Sample records for bacteria rhodopseudomonas palustris

  1. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie


    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations.

  2. Uranium Interaction with Two Multi-Resistant Environmental Bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris (United States)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie


    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  3. Arsenic-Redox Transformation and Plant Growth Promotion by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris CS2 and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis SS5. (United States)

    Batool, Kanza; Tuz Zahra, Fatima; Rehman, Yasir


    Arsenic (As) is a well-known toxic metalloid found naturally and released by different industries, especially in developing countries. Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) are known for wastewater treatment and plant growth promoting abilities. As-resistant PNSB were isolated from a fish pond. Based on As-resistance and plant growth promoting attributes, 2 isolates CS2 and SS5 were selected and identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodopseudomonas faecalis , respectively, through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximum As(V) resistance shown by R. faecalis SS5 and R. palustris CS2 was up to 150 and 100 mM, respectively. R . palustris CS2 showed highest As(V) reduction up to 62.9% (6.29 ± 0.24 mM), while R. faecalis SS5 showed maximum As(III) oxidation up to 96% (4.8 ± 0.32 mM), respectively. Highest auxin production was observed by R. palustris CS2 and R. faecalis SS, up to 77.18 ± 3.7 and 76.67 ± 2.8  μ g mL -1 , respectively. Effects of these PNSB were tested on the growth of Vigna mungo plants. A statistically significant increase in growth was observed in plants inoculated with isolates compared to uninoculated plants, both in presence and in absence of As. R. palustris CS2 treated plants showed 17% (28.1 ± 0.87 cm) increase in shoot length and 21.7% (7.07 ± 0.42 cm) increase in root length, whereas R. faecalis SS5 treated plants showed 12.8% (27.09 ± 0.81 cm) increase in shoot length and 18.8% (6.9 ± 0.34 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. In presence of As, R. palustris CS2 increased shoot length up to 26.3% (21.0 ± 1.1 cm), while root length increased up to 31.3% (5.3 ± 0.4 cm), whereas R. faecalis SS5 inoculated plants showed 25% (20.7 ± 1.4 cm) increase in shoot length and 33.3% (5.4 ± 0.65 cm) increase in root length as compared to the control plants. Bacteria with such diverse abilities could be ideal for plant growth promotion in As-contaminated sites.

  4. The anaerobic phototrophic metabolism of 3-chlorobenzoate by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

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    Kamal, V S


    The degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds by anaerobic bacteria is now known to be an important mechanism of bioremediation. In an experimental study, a mixed phototrophic culture was found to metabolize 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of benzoate following adaptation on a benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate medium for 7 weeks. The dominant bacterial isolate was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Radioisotopic studies showed [sup 14]C-3-chlorobenzoate was converted by the isolate to [sup 14]CO[sub 2] and cell biomass in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a cosubstrate red light. Cyclohexane carboxylate was able to replace the cosubstrate, benzoate. The isolate also metabolized 3-chlorobenzoate in the presence of pimelic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium succinate; however, the metabolic rate was reduced. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography indicated the intracellular presence of 3-chlorobenzoate and benzoyl-CoA. Cell-free extracts produced benzoate and benzoyl-CoA. A probable route of 3-chlorobenzoate metabolism via dehalogenation followed by steps similar to the benzoate reductive ring fission pathway is suggested. Comparison of kinetic coefficients showed a higher affinity of the isolate for benzoate. Isolates from representative samples of various freshwater and wastewater ecosystems indicated widespread ecological distribution of R. palustris and the common occurrence of the 3-chlorobenzoate metabolic phenotype. R. palustris was found to grow in mixed anaerobic cultures and retained its 3-chlorobenzoate degradation property. 91 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Photometabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (United States)

    Sasikala, C.; Ramana, C. V.; Rao, P. Raghuveer


    Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (ATCC 51186; DSM 7375) isolated from a pond of chemical industry effluent could anaerobically photometabolize heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to the pyridine and pyrazine groups only after a period of adaptation on pyrazinoic acid of 5 to 6 weeks. Growth on heterocyclic compounds was light dependent. The effects of various concentrations of heterocyclic compounds on growth suggest that higher concentrations of these compounds inhibit growth and are toxic. PMID:16349307

  6. Acclimation strategy of Rhodopseudomonas palustris to high light irradiance. (United States)

    Muzziotti, Dayana; Adessi, Alessandra; Faraloni, Cecilia; Torzillo, Giuseppe; De Philippis, Roberto


    The ability of Rhodopseudomonas palustris cells to rapidly acclimate to high light irradiance is an essential issue when cells are grown under sunlight. The aim of this study was to investigate the photo-acclimation process in Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL under different culturing conditions: (i) anaerobic (AnG), (ii) aerobic (AG), and (iii) under H 2 -producing (HP) conditions both at low (LL) and high light (HL) irradiances. The results obtained clearly showed that the photosynthetic unit was significantly affected by the light irradiance at which Rp. palustris 42OL was grown. The synthesis of carotenoids was affected by both illumination and culturing conditions. At LL, lycopene was the main carotenoid synthetized under all conditions tested, while at HL under HP conditions, it resulted the predominant carotenoid. Oppositely, under AnG and AG at HL, rhodovibrin was the major carotenoid detected. The increase in light intensity produced a deeper variation in light-harvesting complexes (LHC) ratio. These findings are important for understanding the ecological distribution of PNSB in natural environments, mostly characterized by high light intensities, and for its growth outdoors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Final report: 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome workshop to be held in Spring of 2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, Caroline S.


    The 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome workshop took place in Iowa City on April 6-8, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to instruct members of the annotation working group in approaches to accomplishing the 'human' phase of the 'R. palustris' genome annotation. A partial draft of a paper describing the 'Rhodopseudomonas palustris' genome has been written and a full version of the paper should be ready for submission by the end of the summer 2002

  8. Acquisition of the ability for Rhodopseudomonas palustris to degrade chlorinated benzoic acids as the sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oda, Y; de Vries, YP; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC


    Three strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris were isolated from phototrophic enrichment cultures containing 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and benzoate (BA). These new strains as well as several previously described strains of R. palustris were tested in this study and shown to degrade 3-CBA if grown in

  9. How Posttranslational Modification of Nitrogenase Is Circumvented in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strains That Produce Hydrogen Gas Constitutively (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Samanta, Sudip K.


    Nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of dinitrogen gas (N2) and protons to ammonia and hydrogen gas (H2). This is a catalytically difficult reaction that requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. Thus, nitrogenase is not normally expressed or active in bacteria grown with a readily utilized nitrogen source like ammonium. nifA* mutants of the purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been described that express nitrogenase genes constitutively and produce H2 when grown with ammonium as a nitrogen source. This raised the regulatory paradox of why these mutants are apparently resistant to a known posttranslational modification system that should switch off the activity of nitrogenase. Microarray, mutation analysis, and gene expression studies showed that posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in R. palustris depends on two proteins: DraT2, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and GlnK2, an NtrC-regulated PII protein. GlnK2 was not well expressed in ammonium-grown NifA* cells and thus not available to activate the DraT2 nitrogenase modification enzyme. In addition, the NifA* strain had elevated nitrogenase activity due to overexpression of the nif genes, and this increased amount of expression overwhelmed a basal level of activity of DraT2 in ammonium-grown cells. Thus, insufficient levels of both GlnK2 and DraT2 allow H2 production by an nifA* mutant grown with ammonium. Inactivation of the nitrogenase posttranslational modification system by mutation of draT2 resulted in increased H2 production by ammonium-grown NifA* cells. PMID:22179236

  10. Hydrogen production using Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 with hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Mei Lee; Kuo-Tsang Hung


    The possibility of utilizing the dark hydrogen fermentation stage effluents for photo hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria should be elucidated. In the previous experiments, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 was proven to efficiently produce hydrogen from the effluent of hydrogen fermentation reactors. The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained at a HRT value of 48 h when feeding a 5 fold effluent dilution from anaerobic hydrogen fermentation. Besides, hydrogen production occurred only when the NH 4 + concentration was below 17 mg-NH 4 + /l. Therefore, for successful fermentation effluent utilization, the most important things were to decrease the optimal HRT, increase the optimal substrate concentration and increase the tolerable ammonia concentration. In this study, a lab-scale serial photo-bioreactor was constructed. The reactor overall hydrogen production efficiency with synthetic wastewater exhibiting an organic acid profile identical to that of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent and with effluent from two anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactors was evaluated. (authors)

  11. Optimization of phototrophic hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 via statistical experimental design

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    Jamil, Zadariana [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technology University of MARA (Malaysia); Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Vikineswary, S. [Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)


    Phototrophic hydrogen production by indigenous purple non-sulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 from palm oil mill effluent (POME) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The process parameters studied include inoculum sizes (% v/v), POME concentration (% v/v), light intensity (klux), agitation (rpm) and pH. The experimental data on cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using response surface regression analysis. The path to optimal process conditions was determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot. Statistical analysis on experimental data collected following Box-Behnken design showed that 100% (v/v) POME concentration, 10% (v/v) inoculum size, light intensity at 4.0 klux, agitation rate at 250 rpm and pH of 6 were the best conditions. The maximum predicted cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction obtained under these conditions was 1.05 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and 31.71% respectively. Subsequent verification experiments at optimal process values gave the maximum yield of cumulative hydrogen at 0.66 {+-} 0.07 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and COD reduction at 30.54 {+-} 9.85%. (author)

  12. A novel electrophototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain RP2, exhibits hydrocarbonoclastic potential in anaerobic environments

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    Krishnaveni Venkidusamy


    Full Text Available An electrophototrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris stain RP2 was isolated from the anodic biofilms of hydrocarbon fed microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS. Salient properties of the strain RP2 were direct electrode respiration, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction, spore formation, anaerobic nitrate reduction, free living diazotrophy and the ability to degrade n-alkane components of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic, photic environments. In acetate fed microbial electrochemical cells, a maximum current density of 305±10 mA/m2 (1000Ω was generated (power density 131.65±10 mW/m2 by strain RP2 with a coulombic efficiency of 46.7 ± 1.3%. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain RP2 is electrochemically active and likely to transfer electrons extracellularly to solid electron acceptors through membrane bound compounds, however, aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. The ability of strain RP2 to produce current (maximum current density 21±3 mA/m2; power density 720±7 µW/m2, 1000Ω using petroleum hydrocarbon (PH as a sole energy source was also examined using an initial concentration of 800 mg l-1 of diesel range hydrocarbons (C9- C36 with a concomitant removal of 47.4 ± 2.7% hydrocarbons in MERS. Here, we also report the first study that shows an initial evidence for the existence of a hydrocarbonoclastic behavior in the strain RP2 when grown in different electron accepting and illuminated conditions (anaerobic and MERS degradation. Such observations reveal the importance of photoorganotrophic growth in the utilization of hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. Identification of such novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading electricigens, not only expands the knowledge on the range of bacteria known for the hydrocarbon bioremediation but also shows a biotechnological potential that goes well beyond its applications to MERS.

  13. Revealing the functions of the transketolase enzyme isoforms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris using a systems biology approach.

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    Chia-Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris is a purple non-sulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that belongs to the class of proteobacteria. It is capable of absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass via the process of photosynthesis and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle. Transketolase is a key enzyme involved in the CBB cycle. Here, we reveal the functions of transketolase isoforms I and II in R. palustris using a systems biology approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring growth ability, we found that transketolase could enhance the autotrophic growth and biomass production of R. palustris. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that transketolase isoforms I and II were involved in different carbon metabolic pathways. In addition, immunogold staining demonstrated that the two transketolase isoforms had different spatial localizations: transketolase I was primarily associated with the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM but transketolase II was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm. Comparative proteomic analysis and network construction of transketolase over-expression and negative control (NC strains revealed that protein folding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid transport and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase I over-expressed strain. In contrast, ATP synthesis, carbohydrate transport, glycolysis-associated carbon metabolism and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. Furthermore, ATP synthesis assays showed a significant increase in ATP synthesis in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. A PEPCK activity assay showed that PEPCK activity was higher in transketolase over-expressed strains than in the negative control strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that the two isoforms of transketolase in R. palustris could affect photoautotrophic growth

  14. Effects of metal ions on biomass and 5-aminolevulinic acid production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Xiangkun; Zhang, Jie


    This work investigated the effects of eight metal ions on Rhodopseudomonas palustris growth and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) yield in wastewater treatment. Results show that metal ions (Mg(2+) of 15 mmol/L, Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L, Co(2+) of 4 μmol/L, Ni(2+) of 8 μmol/L and Zn(2+) of 4 μmol/L) could effectively improve the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, Rp. palustris biomass and ALA yield. The highest ALA yield of 13.1 mg/g-biomass was achieved with Fe(2+) of 400 μmol/L. ALA yields were differentially increased under different metal ions in the following order: Fe(2+) group > Mg(2+) group > Co(2+) group = Ni(2+) group > Zn(2+) group = Mo(2+) group > control. Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) inhibited Rp. palustris growth and ALA production. Mechanism analysis revealed that metal ions changed ALA yields by influencing the activities of ALA synthetase and ALA dehydratase.

  15. A two-step fermentation of distillers' grains using Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris for fish feed. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Li, Shun-Zhou; You, Ling; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Chuan-Ze; Liu, Xiao-Bin


    It is important to provide added value or to make full use of the co-product of grains from ethanol production. In order to convert distillers' grains into a high-quality feed, the Trichoderma viride and Rhodopseudomonas palustris fermentation were combined and investigated in this study. The T. viride fermentation was carried out in an aerobic fermentation installation in favoring of the growth of the fungi and the degradation of the cellulose, and then the fermentation of R. palustris was performed to increase the content of protein with an anaerobic installation. After the two step fermentations, the true protein content of dried distiller' grains increased from 11.4 to 33.6 % (w/w) (the content of crude protein from 14.5 to 39.7 %), the crude fiber content decreased from 21.3 to 7.6 % (w/w), the crude fat content increased from 5.5 to 7.9 % (w/w), the crude ash decreased from 14.6 to 10.2 % (w/w), the total phosphorus content increased from 0.4 to 1.2 % (w/w), and the water content was 11.8 % (w/w). The dried and fermented grains contain the R. palustris viable count of 5.3 × 10¹¹ CFU/g dry matter. The results may support a new application of an active photosynthetic bacteria fish feed in fisheries industry and offer a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials as raw materials converting into high-quality feed.

  16. Different Metabolomic Responses to Carbon Starvation between Light and Dark Conditions in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. (United States)

    Kanno, Nanako; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin


    Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark. After starvation for 5 d in the light, cells showed increases in the amount of ATP and the NAD + /NADH ratio. Decreases in the amounts of most metabolites related to glycolysis and the TCA cycle in energy-rich starved cells suggest the active utilization of these metabolites for the modification of cellular components. Starvation in the dark induced the consumption of cellular compounds such as amino acids, indicating that the degradation of these cellular components produced ATP in order to maintain viability under energy-poor conditions. The present results suggest that intracellular energy levels alter survival strategies under carbon-starved conditions through metabolism.

  17. Two Distinct Aerobic Methionine Salvage Pathways Generate Volatile Methanethiol in Rhodopseudomonas palustris (United States)

    Miller, Anthony R.; North, Justin A.; Wildenthal, John A.


    ABSTRACT 5′-Methyl-thioadenosine (MTA) is a dead-end, sulfur-containing metabolite and cellular inhibitor that arises from S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent reactions. Recent studies have indicated that there are diverse bacterial methionine salvage pathways (MSPs) for MTA detoxification and sulfur salvage. Here, via a combination of gene deletions and directed metabolite detection studies, we report that under aerobic conditions the facultatively anaerobic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris employs both an MTA-isoprenoid shunt identical to that previously described in Rhodospirillum rubrum and a second novel MSP, both of which generate a methanethiol intermediate. The additional R. palustris aerobic MSP, a dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-methanethiol shunt, initially converts MTA to 2-(methylthio)ethanol and DHAP. This is identical to the initial steps of the recently reported anaerobic ethylene-forming MSP, the DHAP-ethylene shunt. The aerobic DHAP-methanethiol shunt then further metabolizes 2-(methylthio)ethanol to methanethiol, which can be directly utilized by O-acetyl-l-homoserine sulfhydrylase to regenerate methionine. This is in contrast to the anaerobic DHAP-ethylene shunt, which metabolizes 2-(methylthio)ethanol to ethylene and an unknown organo-sulfur intermediate, revealing functional diversity in MSPs utilizing a 2-(methylthio)ethanol intermediate. When MTA was fed to aerobically growing cells, the rate of volatile methanethiol release was constant irrespective of the presence of sulfate, suggesting a general housekeeping function for these MSPs up through the methanethiol production step. Methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), two of the most important compounds of the global sulfur cycle, appear to arise not only from marine ecosystems but from terrestrial ones as well. These results reveal a possible route by which methanethiol might be biologically produced in soil and freshwater environments. PMID:29636438

  18. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain. (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto


    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  19. Sequence Analysis of the Cryptic Plasmid pMG101 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Construction of Stable Cloning Vectors (United States)

    Inui, Masayuki; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Zahn, Kenneth; Yukawa, Hideaki


    A 15-kb cryptic plasmid was obtained from a natural isolate of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The plasmid, designated pMG101, was able to replicate in R. palustris and in closely related strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and phototrophic Bradyrhizobium species. However, it was unable to replicate in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and in Rhizobium species. The replication region of pMG101 was localized to a 3.0-kb SalI-XhoI fragment, and this fragment was stably maintained in R. palustris for over 100 generations in the absence of selection. The complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 is similar to sequences of Par proteins, which mediate plasmid stability from certain plasmids, while ORF2 was identified as a putative rep gene, coding for an initiator of plasmid replication, based on homology with the Rep proteins of several other plasmids. The function of these sequences was studied by deletion mapping and gene disruptions of ORF1 and ORF2. pMG101-based Escherichia coli-R. palustris shuttle cloning vectors pMG103 and pMG105 were constructed and were stably maintained in R. palustris growing under nonselective conditions. The ability of plasmid pMG101 to replicate in R. palustris and its close phylogenetic relatives should enable broad application of these vectors within this group of α-proteobacteria. PMID:10618203

  20. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing analysis provides preliminary insights into the biotransformation mechanism of Rhodopseudomonas palustris treated with alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside. (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Guan, Chun-jie; Yang, Guan-e; Yang, Fei; Yan, Hong-yu; Li, Qing-shan


    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been widely applied to enhance the therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine using novel biotransformation technology. However, comprehensive studies of the R. palustris biotransformation mechanism are rare. Therefore, investigation of the expression patterns of genes involved in metabolic pathways that are active during the biotransformation process is essential to elucidate this complicated mechanism. To promote further study of the biotransformation of R. palustris, we assembled all R. palustris transcripts using Trinity software and performed differential expression analysis of the resulting unigenes. A total of 9725, 7341 and 10,963 unigenes were obtained by assembling the alpha-rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside-treated R. palustris (RPB) reads, control R. palustris (RPS) reads and combined RPB&RPS reads, respectively. A total of 9971 unigenes assembled from the RPB&RPS reads were mapped to the nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (E-value biotransformation in R. palustris. Furthermore, we propose two putative ARR biotransformation mechanisms in R. palustris. These analytical results represent a useful genomic resource for in-depth research into the molecular basis of biotransformation and genetic modification in R. palustris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotype fingerprinting suggests the involvement of single-genotype consortia in degradation of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

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    Tatiana V Karpinets

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants. In natural environments, the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. This strategy allows consortium organisms to reduce efforts required for maintenance of the redox homeostasis at each syntrophic level. Cellular mechanisms that maintain the redox homeostasis during the degradation of aromatic compounds by one organism are not fully understood. Here we present a hypothesis that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris forms its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. We have revealed the consortia from large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate, benzoate and succinate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach, marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to determine the relative expression levels of genes and proteins in aromatics versus non-aromatics degrading condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading conditions may lead to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading conditions may also produce at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium has preferential activation of the

  2. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input. (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te


    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  3. Transfer of the high-GC cyclohexane carboxylate degradation pathway from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli for production of biotin. (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeffrey R; Bulter, Thomas; Liao, James C


    This work demonstrates the transfer of the five-gene cyclohexane carboxylate (CHC) degradation pathway from the high-GC alphaproteobacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to Escherichia coli, a gammaproteobacterium. The degradation product of this pathway is pimeloyl-CoA, a key metabolite in E. coli's biotin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is useful for biotin overproduction in E. coli; however, the expression of GC-rich genes is troublesome in this host. When the native R. palustris CHC degradation pathway is transferred to a DeltabioH pimeloyl-CoA auxotroph of E. coli, it is unable to complement growth in the presence of CHC. To overcome this expression problem we redesigned the operon with decreased GC content and removed stretches of high-GC intergenic DNA which comprise the 5' untranslated region of each gene, replacing these features with shorter low-GC sequences. We show this synthetic construct enables growth of the DeltabioH strain in the presence of CHC. When the synthetic degradation pathway is overexpressed in conjunction with the downstream genes for biotin biosynthesis, we measured significant accumulation of biotin in the growth medium, showing that the pathway transfer is successfully integrated with the host metabolism.

