry technology. Different syndromes in PHC exhibit distinct chromatisms of tongue color through the calculation and analysis of chromaticity parameters of CIE, combined with colorimetric system and CIE LAB color space, and these are consistent with the characteristics of clinical tongue color. Applying optical spectrum colorimetry technology to tongue color differentiation has the potential to serve as a reference point in standardizing traditional Chinese medicine syndrome classification in PHC.

  5. Chromatic signals control proboscis movements during hovering flight in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut

    2012-01-01

    Most visual systems are more sensitive to luminance than to colour signals. Animals resolve finer spatial detail and temporal changes through achromatic signals than through chromatic ones. Probably, this explains that detection of small, distant, or moving objects is typically mediated through achromatic signals. Macroglossum stellatarum are fast flying nectarivorous hawkmoths that inspect flowers with their long proboscis while hovering. They can visually control this behaviour using floral markings known as nectar guides. Here, we investigate whether this is mediated by chromatic or achromatic cues. We evaluated proboscis placement, foraging efficiency, and inspection learning of naïve moths foraging on flower models with coloured markings that offered either chromatic, achromatic or both contrasts. Hummingbird hawkmoths could use either achromatic or chromatic signals to inspect models while hovering. We identified three, apparently independent, components controlling proboscis placement: After initial contact, 1) moths directed their probing towards the yellow colour irrespectively of luminance signals, suggesting a dominant role of chromatic signals; and 2) moths tended to probe mainly on the brighter areas of models that offered only achromatic signals. 3) During the establishment of the first contact, naïve moths showed a tendency to direct their proboscis towards the small floral marks independent of their colour or luminance. Moths learned to find nectar faster, but their foraging efficiency depended on the flower model they foraged on. Our results imply that M. stellatarum can perceive small patterns through colour vision. We discuss how the different informational contents of chromatic and luminance signals can be significant for the control of flower inspection, and visually guided behaviours in general.

  6. Cardinal and anti-cardinal points, equalities and chromatic dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya; Harris, William F

    2017-05-01

    Cardinal points are used for ray tracing through Gaussian systems. Anti-principal and anti-nodal points (which we shall refer to as the anti-cardinal points), along with the six familiar cardinal points, belong to a much larger set of special points. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a set of relationships and resulting equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points and to illustrate them using Pascal's ring. The methodology used relies on Gaussian optics and the transference T. We make use of two equations, obtained via the transference, which give the locations of the six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points with respect to the system. We obtain equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. We utilise Pascal's ring to illustrate which points depend on frequency and their displacement with change in frequency. Pascal described a memory schema in the shape of a hexagon for remembering equalities among the points and illustrating shifts in these points when an aspect of the system changes. We modify and extend Pascal's ring to include the anti-cardinal points. We make use of Pascal's ring extended to illustrate which points are dependent on the frequency of light and the direction of shift of the equalities with change in frequency. For the reduced eye the principal and nodal points are independent of frequency, but the focal points and the anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. For Le Grand's four-surface model eye all six cardinal and four anti-cardinal points depend on frequency. This has implications for definitions, particularly of chromatic aberrations of the eye, that make use of cardinal points and that themselves depend on frequency. Pascal's ring and Pascal's ring extended are novel memory schema for remembering the equalities among the cardinal and anti-cardinal points. The rings are useful for illustrating changes among the equalities and direction of shift of points when an aspect of a system changes. Care should be taken

  7. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-18

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space ( H , L , and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved.

  8. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  9. On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3.......We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c

  10. On Chromatic no. of 3K1-free graphs and R(3, k)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhurandhar, Medha S.

    2012-01-01

    Here we prove that if G has independence no. 2 and clique size omega with omega less than or equal to 11, then (1) chromatic no. is less than or equal to (omega2+12omega-13)/8, if omega is odd, and (2) chromatic no. is less than or equal to (omega2+10omega)/8, if omega is even. We further conjecture that the results are true in general for all omega. We also conjecture that (A) if omega is odd and R(3, omega) is even, then R(3, omega) = (omega2+8omega-9)/4, (B) if omega and R(3, omega) are bo...

  11. Coded-subcarrier-aided chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme for flexible optical OFDM networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Kam-Hon; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-08-11

    A simple coded-subcarrier aided scheme is proposed to perform chromatic dispersion monitoring in flexible optical OFDM networks. A pair of coded label subcarriers is added to both edges of the optical OFDM signal spectrum at the edge transmitter node. Upon reception at any intermediate or the receiver node, chromatic dispersion estimation is performed, via simple direct detection, followed by electronic correlation procedures with the designated code sequences. The feasibility and the performance of the proposed scheme have been experimentally characterized. It provides a cost-effective monitoring solution for the optical OFDM signals across intermediate nodes in flexible OFDM networks.

  12. Differential algebraic method for arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Min; Tang Tiantong; Lu Yilong; Yao Zhenhua

    2003-01-01

    The principle of differential algebra is applied to analyse and calculate arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of electron optical systems. Expressions of differential algebraic form of high order combined aberrations are obtained and arbitrary order combined aberrations can be calculated numerically. As an example, a typical wide electron beam focusing system with curved optical axes named magnetic immersion lens has been studied. All the second-order and third-order combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of the lens have been calculated, and the patterns of the corresponding geometric aberrations and combined aberrations have been given as well

  13. New chromaticity compensation approach and dynamic aperture increase in the SSRF storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shunqiang; Hou Jie; Chen Guangling; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Liu Guimin

    2008-01-01

    Strong chromatic sextupoles used to compensate natural chromaticities in the third generation light source storage ring usually reduce dynamic aperture drastically. Many optimization methods can be used to find solutions that provide large dynamic apertures. This paper discusses a new optimization approach of sextupole strengths with step-by-step procedure, which is applied in the SSRF storage ring, and a better solution is obtained. Investigating driving terms generated by the sextupoles in every step can analyze their convergences and guide the weight setting among different terms in object function of the single resonance approach based on the perturbation theory. (authors)

  14. Sextupole correction for a ring with large chromaticity and the influence of magnetic errors on its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Katoh, M.; Honjo, I.

    1987-01-01

    A future ring with a low emittance and large circumference, specifically dedicated to a synchrotron light source, will have a large chromaticity, so that it is important to employ a sophisticated sextupole correction as well as the design of linear lattice to obtain the stable beam. The authors tried a method of sextupole correction for a lattice with a large chromaticity and small dispersion function. In such a lattice the sextupole magnets are obliged to become large in strength to compensate the chromaticity. Then the nonlinear effects of the sextupole magnets will become more serious than their chromatic effects. Furthermore, a ring with strong quadrupole magnets to get a very small emittance and with strong sextupole magnets to compensate the generated chromaticity will be very sensitive to their magnetic errors. The authors also present simple formulae to evaluate the effects on the beam parameters. The details will appear in a KEK Report

  15. Isolation and characterization of a chromium-resistant bacterium Serratia sp. Cr-10 from a chromate-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kundi; Li, Fuli

    2011-05-01

    A novel bacterium, Cr-10, was isolated from a chromium-contaminated site and capable of removing toxic chromium species from solution by reducing hexavalent chromium to an insoluble precipitate. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of strain Cr-10 showed that it was most closely related to Serratia rubidaea JCM 1240(T) (97.68%). Physiological and chemotaxonomic data also supported that strain Cr-10 was identified as Serratia sp., a genus which was never specially reported chromate-resistant before. Serratia sp., Cr-10 was tolerant to a concentration of 1,500 mg Cr(VI) L(-1), which was the highest level reported until now. The optimum pH and temperature for reduction of Cr(VI) by Serratia sp. Cr-10 were found to be 7.0 and 37 °C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by additional carbon sources, and among them fructose and lactose offered maximum reduction, with a rate of 0.28 and 0.25 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The cell-free extracts and filtrate of the culture were able to reduce Cr(VI) while concentration of total chromium remained stable in the process, indicating that the enzyme-catalyzed mechanism was applied in Cr(VI) reduction by the isolate. Additionally, it was found that there was hardly any chromium on the cell surface of the strain, further supporting that reduction, rather than bioadsorption, plays a major role in the Cr(VI) removal.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a chromium-resistant bacterium Serratia sp. Cr-10 from a chromate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kundi; Li, Fuli [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Qingdao Inst. of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology

    2011-05-15

    A novel bacterium, Cr-10, was isolated from a chromium-contaminated site and capable of removing toxic chromium species from solution by reducing hexavalent chromium to an insoluble precipitate. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of strain Cr-10 showed that it was most closely related to Serratia rubidaea JCM 1240{sup T} (97.68%). Physiological and chemotaxonomic data also supported that strain Cr-10 was identified as Serratia sp., a genus which was never specially reported chromate-resistant before. Serratia sp., Cr-10 was tolerant to a concentration of 1,500 mg Cr(VI) L{sup -1}, which was the highest level reported until now. The optimum pH and temperature for reduction of Cr(VI) by Serratia sp. Cr-10 were found to be 7.0 and 37 C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by additional carbon sources, and among them fructose and lactose offered maximum reduction, with a rate of 0.28 and 0.25 mg Cr(VI) L{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively. The cell-free extracts and filtrate of the culture were able to reduce Cr(VI) while concentration of total chromium remained stable in the process, indicating that the enzyme-catalyzed mechanism was applied in Cr(VI) reduction by the isolate. Additionally, it was found that there was hardly any chromium on the cell surface of the strain, further supporting that reduction, rather than bioadsorption, plays a major role in the Cr(VI) removal. (orig.)

  17. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  18. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  19. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  20. Effects of iron stress on chromatic adaptation by natural phytoplankton communities in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, M.A.; Timmermans, K.R.; Witte, H.J.; Kraay, G.W.; Veldhuis, M.J.W.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of iron stress on chromatic adaptation were studied in natural phytoplankton communities collected in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean. Iron enrichment experiments (48 to 72 h) were performed, incubating plankton communities under white, green and blue light respectively, with and

  1. Segmentation of color images by chromaticity features using self-organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid García-Lamont

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the segmentation of color images is performed using cluster-based methods and the RGB space to represent the colors. The drawback with these methods is the a priori knowledge of the number of groups, or colors, in the image; besides, the RGB space issensitive to the intensity of the colors. Humans can identify different sections within a scene by the chromaticity of its colors of, as this is the feature humans employ to tell them apart. In this paper, we propose to emulate the human perception of color by training a self-organizing map (SOM with samples of chromaticity of different colors. The image to process is mapped to the HSV space because in this space the chromaticity is decoupled from the intensity, while in the RGB space this is not possible. Our proposal does not require knowing a priori the number of colors within a scene, and non-uniform illumination does not significantly affect the image segmentation. We present experimental results using some images from the Berkeley segmentation database by employing SOMs with different sizes, which are segmented successfully using only chromaticity features.

  2. Informational primacy of visual dimensions: specialized roles for luminance and chromaticity in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Melara, R D

    2001-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the distinct contributions of two visual dimensions to figure-ground segregation. In each experiment, pattern identification was assessed by asking observers to judge whether a near-threshold test pattern was the same or different in shape to a high-contrast comparison pattern. A test pattern could differ from its background along one dimension, either luminance (luminance tasks) or chromaticity (chromaticity tasks). In each task, performance in a baseline condition, in which the test pattern was intact, was compared with performance in each of several degradation conditions, in which either the contour or the surface of the figure was degraded, using either partial occlusion (Experiment 1) or ramping (Experiments 2 and 3) of figure-ground differences. In each experiment, performance in luminance tasks was worst when the contour was degraded, whereas performance in chromaticity tasks was worst when the surface was degraded. This interaction was found even when spatial frequencies were fixed across test patterns by low-pass filtering. The results are consistent with a late (postfiltering) dual-mechanism system that processes luminance information to extract boundary representations and chromaticity information to extract surface representations.

  3. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tune modulation due to synchrotron oscillations and chromaticity, and the dynamic aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1995-01-01

    A tracking study was done of the effects of a tune modulations, due to synchrotron oscillations and the tune dependence on momentum (chromaticity), on the dynamic aperture. The studies were done using several RHIC lattices and tracking runs of about 1 x 10 6 turns. The dynamic aperture was found to decrease roughly linearly with the amplitude of the tune modulation. Lower order non-linear resonances, like the 1/3 and 1/4 resonance are not crossed because of the tune modulation. Three different cases were studied, corresponding to RHIC lattices with different β*, and with different synchrotron oscillation amplitudes. In each case, the tune modulation amplitude was varied by changing the chromaticity. In each case, roughly the same result, was found. The result found here for the effect of a tune modulation due to chromaticity may be compared with the result found for the effect of a tune modulation due to a gradient ripple in the quadrupoles. The effect of a tune modulation due to a gradient ripple appears to be about 4 times stronger than the effect of a tune modulation due to chromaticity and synchrotron oscillations

  5. Experimental demonstration of the maximum likelihood-based chromatic dispersion estimator for coherent receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Johannisson, Pontus; Wymeersch, Henk

    2014-01-01

    We perform an experimental investigation of a maximum likelihood-based (ML-based) algorithm for bulk chromatic dispersion estimation for digital coherent receivers operating in uncompensated optical networks. We demonstrate the robustness of the method at low optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR...

  6. Chromatic response of polydiacetylene vesicle induced by the permeation of methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2015-07-07

    The noble vesicular system of polydiacetylene showed a red shift using two types of detecting systems. One of the systems involves the absorption of target materials from the outer side of the vesicle, and the other system involves the permeation through the vesicular layers from within the vesicle. The chromatic mixed vesicles of N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODAC) were fabricated by sonication, followed by polymerization by UV irradiation. The stability of monomeric vesicles was observed to increase with the polymerization of the vesicles. Methotrexate was used as a target material. The polymerized mixed vesicles having a blue color were exposed to a concentration gradient of methotrexate, and a red shift was observed indicating the adsorption of methotrexate on the polydiacetylene bilayer. In order to check the chromatic change by the permeation of methotrexate, we separated the vesicle portion, which contained methotrexate inside the vesicle, and checked chromatic change during the permeation of methotrexate through the vesicle. The red shift apparently indicates the disturbance in the bilayer induced by the permeation of methotrexate. The maximum contrast of color appeared at the equal molar ratio of AEPCDA and DODAC, indicating that the formation of flexible and deformable vesicular layers is important for red shift. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the system can be applicable for the chromatic detection of the permeation of methotrexate through the polydiacetylene layer.

  7. Neuronal Mechanism for Compensation of Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration-Derived Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva

    2018-01-01

    The human visual system faces many challenges, among them the need to overcome the imperfections of its optics, which degrade the retinal image. One of the most dominant limitations is longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), which causes short wavelengths (blue light) to be focused in front of the retina with consequent blurring of the retinal chromatic image. The perceived visual appearance, however, does not display such chromatic distortions. The intriguing question, therefore, is how the perceived visual appearance of a sharp and clear chromatic image is achieved despite the imperfections of the ocular optics. To address this issue, we propose a neural mechanism and computational model, based on the unique properties of the S -cone pathway. The model suggests that the visual system overcomes LCA through two known properties of the S channel: (1) omitting the contribution of the S channel from the high-spatial resolution pathway (utilizing only the L and M channels). (b) Having large and coextensive receptive fields that correspond to the small bistratified cells. Here, we use computational simulations of our model on real images to show how integrating these two basic principles can provide a significant compensation for LCA. Further support for the proposed neuronal mechanism is given by the ability of the model to predict an enigmatic visual phenomenon of large color shifts as part of the assimilation effect.

  8. Self-referenced axial chromatic dispersion measurement in multiphoton microscopy through 2-color THG imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Zhuang, Ziwei; He, Jiexing; Liu, Hongji; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Ke

    2018-05-16

    With tunable excitation light, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is widely used for imaging biological structures at subcellular resolution. Axial chromatic dispersion, present in virtually every transmissive optical system including the multiphoton microscope, leads to focal (and the resultant image) plane separation. Here we demonstrate experimentally a technique to measure the axial chromatic dispersion in a multiphoton microscope, using simultaneous 2-color third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging excited by a 2-color soliton source with tunable wavelength separation. Our technique is self-referenced, eliminating potential measurement error when 1-color tunable excitation light is used which necessitates reciprocating motion of the mechanical translation stage. Using this technique, we demonstrate measured axial chromatic dispersion with 2 different objective lenses in a multiphoton microscope. Further measurement in a biological sample also indicates that this axial chromatic dispersion, in combination with 2-color imaging, may open up opportunity for simultaneous imaging of two different axial planes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromatic and Achromatic Spatial Resolution of Local Field Potentials in Awake Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Lashgari, Reza; Kremkow, Jens; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Local field potentials (LFPs) have become an important measure of neuronal population activity in the brain and could provide robust signals to guide the implant of visual cortical prosthesis in the future. However, it remains unclear whether LFPs can detect weak cortical responses (e.g., cortical responses to equiluminant color) and whether they have enough visual spatial resolution to distinguish different chromatic and achromatic stimulus patterns. By recording from awake behaving macaques in primary visual cortex, here we demonstrate that LFPs respond robustly to pure chromatic stimuli and exhibit ∼2.5 times lower spatial resolution for chromatic than achromatic stimulus patterns, a value that resembles the ratio of achromatic/chromatic resolution measured with psychophysical experiments in humans. We also show that, although the spatial resolution of LFP decays with visual eccentricity as is also the case for single neurons, LFPs have higher spatial resolution and show weaker response suppression to low spatial frequencies than spiking multiunit activity. These results indicate that LFP recordings are an excellent approach to measure spatial resolution from local populations of neurons in visual cortex including those responsive to color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Reversible Chromatic Response of Polydiacetylene Derivative Vesicles in D2O Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-26

    The thermal chromatic sensitivity of polydiacetylenes (PDAs) with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatives, which have a hydroxyl group (HEEPCDA) and an amine group (APPCDA), were investigated using D2O and H2O as solvents. The vesicle solution with polymerized HEEPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response during the heating and cooling cycle in D2O, but not in H2O. On the other hand, the vesicle solution with the polymerized APPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response in H2O during the heating and cooling cycle, but the color of the solution did not change much in D2O. The critical vesicle concentration of HEEPCDA was lower in D2O than in H2O, and the chromatic sensitivity of the polymerized vesicles to temperature was slower in D2O than in H2O. We think that it is due to D2O being a more highly structured solvent than H2O with the hydrogen bonding in D2O stronger than that in H2O.

  11. Spatial and temporal aspects of chromatic adaptation and their functional significance for colour constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Annette

    2014-11-01

    Illumination in natural scenes changes at multiple temporal and spatial scales: slow changes in global illumination occur in the course of a day, and we encounter fast and localised illumination changes when visually exploring the non-uniform light field of three-dimensional scenes; in addition, very long-term chromatic variations may come from the environment, like for example seasonal changes. In this context, I consider the temporal and spatial properties of chromatic adaptation and discuss their functional significance for colour constancy in three-dimensional scenes. A process of fast spatial tuning in chromatic adaptation is proposed as a possible sensory mechanism for linking colour constancy to the spatial structure of a scene. The observed middlewavelength selectivity of this process is particularly suitable for adaptation to the mean chromaticity and the compensation of interreflections in natural scenes. Two types of sensory colour constancy are distinguished, based on the functional differences of their temporal and spatial scales: a slow type, operating at a global scale for the compensation of the ambient illumination; and a fast colour constancy, which is locally restricted and well suited to compensate region-specific variations in the light field of three dimensional scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurochemical responses to chromatic and achromatic stimuli in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednařík, Petr; Tkáč, Ivan; Giove, Federico; Eberly, Lynn E; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Barreto, Felipe R; Mangia, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at determining the metabolic responses of the human visual cortex during the presentation of chromatic and achromatic stimuli, known to preferentially activate two separate clusters of neuronal populations (called "blobs" and "interblobs") with distinct sensitivity to color or luminance features. Since blobs and interblobs have different cytochrome-oxidase (COX) content and micro-vascularization level (i.e., different capacities for glucose oxidation), different functional metabolic responses during chromatic vs. achromatic stimuli may be expected. The stimuli were optimized to evoke a similar load of neuronal activation as measured by the bold oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Metabolic responses were assessed using functional 1 H MRS at 7 T in 12 subjects. During both chromatic and achromatic stimuli, we observed the typical increases in glutamate and lactate concentration, and decreases in aspartate and glucose concentration, that are indicative of increased glucose oxidation. However, within the detection sensitivity limits, we did not observe any difference between metabolic responses elicited by chromatic and achromatic stimuli. We conclude that the higher energy demands of activated blobs and interblobs are supported by similar increases in oxidative metabolism despite the different capacities of these neuronal populations.

  13. Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsovsky, Cory; Shelton, Ryan; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Applegate, Brian E.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel chromatic confocal microscope capable of volumetric reflectance imaging of microstructure in non-transparent tissue. Our design takes advantage of the chromatic aberration of aspheric lenses that are otherwise well corrected. Strong chromatic aberration, generated by multiple aspheres, longitudinally disperses supercontinuum light onto the sample. The backscattered light detected with a spectrometer is therefore wavelength encoded and each spectrum corresponds to a line image. This approach obviates the need for traditional axial mechanical scanning techniques that are difficult to implement for endoscopy and susceptible to motion artifact. A wavelength range of 590-775 nm yielded a >150 µm imaging depth with ~3 µm axial resolution. The system was further demonstrated by capturing volumetric images of buccal mucosa. We believe these represent the first microstructural images in non-transparent biological tissue using chromatic confocal microscopy that exhibit long imaging depth while maintaining acceptable resolution for resolving cell morphology. Miniaturization of this optical system could bring enhanced speed and accuracy to endomicroscopic in vivo volumetric imaging of epithelial tissue. PMID:23667789

  14. New Approach to Remove Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Hui Pan

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated using binary acid solutions consisting of acetic, oxalic, and phosphoric acids in a microwave reactor. Formation of an insoluble copper oxalate complex in the binary solution containing oxalic acid was the major factor for low copper removal. Furthermore, the...