  4. Identification of protein W, the elusive sixth subunit of the Rhodopseudomonas palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 core complex. (United States)

    Jackson, Philip J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Swainsbury, David J K; Qian, Pu; Martin, Elizabeth C; Farmer, David A; Dickman, Mark J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Hunter, C Neil


    The X-ray crystal structure of the Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex revealed the presence of a sixth protein component, variably referred to in the literature as helix W, subunit W or protein W. The position of this protein prevents closure of the LH1 ring, possibly to allow diffusion of ubiquinone/ubiquinol between the RC and the cytochrome bc 1 complex in analogous fashion to the well-studied PufX protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The identity and function of helix W have remained unknown for over 13years; here we use a combination of biochemistry, mass spectrometry, molecular genetics and electron microscopy to identify this protein as RPA4402 in Rps. palustris CGA009. Protein W shares key conserved sequence features with PufX homologs, and although a deletion mutant was able to grow under photosynthetic conditions with no discernible phenotype, we show that a tagged version of protein W pulls down the RC-LH1 complex. Protein W is not encoded in the photosynthesis gene cluster and our data indicate that only approximately 10% of wild-type Rps. palustris core complexes contain this non-essential subunit; functional and evolutionary consequences of this observation are discussed. The ability to purify uniform RC-LH1 and RC-LH1-protein W preparations will also be beneficial for future structural studies of these bacterial core complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals that individual low-light LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris 2.1.6. have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition. (United States)

    Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Kunz, Ralf; Böhm, Paul; Gardiner, Alastair T; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen


    Rhodopseudomonas palustris belongs to the group of purple bacteria that have the ability to produce LH2 complexes with unusual absorption spectra when they are grown at low-light intensity. This ability is often related to the presence of multiple genes encoding the antenna apoproteins. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, direct evidence that individual low-light LH2 complexes have a heterogeneous alphabeta-apoprotein composition that modulates the site energies of Bchl a molecules, producing absorption bands at 800, 820, and 850 nm. The arrangement of the Bchl a molecules in the "tightly coupled ring" can be modeled by nine alphabeta-Bchls dimers, such that the Bchls bound to six alphabeta-pairs have B820-like site energies and the remaining Bchl a molecules have B850-like site energies. Furthermore, the experimental data can only be satisfactorily modeled when these six alphabeta-pairs with B820 Bchl a molecules are distributed such that the symmetry of the assembly is reduced to C(3). It is also clear from the measured single-molecule spectra that the energies of the electronically excited states in the mixed B820/850 ring are mainly influenced by diagonal disorder.

  6. Cloning and characterization of a pyrethroid pesticide decomposing esterase gene, Est3385, from Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S. (United States)

    Luo, Xiangwen; Zhang, Deyong; Zhou, Xuguo; Du, Jiao; Zhang, Songbai; Liu, Yong


    Full length open reading frame of pyrethroid detoxification gene, Est3385, contains 963 nucleotides. This gene was identified and cloned based on the genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S available at the GneBank. The predicted amino acid sequence of Est3385 shared moderate identities (30-46%) with the known homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Est3385 was a member in the esterase family I. Recombinant Est3385 was heterologous expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized for its substrate specificity, kinetics and stability under various conditions. The optimal temperature and pH for Est3385 were 35 °C and 6.0, respectively. This enzyme could detoxify various pyrethroid pesticides and degrade the optimal substrate fenpropathrin with a Km and Vmax value of 0.734 ± 0.013 mmol·l -1 and 0.918 ± 0.025 U·µg -1 , respectively. No cofactor was found to affect Est3385 activity but substantial reduction of enzymatic activity was observed when metal ions were applied. Taken together, a new pyrethroid degradation esterase was identified and characterized. Modification of Est3385 with protein engineering toolsets should enhance its potential for field application to reduce the pesticide residue from agroecosystems.

  7. Anaerobic p-coumarate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and identification of CouR, a MarR repressor protein that binds p-coumaroyl coenzyme A. (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Schaefer, Amy L; Greenberg, E Peter; Harwood, Caroline S


    The phenylpropanoid p-coumarate and structurally related aromatic compounds are produced in large amounts by green plants and are excellent carbon sources for many soil bacteria. Aerobic bacteria remove the acyl side chain from phenylpropanoids to leave an aromatic aldehyde, which then enters one of several possible central pathways of benzene ring degradation. We investigated the pathway for the anaerobic degradation of p-coumarate by the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris and found that it also follows this metabolic logic. We characterized enzymes for the conversion of p-coumarate to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) encoded by the couAB operon. We also identified a MarR family transcriptional regulator that we named CouR. A couR mutant had elevated couAB expression. In addition, His-tagged CouR bound with high affinity to a DNA fragment encompassing the couAB promoter region, and binding was abrogated by the addition of nanomolar quantities of p-coumaroyl-CoA but not by p-coumarate. Footprinting demonstrated binding of CouR to an inverted repeat sequence that overlaps the -10 region of the couAB promoter. Our results provide evidence for binding of a CoA-modified aromatic compound by a MarR family member. Although the MarR family is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and includes over 12,000 members, ligands have been identified for relatively few family members. Here we provide biochemical evidence for a new category of MarR ligand.

  8. Preservation of H2 production activity in nanoporous latex coatings of Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 during dry storage at ambient temperatures: Preservation of R. palustris latex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorska, M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Soule, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gosse, J. L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Milliken, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flickinger, M. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Smith, G. W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States); Yeager, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an ‘off-the-shelf’ biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O2 on preservation of H2 production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H2 production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol-treated coatings lost all H2 production activity, whereas considerable H2 production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H2 production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H2 (0–0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at < 5% humidity retained 27–53% of their H2 production activity after 8 weeks of storage. In conWhen stored in argon at < 5% humidity and room temperature, R. palustris coatings retained full H2 production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

  9. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro


    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  10. The usage of sulfide and thiosulfate ions by purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodopseudomonas yavorovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tarabas


    Full Text Available This article covers the patterns of oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate ions by bacteria Rhodopseudomonas yavorovii Ya-2016 under different cultivation conditions. In the environments with 1.4–5.6 мМ Na2S2O3, R. yavorovii Ya-2016 bacteria accumulated biomass of 1.4–1.6 g/l, which was higher than biomass (1.2-0.6 g/l accumulated by the bacteria with the same concentrations of Na2S × 9H2O. The efficiency of oxidation of 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 мМ sulfide- and thiosulfate-ions as donors of electrons by the bacteria equaled 97.4, 42.6, 18.7 and 68.8, 28.0, 3.7%, respectively. As a result of bacterial oxidation of 1.4 мМ hydrogen sulfide and sodium thiosulphate in the environment accumulation of 0.13–1.30 мМ sulfate-ions occurs, and the element sulfur becomes an intermediate metabolite in the environment with Na2S×9H2O. R. yavorovii Ya-2016 bacteria are capable of using sulfate-ions as a single source of sulfate at increase in photptrophs. In the environment with 2.5 мМ sulfate-ions concentration the bacteria biomass was 1.4 g/l, the bacteria assimilated 17.7% of sulfates. Because purple non-sulfur bacteria R. yavorovii Ya-2016 are capable of using sulfide-ions as donors of electrons of anoxygenic photosynthesis and using sulfate-ions as a single source of sulfate, they could be successfully used in the technologies of remediating the environment from compounds of sulfur.

  11. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C.


    In this study, H 2 was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31 o C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121 o C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater effluent from dark hydrogen

  12. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C. [Bioengineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail:


    In this study, H{sub 2} was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31{sup o}C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD{sub fed}). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H{sub 2} / g COD{sub fed}). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater

  13. Gnotobiotic cultures of rice plants up to ear stage in the absence of combined nitrogen source but in the presence of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudinas, B.; Chemardin, M.; Yovanovitch, E.; Gadal, P.


    An all glass tight growth chamber, entirely sterilizable, has been constructed to carry out axenic and gnotobiotic cultures of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). When grown in liquid medium and in the absence of combined nitrogen but in the presence of the diazotrophs Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, rice plants exhibited a complete biological cycle from germination up to ear stage, during a period of time similiar to the one encountered in French paddy soil of Camargue. In one experiment, mannitol was given to rice culture medium together with Azotobacter vinelandii and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. In another experiment, mannitol was not given together with Rhodopseudomonas, and still positive nitrogen gain was obtained, although it was less than culture with mannitol. When 15 N labeled cells of Rhodopseudomonas were added in rice culture medium, 15 N was partly transferred to rice plant. Among the nitrogen substances excreted from the bacteria in the rhizosphere medium, large organic molecules were shown to be the most abundant in our experimental conditions. Moreover, the concentration of free ammonia or aminoacids present in the rice rhizosphere were always compatible with a bacterial nitrogenase activity. (orig.)

  14. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  15. AFM imaging of bacteria in liquid media immobilized on gelatin coated mica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, M.J.; Sullivan, C.J.; Hoyt, P.R.; Pelletier, D.A.; Wu, S.; Allison, D.P


    Immobilization of particulates, especially biomolecules and cells, onto surfaces is critical for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper, gelatin coated mica surfaces are shown to be suitable for immobilizing and imaging both gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram negative, Escherichia coli, bacteria in both air and liquid environments. Gelatin coated surfaces are shown to be superior to poly-L-lysine coated surfaces that are commonly used for the immobilization of cells. This cell immobilization technique is being developed primarily for live cell imaging of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The genome of R. palustris has been sequenced and the organism is the target of intensive studies aimed at understanding genome function. Images of R. palustris grown both aerobically and anaerobically in liquid media are presented. Images in liquid media show the bacteria is rod shaped and smooth while images in air show marked irregularity and folding of the surface. Significant differences in the vertical dimension are also apparent with the height of the bacteria in liquid being substantially greater than images taken in air. In air immobilized bacterial flagella are clearly seen while in liquid this structure is not visible. Additionally, significant morphological differences are observed that depend on the method of bacterial growth.

  16. [Construction and Characterization of B850-Only LH2 Energy Transfer System in Purple Bacteria]. (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Chun-gui; Yue, Hui-ying; Yang, Su-ping; Qu, Yin-bo; Jiao, Nian-zhi


    To seek microscopic molecular mechanism of energy transfer and complex reconstitution in the photosynthesis, the conditions for construction of B850-only peripheral light-harvesting complex (LH2) and their properties were investigated using absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular sieve chromatography, ultrafiltration and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) from the purple bacteria. The results indicated that bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) of B800 incubated in 10 mmo · L(-1) Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) buffer are selectively released from their binding sites of LH2 of Rhodobacter azotoformans (A-LH2) by 0.08% (W/V) SDS. B850-only A-LH2 was constructed after removing free BChl mixing with 10% methyl alcohol by ultrafiltration. B850 BChl was released after A-LH2 was incubated for 240 min in dark at room temperature (RT). While BChl of B800 incubated in pH 1.9 buffer were selectively released from their binding sites of LH2 of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (P-LH2). The authors acquired two components using molecular sieve chromatography. Free BChl of one component was not removed and self-assembled to P-LH2. The other removed free BChl and B850-only P-LH2 was constructed. B850 unchanged after P-LH2 was incubated. P-LH2 α and β subunits have different molecular weights, but those of A-LH2 are in the contrary. It is concluded that B850-only P-LH2 is more stable than A-LH2. The enigmatic split of the B800 absorption band was not observed in these LH2, but we acquired two kinds of B800-released LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The authors' results may provide a new light to separate homogeneous Apoprotein LH2.

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.; Goldanskii, V.I.; Birk, A.; Parak, F.; Fritzsch, G.; Sinning, I.; Michel, H.


    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (E h =+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe 3+ -state, and at low potential (E h = 1 50 mV) they are low spin Fe 2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe 2+ configuration independent of E h and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe 2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe 2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe 2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2 >, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  18. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.


    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  19. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters. (United States)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline; van der Meer, Jan Roelof


    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams.

  20. Development of bacteria-based bioassays for arsenic detection in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesel, Elizabeth; Schreiber, Madeline [Virginia Tech, Department of Geosciences, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Meer, Jan Roelof van der [University of Lausanne, Department of Fundamental Microbiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Arsenic contamination of natural waters is a worldwide concern, as the drinking water supplies for large populations can have high concentrations of arsenic. Traditional techniques to detect arsenic in natural water samples can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, robust and inexpensive methods to detect arsenic in water are highly desirable. Additionally, methods for detecting arsenic in the field have been greatly sought after. This article focuses on the use of bacteria-based assays as an emerging method that is both robust and inexpensive for the detection of arsenic in groundwater both in the field and in the laboratory. The arsenic detection elements in bacteria-based bioassays are biosensor-reporter strains; genetically modified strains of, e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In response to the presence of arsenic, such bacteria produce a reporter protein, the amount or activity of which is measured in the bioassay. Some of these bacterial biosensor-reporters have been successfully utilized for comparative in-field analyses through the use of simple solution-based assays, but future methods may concentrate on miniaturization using fiberoptics or microfluidics platforms. Additionally, there are other potential emerging bioassays for the detection of arsenic in natural waters including nematodes and clams. (orig.)

  1. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  2. Study of the impact of environmental bacteria ob uranium speciation in order to engage bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untereiner, G.


    Uranium is both a radiological and a chemical toxic. Its concentration in the environment is low except when human activities have caused pollution. Uranium is a heavy reactive element, and thus it is easily complexed with soil component like minerals or organic molecules. These different complexes can be more or less bioavailable for microorganisms and plants, and then get in the human food chain. The knowledge and the understanding of transfer mechanisms and also the fate of toxic elements in the biosphere are a key issue to estimate health and ecological hazards. The knowledge of the speciation is very important for bioremediation processes. Here, we focused on the microorganisms effects onto uranium speciation in environment. Bacteria can accumulate and/or transform uranium depending on the initial form of the element. Thus, its bioavailability could be changed. The species used in this work are Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which is an environmental bacteria with a high resistance to heavy metal, Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for his radiological resistance, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which is a purple photo-trophic bacteria capable of degrading aromatic compounds. Two forms of uranium were used with these bacteria, a mineral one, uranyl carbonate, and an organic one, uranyl citrate. In a first step, the growth media were modified in order to stabilize uranium complexes thanks to a simulation program. Then, the capacity of the bacteria to accumulate or transform uranium was studied. We saw a difference between minimal inhibition concentrations of these two speciation which is due to a difference between phosphate bioavailability. No accumulation was observed with environmental pH but uranium precipitation was observed with acidic pH (pH 1). Uranium speciation seemed to be well controlled in the growth media and the precipitates were uranyl phosphate. (author)

  3. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions. (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X


    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering investigation on integral membrane protein light-harvesting complex LH2 from photosynthetic bacterium rhodopseudomonas acidophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Luchao; Weng Yuxiang; Hong Xinguo; Xian Dingchang; Kobayashi Katsumi


    Structures of membrane protein in solution are different from that in crystal phase. We present the primary results of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) resolved topological structures of a light harvesting antenna membrane protein complex LH2 from photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas acidophila in detergent solution for the first time. Our results show that the elliptical shape of the LH2 complex in solution clearly deviates from its circular structure in crystal phase determined by x-ray diffraction. This result provides an insight into the structure and function interplay in LH2. (authors)

  5. Variability of Caltha palustris L. populations in garden culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Falińska


    Full Text Available On the basis of studies performed in the experimental garden the character of the variability of Caltha palustris L. populations is described. Individuals were bred under uniform conditions from diaspores of meadow, springwood, flood-plain forest and alder forest populations. The results obtained allow to evaluate the hypothesis concerning the ecological preference of cytotypes (S m i t 1967, 1968 and the somewhat different ecological requirements of two subspecies: C. palustris ssp. palustris and C. palustris ssp. cornuta. It was found that each population includes individuals with different cytotypes. The situation is similar as far as subspecies are concerned, distinguished on the basis of fruit morphology (Fig. 1. It should be stressed, however, that, investigations of many years duration raised serious doubts as to the diagnostic value of fruit morphology (Figs. 2, 3. On the basis of the preserved differences between the populations in shoot habitus, reproduction and phenology in garden culture, a springwood and an alder forest ecotype were distinguished. Meadow and flood-plain populations exhibited a transitional character with certain similarities both to the alder forest and to the springwood populations.

  6. Aberrante Epigynenbildungen bei der Wolfspinne Pardosa palustris (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Dieter


    Full Text Available Two cases of aberrant epigyne shape in Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758 are described. Characteristic is the absence of the posterior lateral parts of the septum. Possible causes, such as `genital damage` during mating or the effects of parasite infestation, are discussed.

  7. Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziah Ariffin


    An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

  8. Fluorescence spectral fluctuations of single LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutkauskas, D.; Novoderezkhin, V.; Cogdell, R.J.; van Grondelle, R.


    We have investigated the energy landscape of the bacterial photosynthetic peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 of purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila by monitoring sequences of fluorescence spectra of single LH2 assemblies, at room temperature, with different excitation intensities as

  9. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)


    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota


    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  10. A new marsh plant community of Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae alliance in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák


    Full Text Available Open and species-poor stands with a dominance of Alisma lanceolatum were recorded in periodically flooded habitats of the southern part of central Slovakia (Ipeľ River catchment area during the summer of 2013. Phytosociological relevés correspond to the association Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (alliance Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae, which is reported and documented here for the first time from the territory of Slovakia. It inhabits predominantly temporarily flooded depressions on agricultural land – wet arable fields and extensively used pastures. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the variability in species composition was most significantly influenced by water depth, the presence of arable fields in the contact area and water conductivity. Special attention was paid to a detailed description of the floristic composition, habitat requirements, distribution patterns and nomenclature of the community.

  11. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.R.; Budil, D.E.; Gast, P.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.


    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  12. Louisiana’s Palustris Experimental Forest: 75 years of research that transformed the South (United States)

    James P. Barnett; James D. Haywood; Henry A. Pearson


    The Palustris Experimental Forest, located on Kisatchie National Forest, has been in existence for 75 years. Research at Palustris has focused on southern pine reforestation technology, including seed production, bareroot nursery production, direct seeding, and planting container seedlings. After establishing pine plantations, researchers developed stand management...

  13. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navid, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial

  14. Characterizations of purple non-sulfur bacteria isolated from paddy fields, and identification of strains with potential for plant growth-promotion, greenhouse gas mitigation and heavy metal bioremediation. (United States)

    Sakpirom, Jakkapan; Kantachote, Duangporn; Nunkaew, Tomorn; Khan, Eakalak


    This study was aimed at selecting purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolated from various paddy fields, including Cd- and Zn-contaminated paddy fields, based on their biofertilizer properties. Among 235 PNSB isolates, strain TN110 was most effective in plant growth-promoting substance (PGPS) production, releasing 3.2 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 4.11 mg/L of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 3.62 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and reducing methane emission up to 80%. This strain had nifH, vnfG and anfG, which are the Mo, V and Fe nitrogenase genes encoded for key enzymes in nitrogen fixation under different conditions. This strain provided 84% and 55% removal of Cd and Zn, respectively. Another isolate, TN414, not only produced PGPS (1.30 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 0.94 mg/L of ALA and 0.65 mg/L of IAA), but was also efficient in removing both Cd and Zn at 72% and 74%, respectively. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, strain TN110 was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris, while strain TN414 was Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A combination of TN110 and TN414 could potentially provide a biofertilizer, which is a greener alternative to commercial/chemical fertilizers and an agent for bioremediation of heavy metals and greenhouse gas mitigation in paddy fields. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris). (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Todhunter, Kevin; Fort, Troy D; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Anderson, Kurt


    The sensitivity of wild rice (Zizania palustris) to sulfide is not well understood. Because sulfate in surface waters is reduced to sulfide by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and historical information indicated that 10 mg/L sulfate in Minnesota (USA) surface water reduced Z. palustris abundance, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency established 10 mg/L sulfate as a water quality criterion in 1973. A 21-d daily-renewal hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate sulfide toxicity to wild rice and the potential mitigation of sulfide toxicity by iron (Fe). The hydroponic design used hypoxic test media for seed and root exposure and aerobic headspace for the vegetative portion of the plant. Test concentrations were 0.3, 1.6, 3.1, 7.8, and 12.5 mg/L sulfide in test media with 0.8, 2.8, and 10.8 mg/L total Fe used to evaluate the impact of iron on sulfide toxicity. Visual assessments (i.e., no plants harvested) of seed activation, mesocotyl emergence, seedling survival, and phytoxicity were conducted 10 d after dark-phase exposure. Each treatment was also evaluated for time to 30% emergence (ET30), total plant biomass, root and shoot lengths, and signs of phytotoxicity at study conclusion (21 d). The results indicate that exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at ≥3.1 mg sulfide/L in the presence of 0.8 mg/L Fe reduced mesocotyl emergence. Sulfide toxicity was mitigated by the addition of Fe at 2.8 mg/L and 10.8 mg/L relative to the control value of 0.8 mg Fe/L, demonstrating the importance of iron in mitigating sulfide toxicity to wild rice. Ultimately, determination of site-specific sulfate criteria taking into account factors that alter toxicity, including sediment Fe and organic carbon, are necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2217-2226. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Spectral diffusion and electron-phonon coupling of the B800 BChl a molecules in LH2 complexes from three different species of purple bacteria. (United States)

    Baier, J; Gabrielsen, M; Oellerich, S; Michel, H; van Heel, M; Cogdell, R J; Köhler, J


    We have investigated the spectral diffusion and the electron-phonon coupling of B800 bacteriochlorophyll a molecules in the peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 for three different species of purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. We come to the conclusion that B800 binding pockets for Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are rather similar with respect to the polarity of the protein environment but that the packaging of the alphabeta-polypeptides seems to be less tight in Rb. sphaeroides with respect to the other two species.