  15. The role of hexafluorozirconate in the formation of chromate conversion coatings on aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Clayton, Clive R.; Halada, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum based surfaces are routinely coated with a chromate based layer that provides unparalleled corrosion protection. Widely used conversion coating treatment formulations contain hexafluorozirconate as a major constituent besides chromate, ferricyanide, fluoride, and fluoborate. The function of hexafluorozirconate is the subject of this study as its function is still largely unknown. Hydrophobicity, surface morphology, and the chemistry of the surface, resulting from treatment with hexafluorozirconate, were studied using contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was extensively utilized to determine the chemistry of the surface resulting from the hexafluorozirconate pretreatment. Our results indicate that fluoride ion containing hexafluorozirconate complex does not attack the oxide film in a manner that uncomplexed simple fluoride ion does. Hexafluorozirconate is involved in the formation of an Al-Zr-O-F based hydrated layer that increases the hydrophilicity of the surface, activates the surface, and lowers the corrosion resistance. These factors enhance the interaction of chromate with the alloy surface to result in the formation of a uniform conversion coating. Based on these results, a new model has been proposed for the formation of chromate conversion coatings

  16. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V

    2014-01-01

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  17. Orbit, optics and chromaticity correction for PS2 negative momentum compaction lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaphilippou,Y.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    The effect of magnet misalignments in the beam orbit and linear optics functions are reviewed and correction schemes are applied to the negative momentum compaction lattice of PS2. Chromaticity correction schemes are also proposed and tested with respect to off-momentum optics properties. The impact of the correction schemes in the dynamic aperture of the lattice is finally evaluated.

  18. Molybdate based Alternatives to Chromating as a Passivation Treatment for Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    been developed that can be used to replace chromates in a wide range of applications. The process has been tested in a project set up by the Danish Government in 1989, at the Centre of Advanced Electroplating (CAG)in Denmark. Procedures used for the alternative process are similar to those used...

  19. Coding gaze tracking data with chromatic gradients for VR Exposure Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Grillon, Helena; De Heras Ciechomski, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a simple and intuitive way to represent the eye-tracking data gathered during immersive virtual reality exposure therapy sessions. Eye-tracking technology is used to observe gaze movements during vir- tual reality sessions and the gaze-map chromatic gradient coding allows to...... is fully compatible with different VR exposure systems and provides clinically meaningful data....

  20. On the chromatic number of pentagon-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    We prove that, for each fixed real number c > 0, the pentagon-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdős and Simonovits in 1973. A similar result holds for any other fixed odd cycle, except the tria...

  1. SIMULTANEOUS DTERMINATION OF CHROMATE AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  2. Experimental verification of the minimum number of diffractive zones for effective chromatic correction in the LWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Smith, M.; Deegan, J.

    2016-05-01

    With the move to smaller pixel sizes in the longwave IR region there has been a push for shorter focal length lenses that are smaller, cheaper and lighter and that resolve lower spatial frequencies. As a result lenses must have better correction for both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations. This leads to the increased use of aspheres and diffractive optical elements (kinoforms). With recent developments in the molding of chalcogenide materials these aspheres and kinoforms are more cost effective to manufacture. Without kinoforms the axial color can be on the order of 15 μm which degrades the performance of the lens at the Nyquist frequency. The kinoforms are now on smaller elements and are correcting chromatic aberration which is on the order of the design wavelength. This leads to kinoform structures that do not require large phase changes and therefore have 1.5 to just over 2 zones. The question becomes how many zones are required to correct small amounts of chromatic aberration in the system and are they functioning as predicted by the lens design software? We investigate both the design performance and the as-built performance of two designs that incorporate kinoforms for the correction of axial chromatic aberration.

  3. Chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring version 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yingzhi.

    1984-05-01

    This report deals with chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring version 11. The program PATRICIA is used to track the trajectories of test particles over 2000 turns. The results show that particles with transverse initial amplitudes of at least 11 σ in both planes and with a synchrotron oscillation amplitude of 7 σsub(e) remain stable. (author)

  4. Effects of dispersion and longitudinal chromatic aberration on the focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongmei; Guo Hong; Han Dingan; Liu Mingwei; Li Changfu

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the dispersion and the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the material of the lens, focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam through single lens is analyzed. The smaller the cycle number of the isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam is, the higher the order of the material dispersion should be considered

  5. Chromate and phosphate inhibited each other's uptake and translocation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Letúzia M. de; Lessl, Jason T.; Gress, Julia; Tisarum, Rujira; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of chromate (CrVI) and phosphate (P) on their uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). Plants were exposed to 1) 0.10 mM CrVI and 0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.50 mM P or 2) 0.25 mM P and 0, 0.50, 2.5 or 5.0 mM CrVI for 24 h in hydroponics. PV accumulated 2919 mg/kg Cr in the roots at CrVI 0.10 , and 5100 and 3500 mg/kg P in the fronds and roots at P 0.25 . When co-present, CrVI and P inhibited each other's uptake in PV. Increasing P concentrations reduced Cr root concentrations by 62–82% whereas increasing CrVI concentrations reduced frond P concentrations by 52–59% but increased root P concentrations by 11–15%. Chromate reduced P transport, with more P being accumulated in PV roots. Though CrVI was supplied, 64−78% and 92−93% CrIII were in PV fronds and roots. Based on X-ray diffraction, Cr 2 O 3 was detected in the roots confirming CrVI reduction to CrIII by PV. In short, CrVI and P inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by PV, and CrVI reduction to CrIII in PV roots served as its detoxification mechanism. The finding helps to understand the interactions of P and Cr during their uptake in PV. - Highlights: • Phosphate and CrVI inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by Pteris vittata. • P. vittata was more efficient in CrVI uptake than CrIII, but little Cr being translocated to the fronds. • CrVI was provided in the media, but 64–78% and 92–93% CrIII were in the fronds and roots of P. vittata. • CrVI was taken up by P. vittata and reduced to CrIII in the roots possibly as Cr 2 O 3 . - Pteris vittata was efficient in CrVI uptake, concentrating in the roots after reducing to CrIII

  6. Effects of intraocular lenses with different diopters on chromatic aberrations in human eye models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Tang, Xin

    2016-01-11

    In this study, the effects of intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different diopters (D) on chromatic aberration were investigated in human eye models, and the influences of the central thickness of IOLs on chromatic aberration were compared. A Liou-Brennan-based IOL eye model was constructed using ZEMAX optical design software. Spherical IOLs with different diopters (AR40e, AMO Company, USA) were implanted; modulation transfer function (MTF) values at 3 mm of pupil diameter and from 0 to out-of-focus blur were collected and graphed. MTF values, measured at 555 nm of monochromatic light under each spatial frequency, were significantly higher than the values measured at 470 to 650 nm of polychromatic light. The influences of chromatic aberration on MTF values decreased with the increase in IOL diopter when the spatial frequency was ≤12 c/d, while increased effects were observed when the spatial frequency was ≥15 c/d. The MTF values of each IOL eye model were significantly lower than the MTF values of the Liou-Brennan eye models when measured at 555 nm of monochromatic light and at 470 to 650 nm of polychromatic light. The MTF values were also found to be increased with the increase in IOL diopter. With higher diopters of IOLs, the central thickness increased accordingly, which could have created increased chromatic aberration and decreased the retinal image quality. To improve the postoperative visual quality, IOLs with lower chromatic aberration should be selected for patients with short axial lengths.

  7. Chromatic detection from cone photoreceptors to V1 neurons to behavior in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Charles A; Angueyra, Juan M; Lindbloom-Brown, Zachary; Rieke, Fred; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Chromatic sensitivity cannot exceed limits set by noise in the cone photoreceptors. To determine how close neurophysiological and psychophysical chromatic sensitivity come to these limits, we developed a parameter-free model of stimulus encoding in the cone outer segments, and we compared the sensitivity of the model to the psychophysical sensitivity of monkeys performing a detection task and to the sensitivity of individual V1 neurons. Modeled cones had a temporal impulse response and a noise power spectrum that were derived from in vitro recordings of macaque cones, and V1 recordings were made during performance of the detection task. The sensitivity of the simulated cone mosaic, the V1 neurons, and the monkeys were tightly yoked for low-spatiotemporal-frequency isoluminant modulations, indicating high-fidelity signal transmission for this class of stimuli. Under the conditions of our experiments and the assumptions for our model, the signal-to-noise ratio for these stimuli dropped by a factor of ∼3 between the cones and perception. Populations of weakly correlated V1 neurons narrowly exceeded the monkeys' chromatic sensitivity but fell well short of the cones' chromatic sensitivity, suggesting that most of the behavior-limiting noise lies between the cone outer segments and the output of V1. The sensitivity gap between the cones and behavior for achromatic stimuli was larger than for chromatic stimuli, indicating greater postreceptoral noise. The cone mosaic model provides a means to compare visual sensitivity across disparate stimuli and to identify sources of noise that limit visual sensitivity.

  8. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2000-10-12

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.

  9. Accurate and fiducial-marker-free correction for three-dimensional chromatic shift in biological fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Schermelleh, Lothar; Hirano, Yasuhiro; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2018-05-15

    Correction of chromatic shift is necessary for precise registration of multicolor fluorescence images of biological specimens. New emerging technologies in fluorescence microscopy with increasing spatial resolution and penetration depth have prompted the need for more accurate methods to correct chromatic aberration. However, the amount of chromatic shift of the region of interest in biological samples often deviates from the theoretical prediction because of unknown dispersion in the biological samples. To measure and correct chromatic shift in biological samples, we developed a quadrisection phase correlation approach to computationally calculate translation, rotation, and magnification from reference images. Furthermore, to account for local chromatic shifts, images are split into smaller elements, for which the phase correlation between channels is measured individually and corrected accordingly. We implemented this method in an easy-to-use open-source software package, called Chromagnon, that is able to correct shifts with a 3D accuracy of approximately 15 nm. Applying this software, we quantified the level of uncertainty in chromatic shift correction, depending on the imaging modality used, and for different existing calibration methods, along with the proposed one. Finally, we provide guidelines to choose the optimal chromatic shift registration method for any given situation.

  10. Alternative SILP-SCR Catalysts based on Guanidinium Chromates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Riisager, Anders; Ståhl, Kenny

    There is an increasing global concern about human caused emissions of pollutants like sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere leading to, e.g. smog and acid rain damaging to the human health and the environment. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant is the most...... duct. There is therefore a demand for alkali-resistant SCR catalysts more flexible regarding temperature of operation and position in the duct. Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts with 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidinium (TMGH+) and a chromium oxide anion supported on anatase have exhibited...

  11. Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Kristiansen, J; Borg, L

    2000-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of daily repeated exposures to low cobalt or chromate concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and cobalt or chromate allergy. For 2 weeks, the patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into the appropriate metal salt solution in...... of providing evidence-based medicine in the area of allergic contact dermatitis in the future.......-sensitive patients. During the exposure period, accumulation of cobalt or chromate in the nail was demonstrated. Standardization of chemical methods of quantification of skin exposure to allergens, combined with experimental exposure studies in patients with specific contact allergy, will increase the possibility...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of the potential for in situ treatment of chromate-contaminated groundwater by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Beck, M.A.; Jurgensmeier, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a series of small-scale batch tests performed to assess the effectiveness of chemical precipitation in the remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater. These tests involved treatment of chromate solutions with ferrous and sulfide ions. In addition, tests were conducted that involved treatment of mixtures of chromate-contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated soil with the ferrous ion. A combination of ferrous sulfate and sodium sulfide was also tested in the groundwater treatment tests, since this approach has been shown to be an efficient method for treating electroplating wastewaters

  13. Elucidating the Molecular Basis and Regulation of Chromium(VI) Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Resistance to Metal Toxicity Using Integrated Biochemical, Genomic and Proteomic Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorothea K. Thompson; Robert Hettich

    2007-02-06

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a model environmental organism that possesses diverse respiratory capacities, including the ability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to sparingly soluble, less toxic Cr(III). Chromate is a serious anthropogenic pollutant found in subsurface sediment and groundwater environments due to its widespread use in defense and industrial applications. Effective bioremediation of chromate-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and regulation of heavy metal resistance and biotransformation by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Towards this goal, our ERSP-funded work was focused on the identification and functional analysis of genes/proteins comprising the response pathways for chromate detoxification and/or reduction. Our work utilized temporal transcriptomic profiling and whole-cell proteomic analyses to characterize the dynamic molecular response of MR-1 to an acute chromate shock (up to 90 min) as well as to a 24-h, low-dose exposure. In addition, we have examined the transcriptome of MR-1 cells actively engaged in chromate reduction. These studies implicated the involvement of a functionally undefined DNA-binding response regulator (SO2426) and a putative azoreductase (SO3585) in the chromate stress response of MR-1.

  14. Analysis of retinal function using chromatic pupillography in retinitis pigmentosa and the relationship to electrically evoked phosphene thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbsch, Carina; Maeda, Fumiatsu; Lisowska, Jolanta; Lisowski, Lukasz; Strasser, Torsten; Stingl, Krunoslav; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilhelm, Helmut; Peters, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    To analyse pupil responses to specific chromatic stimuli in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP) to ascertain whether chromatic pupillography can be used as an objective marker for residual retinal function. To examine correlations between parameters of the pupil response and the perception threshold of electrically evoked phosphenes. Chromatic pupillography was performed in 40 patients with advanced RP (visual acuity Chromatic pupillography demonstrated a significant decrease in outer retinal photoreceptor responses but a persisting and disinhibited intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in advanced RP. These phenomena may be useful as an objective marker for the efficacy of any interventional treatment for hereditary retinal diseases as well as for the selection of suitable patients for an electronic retinal implant. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quantum-chemical study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO42- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica by the CNDO/2 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyuto, I.V.; Shpak, A.P.; Plyuto, Yu.V.; Chuiko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of the geometric and electronic structure of the chromate anion CrO 4 2- and a chromate group on the surface of finely divided silica (≡Si-O) 2 - CrO 2 , which was simulated by a CrO 9 Si 6 H 12 cluster, has been carried out by the SCF-MO-LCAO method in the all-valence-electron CNDO/2 approximation. The data obtained on the equilibrium geometry of the chromate group attest to the formation of a double bond between the Cr atom and each O atom (which is not bonded to Si). It has been shown that the support has a significant stabilizing in fluence on the energy of the MO's of the chromate group. The chromate group on an SiO 2 surface is characterized by partial delocalization of the frontier MO's among the skeletal bonds; however, the dominant contribution to the HOMO is made by the 2p AO of the oxygen atoms in the coordination shell of the Cr atom (∼70%), and the dominant contribution to the LUMO is made by the 3d AO of the chromium atom (∼50%). The positions and composition of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals point out the possibility of the display of electron-acceptor properties by a chromate group of an SiO 2 surface

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of the chromatic dispersion dependence upon the actual profile of small core microstructured fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Labonté , Laurent; Roy , Philippe; Pagnoux , Dominique; Louradour , Frédéric; Restoin , Christine; Mélin , Gilles; Burov , Ekatarina

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The chromatic dispersion curve of the fundamental mode in small core microstructured fibres (SCMF) is both calculated using a Finite Element Method (FEM) and measured with a low coherence interferometric method. The great sensitivity of the chromatic dispersion to variations of the geometrical parameters of SCMFs (the pitch and the diameter) is pointed out. An excellent agreement is obtained between the numerical and the experimental results over a half micrometer spec...

  17. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  18. Chromatic stability of acrylic resins of artificial eyes submitted to accelerated aging and polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Souza, Josiene Firmino; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2010-12-01

    Esthetics and durability of materials used to fabricate artificial eyes has been an important issue since artificial eyes are essential to restore esthetics and function, protect the remaining tissues and help with patients' psychological therapy. However, these materials are submitted to degrading effects of environmental agents on the physical properties of the acrylic resin. This study assessed the color stability of acrylic resins used to fabricate sclera in three basic shades (N1, N2 and N3) when subjected to accelerated aging, mechanical and chemical polishing. Specimens of each resin were fabricated and submitted to mechanical and chemical polishing. Chromatic analysis was performed before and after accelerated aging through ultraviolet reflection spectrophotometry. All specimens revealed color alteration following polishing and accelerated aging. The resins presented statistically significant chromatic alteration (p<0.01) between the periods of 252 and 1008 h. Both polishing methods presented no significant difference between the values of color derivatives of resins.

  19. Correcting for color crosstalk and chromatic aberration in multicolor particle shadow velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, M J; Fontaine, A A; Krane, M H; Goss, L; Crafton, J

    2015-01-01

    Color crosstalk and chromatic aberration can bias estimates of fluid velocity measured by color particle shadow velocimetry (CPSV), using multicolor illumination and a color camera. This article describes corrections to remove these bias errors, and their evaluation. Color crosstalk removal is demonstrated with linear unmixing. It is also shown that chromatic aberrations may be removed using either scale calibration, or by processing an image illuminated by all colors simultaneously. CPSV measurements of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow of glycerin were conducted. Corrected velocity statistics from these measurements were compared to both single-color PSV and LDV measurements and showed excellent agreement to fourth-order, to well into the viscous sublayer. Recommendations for practical assessment and correction of color aberration and color crosstalk are discussed. (paper)

  20. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, E.M.D.B.; Lima, M.G.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Teixeira, C.E.C.; De Lima, L.J.B.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Ventura, D.F.; Ventura, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10-30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction

  1. Differences in Brain Hemodynamics in Response to Achromatic and Chromatic Cards of the Rorschach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In order to investigate the effects of color stimuli of the Rorschach inkblot method (RIM), the cerebral activity of 40 participants with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness was scanned while they engaged in the Rorschach task. A scanned image of the ten RIM inkblots was projected onto a screen in the MRI scanner. Cerebral activation in response to five achromatic color cards and five chromatic cards were compared. As a result, a significant increase in brain activity was observed in bilateral visual areas V2 and V3, parietooccipital junctions, pulvinars, right superior temporal gyrus, and left premotor cortex for achromatic color cards (p chromatic color, significant increase in brain activity was observed in left visual area V4 and left orbitofrontal cortex (p < .001). Furthermore, a conjoint analysis revealed various regions were activated in responding to the RIM. The neuropsychological underpinnings of the response process, as described by Acklin and Wu-Holt (1996), were largely confirmed. PMID:28239255

  2. Theoretical estimates of spherical and chromatic aberration in photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J.P.S., E-mail: fit@pdx.edu; Word, R.C.; Könenkamp, R.

    2016-01-15

    We present theoretical estimates of the mean coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration for low energy photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Using simple analytic models, we find that the aberration coefficients depend primarily on the difference between the photon energy and the photoemission threshold, as expected. However, the shape of the photoelectron spectral distribution impacts the coefficients by up to 30%. These estimates should allow more precise correction of aberration in PEEM in experimental situations where the aberration coefficients and precise electron energy distribution cannot be readily measured. - Highlights: • Spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients of the accelerating field in PEEM. • Compact, analytic expressions for coefficients depending on two emission parameters. • Effect of an aperture stop on the distribution is also considered.

  3. Analytical approach to chromatic correction in the final focus system of circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A conventional final focus system in particle accelerators is systematically analyzed. We find simple relations between the parameters of two focus modules in the final telescope. Using the relations, we derive the chromatic Courant-Snyder parameters for the telescope. The parameters are scaled approximately according to (L^{*}/β_{y}^{*}δ, where L^{*} is the distance from the interaction point to the first quadrupole, β_{y}^{*} the vertical beta function at the interaction point, and δ the relative momentum deviation. Most importantly, we show how to compensate its chromaticity order by order in δ by a traditional correction module flanked by an asymmetric pair of harmonic multipoles. The method enables a circular Higgs collider with 2% momentum aperture and illuminates a path forward to 4% in the future.

  4. Pulse Propagation in Presence of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abid Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of (first and second orders polarization mode dispersion (PMD, chromatic dispersion, and initial chirp makes effects on the propagated pulses in single mode fiber. Nowadays, there is not an accurate mathematical formula that describes the pulse shape in the presence of these effects. In this work, a theoretical study is introduced to derive a generalized formula. This formula is exactly approached to mathematical relations used in their special cases. The presence of second-order PMD (SOPMD will not affect the orthogonality property between the principal states of polarization. The simulation results explain that the interaction of the SOPMD components with the conventional effects (chromatic dispersion and chirp will cause a broadening/narrowing and shape distortion. This changes depend on the specified values of SOPMD components as well as the present conventional parameters.

  5. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  6. Bioreduction of chromate by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugavelh, S.; Mohanty, Kaustubha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized cells of Halomonas sp was reported. Ca alginate, acryl amide and agar were tested as the matrices for immobilization. Ca alginate was found to be the suitable matrix among the different matrices studied. Of the various dosages of inoculum studied 2 g/L was found to be the optimum. Glucose at 1 g L-1 was completely utilized by the immobilized Halomonas sp even in the presence of Cr(VI) at 40 mg L-1. The optimum pH for the bioreduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized Halomonas sp was found to be pH 6. The mechanical strength of the beads plays an essential role in the bioreduction process. Halomonas sp entrapped in a alginate matrix reported a maximum of 98.9 % of reduction for an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L-1. The alginate beads can be reused for 3 times with slight drop in the percentage reduction. The presence of other metals decreased the bioreduction percentage.

  7. A Normative Data Set for the Clinical Assessment of Achromatic and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity Using a qCSF Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jin; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F; Mullen, Kathy T

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of achromatic sensitivity has been an important tool for monitoring subtle changes in vision as the result of disease or response to therapy. In this study, we aimed to provide a normative data set for achromatic and chromatic contrast sensitivity functions within a common cone contrast space using an abbreviated measurement approach suitable for clinical practice. In addition, we aimed to provide comparisons of achromatic and chromatic binocular summation across spatial frequency. We estimated monocular cone contrast sensitivity functions (CCSFs) using a quick Contrast Sensitivity Function (qCSF) approach for achromatic as well as isoluminant, L/M cone opponent, and S cone opponent stimuli in a healthy population of 51 subjects. We determined the binocular CCSFs for achromatic and chromatic vision to evaluate the degree of binocular summation across spatial frequency for these three different mechanisms in a subset of 20 subjects. Each data set shows consistent contrast sensitivity across the population. They highlight the extremely high cone contrast sensitivity of L/M cone opponency compared with the S-cone and achromatic responses. We also find that the two chromatic sensitivities are correlated across the healthy population. In addition, binocular summation for all mechanisms depends strongly on stimulus spatial frequency. This study, using an approach well suited to the clinic, is the first to provide a comparative normative data set for the chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity functions, yielding quantitative comparisons of achromatic, L/M cone opponent, and S cone opponent chromatic sensitivities as a function of spatial frequency.