  17. Detection and enumeration of methanotrophs in acidic Sphagnum peat by 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, including the use of newly developed oligonucleotide probes for Methylocella palustris. (United States)

    Dedysh, S N; Derakshani, M; Liesack, W


    Two 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, were developed for specific detection of the acidophilic methanotroph Methylocella palustris using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence signal of probe Mcell-181 was enhanced by its combined application with the oligonucleotide helper probe H158. Mcell-1026 and Mcell-181, as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes with reported group specificity for either type I methanotrophs (probes M-84 and M-705) or the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group of type II methanotrophs (probes MA-221 and M-450), were used in FISH to determine the abundance of distinct methanotroph groups in a Sphagnum peat sample of pH 4.2. M. palustris was enumerated at greater than 10(6) cells per g of peat (wet weight), while the detectable population size of type I methanotrophs was three orders of magnitude below the population level of M. palustris. The cell counts with probe MA-221 suggested that only 10(4) type II methanotrophs per g of peat (wet weight) were present, while the use of probe M-450 revealed more than 10(6) type II methanotroph cells per g of the same samples. This discrepancy was due to the fact that probe M-450 targets almost all currently known strains of Methylosinus and Methylocystis, whereas probe MA-221, originally described as group specific, does not detect a large proportion of Methylocystis strains. The total number of methanotrophic bacteria detected by FISH was 3.0 (+/-0.2) x 10(6) cells per g (wet weight) of peat. This was about 0.8% of the total bacterial cell number. Thus, our study clearly suggests that M. palustris and a defined population of Methylocystis spp. were the predominant methanotrophs detectable by FISH in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

  18. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho


    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  19. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  20. Forest floor depth mediates understory vigor in xeric Pinus palustris ecosystems (United States)

    J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Rodney E. Will; Robert J. Mitchell


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands and savannas are among the most frequently burned ecosystems in the world with fire return intervals of 1–10 years. This fire regime has maintained high levels of biodiversity in terms of both species richness and endemism. Land use changes have reduced the area of this ecosystem by .95%, and inadequate fire...

  1. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley


    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  2. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett


    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  3. 6-Oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-coenzyme A hydrolases from obligately anaerobic bacteria: characterization and identification of its gene as a functional marker for aromatic compounds degrading anaerobes. (United States)

    Kuntze, Kevin; Shinoda, Yoshifumi; Moutakki, Housna; McInerney, Michael J; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Boll, Matthias


    In anaerobic bacteria, most aromatic growth substrates are channelled into the benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) degradation pathway where the aromatic ring is dearomatized and cleaved into an aliphatic thiol ester. The initial step of this pathway is catalysed by dearomatizing benzoyl-CoA reductases yielding the two electron-reduction product, cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carbonyl-CoA, to which water is subsequently added by a hydratase. The next two steps have so far only been studied in facultative anaerobes and comprise the oxidation of the 6-hydroxyl-group to 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA (6-OCH-CoA), the addition of water and hydrolytic ring cleavage yielding 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. In this work, two benzoate-induced genes from the obligately anaerobic bacteria, Geobacter metallireducens (bamA(Geo)) and Syntrophus aciditrophicus (bamA(Syn)), were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized as 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases. Both enzymes consisted of a single 43 kDa subunit. Some properties of the enzymes are presented and compared with homologues from facultative anaerobes. An alignment of the nucleotide sequences of bamA(Geo) and bamA(Syn) with the corresponding genes from facultative anaerobes identified highly conserved DNA regions, which enabled the discrimination of genes coding for 6-OCH-CoA hydrolases from those coding for related enzymes. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer pair was deduced from conserved regions and applied in polymerase chain reaction reactions. Using these primers, the expected DNA fragment of the 6-OCH-CoA hydrolase genes was specifically amplified from the DNA of nearly all known facultative and obligate anaerobes that use aromatic growth substrates. The only exception was the aromatic compound-degrading Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which uniquely uses a modified benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. Using the oligonucleotide primers, the expected DNA fragment was also amplified in a toluene-degrading and a m

  4. Assembly and structural organization of pigment-protein complexes in membranes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.N.; Pennoyer, J.D.; Niederman, R.A.


    The B875 and B800-850 light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides are characterized further by lithium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4 degrees C. Bacteriochlorophyll a was shown in reconstruction studies to remain complexed with its respective binding proteins during this procedure. From distributions in these gels, a quantitative description for the arrangement of the complexes is proposed. Assembly of the complexes was examined in delta-aminolevulinate-requiring mutant H-5 after a shift from high- to low-light intensity. After 10 h of delta-[ 3 H]aminolevulinate labeling, the specific radioactivity of bacteriochlorophyll in a fraction containing putative membrane invaginations reached the maximal level, while that of the mature photosynthetic membrane was at only one-third this level. This suggests that membrane invaginations are sites of preferential bacteriochlorophyll synthesis in which completed pigment-proteins exist transiently. Analysis of the 3 H distribution after electrophoretic separation further suggests that photosynthetic membranes grow mainly by addition of B800-850 to preformed membrane consisting largely of B875 and photochemical reaction centers. These results corroborate the above model for the structural organization of the light-harvesting system and indicate that the structurally and functionally discrete B800-850 pool is not completely assembled until all B875 sites for B800-850 interactions are occupied

  5. Ferrochelatase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: substrate specificity and role of sulfhydryl and arginyl residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, H.A.; Fleming, J.E.; Harbin, B.M.


    Purified ferrochelatase from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides was examined to determine the roles of cationic and sulfhydryl residues in substrate binding. Reaction of the enzyme sulfhydryl residues with N-ethylmaleimide or monobromobimane resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity. Ferrous iron, but not porphyrin substrate, had a protective effect against inactivation by these two reagents. Quantitation with 3 H-labeled N-ethylmaleimide revealed that inactivation required one to two sulfhydryl groups to be modified. Modification of arginyl residues with either 2,3-butanedione or camphorquinone 10-sulfonate resulted in a loss of ferrochelatase activity. A kinetic analysis of the modified enzyme showed that the K/sub m/ for ferrous iron was not altered but that the K/sub m/ for the prophyrin substrate was increased. These data suggested that arginyl residues may be involved in porphyrin binding, possibly via charge pair interactions between the arginyl residue and the anionic porphyrin propionate side chain. Modification of lysyl residues had no effect on enzyme activity. The authors also examined the ability of bacterial ferrochelatase to use various 2,4-disubstituted porphyrins as substrates. The authors found that 2,4-bis-acetal- and 2,4-disulfonate deuteroporphyrins were effective substrates for the purified bacterial enzyme and that N-methylprotoporphyrin was an effective inhibitor of the enzyme. Data for the ferrochelatase of R. sphaeroides are compared with previously published data for the eucaryotic enzyme

  6. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity and chemical constituents of Stenochlaena palustris fronds at two different stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jeng-Yeou Chear


    Full Text Available Stenochlaena palustris fronds are popular as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties and phytochemical profiles of the young and mature fronds of this plant. Both types of fronds were found to have selective inhibitory effect against butyrylcholinesterase compared with acetylcholinesterase. However, different sets of compounds were responsible for their activity. In young fronds, an antibutyrylcholinesterase effect was observed in the hexane extract, which was comprised of a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and phytosterols. In the mature fronds, inhibitory activity was observed in the methanol extract, which contained a series of kaempferol glycosides. Our results provided novel information concerning the ability of S. palustris to inhibit cholinesterase and its phytochemical profile. Further research to investigate the potential use of this plant against Alzheimer's disease is warranted, however, young and mature fronds should be distinguished due to their phytochemical differences.

  7. Molar extinction coefficients and other properties of an improved reaction center preparation from Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.K.; Clayton, B.J.


    Reaction centers have been purified from chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas viridis by treatment with lauryl dimethyl amine oxide followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and precipitation with ammonium sulfate. The absorption spectrum at low temperature shows bands at 531 and 543 nm, assigned to two molecules of bacteriopheophytin b. The 600 nm band of bacteriochlorophyll b is resolved at low temperature into components at 601 and 606.5 nm. At room temperature the light-induced difference spectrum shows a negative band centered at 615 nm, where the absorption spectrum shows only a week shoulder adjacent to the 600 nm band. The fluorescence spectrum shows a band at 1000 nm and no fluorescence corresponding to the 830 nm absorption band. Two molecules of cytochrome 558 and three of cytochrome 552 accompany each reaction center. The differential extinction coefficient (reduced minus oxidized) of cytochrome 558 nm was estimated as 20 +- 2 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ through a coupled reaction with equine cytochrome c. The extinction coefficient of reaction centers at 960 nm was determined to be 123 +- 25 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ by measuring the light-induced bleaching of P-960 and the coupled oxidation of cytochrome 558. The corresponding extinction coefficient at 830 nm is 300 +- 65 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/. The absorbance ratio ..cap alpha../sub 280nm/..cap alpha../sub 830nm/ in our preparations was 2.1, and there was 190 kg protein per mol of reaction centers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed three major components of apparent molecular weights 31,000, 37,000, and 41,000.

  8. The role of oxalic acid in tolerance to N’N-napthaloylhydroxylamine in Tyromyces palustris (United States)

    R.A. Arango; C.A. Clausen; Frederick Green


    Certain wood decay fungi exhibit tolerance to one or more wood preservatives. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi has been studied in our laboratory for the past six years. We have observed some degree of tolerance to N’N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA), a recently patented termite bait, by the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris TYP-6137. In an effort to try and confirm...

  9. Development of antioxidative effect in ice cream with Kalakai (Stenochlaena palustris) water extract (United States)

    Hadhiwaluyo, Kristania; Rahmawati, Della; Gunawan Puteri, Maria D. P. T.


    Kalakai (Stenochlaena. palustris) extract was used to develop the ice cream. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and its stability over process and storage were evaluated through various antioxidant assay including DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric method. In general, the leaves of S. palustris had a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p ice cream without affecting the sensory properties of the ice cream. In addition, the high phenolic and flavonoid content also suggest the more compounds that were capable to act as an antioxidant. The result of the stability test also suggested the ability low temperature storage and processing in maintaining the stability of the antioxidant activity of the extract (p > 0.05) over processing and storage. Thus, this strengthen the feasibility of S. palustris to be used as a potential functional food ingredient that is low cost and easily accessible with an antioxidant activity and safe iron content that is beneficial to increase the quality of food produced including in ice cream.

  10. Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, A; Gardel, EJ; Vidoudez, C; Parra, EA; Girguis, PR


    Oxidation-reduction reactions underlie energy generation in nearly all life forms. Although most organisms use soluble oxidants and reductants, some microbes can access solid-phase materials as electron-acceptors or -donors via extracellular electron transfer. Many studies have focused on the reduction of solid-phase oxidants. Far less is known about electron uptake via microbial extracellular electron transfer, and almost nothing is known about the associated mechanisms. Here we show that the iron-oxidizing photoautotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 accepts electrons from a poised electrode, with carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source/electron acceptor. Both electron uptake and ruBisCo form I expression are stimulated by light. Electron uptake also occurs in the dark, uncoupled from photosynthesis. Notably, the pioABC operon, which encodes a protein system essential for photoautotrophic growth by ferrous iron oxidation, influences electron uptake. These data reveal a previously unknown metabolic versatility of photoferrotrophs to use extracellular electron transfer for electron uptake.

  11. Evidence for a Very Early Intermediate in Bacterial Photosynthesis. A Photon-Echo and Hole-Burning Study of the Primary Donor Band in Rhodopseudomonas Sphaeroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meech, S.R.; Hoff, A.J.


    Two coherent spectroscopic methods, accumulated photon echo and population bottleneck hole-burning, have been employed in a study of the decay rate of the primary donor (P) of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides at 1.5 K. The decay rate is instrument-limited in the photon-echo experiment, implying a

  12. Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Fructose Phosphotransferase System of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides : Purification and Physicochemical and Immunochemical Characterization of a Membrane-Associated Enzyme I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Marius; Elferink, Marieke G.L.; Robillard, George T.


    The phosphotransferase system (PTS) of the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides consists of a component located in the cytoplasmic membrane and a membrane-associated enzyme called “soluble factor” (SF). SF has been partially purified by a combination of hydrophobic interaction and

  13. Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methane-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium from peat bogs, representing a novel subtype of serine-pathway methanotrophs. (United States)

    Dedysh, S N; Liesack, W; Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Y A; Semrau, J D; Bares, A M; Panikov, N S; Tiedje, J M


    A new genus, Methylocella, and a new species, Methylocella palustris, are proposed for three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs. These bacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, colourless, non-motile, straight and curved rods that utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation, multiply by normal cell division and contain intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules (one at each pole). These strains use methane and methanol as sole sources of carbon and energy and are moderately acidophilic organisms with growth between pH 4.5 and pH 7.0, the optimum being at pH 5.0-5.5. The temperature range for growth is 10-28 degrees C with the optimum at 15-20 degrees C. The intracytoplasmic membrane system is different from those of type I and II methanotrophs. Cells contain an extensive periplasmic space and a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. The strains grew only on media with a low salt content (0.2-0.5 g l(-1)). All three strains were found to possess soluble methane monooxygenase and are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen via an oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase. No products were observed in a PCR with particulate methane monooxygenase-targeted primers; hybridization with a pmoA probe was also negative. The major phospholipid fatty acids are 18:1 acids. The G+C content of the DNA is 61.2 mol%. The three strains share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and represent a novel lineage of methane-oxidizing bacteria within the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria and are only moderately related to type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group. The three strains are most closely related to the acidophilic heterotrophic bacterium Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica (96.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity). Collectively, these strains comprise a new species and genus Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain KT (= ATCC 700799T) is the type strain.

  14. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris. (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus


    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris (United States)



    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  16. Endemic Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris (Carnivora: Herpestidae of East Kolkata Wetlands, India: a status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick


    Full Text Available Marsh Mongoose Herpestes palustris is the only extant endemic mammal of the East Kolkata wetlands, which has been declared a RAMSAR site in 2002. Since its first description by the scientists of the Zoological Survey of India, the population of this species has dwindled to an alarming state due to reclamation of the Salt Lake City and Rajarhat expansion, as well as from other anthropogenic causes. Recently, during a field survey only a small population of this endangered mongoose was found in a single location. Immediate conservation measures are required to be taken by the concerned authorities to stop its probable extinction in the near future.

  17. [Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs]. (United States)

    Dedysh, S N


    Acid sphagnum bogs cover a considerable part of the territory of Russia and are an important natural source of biogenic methane, which is formed in their anaerobic layers. A considerable portion of this methane is consumed in the aerobic part of the bog profile by acidophilic methanotrophic bacteria, which comprise the methane filter of sphagnum bogs and decrease CH4 emission to the atmosphere. For a long time, these bacteria escaped isolation, which became possible only after the elucidation of the optimal conditions of their functioning in situ: pH 4.5 to 5.5; temperature, from 15 to 20 degrees C; and low salt concentration in the solution. Reproduction of these conditions and rejection of earlier used media with a high content of biogenic elements allowed methanotrophic bacteria of two new genera and species--Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila--to be isolated from the peat of sphagnum bogs of the northern part of European Russia and West Siberia. These bacteria are well adapted to the conditions in cold, acid, oligotrophic sphagnum bogs. They grow in a pH range of 4.2-7.5 with an optimum at 5.0-5.5, prefer moderate temperatures (15-25 degrees C) and media with a low content of mineral salts (200-500 mg/l), and are capable of active nitrogen fixation. Design of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila and their application to the analysis of sphagnum peat samples showed that these bacteria represent dominant populations of methanotrophs with a density of 10(5)-10(6) cells/g peat. In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis.

  18. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination. (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory


    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of arsenic. Total oxidation of As (III) to As (V) does not occur in asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors phytoremediation candidate.

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  20. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... Length = 102 ... Query: 14 ... ...MRDGEFLVSKTTAKGVITYINEPFIRMSGFTEQELVGQAHNIIRHPDMPPEAFADFWNTL 73 ... + DG ++VSKT ... KG +TY NE F++ SGF+EQ

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  2. Ethylene regulates fast apoplastic acidification and expansin A transcription during submergence-induced petiole elongation in Rumex palustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, RAM; Benschop, JJ; Peeters, AJM; Colmer, TD; Ammerlaan, AHM; Staal, M; Elzenga, TM; Staals, RHJ; Darley, CP; McQueen-Mason, SJ; Voesenek, LACJ

    The semi-aquatic dicot Rumex palustris responds to complete submergence by enhanced elongation of young petioles. This elongation of petiole cells brings leaf blades above the water surface, thus reinstating gas exchange with the atmosphere and increasing survival in flood-prone environments. We

  3. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers


    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  4. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein


    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  5. Anaerobic bacteria (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  6. Phytodesalinization potential of Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris for removal of de-icing salts from runoff water. (United States)

    Guesdon, Gaëlle; de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa


    Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris were evaluated for de-icing salt removal from runoff water. Plants were exposed to a range of de-icing salt levels (0.2, 0.7, 4, 8, and 13 dS m(-1)) in laboratory-scale subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) for 2 months under greenhouse conditions. Effluent characteristics, plant height, biomass, and Cl and Na removal rates and uptake were monitored. More water volume was retained in CWs of T. angustifolia (∼60 %) than of J. maritimus and E. palustris (∼37.5 %), which accounted for the electrical conductivity increase in effluents (1.3-1.9-fold). Based on the NaCl removal rate, T. angustifolia showed the greatest phytodesalinization ability (31-60 %) with the highest removal at the lowest salt levels (0.2-0.7 dS m(-1)), followed by J. maritimus (22-36 %) without differences in removal among levels, and E. palustris (3-26 %) presenting a removal rate highly decreased with increasing salt levels. Plant height and biomass were stimulated at low de-icing salt levels, but, at higher levels, T. angustifolia and E. palustris growth was inhibited (tolerance index ∼67 and 10 %, respectively, in the worst cases). Salt amounts in aboveground biomass in g m(-2) differed among levels and ranged as follows: 13.6-29.1 (Cl), 4.2-9.3 (Na; T. angustifolia); 7.0-12.0 (Cl), 2.7-6.4 (Na; J. maritimus); and 0.9-7.6 (Cl), 0.3-1.6 (Na; E. palustris). Chloride and Na translocation decreased with de-icing salt increase in T. angustifolia, while no significant differences were found in J. maritimus, which is interesting for harvesting purposes.

  7. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk


    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  8. Enhanced photo-H2 production by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 immobilization on activated carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Ding, Jie; Xing, De-Feng; Ren, Hong-Yu; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi


    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were firstly applied as fluidized solid carrier to immobilize photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) for H 2 production in batch culture. The observations by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the close interaction between ACFs and PFB. The amount of immobilized bacteria and the performance of H 2 production were strongly affected by specific surface area, length and amount of ACFs, respectively. Large specific surface area provided more surface attachment sites and more PFB were immobilized. ACFs with proper length avoided intertwining with each other and better fluidized during reactor operation. Excessive amount of ACFs not only limited the light conversion efficiency, but also increased biofilm detachment, resulting in low H 2 yield. The maximum yield (3.08 mol H 2 mol −1 acetate) and rate (32.85 ml l −1 h −1 ) of H 2 production were obtained, using specific surface area (1500 m 2 g −1 ), length (1 mm) and amount (0.8 g l −1 ) of ACFs. Compared with the conventional solid carriers, ACFs were effective solid carriers to immobilize PFB for improving H 2 production, due to bacteria immobilized on the external surface of fluidized ACFs and formed a layer of dense biofilm. -- Highlights: ► ACFs were firstly used to immobilize photo-fermentative bacteria for H 2 production. ► ACFs were fluidized in the reactor during the operation. ► Bacteria covered on the external surface of ACFs and formed dense biofilm. ► Each bacterium on the ACFs could absorb the light and convert substrate into H 2 .