  8. A double-blind, randomized study comparing pure chromated glycerin with chromated glycerin with 1% lidocaine and epinephrine for sclerotherapy of telangiectasias and reticular veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Philippe; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Wutschert, Robert; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2011-11-01

    Chromated glycerin (CG) is an effective, although painful, sclerosing agent for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins treatment. To determine pain level and relative efficacy of pure or one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% mixed chromated glycerin in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Patients presenting with telangiectasias and reticular leg veins on the lateral aspect of the thigh (C(1A) or (S) E(P) A(S) P(N1) ) were randomized to receive pure CG or CG mixed with one-third lidocaine-epinephrine 1% (CGX) treatment. Lower limb photographs were taken before and after treatment and analyzed by blinded expert reviewers for efficacy assessment (visual vein disappearance). Patients' pain and satisfaction were assessed using visual analogue scales. Data from 102 of 110 randomized patients could be evaluated. Patient pain scores were significantly higher when pure CG was used than with CGX (psclerotherapy pain without affecting efficacy when treating telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  9. A zero-free interval for chromatic polynomials of graphs with 3-leaf spanning trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is proved that if G is a graph containing a spanning tree with at most three leaves, then the chromatic polynomial of G has no roots in the interval (1,t1], where t1≈1.2904 is the smallest real root of the polynomial (t-2)6+4(t-1)2 (t-2)3-(t-1)4. We also construct a family of graphs containing...

  10. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morpholo...

  11. Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xue; Li Qin; Arita, Adriana; Sun Hong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposure to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) containing compounds has been associated with lung cancer and other adverse health effects. Their carcinogenic properties may be attributable in part, to activation and/or repression of gene expression induced by changes in the DNA methylation status and histone tail post-translational modifications. Here we show that individual treatment with nickel, chromate, and arsenite all affect the gene activating mark H3K4 methylation. We found that nickel (1 mM), chromate (10 μM), and arsenite (1 μM) significantly increase tri-methyl H3K4 after 24 h exposure in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Seven days of exposure to lower levels of nickel (50 and 100 μM), chromate (0.5 and 1 μM) or arsenite (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) also increased tri-methylated H3K4 in A549 cells. This mark still remained elevated and inherited through cell division 7 days following removal of 1 μM arsenite. We also demonstrate by dual staining immunofluorescence microscopy that both H3K4 tri-methyl and H3K9 di-methyl marks increase globally after 24 h exposure to each metal treatment in A549 cells. However, the tri-methyl H3K4 and di-methyl H3K9 marks localize in different regions in the nucleus of the cell. Thus, our study provides further evidence that a mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of nickel, chromate, and arsenite metal compounds may involve alterations of various histone tail modifications that may in turn affect the expression of genes that may cause transformation

  12. The chromatic number of a graph of girth 5 on a fixed surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    We prove a color extension result implying that, for every fixed surface S, there are only finitely many 4-color-critical graphs of girth 5 on S. The result is best possible in the sense that there are infinitely many 4-color-critical graphs of girth 4 on S, except when S is the sphere, As a cons......, As a consequence, the chromatic number of graphs of girth 5 on S can be found in polynomial time....

  13. Characterization of Chromatic Dispersion and Refractive Index of Polymer Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ayesta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The chromatic dispersion and the refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate polymer optical fibers (POFs have been characterized in this work by using a tunable femtosecond laser and a Streak Camera. The characterization technique is based on the measurement of the time delays of light pulses propagating along POFs at different wavelengths. Polymer fibers of three different lengths made by two manufacturers have been employed for that purpose, and discrepancies lower than 3% have been obtained in all cases.

  14. Measurement of chromatic dispersion of microstructure optical fibers using interferometric method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Pavel; Kaňka, Jiří; Honzátko, Pavel; Káčik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2008), s. 295-303 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET300670502; GA MŠk 1P05OC002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : chromatic dispersion * optica l fiber measurement * microstructure optica l fibers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.204, year: 2008

  15. [A Method for Selecting Self-Adoptive Chromaticity of the Projected Markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou-bo; Zhang, Fu-min; Qu, Xing-hua; Zheng, Shi-wei; Chen, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    The authors designed a self-adaptive projection system which is composed of color camera, projector and PC. In detail, digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator for the projector was introduced in the optical path to modulate the illuminant spectrum based on red, green and blue light emitting diodes (LED). However, the color visibility of active markers is affected by the screen which has unknown reflective spectrum as well. Here active markers are projected spot array. And chromaticity feature of markers is sometimes submerged in similar spectral screen. In order to enhance the color visibility of active markers relative to screen, a method for selecting self-adaptive chromaticity of the projected markers in 3D scanning metrology is described. Color camera with 3 channels limits the accuracy of device characterization. For achieving interconversion of device-independent color space and device-dependent color space, high-dimensional linear model of reflective spectrum was built. Prior training samples provide additional constraints to yield high-dimensional linear model with more than three degrees of freedom. Meanwhile, spectral power distribution of ambient light was estimated. Subsequently, markers' chromaticity in CIE color spaces was selected via maximization principle of Euclidean distance. The setting values of RGB were easily estimated via inverse transform. Finally, we implemented a typical experiment to show the performance of the proposed approach. An 24 Munsell Color Checker was used as projective screen. Color difference in the chromaticity coordinates between the active marker and the color patch was utilized to evaluate the color visibility of active markers relative to the screen. The result comparison between self-adaptive projection system and traditional diode-laser light projector was listed and discussed to highlight advantage of our proposed method.

  16. Chromatic and surface alterations in enamel subjected to brushing with desensitizing whitening toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro; Isabelle Lins Macedo de Oliveira; Oscar Felipe Fonseca de Brito; Brunna Paredes Guedes; Marina Schuler Mello Lula de Amorim; Ana Marly Araujo Maia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the chromatic and surface changes on enamel after toothbrushing with whitening and desensitizing toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Sixty enamel blocks were prepared, pigmented, and stratified according to initial Knoop microhardness and divided into six groups. The average roughness (Ra) was determined from two readings. After 24 h in artificial saliva, 10,000 cycles of simulated brushing were applied. The Ra was measured after 5000 and 10,000 cycles, and tooth wear...

  17. Non-Chromate/No-VOC Coating System for DoD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    coaxial load applied during the removal stage does not distort the substrate material and cause a bulging or “ trampolining ” effect. On a thin... head -to- head performance across the gamut of metal finishing applications. Newer CFP chemistries have been developed in an attempt to improve overall...Previous NAVSEA testing showed good head -to- head performance for TCP post-treated ZnNi versus chromate post-treated ZnNi under neutral salt fog accelerated

  18. Airborne particle monitoring with urban closed-circuit television camera networks and a chromatic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolupula, Y R; Jones, G R; Deakin, A G; Spencer, J W; Aceves-Fernandez, M A

    2010-01-01

    An economic approach for the preliminary assessment of 2–10 µm sized (PM10) airborne particle levels in urban areas is described. It uses existing urban closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance camera networks in combination with particle accumulating units and chromatic quantification of polychromatic light scattered by the captured particles. Methods for accommodating extraneous light effects are discussed and test results obtained from real urban sites are presented to illustrate the potential of the approach

  19. Integration of polarization and chromatic cues in the insect sky compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Pfeiffer, Keram; Heinze, Stanley; Homberg, Uwe

    2014-06-01

    Animals relying on a celestial compass for spatial orientation may use the position of the sun, the chromatic or intensity gradient of the sky, the polarization pattern of the sky, or a combination of these cues as compass signals. Behavioral experiments in bees and ants, indeed, showed that direct sunlight and sky polarization play a role in sky compass orientation, but the relative importance of these cues are species-specific. Intracellular recordings from polarization-sensitive interneurons in the desert locust and monarch butterfly suggest that inputs from different eye regions, including polarized-light input through the dorsal rim area of the eye and chromatic/intensity gradient input from the main eye, are combined at the level of the medulla to create a robust compass signal. Conflicting input from the polarization and chromatic/intensity channel, resulting from eccentric receptive fields, is eliminated at the level of the anterior optic tubercle and central complex through internal compensation for changing solar elevations, which requires input from a circadian clock. Across several species, the central complex likely serves as an internal sky compass, combining E-vector information with other celestial cues. Descending neurons, likewise, respond both to zenithal polarization and to unpolarized cues in an azimuth-dependent way.

  20. Determination of nanomolar chromate in drinking water with solid phase extraction and a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Bo; Byrne, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Determination of chromate at low concentration levels in drinking water is an important analytical objective for both human health and environmental science. Here we report the use of solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with a custom-made portable light-emitting diode (LED) spectrophotometer to achieve detection of chromate in the field at nanomolar levels. The measurement chemistry is based on a highly selective reaction between 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) and chromate under acidic conditions. The Cr-DPC complex formed in the reaction can be extracted on a commercial C18 SPE cartridge. Concentrated Cr-DPC is subsequently eluted with methanol and detected by spectrophotometry. Optimization of analytical conditions involved investigation of reagent compositions and concentrations, eluent type, flow rate (sample loading), sample volume, and stability of the SPE cartridge. Under optimized conditions, detection limits are on the order of 3 nM. Only 50 mL of sample is required for an analysis, and total analysis time is around 10 min. The targeted analytical range of 0-500 nM can be easily extended by changing the sample volume. Compared to previous SPE-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical procedure offers the benefits of improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, shorter analysis time, greater operational convenience, and lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  2. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  3. Estimation of chromatic errors from broadband images for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan

    2015-09-01

    Usage of an internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront correction for direct imaging of exoplanets is currently being considered for many mission concepts, including as an instrument addition to the WFIRST-AFTA mission to follow the James Web Space Telescope. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets with an internal coronagraph is to effectively control both the diffraction and scattered light from the star so that the dim planetary companion can be seen. For the deformable mirror (DM) to recover a dark hole region with sufficiently high contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors are usually estimated using probes on the DM. To date, most broadband lab demonstrations use narrowband filters to estimate the chromaticity of the wavefront error, but this reduces the photon flux per filter and requires a filter system. Here, we propose a method to estimate the chromaticity of wavefront errors using only a broadband image. This is achieved by using special DM probes that have sufficient chromatic diversity. As a case example, we simulate the retrieval of the spectrum of the central wavelength from broadband images for a simple shaped- pupil coronagraph with a conjugate DM and compute the resulting estimation error.

  4. Measurement of luminance noise and chromaticity noise of LCDs with a colorimeter and a color camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, H.; Dallas, W. J.; Krupinski, E. A.; Redford, Gary R.