  9. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vyas


    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  10. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica. (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein


    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  11. R-prime site-directed transposon Tn7 mutagenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youvan, D C [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Elder, J T; Sandlin, D E; Zsebo, K; Alder, D P; Panopoulos, N J; Marrs, B L; Hearst, J E


    Site-directed mutagenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) genes in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata is presented utilizing a transposon Tn7 mutagenized R-prime. The R-prime, pRPS404, bears most of the genes necessary for the differentiation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Mutagenesis of the R-prime with Tn7 in Escherichia coli, conjugation into R. capsulata, and homologous recombination with the wild-type alleles efficiently generates photosynthetic apparatus lesions. Wild-type alleles are lost spontaneously and the Tn7-induced lesions are revealed by subsequent intramolecular recombination between IS21 insertion elements that bracket the prime sequences in direct repeat. The molecular nature of the intermediates involved in the transposition, recombination and deletion have been investigated by Southern hybridization analysis. The spontaneous loss of wild-type alleles after homologous recombination with the chromosome may be of general use to other prokaryotic site-directed transposon mutagenesis schemes. The IS21-mediated deletion of the prime DNA is dependent on the RecA protein in E. coli, generating the parental R-factor bearing one IS21 element. A genetic-physical map exists for a portion of the prime photosynthetic apparatus DNA. When Tn7 is inserted into a bacteriochlorophyll gene in the R-prime and then crossed into R. capsulata, mutants are produced that accumulate a bacteriochlorophyll precursor, which is in excellent agreement with the existing genetic-physical map. This corroborates the mutagenesis scheme.

  12. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan


    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  13. Correlation between oxalic acid production and tolerance of Tyromyces palustris strain TYP-6137 to N',N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Patricia K. Lebow; Frederick III Green


    Eleven strains of T. palustris were evaluated for mass loss and production of phosphate buffer soluble oxalic acid on pine wood blocks treated with 0.5% N’,N-naphthaloylhydroxamine (NHA) in a soil-block test. After 12 weeks higher percentage mass loss was observed in control groups for 10 strains, while TYP-6137 was shown to be tolerant with no difference between the...

  14. Hydrogen gas production by fermentation from various organic wastewater using Clostridium butyricum NCIB 9576 and Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides E15-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Young Sue; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Rye, Hye Yeon; Lee, In Gu; Kim, Mi Sun [Biomass Research Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejeon (Korea)


    Anaerobic fermentation using Clostidium butyricum NCIB 9576, and phto-fermentation using Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides E15-1 were studied for the production of hydrogen from Makkoli, fruits (orange and apple, watermelon and melon) and Tofu wastewaters. From the Makkoli wastewater, which contained 0.94 g/liter sugars and 2.74 g/liter solubel starch, approximately 49 mM H{sub 2}/liter wastewater was produced during the initial 18h of the anaerobic fermentation with pH control between 6.5-7.0. Several organic acids such as butyric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were also produced. From watermelon and melon wastewater, which contained 43 g/liter sugars, generated about approximately 71 mM H{sub 2}/liter wastewater was produced during the initial 24h of the anaerobic fermentation. Tofu wastewater, pH 6.5, containing 12.6 g/liter soluble starch and 0.74 g/liter sugars, generated about 30mM H{sub 2}/liter wastewater, along with some organic acids, during the initial 24 h of anaerobic fermentation. Makkoli and Tofu wastewaters as substrates for the photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides E15-1 produced approximately 37.9 and 22.2 {mu}M H{sub 2}/ml wastewaters, respectively for 9 days of incubation under the average of 9,000010,000 lux illumination at the surface of reactor using tungsten halogen lamps. Orange and apple wastewater, which contained 93.4 g/l produced approximately 13.1 {mu}M H{sub 2}/ml wastewater only for 2 days of photo-fermentation and the growth of Rhodopseudomonas spnaeroides E15-1 and hydrogen production were stopped. 22 refs, 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Aptitude of Lymnaea palustris and L. stagnalis to Fasciola hepatica larval development through the infection of several successive generations of 4-mm-high snails. (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G


    Bimiracidial infections of Lymnaea palustris and Lymnaea stagnalis (shell height at exposure, 4 mm) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during six successive snail generations to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants issuing from eggs laid by parents already exposed to this digenean. Controls were constituted by a French population of Galba truncatula (a single generation) infected according to the same protocol. In a first experiment performed with the F1 to F5 generations of L. palustris, the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased. Immature rediae and a few cercariae-containing rediae of the digenean were observed in L. stagnalis from the F3 generation, but no free cercaria was noted in the bodies of this lymnaeid from the F4 to F6 generations. In another experiment carried out with the F6 generation of L. palustris, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. palustris than in G. truncatula. This mode of snail infection suggests an explanation for cases of human fasciolosis occurring in central France after the collection of wild watercress from beds where L. palustris was the sole lymnaeid.

  16. Linear-dichroism measurements on the LH2 antenna complex of Rhodopseudomonas Acidophila strain 10050 show that the transition dipole moment of the Carotenoid Rhodopin Glucoside us nit collinair with the long molecular axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulou, S.; Gogdell, R.J.; Grondelle, van R.; Amerongen, van H.


    We have applied linear-dichroism experiments to determine the orientation of the transition dipole moment, corresponding to the main absorption band of the carotenoid, rhodopin glucoside, in the light-harvesting complex LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050. The crystal structure of this

  17. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F


    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  18. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)


    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  19. Differential responses of the freshwater wetland species Juncus effusus L. and Caltha palustris L. to iron supply in sulfidic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, Marlies E.W. van der; Niggebrugge, Karla; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.


    Sulfur pollution can lead to serious problems in freshwater wetlands, including phosphorus eutrophication and sulfide toxicity. We tested the effects of anaerobic iron-rich groundwater discharge in fens, simulated by iron injection, on two characteristic species (Juncus effusus and Caltha palustris) in a sulfidic environment. Biomass production of C. palustris roots showed an optimum response to the combined addition of iron and sulfide, with highest values at intermediate concentrations of both substances. Iron deficiency apparently occurred at low iron concentrations, while at high iron concentrations, growth was decreased. For J. effusus, in contrast, no toxic effects were found of both iron and sulfide. This could be explained by larger radial oxygen loss (ROL) of J. effusus and could not be explained by differences in phosphorous concentrations. The results of our experiments confirm that iron-rich groundwater discharge has the potential to affect vegetation composition through toxicity modification in sulfidic environments. - Toxicity of iron and sulfide are interacting with each other and have the potential to affect vegetation composition

  20. Fluorescence-excitation and emission spectra from LH2 antenna complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila as a function of the sample preparation conditions. (United States)

    Kunz, Ralf; Timpmann, Kõu; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen; Freiberg, Arvi


    The high sensitivity of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes to temperature and pressure is well known. In the present study, we have demonstrated the significant influence of the environments commonly used in bulk and single-molecule spectroscopic studies at low temperatures on the LH2 photosynthetic antenna complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. A transfer of this LH2 complex from a bulk-buffer solution into a spin-coated polymer film results in a 189 cm(-1) blue shift of the B850 excitonic absorption band at 5 K. Within the molecular exciton model, the origin of this shift could be disentangled into three parts, namely to an increase of the local site energies, a contraction of the exciton band, and a decrease of the displacement energy.

  1. Genome assembly of the fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and transcriptome analysis during early stages of infection on American wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes a severe, yield-reducing leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa) and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite the importance of the pathogen in wildrice, little is known about mechanisms of p...

  2. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox


    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  3. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen


    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  4. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Moresco, Henrique H.; Tahtah, Yousof


    , and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR. This led to identification...

  5. Purification, molecular cloning, and enzymatic properties of a family 12 endoglucanase (EG-II) from fomitopsis palustris: role of EG-II in larch holocellulose hydrolysis. (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hajime; Nojiri, Masanobu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ishihara, Mitsuro


    A family 12 endoglucanase with a molecular mass of 23,926 Da (EG-II) from the brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris was purified and characterized. One of the roles of EG-II in wood degradation is thought to be to loosen the polysaccharide network in cell walls by disentangling hemicelluloses that are associated with cellulose.

  6. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats (United States)

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom


    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  7. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB


    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  8. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB


    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria......, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  9. Magnetic Bacteria. (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim


    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  10. Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria of cold ecosystems. (United States)

    Trotsenko, Yuri A; Khmelenina, Valentina N


    This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the ecophysiological role and structure-function features of methanotrophic bacteria living in various cold ecosystems. The occurrence of methanotrophs in a majority of psychrosphere sites was verified by direct measurement of their methane-utilizing activity, by electron microscopy and immunofluorescent observations, and analyses of specific signatures in cellular phospholipids and total DNAs extracted from environmental samples. Surprisingly, the phenotypic and genotypic markers of virtually all extant methanotrophs were detected in various cold habitats, such as underground waters, Northern taiga and tundra soils, polar lakes and permafrost sediments. Also, recent findings indicated that even after long-term storage in permafrost, some methanotrophs can oxidize and assimilate methane not only at positive but also at subzero temperatures. Pure cultures of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant methanotrophs were isolated and characterized as new genera and species: Methylobacter psychrophilus, Methylosphaera hansonii, Methylocella palustris, Methylocella silvestris, Methylocella tundrae, Methylocapsa acidiphila and Methylomonas scandinavica. However, our knowledge about their adaptive mechanisms and survival in cold ecosystems remains limited and needs to be established using both traditional and molecular microbiological methods.

  11. Size-dependent distribution and feeding habits of Terebralia palustris in mangrove habitats of Gazi Bay, Kenya (United States)

    Pape, Ellen; Muthumbi, Agnes; Kamanu, Chomba Peter; Vanreusel, Ann


    The gastropod Terebralia palustris often dominates the surface of muddy to sandy substrates of intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, where they clearly destabilize the sediment. In the present study, it was investigated whether and to what extent the behaviour of juvenile and adult snails differs among habitats (mudflat vs. mangrove stand) in a Sonneratia alba mangal at Gazi Bay, Kenya. For this purpose we: (1) examined their distribution along three land-sea transects; and (2) applied stable isotope analysis to determine the feeding patterns of different-sized snails from the mangrove and mudflat habitats. Additionally, we investigated if these gastropods exert an impact on microphytobenthic (diatom) biomass, and whether this is size-dependent. The latter objective was met by either enclosing or excluding different-sized snails from experimental cages on the intertidal mudflat and the subsequent assessment of a change in pigment concentration of the sediment surface. In agreement with several previous studies conducted in other mangroves and geographical locations, a spatial segregation was demonstrated between juveniles (more common on the mudflat) and adults (more common in the mangrove forest). On the intertidal mudflat juveniles avoided sediment patches characterized by highly saline water in intertidal pools and a high mud content, while adults tended to dwell on substrates covered by a high amount of leaf litter. Stable carbon isotope analysis of the foot tissue of snails sampled from the S. alba stand and the mudflat indicated a transition in food source when a shell length of 51 mm is reached. Considering the δ13C value of juveniles, it seems they might be selecting for microphytobenthos, which might explain their preference for the mudflat. The diet of size classes found in both habitats did not differ significantly, although juveniles inhabiting the mangrove forest were slightly more depleted in 13C compared to those residing on the mudflat

  12. Comparison Of Cd2+ Biosorption And Bioaccumulation By Bacteria – A Radiometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machalová Linda


    Full Text Available In this work, bioaccumulation and biosorption characteristics of Cd2+ ions by both dead and living non-growing biomass of gram-positive bacteria Kocuria palustris and Micrococcus luteus isolated from spent nuclear fuel pools were compared. The radioindicator method with radionuclide 109Cd was used to obtain precise and reliable data characterizing Cd compartmentalization in bacterial cells. The following cellular distribution of Cd in living non-growing biomass after 4 h incubation in solutions containing different concentration of Cd2+ ions (100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µmol/L spiked with 109CdCl2 under aeration at 30 °C were obtained: in M. luteus almost 85 % of Cd was localized on the cell surface and 15 % in cytoplasm. Similarly, in K. palustris 83 % of Cd was localized on the cell surface and 17 % in cytoplasm. The data were obtained by gamma spectrometry of extracts and solids after sequential extraction of biomass with 5 mM Ca(NO32 and 20 mM EDTA. Biosorption of Cd by non-living bacterial biomass is a rapid process strongly affected by solution pH and as was confirmed by FTIR analysis beside carboxylate ions also other functional groups such as amino and phosphate contribute to Cd binding by bacterial cell surfaces. Maximum sorption capacities Qmax (μmol/g calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 444 ± 15 μmol/g for M. luteus and 381 ± 1 μmol/g for K. palustris.

  13. Differentiation of epipactis palustris (l.) crantz (orchidaceae) in habitats altered by man based on species populations within poznan city (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieloch, M.K.; Raszewska, M.W.; Drapikowska, M.


    The aim of the study was to compare two populations of Epipactis palustris (Orchidaceae) growing in the valley of Junikowski Stream, in the south-western part of the Poznan city (square of ATPOL BD08) and to compare current results to data on the species described in the literature. Group characteristics of both populations, such as population size, average density and congestion factor, as well as the average coefficient of dispersion, were defined. Specimen variability was determined by measuring 250 generative ramets in each population. The following plant traits were included: stem length, inflorescence length, number of flowers per inflorescence, number of leaves per stem and length and width of the largest leaf. Obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated (arithmetic average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum). The variation coefficient (V) was established to determine the variation degree of each trait. In order to determine statistical significance of average values of traits of the samples in question, the factor variance ANOVA F-statistics was used. The significance degree was examined with Scheffe's test. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled the examination of mutual relations between the samples in the system of two first principal components. This work confirmed previous information about low variability of marsh helleborine. Individual traits in both populations were very similar. The differences concerned the group characteristics. The plants were in good condition irrespective of occupied habitat. (author)

  14. An evaluation of memory accuracy in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris--how accurate are they compared to humans? (United States)

    Brodin, Anders; Urhan, A Utku


    Laboratory studies of scatter hoarding birds have become a model system for spatial memory studies. Considering that such birds are known to have a good spatial memory, recovery success in lab studies seems low. In parids (titmice and chickadees) typically ranging between 25 and 60% if five seeds are cached in 50-128 available caching sites. Since these birds store many thousands of food items in nature in one autumn one might expect that they should easily retrieve five seeds in a laboratory where they know the environment with its caching sites in detail. We designed a laboratory set up to be as similar as possible with previous studies and trained wild caught marsh tits Poecile palustris to store and retrieve in this set up. Our results agree closely with earlier studies, of the first ten looks around 40% were correct when the birds had stored five seeds in 100 available sites both 5 and 24h after storing. The cumulative success curve suggests high success during the first 15 looks where after it declines. Humans performed much better, in the first five looks most subjects were 100% correct. We discuss possible reasons for why the birds were not doing better. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophic bacteria from estuarine surface waters. (United States)

    Farnelid, Hanna; Harder, Jens; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse


    The wide distribution of diverse nitrogenase (nifH) genes affiliated with those of heterotrophic bacteria in marine and estuarine waters indicates ubiquity and an ecologically relevant role for heterotrophic N2 -fixers (diazotrophs) in aquatic nitrogen (N) cycling. However, the lack of cultivated representatives currently precludes an evaluation of their N2 -fixing capacity. In this study, microoxic or anoxic N-free media were inoculated with estuarine Baltic Sea surface water to select for N2 -fixers. After visible growth and isolation of single colonies on oxic plates or in anoxic agar tubes, nifH gene amplicons were obtained from 64 strains and nitrogenase activity, applying the acetylene reduction assay, was confirmed for 40 strains. Two strains, one Gammaproteobacterium affiliated with Pseudomonas and one Alphaproteobacterium affiliated with Rhodopseudomonas were shown to represent established members of the indigenous diazotrophic community in the Baltic Sea, with abundances of up to 7.9 × 10(4) and 4.7 × 10(4)  nifH copies l(-1) respectively. This study reports media for successful isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophs. The applied methodology and the obtained strains will facilitate future identification of factors controlling heterotrophic diazotrophic activity in aquatic environments, which is a prerequisite for understanding and evaluating their ecology and contribution to N cycling at local and regional scales. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.E.; Mackie, R.I.


    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 10 11 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (10 4 -10 6 /g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 10 2 -10 4 /g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (10 7 -10 9 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  17. Eficiencia de pseudomonas sp, rhodopseudomonas sp, micrococcus sp y bacillus sp empleados como cultivos individuales y en consorcio, en la degradación de petróleo diesel ii


    Otiniano García, Nélida Milly Esther


    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Pseudomonas sp, Rhodopseudomonas sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, and the consortium formed by these four microorganisms in the diesel II petroleum degradation, it was worked in 5 bioreactors of aerated and shaken tank of 1.5 litters of capacity, with speed agitation of 120 rpm, and air flow of 0.5 vvm; in which were placed; 940 mL of Minimum Broth of Davies pH 7.0; 50 mL of diesel II petroleum as source of carbon and 10 mL of a suspension of approx...

  18. The electronically excited states of LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 studied by time-resolved spectroscopy and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. II. Homo-arrays of LH2 complexes reconstituted into phospholipid model membranes. (United States)

    Pflock, Tobias J; Oellerich, Silke; Krapf, Lisa; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Ullmann, G Matthias; Köhler, Jürgen


    We performed time-resolved spectroscopy on homoarrays of LH2 complexes from the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. Variations of the fluorescence transients were monitored as a function of the excitation fluence and the repetition rate of the excitation. These parameters are directly related to the excitation density within the array and to the number of LH2 complexes that still carry a triplet state prior to the next excitation. Comparison of the experimental observations with results from dynamic Monte Carlo simulations for a model cluster of LH2 complexes yields qualitative agreement without the need for any free parameter and reveals the mutual relationship between energy transfer and annihilation processes.

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  20. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936477 >1kmoA 7 661 92 753 2e-72 ... emb|CAE28855.1| putative hydroxamate-type ferris... ... putative hydroxamate-type ferrisiderophore receptor ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ...

  1. Magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment associated with excitation of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, D.J.; Boxer, S.G.


    The magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment, mu.., associated with the Q/sub y/ transition of the dimeric primary electron donor (special pair or P870) in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers have been measured by Stark spectroscopy at 20 /sup 0/C. The magnitude of mu.. is found to be f/sup -1/ (10.3 +/- 0.7) D, where f is a correction factor for the local dielectric properties of the protein matrix. With the spherical cavity approximation and an effective local dielectric constant of 2, f = 1.2, and absolute value of mu.. is 8.6 +/- 0.6 D. Absolute value of mu.. for the Q/sub y/ transition of the special pair is approximately a factor of 3.4 and 2 greater than for the monomeric bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins, respectively, in the reaction center. The angle between mu.. and the transition dipole moment for excitation of the first singlet electron state of the special pair was found to be 24 +/- 2/sup 0/. The measured values are combined to suggest a physical model in which the lowest excited singlet state of the special pair has substantial charge-transfer character and where charge is separated between the two monomers comprising the dimeric special pair. This leads to the hypothesis that the first charge-separated state in bacterial photosynthesis is formed directly upon photoexcitation. These data provide stringent values for comparison with theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of the chromophores in the reaction center.

  2. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E


    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  3. A Tribal Story Written in Silica: Using Phytoliths to Research the Effects of Mining on Past Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) Abundance in Sandy Lake, Minnesota (United States)

    Clarke, I. R.; Jones, M. A.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.


    Wild rice (Zizania palustris, manoomin) is an emergent aquatic plant that grows annually in the northern Great Lakes region of North America. This region is also rich in iron ore deposits and correspondingly has an extensive history of mining activities. Wild rice no longer grows in some areas where it was previously abundant. Sandy Lake, located in St. Louis County on federally protected lands that are ceded territory of the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in Minnesota and downstream of the nearby U.S. Steel Minntac mine, was selected as a test site. This lake has a history of ricing activities by the Ojibwe (Chippewa) People, for whom manoomin has cultural importance. Lake cores were taken on June 17, 2014 by LacCore and FDLRM staff and samples were obtained. This project used phytolith analysis to answer the question of past wild rice presence and abundance in Sandy Lake. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica deposits produced in some plants. Zizania palustris produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic of this species in this region. Microscopic slides were prepared and analyzed for wild rice phytoliths. Concentration values ranged from 25 to 4379 phytoliths per cm3/year, and wild rice accumulation figures ranged from 7 to 789 phytoliths/cm2/year, the maximum values of which occurred in the 1920s and generally declined to the current lowest levels observed. Mining has likely impacted wild rice populations by causing increased sulfate levels and possibly contributing to higher lake levels.

  4. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  5. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V


    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  6. Scheuchzeria palustris L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šída, O.; Štěpánková, Jitka


    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 100-101 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : floristics * distribution * endangered species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica. (United States)

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio


    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. The electronically excited states of LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 studied by time-resolved spectroscopy and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. I. Isolated, non-interacting LH2 complexes. (United States)

    Pflock, Tobias J; Oellerich, Silke; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Ullmann, G Matthias; Köhler, Jürgen


    We have employed time-resolved spectroscopy on the picosecond time scale in combination with dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the photophysical properties of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. The variations of the fluorescence transients were studied as a function of the excitation fluence, the repetition rate of the excitation and the sample preparation conditions. Here we present the results obtained on detergent solubilized LH2 complexes, i.e., avoiding intercomplex interactions, and show that a simple four-state model is sufficient to grasp the experimental observations quantitatively without the need for any free parameters. This approach allows us to obtain a quantitative measure for the singlet-triplet annihilation rate in isolated, noninteracting LH2 complexes.

  9. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss (United States)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  10. Bleach vs. Bacteria (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  11. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG


    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  12. [Biodegradation characteristics of o-chlorophenol with photosynthetic bacteria PSB-1D]. (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-min; Dong, Yi-hu; Li, Liang; Lu, Juan; He, Ying-dian; Gao, Yang


    A strain of photosynthetic bacteria named PSB-1D with degradation of o-chlorophenol (2-CP) was isolated and screened from the shallow substrate sludge in downstream side of the sewage outfall of an insecticide factory. The PSB-1D is identified preliminarily as Rhodopseudomonas sp. according to its colony and cell morphological properties, physiological biochemical characteristics and absorption spectrum analysis of living cells. The experiments results of relationship between PSB-1D growth and o-chlorophenol degradation showed that the degradation rate of o-chlorophenol was up to 57.26% after 7 days cultural time. The main environmental factors including way of illumination and oxygen, initial pH, cultural temperature, illumination intensity had distinctly influenced on the o-chlorophenol degradation with PSB-1D. The results showed that the optimum conditions were as following: an anaerobic light, pH 7.0, temperature 30 degrees C, illumination intensity 4000 lx,initial o-chlorophenol concentration 50 mg/L. Under that cultural condition, the degradation rate of o-chlorophenol could reach to 62.08%. The degradation kinetic data fitted the Andrews model well. In addition, the biodegradation process of o-chlorophenol can be well described by enzymatic reaction of high concentration inhibition, with the maximum substrate utilization rate 0.309 d(-1), Michaelis-Menten constant 2.733 mg/L, inhibitory constant 230.15 mg/L respectively.

  13. Triplet states of carotenoids from photosynthetic bacteria studied by nanosecond ultraviolet and electron pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensasson, R.; Land, E.J.; Maudinas, B.


    Absorptions of the triplet excited states of five carotenoids (15,15'-cis phytoene, all-trans phytoene, zeta-carotene, spheroidene and spirillox-anthin), extracted from the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas spheroides and Rhodospirillum rubrum, have been detected in solution using pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis. Triplet lifetimes, extinction coefficients, lowest energy levels and quantum efficiencies of formation have been determined. Comparison of the carotenoid triplet energy levels with that of O 2 ('Δsub(g)) suggests that spirilloxanthin, spheroidene and possibly also zeta-carotene, would be expected to protect against photodynamic action caused by O 2 ('Δsub(g)), but not cis or trans phytoene. The S → T intersystem crossing efficiencies of all five polyenes were found to be low, being a few per cent or less. In their protective role these triplet states can only therefore be effectively reached via energy transfer from another triplet, except in the case of O 2 (Δsub(g)). The low crossover efficiencies also mean that light absorbed in such carotenoids in their possible role as accessory pigments would not be wasted in crossing over to the triplet state. (author)

  14. Full-scale photobioreactor for biotreatment of olive washing water: Structure and diversity of the microalgae-bacteria consortium. (United States)

    Maza-Márquez, P; González-Martínez, A; Rodelas, B; González-López, J


    The performance of a full-scale photobioreactor (PBR) for the treatment of olive washing water (OWW) was evaluated under different HRTs (5-2days). The system was able to treat up to 3926L OWWday -1 , and consisted of an activated-carbon pretreatment column and a tubular PBR unit (80 tubes, 98.17L volume, 2-m height, 0.25m diameter). PBR was an effective and environmentally friendly method for the removal of phenols, COD, BOD 5 , turbidity and color from OWW (average efficiencies 94.84±0.55%, 85.86±1.24%, 99.12±0.17%, 95.86±0.98% and 87.24±0.91%, respectively). The diversity of total bacteria and microalgae in the PBR was analyzed using Illumina-sequencing, evaluating the efficiency of two DNA extraction methods. A stable microalgae-bacteria consortium was developed throughout the whole experimentation period, regardless of changes in HRT, temperature or solar radiation. MDS analyses revealed that the interplay between green algae (Sphaeropleales), cyanobacteria (Hapalosiphon) and Proteobacteria (Rhodopseudomonas, Azotobacter) played important roles in OWW bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  16. Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Engstrom, D. R.; Coleman Wasik, J.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.; Blaha, G.


    Field observations suggest that surface water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is not toxic to wild rice at even unrealistically high concentrations. To determine how sulfate might directly or indirectly affect wild rice, potential wild rice habitat was characterized for 64 chemical and physical variables in over 100 sites spanning a relatively steep climatic and geological gradient in Minnesota. Habitat suitability was assessed by comparing the occurrence of wild rice with the field variables, through binary logistic regression. This analysis demonstrated that sulfide in sediment pore water, generated by the microbial reduction of sulfate that diffuses or advects into the sediment, is the primary control of wild rice occurrence. Water temperature and water transparency independently control the suitability of habitat for wild rice. In addition to generating phytotoxic sulfide, sulfate reduction also supports anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients that can compound the harm of direct sulfide toxicity. These results are important because they show that increases in sulfate loading to surface water can have multiple negative consequences for ecosystems, even though sulfate itself is relatively benign.

  17. Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia). (United States)

    Kovács, G; Burghardt, J; Pradella, S; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Màrialigeti, K


    Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68T and TAGA27T was supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68T and TAGA27T is 69.4 and 69.6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925T and Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T.

  18. High-resolution bioactivity profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR: α-Glucosidase inhibitors and acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides from Myrcia palustris DC. (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Moresco, Henrique H; Tahtah, Yousof; Brighente, Inês M C; Staerk, Dan


    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an endocrine metabolic disease with a worldwide prevalence of more than 8%, and an expected increase close to 50% in the next 15-20years. T2D is associated with severe and life-threatening complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases, and therefore improved drug leads or functional foods containing α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed for management of blood glucose. In this study, leaves of Myrcia palustris were investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of casuarinin, myricetin 3-O-β-d-(6″-galloyl)galactopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin, and quercetin as α-glucosidase inhibitors. In addition, four acetylated ellagic acid rhamnosides, i.e., 4-O-(2″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(2″,3″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, 4-O-(3″,4″-O-diacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 4-O-(2″,3″,4″-O-triacetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid were identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.


    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria

  20. Towards understanding the biological function of hopanoids (Invited) (United States)

    Doughty, D. M.; Hunter, R.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, D. K.


    Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 expresses bacterial hopanoid lipids that are structurally similar and evolutionarily related to eukaryotic sterols. The genome of R. palustris TIE-1 contains two copies of the hpnN gene (hpnN1 and hpnN2) that are orthologs of genes encoding eukaryotic sterol and lipid transporters. Hopanoid localization to the outer membrane was found to be dependent upon hpnN1. Since the cell cycle of R. palustris TIE-1 is obligately bimodal with each cell division resulting in the generation of one mother and one swarmer cell, evidence was obtained that hopanoids where specifically localized to the outer membrane of mother cells. The sequestration of hopanoids to the mother cells was also disrupted by the deletion of the hpnN1 gene. Mutants lacking the hopanoid transporters were able to grow normally at 30 °C but showed decreased growth at 38 °C. The hopanoid transporter mutant formed cellular filaments when grown at elevated temperature. Because sedimentary steranes and hopanes comprise some of the earliest evidence for the emergence of distinct bacteria and eukaryotic phyla, a better appreciation of the function of hopanoids will improve our ability to interpret the evolution of life on Earth.

  1. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp


    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  2. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.


    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  3. Do Bacteria Age?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacteria are thought to be examples of organisms that do not age. They divide by .... carry genetic material to the next generation through the process of reproduction; they are also .... molecules, and modified proteins. This report revealed that ...

  4. Social Behaviour in Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the recipient. • Social behaviours can be categorized according to the fitness ... is actually the flagella of symbiotic spirochete bacteria that helps it to swim around .... Normal population. Responsive switching. (Environmental stress). Stochastic.

  5. [Darwin and bacteria]. (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter


    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  6. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria


    Serrato, Rodrigo V.


    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are...

  7. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria. (United States)

    Serrato, Rodrigo V


    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  8. Genome Assembly of the Fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and Transcriptome Analysis during Early Stages of Infection on American Wildrice (Zizania palustris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Castell-Miller

    Full Text Available The fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes severe leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Despite the importance of C. miyabeanus as a disease-causing agent in wildrice, little is known about either the mechanisms of pathogenicity or host defense responses. To start bridging these gaps, the genome of C. miyabeanus strain TG12bL2 was shotgun sequenced using Illumina technology. The genome assembly consists of 31.79 Mbp in 2,378 scaffolds with an N50 = 74,921. It contains 11,000 predicted genes of which 94.5% were annotated. Approximately 10% of total gene number is expected to be secreted. The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs and some fungal effector homologs. Detoxification systems were represented by a variety of enzymes that could offer protection against plant defense compounds. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases (PKS present were common to other Cochliobolus species. Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta. A total of 10,674 genes were found to be expressed, some of which are known to be involved in pathogenicity or response to host defenses including hydrophobins, cutinase, cell wall degrading enzymes, enzymes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, PKS, detoxification systems, SSPs, and a known fungal effector. This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns and effectors, and in the identification of their corresponding wildrice defense mechanisms.

  9. Effect of carbon sources on the aggregation of photo fermentative bacteria induced by L-cysteine for enhancing hydrogen production. (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Ding, Jie; Wang, Qilin; Ma, Chao; Zhou, Xu; Ren, Nan-Qi


    Poor flocculation of photo fermentative bacteria resulting in continuous biomass washout from photobioreactor is a critical challenge to achieve rapid and stable hydrogen production. In this work, the aggregation of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 was successfully developed in a photobioreactor and the effects of different carbon sources on hydrogen production and aggregation ability were investigated. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production by R. faecalis RLD-53 cultivated using different carbon sources were stimulated by addition of L-cysteine. The absolute ζ potentials of R. faecalis RLD-53 were considerably decreased with addition of L-cysteine, and aggregation barriers based on DLVO dropped to 15-43 % of that in control groups. Thus, R. faecalis RLD-53 flocculated effectively, and aggregation abilities of strain RLD-53 cultivated with acetate, propionate, lactate and malate reached 29.35, 32.34, 26.07 and 24.86 %, respectively. In the continuous test, hydrogen-producing activity was also promoted and reached 2.45 mol H 2 /mol lactate, 3.87 mol H 2 /mol propionate and 5.10 mol H 2 /mol malate, respectively. Therefore, the aggregation of R. faecalis RLD-53 induced by L-cysteine is independent on the substrate types, which ensures the wide application of this technology to enhance hydrogen recovery from wastewater dominated by different organic substrates.

  10. The fecal bacteria (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.


    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  11. Mycorrhiza helper bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveau, Aurelie [French National Insitute for Agricultural Research (INRA); Labbe, Jessy [ORNL


    This chapter focuses on the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria (MHB), a generic name given to bacteria which stimulate the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis. By extension, some bacterial strains that positively impact the functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis are also called MHB. These bacteria have applicative interests, as they indirectly improve the health and growth of tree seedlings. MHB are not restricted to a specific type of ecosystem, but are rather generalist in the way that they associate with both herbaceous and woody mycorrhizal plants from boreal, temperate, arid and tropical ecosystems. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms and their specificities will help us to know more about the ecology of the MHB. The process of acquisition varies between fungal species; while ectomycorrhizal fungi most probably recurrently acquire them from the environment, the association between bacterial endosymbionts and Glomeromycota probably dates back to very ancient times, and has since been vertically transmitted.

  12. Communication among Oral Bacteria (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.


    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001


    There is a paucity of information concerning any link between the microorganisms commonly found in biofilms of drinking water systems and their impacts on human health. For bacteria, culture-based techniques detect only a limited number of the total microorganisms associated wit...

  14. Bacteria-surface interactions. (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B


    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  15. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Antifreeze Proteins of Bacteria. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 25-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Isolated Bacteria from Hyphantria cunea (Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Albayrak İskender


    Full Text Available The fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea is a polyphagous pest with numerous host plants. In the present study, the bacterial flora of H.cunea was investigated to identify new organisms that can be used as microbial control agent against the pest. Six bacteria were isolated and cultured from H. cunea. Some morphological, biochemical and other phenotypic characteristics (with API 20E, API 50 CH, API Staph and API Coryne kits of bacterial isolates were determined. In addition, 16S rRNA gene region was sequenced. As a result of the studies conducted, bacterial isolates were identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Abk1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Abk2, Staphylococcus sciuri (Abk4, Kocuria palustris (Abk6, Arthrobacter arilaitensis (Abk7 and Microbacterium oxydans (Abk8. All bacterial isolates were tested for 12 days against third-fourth instar larvae of H. cunea. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from L. sphaericus (Abk1 with 30% after application (p<0.05. These results indicate that L. sphaericus (Abk1 can be taken into account in the microbial pest control of H. cunea. In the future, further studies will be conducted by using pathogenicity enrichment strategies of L. sphaericus (Abk1 (ex. combining with other entomopathogens or insecticides in order to increase the effectiveness on H. cunea.

  17. Genomics and ecophysiology of heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from estuarine surface water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Severin, Ina; Hansen, Lars H.


    The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing heterotrop......The ability to reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia, known as N2 fixation, is a widely distributed trait among prokaryotes that accounts for an essential input of new N to a multitude of environments. Nitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) composition suggests that putative N2-fixing...... heterotrophic organisms are widespread in marine bacterioplankton, but their autecology and ecological significance are unknown. Here, we report genomic and ecophysiology data in relation to N2 fixation by three environmentally relevant heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Baltic Sea surface water: Pseudomonas...... liter-1, presumably accommodated through aggregate formation. Glucose stimulated N2 fixation in general, and reactive N repressed N2 fixation, except that ammonium (NH4 ) stimulated N2 fixation in R. palustris BAL398, indicating the use of nitrogenase as an electron sink. The lack of correlations...

  18. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balance of bacterial species in the gut · Immunosensory detection of intestinal bacteria · Pathogenic bacteria release interleukin-8 from HT-29 cells · Lactobacillus GG prevents the IL-8 release in response to pathogens · Effect of probiotic bacteria on chemokine response of epithelia to pathogens · PCR array studies in colon ...

  19. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  20. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  1. Genes essential for phototrophic growth by a purple alphaproteobacterium: Genes for phototrophic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianming [Key Lab of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao Shandong Province People' s Republic of China; Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Yin, Liang [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Lessner, Faith H. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville AR USA; Nakayasu, Ernesto S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Payne, Samuel H. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Fixen, Kathryn R. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Gallagher, Larry [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Harwood, Caroline S. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA


    Anoxygenic purple phototrophic bacteria have served as important models for studies of photophosphorylation. The pigment-protein complexes responsible for converting light energy to ATP are relatively simple and these bacteria can grow heterotrophically under aerobic conditions, thus allowing for the study of mutants defective in photophosphorylation. In the past, genes responsible for anoxygenic phototrophic growth have been identified in a number of different bacterial species. Here we systematically studied the genetic basis for this metabolism by using Tn-seq to identify genes essential for the anaerobic growth of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris on acetate in light. We identified 171 genes required for growth in this condition, 35 of which are annotated as photosynthesis genes. Among these are a few new genes not previously shown to be essential for phototrophic growth. We verified the essentiality of many of the genes we identified by analyzing the phenotypes of mutants we generated by Tn mutagenesis that had altered pigmentation. We used directed mutagenesis to verify that the R. palustris NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex IE is essential for phototrophic growth. As a complement to the genetic data, we carried out proteomics experiments in which we found that 429 proteins were present in significantly higher amounts in cells grown anaerobically in light compared to aerobically. Among these were proteins encoded by subset of the phototrophic growth-essential genes.

  2. A quantum mechanical analysis of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from purple photosynthetic bacteria: insights into the electrostatic effects of transmembrane helices. (United States)

    Pichierri, Fabio


    We perform a quantum mechanical study of the peptides that are part of the LH2 complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, a non-sulfur purple bacteria that has the ability of producing chemical energy from photosynthesis. The electronic structure calculations indicate that the transmembrane helices of these peptides are characterized by dipole moments with a magnitude of about 150D. When the full nonamer assembly made of 18 peptides is considered, then a macrodipole of magnitude 806D is built up from the vector sum of each monomer dipole. The macrodipole is oriented normal to the membrane plane and with the positive tip toward the cytoplasm thereby indicating that the electronic charge of the protein scaffold is polarized toward the periplasm. The results obtained here suggest that the asymmetric charge distribution of the protein scaffold contributes an anisotropic electrostatic environment which differentiates the absorption properties of the bacteriochlorophyll pigments, B800 and B850, embedded in the LH2 complex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional amyloids in bacteria. (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Kolter, Roberto


    The term amyloidosis is used to refer to a family of pathologies altering the homeostasis of human organs. Despite having a name that alludes to starch content, the amyloid accumulations are made up of proteins that polymerize as long and rigid fibers. Amyloid proteins vary widely with respect to their amino acid sequences but they share similarities in their quaternary structure; the amyloid fibers are enriched in β-sheets arranged perpendicular to the axis of the fiber. This structural feature provides great robustness, remarkable stability, and insolubility. In addition, amyloid proteins specifically stain with certain dyes such as Congo red and thioflavin-T. The aggregation into amyloid fibers, however, it is not restricted to pathogenic processes, rather it seems to be widely distributed among proteins and polypeptides. Amyloid fibers are present in insects, fungi and bacteria, and they are important in maintaining the homeostasis of the organism. Such findings have motivated the use of the term "functional amyloid" to differentiate these amyloid proteins from their toxic siblings. This review focuses on systems that have evolved in bacteria that control the expression and assembly of amyloid proteins on cell surfaces, such that the robustness of amyloid proteins are used towards a beneficial end. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  4. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  5. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen


    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  6. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned.

  7. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Keiji


    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  8. Direct interaction between linear electron transfer chains and solute transport systems in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, Marieke G.L.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Belkum, Marco J. van; Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.


    In studies on alanine and lactose transport in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides we have demonstrated that the rate of solute uptake in this phototrophic bacterium is regulated by the rate of light-induced cyclic electron transfer. In the present paper the interaction between linear electron transfer

  9. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E


    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  10. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun


    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  11. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39936538 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39935198 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39995137 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_002939 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002939 gi|39996799 >1u07A 9 88 204 283 1e-12 ... emb|CAE27570.1| possible energy t...ransducer TonB, C-terminal region ... [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ref|NP_947474.1| ... possible energy

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_002678 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002678 gi|13471241 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... CGA009] ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer ...

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_004463 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004463 gi|27379019 >1u07A 13 88 186 259 1e-09 ... emb|CAE28917.1| possible energy ...transducer TonB [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_948814.1| possible energy transducer T

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39933548 >1v7zA 10 254 14 256 2e-44 ... emb|CAE25915.1| putative creatin...e amidohydrolase [Rhodopseudomonas palustris ... CGA009] ref|NP_945824.1| putative creatine ...

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_005296 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005296 gi|39933534 >1rkd0 3 296 29 346 6e-36 ... emb|CAE25901.1| possible cabohydr...ate kinases [Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009] ... ref|NP_945810.1| possible cabohydrate kinases ...

  20. Ecophysiology of the Anammox Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, M.B.


    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor. These bacteria are the key players in the global nitrogen cycle, responsible for the most of nitrogen production in natural ecosystems. The anammox process is also a

  1. Money and transmission of bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gedik, H.; Voss, T.A.; Voss, A.


    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria

  2. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grinsven Bart Robert, Nicolaas; Cleij, Thomas


    A method for characterizing bacteria includes passing a liquid containing an analyte comprising a first bacteria and a second bacteria over and in contact with a polymer material on a substrate. The polymer material is formulated to bind to the first bacteria, and the first bacteria binds to the

  4. Review on SERS of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Mosier-Boss


    Full Text Available Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS has been widely used for chemical detection. Moreover, the inherent richness of the spectral data has made SERS attractive for use in detecting biological materials, including bacteria. This review discusses methods that have been used to obtain SERS spectra of bacteria. The kinds of SERS substrates employed to obtain SERS spectra are discussed as well as how bacteria interact with silver and gold nanoparticles. The roll of capping agents on Ag/Au NPs in obtaining SERS spectra is examined as well as the interpretation of the spectral data.

  5. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN


    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  6. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.


    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  7. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  8. hydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) producing bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 4, 2007 ... ium (MSM), having inhibitors for Gram positive bacteria and fungi and a mixed ... Two techniques were used for detecting the presence of polymer: staining ... was saline solution at 600 nm wavelength on VARIAN DSM 100.

  9. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.