    2007-09-01

    This communication focuses on physical evaluation of image quality of displays for applications in medical imaging. In particular we were interested in luminance noise as well as chromaticity noise of LCDs. Luminance noise has been encountered in the study of monochrome LCDs for some time, but chromaticity noise is a new type of noise which has been encountered first when monochrome and color LCDs were compared in an ROC study. In this present study one color and one monochrome 3 M-pixel LCDs were studied. Both were DICOM calibrated with equal dynamic range. We used a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CS-200 as well as a Foveon color camera to estimate luminance and chrominance variations of the displays. We also used a simulation experiment to estimate luminance noise. The measurements with the colorimeter were consistent. The measurements with the Foveon color camera were very preliminary as color cameras had never been used for image quality measurements. However they were extremely promising. The measurements with the colorimeter and the simulation results showed that the luminance and chromaticity noise of the color LCD were larger than that of the monochrome LCD. Under the condition that an adequate calibration method and image QA/QC program for color displays are available, we expect color LCDs may be ready for radiology in very near future.

  5. Chromatic annuli formation and sample oxidation on copper thin films by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shutong [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Information Technical Science of Ministry of Education, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Amoruso, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pang, Dongqing; Wang, Chingyue; Hu, Minglie, E-mail: huminglie@tju.edu.cn [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Information Technical Science of Ministry of Education, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-04-28

    We report an experimental investigation on the irradiation of copper thin films with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (1040 nm, 50 MHz), in ambient air and liquid water. We observe a novel, striking phenomenon of chromatic copper oxides (CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) annuli generation. The characteristic features of the chromatic copper oxide annuli are studied by exploiting micro-Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopies. In the case of irradiation in water, the seldom investigated effects of the immersion time, t{sub w}, after irradiation with a fixed number of pulses are analyzed, and an intriguing dependence of the color of the chromatic annuli on t{sub w} is observed. This remarkable behavior is explained by proposing an interpretation scenario addressing the various processes involved in the process. Our experimental findings show that Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles (size of ≈20 nm) and Cu{sub 2}O nanocubes (nanocube edges of ≈30, ≈60 nm) can be effectively generated by exploiting high repetition rate laser-assisted oxidation.

  6. Mechanisms and fitness implications of photomorphogenesis during chromatic acclimation in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthetic organisms absorb photons and convert light energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic efficiency is tuned in response to the availability of light, carbon dioxide and nutrients to promote maximal levels of carbon fixation, while simultaneously limiting the potential for light-associated damage or phototoxicity. Given the central dependence on light for energy production, photosynthetic organisms possess abilities to tune their growth, development and metabolism to external light cues in the process of photomorphogenesis. Photosynthetic organisms perceive light intensity and distinct wavelengths or colors of light to promote organismal acclimation. Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that exhibit abilities to alter specific aspects of growth, including photosynthetic pigment composition and morphology, in responses to changes in available wavelengths and intensity of light. This form of photomorphogenesis is known as chromatic acclimation and has been widely studied. Recent insights into the photosensory photoreceptors found in cyanobacteria and developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms initiated by light sensing to affect the changes characteristic of chromatic acclimation are discussed. I consider cyanobacterial responses to light, the broad diversity of photoreceptors encoded by these organisms, specific mechanisms of photomorphogenesis, and associated fitness implications in chromatically acclimating cyanobacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Luminance and chromatic signals interact differently with melanopsin activation to control the pupil light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells receive afferent inputs from rods and cones, which provide inputs to the postreceptoral visual pathways. It is unknown, however, how melanopsin activation is integrated with postreceptoral signals to control the pupillary light reflex. This study reports human flicker pupillary responses measured using stimuli generated with a five-primary photostimulator that selectively modulated melanopsin, rod, S-, M-, and L-cone excitations in isolation, or in combination to produce postreceptoral signals. We first analyzed the light adaptation behavior of melanopsin activation and rod and cones signals. Second, we determined how melanopsin is integrated with postreceptoral signals by testing with cone luminance, chromatic blue-yellow, and chromatic red-green stimuli that were processed by magnocellular (MC), koniocellular (KC), and parvocellular (PC) pathways, respectively. A combined rod and melanopsin response was also measured. The relative phase of the postreceptoral signals was varied with respect to the melanopsin phase. The results showed that light adaptation behavior for all conditions was weaker than typical Weber adaptation. Melanopsin activation combined linearly with luminance, S-cone, and rod inputs, suggesting the locus of integration with MC and KC signals was retinal. The melanopsin contribution to phasic pupil responses was lower than luminance contributions, but much higher than S-cone contributions. Chromatic red-green modulation interacted with melanopsin activation nonlinearly as described by a "winner-takes-all" process, suggesting the integration with PC signals might be mediated by a postretinal site.

  8. Chromatic Titanium Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under Rear Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2018-01-24

    Titanium (Ti) has high potential in many practical applications such as biomedicine, architecture, aviation, and energy. In this study, we demonstrate an innovative application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti photoanodes that can be integrated into the roof engineering of large-scale architectures. A chromatic Ti foil produced by anodizing oxidation (coloring) technology is an attractive roof material for large-scale architecture, showing a colorful appearance due to the formation of a reflective TiO 2 thin layer on both surfaces of Ti. The DSSC is fabricated on the backside of the chromatic Ti foil using the Ti foil as the working electrode, and this roof-DSSC hybrid configuration can be designed as an energy harvesting device for indoor artificial lighting. Our results show that the facet-textured TiO 2 layer on the chromatic Ti foil not only improves the optical reflectance for better light utilization but also effectively suppresses the charge recombination for better electron collection. The power conversion efficiency of the roof-DSSC hybrid system is improved by 30-40% with a main contribution from an improvement of short-circuit current density under standard 1 sun and dim-light (600-1000 lx) illumination.

  9. Chromatic and achromatic monocular deprivation produce separable changes of eye dominance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Kim, Yeon Jin; Mullen, Kathy T; Hess, Robert F

    2017-11-29

    Temporarily depriving one eye of its input, in whole or in part, results in a transient shift in eye dominance in human adults, with the patched eye becoming stronger and the unpatched eye weaker. However, little is known about the role of colour contrast in these behavioural changes. Here, we first show that the changes in eye dominance and contrast sensitivity induced by monocular eye patching affect colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity equally. We next use dichoptic movies, customized and filtered to stimulate the two eyes differentially. We show that a strong imbalance in achromatic contrast between the eyes, with no colour content, also produces similar, unselective shifts in eye dominance for both colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity. Interestingly, if this achromatic imbalance is paired with similar colour contrast in both eyes, the shift in eye dominance is selective, affecting achromatic but not chromatic contrast sensitivity and revealing a dissociation in eye dominance for colour and achromatic image content. On the other hand, a strong imbalance in chromatic contrast between the eyes, with no achromatic content, produces small, unselective changes in eye dominance, but if paired with similar achromatic contrast in both eyes, no changes occur. We conclude that perceptual changes in eye dominance are strongly driven by interocular imbalances in achromatic contrast, with colour contrast having a significant counter balancing effect. In the short term, eyes can have different dominances for achromatic and chromatic contrast, suggesting separate pathways at the site of these neuroplastic changes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-25

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO 4 ). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO 4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  11. A lateral chromatic aberration correction system for ultrahigh-definition color video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed color camera for an 8k x 4k-pixel ultrahigh-definition video system, which is called Super Hi- Vision, with a 5x zoom lens and a signal-processing system incorporating a function for real-time lateral chromatic aberration correction. The chromatic aberration of the lens degrades color image resolution. So in order to develop a compact zoom lens consistent with ultrahigh-resolution characteristics, we incorporated a real-time correction function in the signal-processing system. The signal-processing system has eight memory tables to store the correction data at eight focal length points on the blue and red channels. When the focal length data is inputted from the lens control units, the relevant correction data are interpolated from two of eights correction data tables. This system performs geometrical conversion on both channels using this correction data. This paper describes that the correction function can successfully reduce the lateral chromatic aberration, to an amount small enough to ensure the desired image resolution was achieved over the entire range of the lens in real time.

  12. Study of chromatic adaptation using memory color matches, Part I: neutral illuminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Zhai, Qiyan; Luo, Ming R; Hanselaer, Peter

    2017-04-03

    Twelve corresponding color data sets have been obtained using the long-term memory colors of familiar objects as target stimuli. Data were collected for familiar objects with neutral, red, yellow, green and blue hues under 4 approximately neutral illumination conditions on or near the blackbody locus. The advantages of the memory color matching method are discussed in light of other more traditional asymmetric matching techniques. Results were compared to eight corresponding color data sets available in literature. The corresponding color data was used to test several linear (von Kries, RLAB, etc.) and nonlinear (Hunt & Nayatani) chromatic adaptation transforms (CAT). It was found that a simple two-step von Kries, whereby the degree of adaptation D is optimized to minimize the DEu'v' prediction errors, outperformed all other tested models for both memory color and literature corresponding color sets, whereby prediction errors were lower for the memory color sets. The predictive errors were substantially smaller than the standard uncertainty on the average observer and were comparable to what are considered just-noticeable-differences in the CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram, supporting the use of memory color based internal references to study chromatic adaptation mechanisms.

  13. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  14. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen; Yan, Xueqing; Al-Omari, Husam

    2012-07-01

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  15. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ingo, E-mail: i.hofmann@gsi.de [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Meyer-ter-Vehn, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan, Xueqing [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Al-Omari, Husam [Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-21

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  16. A chromate-contaminated site in southern Switzerland – Part 2: Reactive transport modeling to optimize remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Christoph; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs

    2012-01-01

    A 2D horizontal reactive transport model of a chromate-contaminated site near Rivera, Switzerland, was developed using the computer code CrunchFlow to evaluate site remediation strategies. Transport processes were defined according to the results of an existing hydrological model, and the definition of geochemical (reactive) processes is based on the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical site characterization leading to a comprehensive conceptual site model. Kinetics of naturally occurring Cr(VI) reduction by Fe(II) and natural solid organic matter is quantified by fitting measured Cr isotope ratios to a modeled 1D section along the best constrained flow line. The simulation of Cr isotope fractionation was also incorporated into the 2D model. Simulation of the measured present day Cr(VI) plume and δ 53 Cr value distribution was used for the 2D model calibration and corresponds to a situation where only monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is occurring. Other 2D model runs simulate alternate excavation scenarios. The simulations show that with an excavation of the top 2–4 m the groundwater Cr(VI) plume can be minimized, and that a deeper excavation depth only diminishes the plume if all the contaminants can be removed. A combination of an excavation of the top 2–4 m and monitoring of the ongoing natural Cr(VI) reduction is suggested as the most ecological and economical remediation strategy, even though a remaining time period with ongoing subsoil Cr(VI) contamination in the order of 1 ka is predicted.