    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  10. Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene. (United States)

    Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A


    In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

  11. Photo-fermentative bacteria aggregation triggered by L-cysteine during hydrogen production. (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Xing, De-Feng; Nan, Jun; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi


    Hydrogen recovered from organic wastes and solar energy by photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) has been suggested as a promising bioenergy strategy. However, the use of PFB for hydrogen production generally suffers from a serious biomass washout from photobioreactor, due to poor flocculation of PFB. In the continuous operation, PFB cells cannot be efficiently separated from supernatant and rush out with effluent from reactor continuously, which increased the effluent turbidity, meanwhile led to increases in pollutants. Moreover, to replenish the biomass washout, substrate was continuously utilized for cell growth rather than hydrogen production. Consequently, the poor flocculability not only deteriorated the effluent quality, but also decreased the potential yield of hydrogen from substrate. Therefore, enhancing the flocculability of PFB is urgent necessary to further develop photo-fermentative process. Here, we demonstrated that L-cysteine could improve hydrogen production of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53, and more importantly, simultaneously trigger remarkable aggregation of PFB. Experiments showed that L-cysteine greatly promoted the production of extracellular polymeric substances, especially secretion of protein containing more disulfide bonds, and help for enhancement stability of floc of PFB. Through formation of disulfide bonds, L-cysteine not only promoted production of EPS, in particular the secretion of protein, but also stabilized the final confirmation of protein in EPS. In addition, the cell surface elements and functional groups, especially surface charged groups, have also been changed by L-cysteine. Consequently, absolute zeta potential reached a minimum value at 1.0 g/l of L-cysteine, which obviously decreased electrostatic repulsion interaction energy based on DLVO theory. Total interaction energy barrier decreased from 389.77 KT at 0.0 g/l of L-cysteine to 127.21 kT at 1.0 g/l. Thus, the strain RLD-53 overcame the total energy barrier and

  12. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta


    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  13. Human body may produce bacteria. (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J


    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria. (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia


    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  15. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone


    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  16. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby


    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta


    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  18. Alternative sources of Legionella bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, H.H.L.


    Legionella bacteria can cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in humans. Symptoms of LD can range from mild disease to severe pneumonia with sometimes fatal outcome. In the Netherlands, the most important infective agent is Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila infection is associated with aquatic

  19. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...

  20. Automated radiometric detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, J.R.


    A new radiometric method called BACTEC, used for the detection of bacteria in cultures or in supposedly sterile samples, was discussed from the standpoint of methodology, both automated and semi-automated. Some of the results obtained so far were reported and some future applications and development possibilities were described. In this new method, the test sample is incubated in a sealed vial with a liquid culture medium containing a 14 C-labeled substrate. If bacteria are present, they break down the substrate, producing 14 CO 2 which is periodically extracted from the vial as a gas and is tested for radioactivity. If this gaseous radioactivity exceeds a threshold level, it is evidence of bacterial presence and growth in the test vial. The first application was for the detection of bacteria in the blood cultures of hospital patients. Data were presented showing typical results. Also discussed were future applications, such as rapid screening for bacteria in urine industrial sterility testing and the disposal of used 14 C substrates. (Mukohata, S.)

  1. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko


    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that

  2. Deodorant bacteria; Des bacteries desodorisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 30 - Ales (France)


    Purifying bacteria: if this concept is not new, its application to gases cleansing has only been developed recently. This method allows to eliminate the volatile organic compounds and the gaseous effluents odors which come from industrial sites. Three bioreactors types exist at the present time. Their principles are explained. (O.M.) 6 refs.

  3. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  4. A 400-year phytolith-based reconstruction of wild rice (Zizania palustris) abundance from Mud Lake core sediments, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, USA. (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Caylor, E.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.


    Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) is an aquatic grass with spiritual and subsistence significance to Native people of the Great Lakes region of North America. Mud Lake (Mashkiigwaagamaag), located on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation in Carlton County, Minnesota, USA, once supported an extensive population of wild rice (manoomin). However, early 20th century attempts to ditch and drain surrounding wetlands for landuse intensification severely altered the natural hydrological system that supports wild rice. Fond du Lac Resource Management (FDLRM) technicians are currently working to increase the wild rice population in Mud Lake. As part of these efforts, this phytolith study was undertaken to better understand how wild rice abundance has fluctuated over the past 400 years, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica plant remains that are incorporated into soils and lake sediments after the plant-parts that contain them decay. Wild rice produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic. Mud Lake core MNMN-MUD11-1C-1P-1 (46°43'38.39"N, 92°42'2.45"W) was piston cored by LacCore (National Lacustrine Core Facility) and FDLRM technicians on 24 May 2011. Initial core descriptions, multi-sensor core logging, phytolith sampling and phytolith extractions were completed during the summer of 2014 at LacCore. Wild rice phytolith identification and quantification was conducted on twelve samples using brightfield microscopy at 400x magnification. Wild rice phytolith concentration values ranged from 68 to 2,300 phytoliths/cm3. Wild rice accumulation rates ranged from 9 to 383 phytoliths/ cm2/yr, peaking in 1952 AD. Wild rice abundance in Mud Lake appears to be influenced by a complex set of variables that include anthropogenic disturbance, climatic events and aquatic plant community succession.

  5. Development of a Novel Escherichia coli–Kocuria Shuttle Vector Using the Cryptic pKPAL3 Plasmid from K. palustris IPUFS-1 and Its Utilization in Producing Enantiopure (S-Styrene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Toda


    Full Text Available The novel cryptic pKPAL3 plasmid was isolated from the Gram-positive microorganism Kocuria palustris IPUFS-1 and characterized in detail. pKPAL3 is a circular plasmid that is 4,443 bp in length. Open reading frame (ORF and homology search analyses indicated that pKPAL3 possesses four ORFs; however, there were no replication protein coding genes predicted in the plasmid. Instead, there were two nucleotide sequence regions that showed significant identities with untranslated regions of K. rhizophila DC2201 (NBRC 103217 genomic sequences, and these sequences were essential for autonomous replication of pKPAL3 in Kocuria cells. Based on these findings, we constructed the novel Escherichia coli–Kocuria shuttle vectors pKITE301 (kanamycin resistant and pKITE303 (thiostrepton resistant from pKPAL3. The copy numbers of the constructed shuttle vectors were estimated to be 20 per cell, and they exhibited low segregation stability in Kocuria transformant cells in the absence of antibiotics. Moreover, constructed vectors showed compatibility with the other K. rhizophila shuttle vector pKITE103. We successfully expressed multiple heterologous genes, including the styrene monooxygenase gene from Rhodococcus sp. ST-10 (rhsmo and alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Leifsonia sp. S749 (lsadh, in K. rhizophila DC2201 using the pKITE301P and pKITE103P vectors under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh promotor. The RhSMO–LSADH co-expressing K. rhizophila was used as a biocatalyst in an organic solvent–water biphasic reaction system to efficiently convert styrene into (S-styrene oxide with 99% ee in the presence of 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. The product concentration of the reaction in the organic solvent reached 235 mM after 30 h under optimum conditions. Thus, we demonstrated that this novel shuttle vector is useful for developing biocatalysts based on organic solvent-tolerant Kocuria cells.

  6. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  7. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O


    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  8. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.


    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J


    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  9. Geobiology of Marine Magnetotactic Bacteria (United States)


    prokaryotic cells of diverse phylogeny when grown in media containing 45 1mM iron, suggesting some kind of detoxification function . The inclusions were...salt marsh productivity. FISH also showed that aggregates consist of genetically identical cells. QPCR data indicated that populations are advisor Katrina Edwards for taking a chance on someone who initially knew nothing about magnetotactic bacteria, microbial ecology , or microbiology

  10. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.


    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in

  11. Laser-Based Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.


    Bacteria are ubiquitous in our world. From our homes, to our work environment, to our own bodies, bacteria are the omnipresent although often unobserved companions to human life. Physicists are typically untroubled professionally by the presence of these bacteria, as their study usually falls safely outside the realm of our typical domain. In the…

  12. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan


    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in

  13. Ecology of mycophagous collimonas bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie


    Bacteria belonging to the genus Collimonas consist of soil bacteria that can grow at expense of living fungal hyphae i.e. they are mycophagous. This PhD studies deals with the ecology of mycophagous bacteria in soil using collimonads as model organisms. Collimonads were found to be widely

  14. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng


    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!". (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan


    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between

  16. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria


    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.


    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  17. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria. (United States)

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E


    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema. (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C


    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential detection of type II methanotrophic bacteria in acidic peatlands using newly developed 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F; Derakshani, Manigee; Stubner, Stephan; Heyer, Jürgen; Liesack, Werner


    Abstract Based on an extensive 16S rRNA sequence database for type II methanotrophic bacteria, a set of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for differential detection of specific phylogenetic groups of these bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). This set of oligonucleotides included a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis (Mcyst-1432) and three species-specific probes for Methylosinus sporium (Msins-647), Methylosinus trichosporium (Msint-1268) and the recently described acidophilic methanotroph Methylocapsa acidiphila (Mcaps-1032). These novel probes were applied to further characterise the type II methanotroph community that was detected in an acidic Sphagnum peat from West Siberia in a previous study (Dedysh et al. (2001) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4850-4857). The largest detectable population of indigenous methanotrophs simultaneously hybridised with a group-specific probe targeting all currently known Methylosinus/Methylocystis spp. (M-450), with a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis spp. (Mcyst-1432), and with an additional probe (Mcyst-1261) that had been designed to target a defined phylogenetic subgroup of Methylocystis spp. The same subgroup of Methylocystis was also detected in acidic peat sampled from Sphagnum-dominated wetland in northern Germany. The population size of this peat-inhabiting Methylocystis subgroup was 2.0+/-0.1x10(6) cells g(-1) (wet weight) of peat from Siberia and 5.5+/-0.5x10(6) cells g(-1) of peat from northern Germany. This represented 60 and 95%, respectively, of the total number of methanotroph cells detected by FISH in these two wetland sites. Other major methanotroph populations were M. acidiphila and Methylocella palustris. Type I methanotrophs accounted for not more than 1% of total methanotroph cells. Neither M. trichosporium nor M. sporium were detected in acidic Sphagnum peat.

  20. Pathogenic mechanisms of intracellular bacteria. (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos


    We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.

  1. Money and transmission of bacteria. (United States)

    Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas


    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider.

  2. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides. (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves


    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  3. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria. (United States)

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E


    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  4. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane


    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  5. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M


    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  6. Differential staining of bacteria: acid fast stain. (United States)

    Reynolds, Jackie; Moyes, Rita B; Breakwell, Donald P


    Acid-fastness is an uncommon characteristic shared by the genera Mycobacterium (Section 10A) and Nocardia. Because of this feature, this stain is extremely helpful in identification of these bacteria. Although Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria do not take the crystal violet into the wall well, appearing very light purple rather than the deep purple of normal Gram-positive bacteria. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao


    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.B.; Blakemore, R.P.; Araujo, F.F.T. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.; Danon, J.


    Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author) [pt

  9. Bioenergetics of photoheterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. (United States)

    Kirchman, David L; Hanson, Thomas E


    Photoheterotrophic microbes, such as proteorhodopsin (PR)-based phototrophic (PRP) and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, are well known to be abundant in the oceans, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. However, the contribution of phototrophy to the energy requirements of these bacteria has not been quantitatively examined to date. To better understand the implications of photoheterophy in the oceans, we calculated energy benefits and costs of phototrophy and compared net benefits with maintenance costs. Benefits depend on the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs), absorption cross-section area of each PSU as function of wavelength, the in situ light quality, and the energy yield per absorbed photon. For costs we considered the energy required for the synthesis of pigments, amino acids and proteins in each PSU. Our calculations indicate that AAP bacteria harvest more light energy than do PRP bacteria, but the costs of phototrophy are much higher for AAP bacteria. Still, the net energy gained by AAP bacteria is often sufficient to meet maintenance costs, while that is not the case for PRP bacteria except with high light intensities and large numbers of proteorhodopsin molecules per cell. The low costs and simplicity of PR-based phototrophy explain the high abundance of proteorhodopsin genes in the oceans. However, even for AAP bacteria, the net energy yield of phototrophy is apparently too low to influence the distribution of photoheterotrophic bacteria among various marine systems. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.


    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community, and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS). Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal...... molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  11. Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of methanogenic bacteria from brewery wastewater in Kenya. Sylvia Injete Murunga, Duncan Onyango Mbuge, Ayub Njoroge Gitau, Urbanus Ndungwa Mutwiwa, Ingrid Namae Wekesa ...

  12. Fewer bacteria in warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, Lene


    There has been many suggestions to how the ideal warm water system should be. Particularly whether warm water containers or heat exchangers in larger houses are the best solutions in order to maintain a water quality with low levels of bacteria. In an investigation made by Statens Byggeforskningsinstitutt (Denmark) regarding ''Bacterial growth in warm water installations with heat exchangers'' there were used several heat exchangers made by Gjelsted and Lund of three of which had HWAT heating cables. The bacterial content was low from these exchangers compared to exchangers with circulation. The article presents promising results from a study where the method was investigated over a longer period in two new larger warm water systems. Some energy conservation aspects are discussed

  13. Modeling Political Populations with Bacteria (United States)

    Cleveland, Chris; Liao, David


    Results from lattice-based simulations of micro-environments with heterogeneous nutrient resources reveal that competition between wild-type and GASP rpoS819 strains of E. Coli offers mutual benefit, particularly in nutrient deprived regions. Our computational model spatially maps bacteria populations and energy sources onto a set of 3D lattices that collectively resemble the topology of North America. By implementing Wright-Fishcer re- production into a probabilistic leap-frog scheme, we observe populations of wild-type and GASP rpoS819 cells compete for resources and, yet, aid each other's long term survival. The connection to how spatial political ideologies map in a similar way is discussed.

  14. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria (United States)

    Amir, Ariel


    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen


    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  16. Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria. (United States)

    Wei, Jeremy H; Yin, Xinchi; Welander, Paula V


    Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from five phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia) and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult. Some bacteria

  17. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin


    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/ m 2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Change in microbial communities in acetate- and glucose-fed microbial fuel cells in the presence of light

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Defeng


    Power densities produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in natural systems are changed by exposure to light through the enrichment of photosynthetic microorganisms. When MFCs with brush anodes were exposed to light (4000 lx), power densities increased by 8-10% for glucose-fed reactors, and 34% for acetate-fed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that exposure to high light levels changed the microbial communities on the anodes. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of light-exposed systems the anode communities using glucose were also significantly different than those fed acetate. Dominant bacteria that are known exoelectrogens were identified in the anode biofilm, including a purple nonsulfur (PNS) photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Pure culture tests confirmed that PNS photosynthetic bacteria increased power production when exposed to high light intensities (4000 lx). These results demonstrate that power production and community composition are affected by light conditions as well as electron donors in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Change in microbial communities in acetate- and glucose-fed microbial fuel cells in the presence of light

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Defeng; Cheng, Shaoan; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.


    Power densities produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in natural systems are changed by exposure to light through the enrichment of photosynthetic microorganisms. When MFCs with brush anodes were exposed to light (4000 lx), power densities increased by 8-10% for glucose-fed reactors, and 34% for acetate-fed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that exposure to high light levels changed the microbial communities on the anodes. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of light-exposed systems the anode communities using glucose were also significantly different than those fed acetate. Dominant bacteria that are known exoelectrogens were identified in the anode biofilm, including a purple nonsulfur (PNS) photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Pure culture tests confirmed that PNS photosynthetic bacteria increased power production when exposed to high light intensities (4000 lx). These results demonstrate that power production and community composition are affected by light conditions as well as electron donors in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere, (United States)


    Two hundred and fifty bacterial strains were isolated from pinyon rhizosphere and screened for biosurfactants production. Among them, six bacterial strains were selected for their potential to produce biosurfactants using two low cost wastes, crude glycerol and lactoserum, as raw material. Both wastes were useful for producing biosurfactants because of their high content in fat and carbohydrates. The six strains were identified by 16S rDNA with an identity percentage higher than 95%, three strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus and Rhizobium sp. All strains assayed were able to grow and showed halos around the colonies as evidence of biosurfactants production on Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide agar with crude glycerol and lactoserum as substrate. In a mineral salt liquid medium enriched with both wastes, the biosurfactants were produced and collected from free cell medium after 72 h incubation. The biosurfactants produced reduced the surface tension from 69 to 30 mN/m with an emulsification index of diesel at approximately 60%. The results suggest that biosurfactants produced by rhizosphere bacteria from pinyon have promising environmental applications.

  1. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.


    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains

  2. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.


    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  3. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan


    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  4. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B


    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  5. Analyzing Arthropods for the Presence of Bacteria


    Andrews, Elizabeth S.


    Bacteria within arthropods can be identified using culture-independent methods. This unit describes protocols for surface sterilization of arthropods, DNA extraction of whole bodies and tissues, touchdown PCR amplification using 16S rDNA general bacteria primers and profiling the bacterial community using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  6. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.


    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B T; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L


    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  7. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.


    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  8. Biodiversity of Bacteria Isolated from Different Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma YAMAN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity of PHB producing bacteria isolated from soils where fruit and vegetable are cultivated (onion, grape, olive, mulberry and plum in Aydın providence. Morphological, cultural, biochemical, and molecular methods were used for bacteria identification. These isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and using BLAST. The following bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (6, Bacillus cereus (8, Bacillus anthrachis (1, Bacillus circulans (1, Bacillus weihenstephanensis (1, Pseudomonas putida (1, Azotobacter chroococcum (1, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans (1, Burkholderia sp. (1, Staphylococcus epidermidis (1, Streptomyces exfoliatus (1, Variovorax paradoxus (1 were found. The Maximum Likelihood method was used to produce a molecular phylogenetic analysis and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. These bacteria can produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB which is an organic polymer with commercial potential as a biodegradable thermoplastic. PHB can be used instead of petrol derivated non-degradable plastics. For this reason, PHB producing microorganisms are substantial in industry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j


    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  10. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette


    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  11. Hyphae colonizing bacteria associated with Penicillium bilaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodsalavi, Behnoushsadat

    shown that mycorrhizal helper bacteria presenting in mycorrhizal fungi could stimulate fungal growth, promote establishment of root-fungus symbiosis and enhance plant production. But it is unknown if the comparable relationship exist between the non-mycorrhizal fungus P. bilaii and its hyphae associated...... bacteria. In the current PhD thesis, we assumed that hyphae-associated microbiome of P. bilaii might harbor helper bacteria with ability to improve fungal growth and P solubilization performance. Therefore, we aimed to isolate bacteria associated with the P. bilaii hyphae and identify the fungal growth...... stimulating bacteria with the perspective of promoting efficiency of Jumpstart in soil – plant system. For this purpose, most of the work within the current project was carried out by development of suitable model systems by mimicking the natural soil habitat to reach to the reliable performance in soil...

  12. [Unique properties of highly radioresistant bacteria]. (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Malashenko, Iu R


    In connection with the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident and the negative ecological after-effects for biota in this zone the interest has arisen to radioresistant bacteria, as to the most dynamic model of the given ecosystem, and to mechanisms which provide resistance of bacteria to ionizing radiation. The analysis of published data has shown that the radioresistant bacteria are not interrelated taxonomically and phylogenetically. The extreme radioresistant bacteria are represented by the Deinococcus species, which form a group phylogenetically close to the line Thermus-Meiothermus. Other radioresistant bacteria are the representatives of the genera Rubrobacter, Methylobacterium, Kocuria, Bacillus and some archebacteria. Data on natural habitats, of radioresistant bacteria are not numerous. In a number of cases it is difficult to distinguish their natural habitats, as they were isolated from the samples which were previously exposed to X-ray or gamma-irradiation, or from the ecosystems with the naturally raised radioactivity. To understand the strategy of survival of radioresistant bacteria, we briefly reviewed the mechanism of action of various species of radiation on cells and macromolecules; physiological signs of the cell damage caused by radiation; mechanisms eliminating (repairing) these damages. More details on mechanisms of the DNA repair in D. radiodurans are described. The extreme resistance of D. radiodurans to the DNA damaging factors is defined by 1) repair mechanisms which fundamentally differ from those in other procaryotes; 2) ability to increase the efficiency of a standard set of the DNA repairing proteins. Literary and own data on the effect of radiation on survival of various groups of bacteria in natural ecosystems are summarized. The ecological consequences of the ChNPP accident for soil bacteria in this region were estimated. The reduction of the number of soil bacteria and recession of microbial diversity under the effect of

  13. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.


    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  14. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System (United States)


    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  16. Integrating large-scale functional genomics data to dissect metabolic networks for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, Caroline S


    The goal of this project is to identify gene networks that are critical for efficient biohydrogen production by leveraging variation in gene content and gene expression in independently isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains. Coexpression methods were applied to large data sets that we have collected to define probabilistic causal gene networks. To our knowledge this a first systems level approach that takes advantage of strain-to strain variability to computationally define networks critical for a particular bacterial phenotypic trait.

  17. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt


    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  18. Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Julian W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

  19. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi


    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  20. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre


    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  1. Fermentative Bacteria Influence the Competition between Denitrifiers and DNRA Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M. van den Berg


    results of this study clearly show that not only the ratio of available substrates, but also the nature of the electron donor influences the outcome of competition between DNRA and denitrification. Apparently, fermentative bacteria are competitive for the electron donor and thereby alter the ratio of available substrates for nitrate reduction.

  2. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse...... metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples....

  3. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.


    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  4. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G.


    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [ 3 H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate

  5. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira


    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  6. Bacteria Culture Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information (United States)

    ... this page: Bacteria Culture Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bacteria Culture Test? Bacteria are a large group of ...

  7. Flow cytometry, fluorescent probes, and flashing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.


    Key words: fluorescent probes, flow cytometry, CSLM, viability, survival, microbial physiology, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , cheese, milk,

  8. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.; Michel, J.; Ferne, M.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.; Ginsburg, I.


    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  9. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.


    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  10. Lactic acid bacteria: microbiological and functional aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lahtinen, Sampo


    "Updated with the substantial progress made in lactic acid and bacteria research since the third edition, this fourth volume discusses improved insights in genetics and new molecular biological techniques...

  11. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.


    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  12. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.


    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  13. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation. (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yin, Kun; Chen, Lingxin


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, food cans, and other daily used chemicals. Daily and worldwide usage of BPA and BPA-contained products led to its ubiquitous distribution in water, sediment/soil, and atmosphere. Moreover, BPA has been identified as an environmental endocrine disruptor for its estrogenic and genotoxic activity. Thus, BPA contamination in the environment is an increasingly worldwide concern, and methods to efficiently remove BPA from the environment are urgently recommended. Although many factors affect the fate of BPA in the environment, BPA degradation is mainly depended on the metabolism of bacteria. Many BPA-degrading bacteria have been identified from water, sediment/soil, and wastewater treatment plants. Metabolic pathways of BPA degradation in specific bacterial strains were proposed, based on the metabolic intermediates detected during the degradation process. In this review, the BPA-degrading bacteria were summarized, and the (proposed) BPA degradation pathway mediated by bacteria were referred.

  14. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  15. Interactions between phototrophic bacteria in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Rutger


    Phototrophic bacteria are the most consicious organisms occuring in laminated microbial sediment ecosystems (microbial mats). In the Waddensea area ecosystems consisting of a toplayer of the cyanobacterium Microleus chthonoplastes overlying a red layer of the purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa

  16. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.


    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  17. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter


    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  18. Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by periodontal bacteria. (United States)

    Palmer, L J; Chapple, I L C; Wright, H J; Roberts, A; Cooper, P R


    Whilst certain bacteria have long been known to secrete extracellular deoxyribonuclease (DNase), the purpose in microbial physiology was unclear. Recently, however, this enzyme has been demonstrated to confer enhanced virulence, enabling bacteria to evade the host's immune defence of extruded DNA/chromatin filaments, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). As NETs have recently been identified in infected periodontal tissue, the aim of this study was to screen periodontal bacteria for extracellular DNase activity. To determine whether DNase activity was membrane bound or secreted, 34 periodontal bacteria were cultured in broth and on agar plates. Pelleted bacteria and supernatants from broth cultures were analysed for their ability to degrade DNA, with relative activity levels determined using an agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Following culture on DNA-supplemented agar, expression was determined by the presence of a zone of hydrolysis and DNase activity related to colony size. Twenty-seven bacteria, including red and orange complex members Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus constellatus, Campylobacter rectus and Prevotella nigrescens, were observed to express extracellular DNase activity. Differences in DNase activity were noted, however, when bacteria were assayed in different culture states. Analysis of the activity of secreted DNase from bacterial broth cultures confirmed their ability to degrade NETs. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that DNase activity is a relatively common property of bacteria associated with advanced periodontal disease. Further work is required to determine the importance of this bacterial DNase activity in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia


    Neroni,Rafaela de Fátima; Cardoso,Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira


    Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirm...

  20. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria]. (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K


    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  1. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone


    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum as solidif......Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... as solidifying agents, and enumerated bacteria from seawater and algal exudates. We tested if culturability could be influenced by addition of quorum sensing signals (AHLs). All plates were incubated at 15°C. Bacterial counts (CFU/g) from algal exudates from brown algae were highest on media containing algal...... polymers. In general, bacteria isolated from algal exudates preferred more rich media than bacteria isolated from seawater. Overall, culturability ranged from 0.01 to 0.8% as compared to total cell count. Substitution of agar with gellan gum increased the culturability of seawater bacteria approximately...

  2. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water. (United States)

    Armstrong, J L; Shigeno, D S; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J


    We analyzed drinking water from seven communities for multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria (bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics) and screened the MAR bacterial isolates obtained against five antibiotics by replica plating. Overall, 33.9% of 2,653 standard plate count bacteria from treated drinking waters were MAR. Two different raw water supplies for two communities carried MAR standard plate count bacteria at frequencies of 20.4 and 18.6%, whereas 36.7 and 67.8% of the standard plate count populations from sites within the respective distribution systems were MAR. Isolate identification revealed that MAR gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and MAR gram-negative, nonfermentative rods (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Moraxella-like group M, and Acinetobacter) were more common in drinking waters than in untreated source waters. Site-to-site variations in generic types and differences in the incidences of MAR organisms indicated that shedding of MAR bacteria living in pipelines may have contributed to the MAR populations in tap water. We conclude that the treatment of raw water and its subsequent distribution select for standard plate count bacteria exhibiting the MAR phenotype.

  3. Phylogenetic diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid methylase, and its implications for 2-methylhopanoids as biomarkers (United States)

    Ricci, J. N.; Coleman, M. L.; Osburn, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.; Spear, J. R.; Newman, D. K.


    Hopanoids are a class of sterols produced by bacteria. Their hydrocarbon skeletons are resistant to degradation making their diagenetic products, hopanes, attractive biomarkers. Particular attention has been paid to 2-methylhopanes, which have been found at discrete times and locations in Earth history as far back as 2,500 Myr. Previously, they were inferred to be markers of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, but the discovery of an anoxygenic phototroph, Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1, capable of producing significant quantities of 2-methylbacteriohopanetetrol, the parent molecule of the fossil 2-methylhopane, challenged this interpretation. In this study, we sought to determine the diversity and origin of the enzyme responsible for methylating hopanoids, HpnP. To accomplish this task, we surveyed a diversity of Yellowstone hot springs using degenerate PCR primers and searched publically available metagenomic databases for hpnP-like sequences. The Yellowstone hot spring samples were dominated by cyanobacterial-like hpnP sequences, while the metagenomic data contained many hpnP-like sequences from a diversity of environments that grouped with all known hpnP-containing phyla. With these additional hpnP sequences, we will report updated phylogenetic trees that attempt to determine the origin of hpnP. Understanding the distribution of 2-methylhopanoid production throughout the tree of life and its origin is important to be able to use 2-methylhopanes as biomarkers for any particular taxonomic group.

  4. Nanotextile membranes for bacteria Escherichia coli capturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lev


    Full Text Available The article describes an experimental study dealing with the possibility of nanotextile materials usa­ge for microbiologically contaminated water filtration. The aim of the study is to verify filtration ability of different nanotextile materials and evaluate the possibilities of practical usage. Good detention ability of these materials in the air filtration is the presumption for nanotextile to be used for bacteria filtration from a liquid. High nanotextile porosity with the nanotextile pores dimensions smaller than a bacteria size predicates the possibility of a successful usage of these materials. For the experiment were used materials made from electrospinning nanofibres under the label PA612, PUR1, PUR2 s PUR3 on the supporting unwoven textiles (viscose and PP. As a model simulation of the microbial contamination, bacteria Escherichia coli was chosen. Contaminated water was filtered during the overpressure activity of 105Pa on the input side of the filter from the mentioned material. After three-day incubation on the nutrient medium, cultures found in the samples before and after filtration were compared. In the filtrated water, bacteria E. coli were indicated, which did not verify the theoretical presumptions about an absolut bacteria detention. However, used materials caught at least 94% of bacteria in case of material PUR1 and up to 99,996% in case of material PUR2. These results predict the possibility of producing effective nanotextile filters for microbiologically contaminated water filtration.Recommendation: For the production of materials with better filtrating qualities, experiments need to be done, enabling better understanding of the bacteria detention mechanisms on the nanotextile material, and parameters of the used materials that influence the filtrating abilities need to be verified.

  5. [Spectrum and susceptibility of preoperative conjunctival bacteria]. (United States)

    Fernández-Rubio, M E; Cuesta-Rodríguez, T; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Cortés-Valdés, C


    To describe the conjunctival bacterial spectrum of our patients undergoing intraocular surgery and their antibiotic sensitivity during the study period. A retrospective study of preoperative conjunctival culture of patients consecutively scheduled for intraocular surgery from 21 February 2011 to 1 April 2013. Specimens were directly seeded onto blood-agar and MacConkey-agar (aerobiosis incubation, 2 days), and on chocolate-agar (6% CO2 incubation, 7 days). The identified bacteria were divided into 3 groups according to their origin; the bacteria susceptibility tests were performed on those more pathogenic and on some of the less pathogenic when more than 5 colonies were isolated. The sensitivity of the exigent growing bacteria was obtained with disk diffusion technique, and for of the non-exigent bacteria by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration. The Epidat 3.1 program was used for statistical calculations. A total of 13,203 bacteria were identified in 6,051 cultures, with 88.7% being typical colonizers of conjunctiva (group 1), 8.8% typical of airways (group 2), and the remaining 2.5% of undetermined origin (group 3). 530 cultures (8.8%) were sterile. The sensitivity of group 1 was: 99% vancomycin, 95% rifampicin, 87% chloramphenicol, 76% tetracycline. Levels of co-trimoxazole, aminoglycosides, quinolones, β-lactams and macrolides decreased since 2007. The group 2 was very sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. In group 3, to levofloxacin 93%, ciprofloxacin 89%, tobramycin 76%, but ceftazidime 53% and cefuroxime 29% decreased. None of the tested antibiotics could eradicate all possible conjunctival bacteria. Bacteria living permanently on the conjunctiva (group 1) have achieved higher resistance than the eventual colonizers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetosome chain superstructure in uncultured magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraçado, Leida G; Farina, Marcos; Abreu, Fernanda; Keim, Carolina N; Lins, Ulysses; Campos, Andrea P C


    Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetosomes, which are magnetic particles enveloped by biological membranes, in a highly controlled mineralization process. Magnetosomes are used to navigate in magnetic fields by a phenomenon called magnetotaxis. Two levels of organization and control are recognized in magnetosomes. First, magnetotactic bacteria create a spatially distinct environment within vesicles defined by their membranes. In the vesicles, the bacteria control the size, composition and purity of the mineral content of the magnetic particles. Unique crystal morphologies are produced in magnetosomes as a consequence of this bacterial control. Second, magnetotactic bacteria organize the magnetosomes in chains within the cell body. It has been shown in a particular case that the chains are positioned within the cell body in specific locations defined by filamentous cytoskeleton elements. Here, we describe an additional level of organization of the magnetosome chains in uncultured magnetotactic cocci found in marine and freshwater sediments. Electron microscopy analysis of the magnetosome chains using a goniometer showed that the magnetic crystals in both types of bacteria are not oriented at random along the crystal chain. Instead, the magnetosomes have specific orientations relative to the other magnetosomes in the chain. Each crystal is rotated either 60°, 180° or 300° relative to their neighbors along the chain axis, causing the overlapping of the (1 1 1) and (1-bar 1-bar 1-bar) capping faces of neighboring crystals. We suggest that genetic determinants that are not present or active in bacteria with magnetosomes randomly rotated within a chain must be present in bacteria that organize magnetosomes so precisely. This particular organization may also be used as an indicative biosignature of magnetosomes in the study of magnetofossils in the cases where this symmetry is observed

  7. Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, S.S.; Goswami, D.Y.


    Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that affect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was determined. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO 2 had no deleterious effect on the bacteria. However, several common bacteria on solar exposure in the presence of TiO 2 were killed in just a few minutes, whereas without TiO 2 it took over an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01% TiO 2 was most effective in killing bacteria and 10-fold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. Alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO 2 particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO 2 , indicating that TiO 2 served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves show that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn't greatly increase the rate of kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased

  8. Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) | News | NREL (United States)

    Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy (Text Version) Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy is a text version of the video entitled "Using Bacteria to Store Renewable Energy." ; Bacteria from some of the Earth's harshest environments now have a new home at NREL. [A natural spring has

  9. Rapid diagnostics of the bacteria in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov Nikolai, N. [ATECH KFT, Budapest (Hungary)


    Presence of the bacteria and viruses in the air is great problem now. Terrorists are going to use the bacteria weapon. Now biotechnology provides very cheap equipment ({approx} $500) for modification of the bacteria sorts. It may be used for receiving of new variants of the bacteriological weapon. And presence of one small bacteria aerosol generator in the international airport during several days will start the dangerous epidemic incidence the entire world. From another side - poor countries with hot and wet weather are continuously producing new and new dangerous bacteria. Every year epidemic waves of influence are going from China, India or Africa. And once up a time it will be epidemic explosive with fast lethal finish. Methods of estimation of the bio-aerosols in Air of City are very poor. Standard Bio-aerosol sampler has two conflicting demands. From one side the bio-sampler needs in great air volume of sample with great efficiency of separation of aerosol particles from measured air. From another side all selected particles needs in great care. This demand carried out from method of measurement of bacteria in sample by counting of colonies that grew from bacteria on nutrient media after incubation time. It is a problem to prevent bacterial flora from death during collecting aerosol sample. This time of growth and counting of colony is so long that result of this measurement will be unusable if it will be terrorist action of start of bacteriological was. Here presented new methods for fast diagnostics of the bacteria in the air. It consists from 4 general parts: (1) Micro-droplet method for diagnostics of biological active substances in aerosol sample. This method allows to control the bio-particle position on the plate, to use series of biochemistry species for analytical reaction for this small bio-particle. Small volume of biochemical reaction reduces noise. This method provides extremely high sensitivity for discovering of biological material. (2

  10. Modulation of immune homeostasis by commensal bacteria (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Littman, Dan R.


    Intestinal bacteria form a resident community that has co-evolved with the mammalian host. In addition to playing important roles in digestion and harvesting energy, commensal bacteria are crucial for the proper functioning of mucosal immune defenses. Most of these functions have been attributed to the presence of large numbers of “innocuous” resident bacteria that dilute or occupy niches for intestinal pathogens or induce innate immune responses that sequester bacteria in the lumen, thus quenching excessive activation of the mucosal immune system. However it has recently become obvious that commensal bacteria are not simply beneficial bystanders, but are important modulators of intestinal immune homeostasis and that the composition of the microbiota is a major factor in pre-determining the type and robustness of mucosal immune responses. Here we review specific examples of individual members of the microbiota that modify innate and adaptive immune responses, and we focus on potential mechanisms by which such species-specific signals are generated and transmitted to the host immune system. PMID:21215684

  11. Molecular analysis of deep subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Baez, L.E.


    Deep sediments samples from site C10a, in Appleton, and sites, P24, P28, and P29, at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina were studied to determine their microbial community composition, DNA homology and mol %G+C. Different geological formations with great variability in hydrogeological parameters were found across the depth profile. Phenotypic identification of deep subsurface bacteria underestimated the bacterial diversity at the three SRS sites, since bacteria with the same phenotype have different DNA composition and less than 70% DNA homology. Total DNA hybridization and mol %G+C analysis of deep sediment bacterial isolates suggested that each formation is comprised of different microbial communities. Depositional environment was more important than site and geological formation on the DNA relatedness between deep subsurface bacteria, since more 70% of bacteria with 20% or more of DNA homology came from the same depositional environments. Based on phenotypic and genotypic tests Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.-like bacteria were identified in 85 million years old sediments. This suggests that these microbial communities might have been adapted during a long period of time to the environmental conditions of the deep subsurface

  12. Overlapping riboflavin supply pathways in bacteria. (United States)

    García-Angulo, Víctor Antonio


    Riboflavin derivatives are essential cofactors for a myriad of flavoproteins. In bacteria, flavins importance extends beyond their role as intracellular protein cofactors, as secreted flavins are a key metabolite in a variety of physiological processes. Bacteria obtain riboflavin through the endogenous riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) or by the use of importer proteins. Bacteria frequently encode multiple paralogs of the RBP enzymes and as for other micronutrient supply pathways, biosynthesis and uptake functions largely coexist. It is proposed that bacteria shut down biosynthesis and would rather uptake riboflavin when the vitamin is environmentally available. Recently, the overlap of riboflavin provisioning elements has gained attention and the functions of duplicated paralogs of RBP enzymes started to be addressed. Results point towards the existence of a modular structure in the bacterial riboflavin supply pathways. Such structure uses subsets of RBP genes to supply riboflavin for specific functions. Given the importance of riboflavin in intra and extracellular bacterial physiology, this complex array of riboflavin provision pathways may have developed to contend with the various riboflavin requirements. In riboflavin-prototrophic bacteria, riboflavin transporters could represent a module for riboflavin provision for particular, yet unidentified processes, rather than substituting for the RBP as usually assumed.

  13. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.


    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  14. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The populations of chemolithoautotrophic (colorless) sulfur bacteria and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were enumerated in a marine microbial mat. The highest population densities were found in the 0-5 mm layer of the mat: 2.0 X 10(9) cells CM-3 sediment, and 4.0 X 10(7) cells cm-3 sediment for

  16. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water (United States)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.


    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre


    The differences of radiosensitivities among bacteria in addition to the dependence upon the species or strains also depends on the environmental condition during irradiation (temperature, medium, the presence of protective or sensitizing agents, the gas phase or atmosphere, and water activity, or degree of hydration) and on the effects of the environmental condition before and after irradiation treatment (temperature of incubation, age of culture and growth medium). In general, spores are more resistant to radiation than vegetatic bacteria, with the exception that a few cocci are the most radiation resistant bacteria (Micrococcus and Streptococcus). The application of ionizing radiation in the fields of microbiology supports the radiation sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products. In addition, microbiological aspects of food preservation, especially radurization, radicidation, and immunization studies by using irradiated microorganisms, are also important.

  18. Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny


    Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Ding, Yang; Xu, Xinliang


    Understanding hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria and passive sphere is important for identifying rheological properties of bacterial and colloidal suspension. Over the past few years, scientists mainly focused on bacterial influences on tracer particle diffusion or hydrodynamic capture of a bacteria around stationary boundary. Here, we use superposition of singularities and regularized method to study changes in bacterial swimming velocity and passive sphere diffusion, simultaneously. On this basis, we present a simple two-bead model that gives a unified interpretation of passive sphere diffusion and bacterial swimming. The model attributes both variation of passive sphere diffusion and changes of speed of bacteria to an effective mobility. Using the effective mobility of bacterial head and tail as an input function, the calculations are consistent with simulation results at a broad range of tracer diameters, incident angles and bacterial shapes.

  20. Interactions among sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (United States)

    Poplawski, R.


    The responses of different phototrophic bacteria in a competitive experimental system are studied, one in which primary factors such as H2S or light limited photometabolism. Two different types of bacteria shared one limited source of sulfide under specific conditions of light. The selection of a purple and a green sulfur bacteria and the cyanobacterium was based on their physiological similarity and also on the fact that they occur together in microbial mats. They all share anoxygenic photosynthesis, and are thus probably part of an evolutionary continuum of phototrophic organisms that runs from, strictly anaerobic physiology to the ability of some cyanobacteria to shift between anoxygenic bacterial style photosynthesis and the oxygenic kind typical of eukaryotes.

  1. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.


    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  2. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria (United States)

    Wilson, Michael


    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  3. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids. (United States)

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D


    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria. (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O


    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain. (United States)

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P


    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Motile bacteria in a critical fluid mixture (United States)

    Koumakis, Nick; Devailly, Clémence; Poon, Wilson C. K.


    We studied the swimming of Escherichia coli bacteria in the vicinity of the critical point in a solution of the nonionic surfactant C12E5 in buffer solution. In phase-contrast microscopy, each swimming cell produces a transient trail behind itself lasting several seconds. Comparing quantitative image analysis with simulations show that these trails are due to local phase reorganization triggered by differential adsorption. This contrasts with similar trails seen in bacteria swimming in liquid crystals, which are due to shear effects. We show how our trails are controlled, and use them to probe the structure and dynamics of critical fluctuations in the fluid medium.

  7. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater (United States)


    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.


    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  9. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N


    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However

  10. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei)


    Wilis Ari Setyati; Muhammad Zainuddin; Person Pesona Renta


    Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36...