  17. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  18. Microbiology and biogeochemistry of sediments and rhizosphere of mangroves: bacterial production, sulphate-reduction and methylation of mercury with methodological focus on incubation-extraction of {sup 14}C-leucine; Microbiologia e biogeoquimica de sedimentos e rizosfera de manguezais: producao bacteriana, sulfato-reducao e metilacao do mercurio com enfoque metodologico na incubacao-extracao de {sup 14}C-leucina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Issabella Vitoria Abduche

    2015-07-01

    Mangroves are one of the most important ecosystems when it comes to cycling of various elements, including carbon and mercury. Microbiological processes that occur in sediment are essential for carbon mineralization, its conversion into biomass and for availability of mercury to the food chain. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are one of the main groups responsible for degradation of organic compounds in marine sediments and mercury methylation, especially in the rhizosphere of macrophyte. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial production (BP) over different sedimentary profiles as well as mercury methylation (% MeHg), sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and bacterial production in the rhizosphere of a ubiquitous mangrove tree. Radiochemical approaches were used to access bacterial production ({sup 14}C-leucine), sulfate reduction ({sup 35}SO{sub 4}) and mercury methylation ({sup 203}Hg). Study area was located at Coroa Grande (Sepetiba bay) and Jequia mangrove (Guanabara bay). Methodological studies using {sup 14}C-leucine as a tool to assess bacterial production in mangrove sediment were not found. In this context, we tested two leucine uptake methodologies for measuring bacterial production in mangrove sediments according to Baath et al. (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., v.33,p. 1571-1574 and Fischer and Pusch (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol., v.6, p.4411-4418. Our results suggest that an adaptation of both techniques were suitable to measure BP in mangrove sediment. We also provided underlying parameters of the method such as saturation level and linearity of leucine incorporation that can be used as guidance for future studies in mangrove. Once the methodology was established, we accessed BP along a shallow sedimentary profile in three physiographic mangroves types: basin, fringe and riverine. BP was highly heterogeneous in different physiographic types of mangroves and along the sediment profiles.The mangrove located at Guanabara bay presented BP which was 50 times

  19. Reduction of Bacterial Pathogenic Risk during Ex-situ Stabilization of Previously Buried Foot-and-Mouth Disease Carcasses in a Pilot-scale Bio-augmented Aerobic Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.; Park, J. K.; Park, S.; Jeon, H.; Kwon, H.

    2017-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease outbreaks globally occur. Although livestock suspected to be infected or actually infected by animal infectious diseases is typically treated with various methods including burial, burning, incineration, rendering, and composting, burial into soil is currently the major treatment method in Korea. However, buried carcasses are often found to remain undecomposed or incompletely decomposed even after the legal burial period (3 years). To reuse the land used for the burial purposes, Korea government is considering a novel approach to conduct in-situ burial treatment and then to move remaining carcasses from the burial sites to other sites designated for further ex-situ stabilization treatment (burial-composting sequential treatment). In this work, the feasibility of the novel approach was evaluated at a pilot scale facility. For the ex-situ stabilization, we tested the validity of use of a bio-augmented aerobic composting with carcass-degrading microorganisms, with emphasis on examining if the novel aerobic composting has reducing effects on potential pathogenic bacteria. As results, the decreased chemical oxygen demand (COD, 160,000 mg/kg to 40,000 mg/kg) and inorganic nitrogen species (total nitrogen, 5,000 mg/kg to 2,000 mg/kg) indicated effective bio-stabilization of carcasses. During the stabilization, bacterial community structure and dynamics determined by bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing were significantly changed. The prediction of potential pathogenic bacteria showed that bacterial pathogenic risk was significantly reduced up to a normal soil level during the ex-situ stabilization. The conclusion was confirmed by the following functional analysis of dominant bacteria using PICRUST. The findings support the microbiological safety of the ex-site use of the novel burial-composting sequential treatment. Acknowledgement : This study is supported by Korea Ministry of Environmental as "The GAIA Project"

  20. Objective assessment of chromatic and achromatic pattern adaptation reveals the temporal response properties of different visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony G; Kulikowski, Janus J

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the temporal response properties of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular visual pathways using increment/decrement changes in contrast to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Static achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings were generated on a monitor. Chromatic gratings were modulated along red/green (R/G) or subject-specific tritanopic confusion axes, established using a minimum distinct border criterion. Isoluminance was determined using minimum flicker photometry. Achromatic and chromatic VEPs were recorded to contrast increments and decrements of 0.1 or 0.2 superimposed on the static gratings (masking contrast 0-0.6). Achromatic increment/decrement changes in contrast evoked a percept of apparent motion when the spatial frequency was low; VEPs to such stimuli were positive in polarity and largely unaffected by high levels of static contrast, consistent with transient response mechanisms. VEPs to finer achromatic gratings showed marked attenuation as static contrast was increased. Chromatic VEPs to R/G or tritan chromatic contrast increments were of negative polarity and showed progressive attenuation as static contrast was increased, in keeping with increasing desensitization of the sustained responses of the color-opponent visual pathways. Chromatic contrast decrement VEPs were of positive polarity and less sensitive to pattern adaptation. The relative contribution of sustained/transient mechanisms to achromatic processing is spatial frequency dependent. Chromatic contrast increment VEPs reflect the sustained temporal response properties of parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Cortical VEPs can provide an objective measure of pattern adaptation and can be used to probe the temporal response characteristics of different visual pathways.

  1. Characterization of Predominant Reductants in an Anaerobic Leachate-Contaminated Aquifer by Nitroaromatic Probe Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, Kirsten; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Haderlein, Stefan B.

    1998-01-01

    The biogeochemical processes controlling the reductive transformation of contaminants in an anaerobic aquifer were inferred from the relative reactivity patterns of redox-sensitive probe compounds. The fate of five nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) was monitored under different redox conditions in a...... results suggest that Fe(ll) associated with ferric iron minerals is a highly reactive reductant in anaerobic aquifers, which may also determine the fate of other classes of reducible contaminants such as halogenated solvents, azo compounds, sulfoxides, chromate, or arsenate....

  2. Detailed spatiotemporal brain mapping of chromatic vision combining high-resolution VEP with fMRI and retinotopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Strappini, Francesca; Bultrini, Alessandro; Di Russo, Francesco

    2018-03-13

    Neuroimaging studies have identified so far, several color-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, and the temporal dynamics of these activities have been separately investigated using the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods to determine a detailed spatiotemporal profile of chromatic VEP and to localize its neural generators. The accuracy of the present co-registration study was obtained by combining standard fMRI data with retinotopic and motion mapping data at the individual level. We found a sequence of occipito activities more complex than that typically reported for chromatic VEPs, including feed-forward and reentrant feedback. Results showed that chromatic human perception arises by the combined activity of at the least five parieto-occipital areas including V1, LOC, V8/VO, and the motion-sensitive dorsal region MT+. However, the contribution of V1 and V8/VO seems dominant because the re-entrant activity in these areas was present more than once (twice in V8/VO and thrice in V1). This feedforward and feedback chromatic processing appears delayed compared with the luminance processing. Associating VEPs and neuroimaging measures, we showed for the first time a complex spatiotemporal pattern of activity, confirming that chromatic stimuli produce intricate interactions of many different brain dorsal and ventral areas. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Derivation of Human Chromatic Discrimination Ability from an Information-Theoretical Notion of Distance in Color Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, María; Samengo, Inés

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy with which humans detect chromatic differences varies throughout color space. For example, we are far more precise when discriminating two similar orange stimuli than two similar green stimuli. In order for two colors to be perceived as different, the neurons representing chromatic information must respond differently, and the difference must be larger than the trial-to-trial variability of the response to each separate color. Photoreceptors constitute the first stage in the processing of color information; many more stages are required before humans can consciously report whether two stimuli are perceived as chromatically distinguishable. Therefore, although photoreceptor absorption curves are expected to influence the accuracy of conscious discriminability, there is no reason to believe that they should suffice to explain it. Here we develop information-theoretical tools based on the Fisher metric that demonstrate that photoreceptor absorption properties explain about 87% of the variance of human color discrimination ability, as tested by previous behavioral experiments. In the context of this theory, the bottleneck in chromatic information processing is determined by photoreceptor absorption characteristics. Subsequent encoding stages modify only marginally the chromatic discriminability at the photoreceptor level.

  4. Chromatic correction for a VIS-SWIR zoom lens using optical glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Williams, Daniel J. L.; McCarthy, Peter; Visconti, Anthony J.; Bentley, Julie L.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2015-09-01

    With the advancement in sensors, hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared (SWIR 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm) now has wide applications, including night vision, haze-penetrating imaging, etc. Most conventional optical glasses can be material candidates for designing in the SWIR as they transmit up to 2.2 μm. However, since SWIR is in the middle of the glasses' major absorption wavebands in UV and IR, the flint glasses in SWIR are less dispersive than in the visible spectrum. As a result, the glass map in the SWIR is highly compressed, with crowns and flints all clustering together. Thus correcting for chromatic aberration is more challenging in the SWIR, since the Abbé number ratio of the same glass combination is reduced. Conventionally, fluorides, such as CaF2 and BaF2, are widely used in designing SWIR system due to their unique dispersion properties, even though they are notorious for poor manufacturability or even high toxicity. For lens elements in a zoom system, the ray bundle samples different sections of the each lens aperture as the lens zooms. This creates extra uncertainty in correcting chromatic aberrations. This paper focuses on using only commercially available optical glasses to color-correct a 3X dual-band zoom lens system in the VIS-SWIR. The design tools and techniques are detailed in terms of material selections to minimize the chromatic aberrations in such a large spectrum band and all zoom positions. Examples are discussed for designs with different aperture stop locations, which considerably affect the material choices.

  5. Chromaticity decay due to superconducting dipoles on the injection plateau of the Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aquilina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in a superconducting accelerator a significant chromaticity drift can be induced by the decay of the sextupolar component of the main dipoles. In this paper we give a brief overview of what was expected for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC on the grounds of magnetic measurements of individual dipoles carried out during the production. According to this analysis, the decay time constants were of the order of 200 s: since the injection in the LHC starts at least 30 minutes after the magnets are at constant current, the dynamic correction of this effect was not considered to be necessary. The first beam measurements of chromaticity showed significant decay even after a few hours. For this reason, a dynamic correction of decay on the injection plateau was implemented based on beam measurements. This means that during the injection plateau the sextupole correctors are powered with a varying current to cancel out the decay of the dipoles. This strategy has been implemented successfully. A similar phenomenon has been observed for the dependence of the decay amplitude on the powering history of the dipoles: according to magnetic measurements, also in this case time constants are of the order of 200 s and therefore no difference is expected between a one hour or a ten hours flattop. On the other hand, the beam measurements show a significant change of decay for these two conditions. For the moment there is no clue of the origin of these discrepancies. We give a complete overview of the two effects, and the modifications that have been done to the field model parameters to be able to obtain a final chromaticity correction within a few units.

  6. Chromatic Multifocal Pupillometer for Objective Perimetry and Diagnosis of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibel, Ron; Sher, Ifat; Ben Ner, Daniel; Mhajna, Mohamad O; Achiron, Asaf; Hajyahia, Soad; Skaat, Alon; Berchenko, Yakir; Oberman, Bernice; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Freedman, Laurence; Rotenstreich, Ygal

    2016-09-01

    To assess visual field (VF) defects and retinal function objectively in healthy participants and patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using a chromatic multifocal pupillometer. Cross-sectional study. The right eyes of 16 healthy participants and 13 RP patients. Pupil responses to red and blue light (peak, 485 and 625 nm, respectively) presented by 76 light-emitting diodes, 1.8-mm spot size at different locations of a 16.2° VF were recorded. Subjective VFs of RP patients were determined using chromatic dark-adapted Goldmann VFs (CDA-GVFs). Six healthy participants underwent 2 pupillometer examinations to determine test-retest reliability. Three parameters of pupil contraction were determined automatically: percentage of change of pupil size (PPC), maximum contraction velocity (MCV; in pixels per second), and latency of MCV (LMCV; in seconds). The fraction of functional VF was determined by CDA-GVF. In healthy participants, higher PPC and MCV were measured in response to blue compared with red light. The LMCV in response to blue light was relatively constant throughout the VF. Healthy participants demonstrated higher PPC and MCV and shorter LMCV in central compared with peripheral test points in response to red light. Test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.7 for PPC and 0.5 for MCV. In RP patients, test point in which the PPC and MCV were lower than 4 standard errors from the mean of healthy participants correlated with areas that were indicated as nonseeing by CDA-GVF. The mean absolute deviation in LMCV parameter in response to the red light between different test point was significantly higher in RP patients (range, 0.16-0.47) than in healthy participants (range, 0.02-0.16; P chromatic multifocal pupillometer for objective diagnosis of RP and assessment of VF defects. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromatic spatial contrast sensitivity estimated by visual evoked cortical potential and psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, M.T.S.; Gomes, B.D.; Souza, G.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Ventura, D.F.; Silveira, L.C.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure contrast sensitivity to equiluminant gratings using steady-state visual evoked cortical potential (ssVECP) and psychophysics. Six healthy volunteers were evaluated with ssVECPs and psychophysics. The visual stimuli were red-green or blue-yellow horizontal sinusoidal gratings, 5° × 5°, 34.3 cd/m2 mean luminance, presented at 6 Hz. Eight spatial frequencies from 0.2 to 8 cpd were used, each presented at 8 contrast levels. Contrast threshold was obtained by extrapolating second harmonic amplitude values to zero. Psychophysical contrast thresholds were measured using stimuli at 6 Hz and static presentation. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. ssVECP and both psychophysical contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) were low-pass functions for red-green gratings. For electrophysiology, the highest contrast sensitivity values were found at 0.4 cpd (1.95 ± 0.15). ssVECP CSF was similar to dynamic psychophysical CSF, while static CSF had higher values ranging from 0.4 to 6 cpd (P chromatic functions showed no specific tuning shape; however, at high spatial frequencies the evoked potentials showed higher contrast sensitivity than the psychophysical methods (P chromatic red-green CSFs in agreement with psychophysical thresholds, mainly if the same temporal properties are applied to the stimulus. For blue-yellow CSF, correlation between electrophysiology and psychophysics was poor at high spatial frequency, possibly due to a greater effect of chromatic aberration on this kind of stimulus. PMID:23369980

  8. Chromaticity correction strategy which improves the linear lattice of the TRISTAN e+-e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yongho.

    1984-08-01

    Described is a strategy of chromaticity correction for large storage rings. Starting with an optimization of the linear lattice in phase advances, based on the W-correction, the sextupole strengths are calculated by the program HARMON. For the TRISTAN e + -e - collider with the mini-β insertion, the correction results show that motions of particles with an initial transverse amplitude of 10 σsub(x,y) and with a synchrotron oscillation amplitude of up to 8 σsub(epsilon) remain stable. (author)

  9. Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of a Chromate-Reducing Aquifer Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Han, R.; Karaoz, U.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge for microbial ecology that has become more tractable in the advent of new molecular techniques is characterizing gene expression in complex microbial communities. We are using meta-transcriptomic analysis to characterize functional changes in an aquifer-derived, chromate-reducing microbial community as it transitions through various electron-accepting conditions. We inoculated anaerobic microcosms with groundwater from the Cr-contaminated Hanford 100H site and supplemented them with lactate and electron acceptors present at the site, namely, nitrate, sulfate, and Fe(III). The microcosms progressed successively through various electron-accepting conditions (e.g., denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and ferric iron-reducing conditions, as well as nitrate-dependent, chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions). Cr(VI) was rapidly reduced initially and again upon further Cr(VI) amendments. Extensive geochemical sampling and analysis (e.g., lactate, acetate, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, dissolved Cr(VI), total Fe(II)), RNA/DNA harvesting, and PhyloChip analyses were conducted. Methods were developed for removal of rRNA from total RNA in preparation for meta-transcriptome sequencing. To date, samples representing denitrifying and fermentative/sulfate-reducing conditions have been sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Of the non-rRNA related reads for the denitrifying sample (which was also actively reducing chromate), ca. 8% were associated with denitrification and ca. 0.9% were associated with chromate resistance/transport, in contrast to the fermentative/sulfate-reducing sample (in which chromate had already been reduced), which had zero reads associated with either of these categories but many predicted proteins associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria. We observed sequences for key functional transcripts that were unique at the nucleotide level compared to the GenBank non-redundant database [such as L-lactate dehydrogenase (iron

  10. Simultaneous chromatic dispersion and PMD compensation by using coded-OFDM and girth-10 LDPC codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2008-07-07

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is studied as an efficient coded modulation scheme suitable for simultaneous chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation. We show that, for aggregate rate of 10 Gb/s, accumulated dispersion over 6500 km of SMF and differential group delay of 100 ps can be simultaneously compensated with penalty within 1.5 dB (with respect to the back-to-back configuration) when training sequence based channel estimation and girth-10 LDPC codes of rate 0.8 are employed.

  11. Measurements and Modelling of Nonlinear Chromaticity and Detuning with Amplitude at 26 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Zimmermann, Frank; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    During electron-cloud MDs in October 2000, nonlinear chromaticity and amplitude-dependent detuning were measured with a 48-bunch LHC batch at 26 GeV. By fitting these data to an SPS optics model, we determine the magnitude of sextupole and decapole components in the SPS dipole magnets and octupole components in the quadrupoles which would be consistent with the measurement. Using the procedure developed, in the future the nonlinear SPS optics model can quickly be updated from a standard set of measurements.

  12. Extending the depth of field with chromatic aberration for dual-wavelength iris imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Niamh M; Dainty, Christopher; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-12-11

    We propose a method of extending the depth of field to twice that achievable by conventional lenses for the purpose of a low cost iris recognition front-facing camera in mobile phones. By introducing intrinsic primary chromatic aberration in the lens, the depth of field is doubled by means of dual wavelength illumination. The lens parameters (radius of curvature, optical power) can be found analytically by using paraxial raytracing. The effective range of distances covered increases with dispersion of the glass chosen and with larger distance for the near object point.

  13. Oscillations of the Chromatic States and Accelerated Expansion of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quznetsov G.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known (Quznetsov G. Higgsless Glashow's and quark-gluon theories and gravity without superstrings. Progress in Physics, 2009, v.3, 32-40 that probabilities of pointlike events are defined by some generalization of Dirac's equation. One part of such generalized equation corresponds to the Dirac's leptonic equation, and the other part corresponds to the Dirac's quark equation. The quark part of this equation is invariant under the oscillations of chromatic states. And it turns out that these oscillations bend space-time so that at large distances the space expands with acceleration according to Hubble's law.

  14. The Melilla colour scheme chromatic restoration of heritage: more than just a question of taste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Casadevall Serra

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Today more and more cities are paying special attention to the colour of plaster when undertaking the rehabilitation of their historic centres. The architect Joan Casadevall, director of Gabinete de Color, a studio with a great deal of experience in studies on urban chromatism, explains the Colour Scheme for Melilla, a city that will celebrate in 1997 the 5th Centenary of Spanish presence there, demonstrating once again that the colour of historic architecture is closely linked to the styles and ways of working of each period and place, and that its investigation must be carried out not in a haphazard fashion but very methodically.

  15. Chromatic aberration of a system of two prisms separated by a straight section; Aberration chromatique d'un systeme de deux prismes separes par une section droite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendreau, G.; Salvat, M

    1955-01-06

    This technical note reports the study of chromatic scattering at the output of a system made of two any sectors. The authors studied the propagation of two rays displaying a slight difference of energy level but with the same input initial conditions. Then, they highlight and study the chromatic aberration of a magnetic sector with sloped faces.

  16. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  17. Experimental demonstration of adaptive digital monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion for coherent DP-QPSK receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for inservice monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission is successfu...... drives an adaptive digital CD equalizer. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for inservice monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission...

  18. Estimating and controlling chromatic aberration losses for two-junction, two-terminal devices in refractive concentrator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); O`Neill, M.J. [ENTECH, Inc., Keller, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Although previous studies have measured and calculated chromatic aberration losses and proposed methods for reducing these by modifying the optics, significant work remains to be done toward understanding how to quantity the losses and how various parameters affect this loss. This paper presents an analytical definition and calculation method for chromatic aberration losses. The effects of sheet resistance of the midlayers of the cell, total irradiance, incident spectrum, cell width, and diode quality factor are studied. A method for measuring the midlayer resistance in finished sells is described.

  19. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite with chromate, molybdate or sulphate in the interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Ray L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au; Musumeci, Anthony W. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Bostrom, Thor [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Adebajo, Moses O. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Weier, Matt L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Martens, Wayde [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2005-05-15

    The thermal decomposition of hydrotalcites with chromate, molybdate and sulphate in the interlayer has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a mass spectrometer measuring the gas evolution. X-ray diffraction shows the hydrotalcites have a d(0 0 3) spacing of 7.98 A with very small differences in the d-spacing between the three hydrotalcites. XRD was also used to determine the products of the thermal decomposition. For the sulphate-hydrotalcite decomposition the products were MgO and a spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, for the chromate interlayered hydrotalcite MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and spinel. For the molybdate interlayered hydrotalcite the products were MgO, spinel and MgMoO{sub 4}. EDX analyses enabled the formula of the hydrotalcites to be determined. Two processes are observed in the thermal decomposition namely dehydration and dehydroxylation and for the case of the sulphate interlayered hydrotalcite, a third process is the loss of sulphate. Both the dehydration and dehydroxylation take place in three steps each for each of the hydrotalcites.

  20. Effect of Annealing Time of YAG:Ce3+ Phosphor on White Light Chromaticity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Husnen R.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Almessiere, Munirah Abdullah; Omar, A. F.; Alsultany, Forat H.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Osman, Ummu Shuhada

    2018-02-01

    Yttrium and aluminium nitrate phosphors doped with cerium nitrate and mixed with urea (fuel) are prepared by using microwave-induced combustion synthesis according to the formula Y(3-0.06)Al5O12:0.06Ce3+ (YAG:Ce3+) to produce white light emitting diodes by conversion from blue indium gallium nitride-light emitting diode chips. The sintering time with fixed temperature (1050°C) for phosphor powder was optimized and found to be 5 h. The crystallinity, structure, chemical composition, luminescent properties with varying currents densities and chromaticity were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission, electroluminescence and standard CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram, respectively. The energy levels of Ce3+ in YAG were discussed based on its absorption and excitation spectra. The results show that the obtained YAG:Ce3+ phosphor sintered for 5 h has good crystallinity with pure phase, low agglomerate with spherical shaped particles and strong yellow emission, offering cool-white LED with tuneable correlated color temperature and a good color rendering index compared to those prepared by sintering for 2 h and as-prepared phosphor powders.