  11. Effects of symbiotic bacteria on chemical sensitivity of Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Manakul, Patcharaporn; Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime


    The crustacean zooplankton Daphnia magna has been widely used for chemical toxicity tests. Although abiotic factors have been well documented in ecotoxicological test protocols, biotic factors that may affect the sensitivity to chemical compounds remain limited. Recently, we identified symbiotic bacteria that are critical for the growth and reproduction of D. magna. The presence of symbiotic bacteria on Daphnia raised the question as to whether these bacteria have a positive or negative effect on toxicity tests. In order to evaluate the effects of symbiotic bacteria on toxicity tests, bacteria-free Daphnia were prepared, and their chemical sensitivities were compared with that of Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria based on an acute immobilization test. The Daphnia with symbiotic bacteria showed higher chemical resistance to nonylphenol, fenoxycarb, and pentachlorophenol than bacteria-free Daphnia. These results suggested potential roles of symbiotic bacteria in the chemical resistance of its host Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fermentation of D-Tagatose by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria


    Bertelsen, Hans; Andersen, Hans; Tvede, Michael


    A number of 174 normal or pathogenic human enteric bacteria and dairy lactic acid bacteria were screened for D-tagatose fermentation by incubation for 48 hours. Selection criteria for fermentation employed included a drop in pH below 5.5 and a distance to controls of more than 0.5. Only a few of the normal occurring enteric human bacteria were able to ferment D-tagatose, among those Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus strains. D-Tagatose fermentation seems to be comm...

  13. Brilliant glyconanocapsules for trapping of bacteria. (United States)

    Yan, Xibo; Sivignon, Adeline; Alcouffe, Pierre; Burdin, Béatrice; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Barnich, Nicolas; Fleury, Etienne; Ganachaud, François; Bernard, Julien


    Nanoprecipitation of miglyol into droplets surrounded by a functional glycopolymer generates nanocapsules of biointerest. Fluorophores are trapped in situ or post-grafted onto the crosslinked polymer shell for efficient imaging. The resulting colloids induce aggregation of bacteria through strong specific interactions and promote their facile removal.

  14. Brilliant glyconanocapsules for trapping of bacteria


    Yan, Xibo; Sivignon, Adeline; Alcouffe, Pierre; Burdin, Béatrice; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Barnich, Nicolas; Fleury, Etienne; Ganachaud, François; Bernard, Julien


    Nanoprecipitation of miglyol into droplets surrounded by a functional glycopolymer generates nanocapsules of biointerest. Fluorophores are trapped in situ or post-grafted onto the crosslinked polymer shell for efficient imaging. The resulting colloids induce aggregation of bacteria through strong specific interactions and promote their facile removal.

  15. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. On Bunsen Burners, Bacteria and the Bible. Milind Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 84-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. The effects of bacteria on crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.


    Many reactions involving inorganic minerals at water-rock interfaces have now been recognized to be bacterially mediated; these reactions could have a significant effect in the excavation of vaults for toxic and radioactive waste disposal. To investigate the role that bacteria play in the natural aqueous environment of crystalline rock the microbial growth factors of nutrition, energy and environment are described. Microbial activity has been investigated in Atomic Energy of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), situated in the Archean granitic Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Faults, initiated in the Early Proterozoic, and later-formed fractures, provide ground-water pathways. Planktonic bacteria, free-swimming in the groundwater, have been observed in over 100 underground borehole samples. The number of bacteria varied from 10 3 to 10 5 mL -1 and appeared to decrease with depth and with increased salinity of the water. However, in the natural environment of deep (100-500 m) crystalline rocks, where nutrition is limited, formation of biofilms by sessile bacteria is a successful survival strategy. Natural biofilms at the URL and biofilms grown in bioreactors have been studied. The biofilms can accumulate different elements, depending upon the local environment. Precipitates of iron have been found in all the biofilms studied, where they are either passively accumulated or utilized as an energy source. Within the biofilm active and extensive biogeochemical immobilization of dissolved elements is controlled by distinct bacterial activities which are sufficiently discrete for hematite and siderite to be precipitated in close proximity

  17. Solvent-tolerant bacteria in biocatalysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.


    The toxicity of fine chemicals to the producer organism is a problem in several biotechnological production processes. In several instances, an organic phase can be used to extract the toxic product from the aqueous phase during a fermentation. With the discovery of solvent-tolerant bacteria, more


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    With the diminishing rate of natural fish resources globally, a reasonable percentage of fish and fish products .... from these artificial fish habitat, one may not be out of place to ... condition for bacteria reproduction and development in their host ...

  19. Identification of bacteria using mass spectrometry techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Hynek, R.; Hochel, I.


    Roč. 353, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 67-79 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Bacteria * Identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  20. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar


    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...

  1. Bioluminescent bacteria: lux genes as environmental biosensors


    Nunes-Halldorson,Vânia da Silva; Duran,Norma Letícia


    Bioluminescent bacteria are widespread in natural environments. Over the years, many researchers have been studying the physiology, biochemistry and genetic control of bacterial bioluminescence. These discoveries have revolutionized the area of Environmental Microbiology through the use of luminescent genes as biosensors for environmental studies. This paper will review the chronology of scientific discoveries on bacterial bioluminescence and the current applications of bioluminescence in env...

  2. (VAM) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 18, 2013 ... mycorrhiza (VAM), and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) individually and in .... Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out at a 0.05 level of significance on the data and SPSS version 13.0 was used.

  3. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik


    The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...

  4. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie


    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living...

  5. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.


    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  6. Identification of marine methanol-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M; Iwaki, H; Kouno, K; Inui, T


    A taxonomical study of 65 marine methanol-utilizing bacteria is described. They were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods with a polar flagellum and had marine bacterial properties and required vitamin B/sub 12/ for growth. All of them assimilated fructose in addition to C/sub 1/-compounds and produced acid oxidatively from fructose. Twenty-four strains assimilated only C/sub 1/-compounds. They were resistant to penicillin, oxytetracycline and 0/129 substance (Vibrio stat), and tolerant to 12% NaCl. Guanine-cytosine contents of deoxyribonucleic acid in typical strains fell in the range of 43.8 to 47.6%. Other morphological and physiological properties were almost the same as those of terrestrial methanol-utilizers. Bacteria in the first group (41 strains) were facultative methylotrophs and were divided into three subgroups by the assimilation of methylated amines, that is, subgroup I (30 strains) assimilated mono-, di- and tri-methylamine, subgroup II (9 strains) assimilated only mono-methylamine, the bacteria of subgroups I and II were named Alteromonas thalassomethanolica sp. nov. and subgroup III (2 strains) did not assimilate methylated amines, and was tentatively assigned as Alteromonas sp. The second group of bacteria (24 strains) was obligate methylotrophs, named Methylomonas thalassica sp. nov. and was divided into subgroup IV (15 strains) which assimilated mono-, di and tri-methylamine and subgroup V (9 strains) which assimilated mono-methylamine.

  7. Bacteria Isolated from Post-Partum Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Arianpour


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken with an aim to determine bacterial species involved in post partum infections and also their abundance in patients admitted to at Khanevadeh hospital. In this study out of three different kinds of postpartum infections (i.e. genital, breast and urinary tract, only genital infection is considered.Materials and Methods: Post partum infection among 6077 patients (inpatients and re-admitted patients of Khanevadeh hospital from 2003 till 2008 was studied in this descriptive study. Samples were collected from patients for laboratory diagnosis to find out the causative organisms.Results: Follow up of mothers after delivery revealed 7.59% (461 patients had post partum infection, out of which 1.03% (63 patients were re-hospitalized. Infection was more often among younger mothers. Bacteria isolated and identified were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora of the site of infection. Though, some pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis,were also the causative agents. The commonest infection was infection at the site of episiotomy. Conclusion: Puerperal infection was detected in of 7.59% mothers. Bacteria isolated were both aerobic and anaerobic cocci and bacilli, majority of which were normal flora. However; some pathogenic bacteria were isolated.

  8. Serpins in unicellular Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Hejgaard, Jørn; Saunders, N.F.W


    , where serpins were found in only 4 of 13 genera, and Bacteria, in only 9 of 56 genera. The serpins from unicellular organisms appear to be phylogenetically distinct from all of the clades of higher eukaryotic serpins. Most of the sequences from unicellular organisms have the characteristics...

  9. Bacteria as transporters of phosphorus through soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, N.; Bælum, Jacob; Jacobsen, C. S.


    The transport of phosphorus (P) from agricultural land has led to the eutrophication of surface waters worldwide, especially in areas with intensive animal production. In this research, we investigated the role of bacteria in the leaching of P through three agricultural soils with different...

  10. Multidrug transporters in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurkiewicz, P; Sakamoto, K; Poelarends, GJ; Konings, WN

    Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria possess several Multi-Drug Resistance systems (MDRs) that excrete out of the cell a wide variety of mainly cationic lipophilic cytotoxic compounds as well as many clinically relevant antibiotics. These MDRs are either proton/drug antiporters belonging to the major

  11. Drug efflux proteins in multidrug resistant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVeen, HW; Konings, WN

    Bacteria contain an array of transport proteins in their cytoplasmic membrane. Many of these proteins play an important role in conferring resistance to toxic compounds. The multidrug efflux systems encountered in prokaryotic cells are very similar to those observed in eukaryotic cells. Therefore, a

  12. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  13. Pathomorphology and aerobic bacteria associated with pneumonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumonia occurs in all ages of sheep and goats, in all breeds, in every country of the world causing heavy economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pneumonia and aerobic bacteria flora associated with it in small ruminants slaughtered at the Nsukka abattoir. Pneumonic lung of small ...

  14. Metabolic plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria. (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel


    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by all free-living organisms. In most bacteria, the common precursors of all isoprenoids are produced by the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway. The MEP pathway is absent from archaea, fungi and animals (including humans), which synthesize their isoprenoid precursors using the completely unrelated MVA (mevalonate) pathway. Because the MEP pathway is essential in most bacterial pathogens (as well as in the malaria parasites), it has been proposed as a promising new target for the development of novel anti-infective agents. However, bacteria show a remarkable plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis that should be taken into account when targeting this metabolic pathway for the development of new antibiotics. For example, a few bacteria use the MVA pathway instead of the MEP pathway, whereas others possess the two full pathways, and some parasitic strains lack both the MVA and the MEP pathways (probably because they obtain their isoprenoids from host cells). Moreover, alternative enzymes and metabolic intermediates to those of the canonical MVA or MEP pathways exist in some organisms. Recent work has also shown that resistance to a block of the first steps of the MEP pathway can easily be developed because several enzymes unrelated to isoprenoid biosynthesis can produce pathway intermediates upon spontaneous mutations. In the present review, we discuss the major advances in our knowledge of the biochemical toolbox exploited by bacteria to synthesize the universal precursors for their essential isoprenoids.

  15. Chitinolytic bacteria of the mammal digestive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Hodrová, Blanka; Bartoňová, H.; Kopečný, Jan


    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 76-78 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/0984; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : chitinolytic bacteria Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  16. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents. (United States)

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J


    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

  17. The proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunji, Edmund R.S.; Mierau, Igor; Hagting, Anja; Poolman, Bert; Konings, Wil N.


    Proteolysis in dairy lactic acid bacteria has been studied in great detail by genetic, biochemical and ultrastructural methods. From these studies the picture emerges that the proteolytic systems of lactococci and lactobacilli are remarkably similar in their components and mode of action. The

  18. Proteolytic enzymes of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, J; Haandrikman, A

    The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria is essential for their growth in milk and contributes significantly to flavour development in fermented milk products where these microorganisms are used as starter cultures. The proteolytic system is composed of proteinases which initially cleave the

  19. Biological Potential of Chitinolytic Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone


    Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using...

  20. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe


    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and

  1. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Jenna; Maddison, Adele


    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  2. Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Ahmed, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Bouhaouala-Zahar, B.; Stal, L.J.; Boudabbous, A.; El Bour, M.


    Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga Ulva rigida, collected from the coast of Tunisia, were isolated andsubsequently identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences and by phylogenetic analysis. The 71 isolates belong to four phyla:Proteobacteria (Alpha-and Gamma- subclasses),

  3. The interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, Florian


    This review discusses different examples for the interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces based on work reported previously by various authors and work performed by the author with colleagues at other institutions and with his graduate students at CEEL. Traditionally it has been assumed that the interaction of bacteria with metal surfaces always causes increased corrosion rates ('microbiologically influenced corrosion' (MIC)). However, more recently it has been observed that many bacteria can reduce corrosion rates of different metals and alloys in many corrosive environments. For example, it has been found that certain strains of Shewanella can prevent pitting of Al 2024 in artificial seawater, tarnishing of brass and rusting of mild steel. It has been observed that corrosion started again when the biofilm was killed by adding antibiotics. The mechanism of corrosion protection seems to be different for different bacteria since it has been found that the corrosion potential E corr became more negative in the presence of Shewanella ana and algae, but more positive in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. These findings have been used in an initial study of the bacterial battery in which Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was added to a cell containing Al 2024 and Cu in a growth medium. It was found that the power output of this cell continuously increased with time. In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) bacteria oxidize the fuel and transfer electrons directly to the anode. In initial studies EIS has been used to characterize the anode, cathode and membrane properties for different operating conditions of a MFC that contained Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Cell voltage (V)-current density (i) curves were obtained using potentiodynamic sweeps. The current output of a MFC has been monitored for different experimental conditions

  4. The interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfeld, Florian [Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory (CEEL), The Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 (United States)


    This review discusses different examples for the interaction of bacteria and metal surfaces based on work reported previously by various authors and work performed by the author with colleagues at other institutions and with his graduate students at CEEL. Traditionally it has been assumed that the interaction of bacteria with metal surfaces always causes increased corrosion rates ('microbiologically influenced corrosion' (MIC)). However, more recently it has been observed that many bacteria can reduce corrosion rates of different metals and alloys in many corrosive environments. For example, it has been found that certain strains of Shewanella can prevent pitting of Al 2024 in artificial seawater, tarnishing of brass and rusting of mild steel. It has been observed that corrosion started again when the biofilm was killed by adding antibiotics. The mechanism of corrosion protection seems to be different for different bacteria since it has been found that the corrosion potential E{sub corr} became more negative in the presence of Shewanella ana and algae, but more positive in the presence of Bacillus subtilis. These findings have been used in an initial study of the bacterial battery in which Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was added to a cell containing Al 2024 and Cu in a growth medium. It was found that the power output of this cell continuously increased with time. In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) bacteria oxidize the fuel and transfer electrons directly to the anode. In initial studies EIS has been used to characterize the anode, cathode and membrane properties for different operating conditions of a MFC that contained Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Cell voltage (V) - current density (i) curves were obtained using potentiodynamic sweeps. The current output of a MFC has been monitored for different experimental conditions. (author)

  5. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L


    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  6. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect (United States)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David


    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  7. Interactions between Paramyxoviruses and Bacteria: Implications for Pathogenesis and Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.T. Nguyen (Tien)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, respiratory tract diseases caused by bacteria and viruses are an important burden of disease. Respiratory bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus) can colonize the upper respiratory tract.

  8. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 7, 2011 ... the diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population in fresh ..... combining morphological, biochemical and molecular data are important for ..... acid bacteria from fermented maize (Kenkey) and their interactions.

  9. Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave (United States)

    ... Home Page Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave By Elia Ben-Ari Posted May 1, ... a suitable surface, some water and nutrients, and bacteria will likely put down stakes and form biofilms. ...

  10. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow......Bacteria selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery. Bacteria can plug the water-bearing zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. It is known that the bacteria can penetrate deeply...... into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  11. Developing new bacteria subroutines in the SWAT model (United States)

    Fecal bacteria observations from four different sites in Korea and the US demonstrate seasonal variability, showing a significant relationship with temperature (Figure 1); fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations are relatively higher in summer and lower in winter , including Stillwater river (...

  12. Bacteria Associated with Fresh Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Bacteria, Tilapia fish and Sokoto central market. INTRODUCTION ... The bacteria are transmitted by fish that have made contact ... with which a product spoils is also related to the .... Base on the percentage frequency of occurance ,.

  13. Frequency of Resistance and Susceptible Bacteria Isolated from Houseflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Davari


    Conclusion: Houseflies collected from hospitals and slaughterhouse may be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug resistant bacteria.

  14. Have sex or not? Lessons from bacteria. (United States)

    Lodé, T


    Sex is one of the greatest puzzles in evolutionary biology. A true meiotic process occurs only in eukaryotes, while in bacteria, gene transcription is fragmentary, so asexual reproduction in this case really means clonal reproduction. Sex could stem from a signal that leads to increased reproductive output of all interacting individuals and could be understood as a secondary consequence of primitive metabolic reactions. Meiotic sex evolved in proto-eukaryotes to solve a problem that bacteria did not have, namely a large amount of DNA material, occurring in an archaic step of proto-cell formation and genetic exchanges. Rather than providing selective advantages through reproduction, sex could be thought of as a series of separate events which combines step-by-step some very weak benefits of recombination, meiosis, gametogenesis and syngamy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria. (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela


    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R


    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  17. Protein-Injection Machines in Bacteria. (United States)

    Galán, Jorge E; Waksman, Gabriel


    Many bacteria have evolved specialized nanomachines with the remarkable ability to inject multiple bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Known as type III, type IV, and type VI secretion systems, these machines play a central role in the pathogenic or symbiotic interactions between multiple bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts, or in the establishment of bacterial communities in a diversity of environments. Here we focus on recent progress elucidating the structure and assembly pathways of these machines. As many of the interactions shaped by these machines are of medical importance, they provide an opportunity to develop novel therapeutic approaches to combat important human diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth


    Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations...... of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer......-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?...

  19. [Synthesis of reserve polyhydroxyalkanoates by luminescent bacteria]. (United States)

    Boiandin, A N; Kalacheva, G S; Rodicheva, E K; Volova, T G


    The ability of marine luminescent bacteria to synthesize polyesters of hydroxycarboxylic acids (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) as reserve macromolecules was studied. Twenty strains from the collection of the luminescent bacteria CCIBSO (WDSM839) of the Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, assigned to different taxa (Photobacterium leiognathi, Ph. phosphoreum, Vibrio harveyi, and V. fischeri) were analyzed. The most productive strains were identified, and the conditions ensuring high polymer yields in batch culture (40-70% of the cell dry mass weight) were determined. The capacity of synthesizing two- and three-component polymers containing hydroxybutyric acid as the main monomer and hydroxyvaleric and hydroxyhexanoic acids was revealed in Ph. leiognathi and V. harveyi strains. The results allow luminescent microorganisms to be regarded as new producers of multicomponent polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  20. New Insight on the Response of Bacteria to Fluoride


    Breaker, R.R.


    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biolog...

  1. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria


    Horta, André; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Fino, Nádia; Silva, Joana; Fernandez, Sara; Rodrigues, Américo; Pedrosa, Rui


    This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 14th International Symposium on Marine Natural Products Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S...

  2. Bactericidal effects of antibiotics on slowly growing and nongrowing bacteria.


    Eng, R H; Padberg, F T; Smith, S M; Tan, E N; Cherubin, C E


    Antimicrobial agents are most often tested against bacteria in the log phase of multiplication to produce the maximum bactericidal effect. In an infection, bacteria may multiply less optimally. We examined the effects of several classes of antimicrobial agents to determine their actions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during nongrowing and slowly growing phases. Only ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin exhibited bactericidal activity against nongrowing gram-negative bacteria, and no antib...

  3. [Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection]. (United States)

    Bao, Zhen-ying; Lin, Qin; Meng, Yan-hong; He, Chun; Su, Jia-zeng; Peng, Xin


    To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology were identified. The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method. The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected, and the final outcomes were recorded. The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens, with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9.8%), anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (11.5%), and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%). There were 55 infected cases (90.2%) with anaerobic bacteria, and 81 anaerobic bacteria stains were isolated. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium. No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphyromonas and Prevotella. No metronidazole, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. In the study, 48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing, and the clinical cure rate was 81.3%. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofacial infection patients. Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.

  4. Cellulase Production by Bacteria: A Review


    Sadhu Sangrila; Maiti Tushar Kanti


    Cellulose is an abundant natural biopolymer on earth and most dominating Agricultural waste. This cellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. It can be degraded by cellulase produced by cellulolytic bacteria. This enzyme has various industrial applications and now considered as major group of industrial enzyme. The review discusses application of cellulase, classification of cellulase, quantification...

  5. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David


    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  6. Chemotactic waves of bacteria at the mesoscale


    Calvez, Vincent


    The existence of travelling waves for a model of concentration waves of bacteria is investigated. The model consists in a kinetic equation for the biased motion of cells following a run-and-tumble process, coupled with two reaction-diffusion equations for the chemical signals. Strong mathematical difficulties arise in comparison with the diffusive regime which was studied in a previous work. The cornerstone of the proof consists in establishing monotonicity properties of the spatial density o...

  7. Transfer of DNA from Bacteria to Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lacroix


    Full Text Available Historically, the members of the Agrobacterium genus have been considered the only bacterial species naturally able to transfer and integrate DNA into the genomes of their eukaryotic hosts. Yet, increasing evidence suggests that this ability to genetically transform eukaryotic host cells might be more widespread in the bacterial world. Indeed, analyses of accumulating genomic data reveal cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and suggest that it represents a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. Specifically, recent reports indicate that bacteria other than Agrobacterium, such as Bartonella henselae (a zoonotic pathogen, Rhizobium etli (a plant-symbiotic bacterium related to Agrobacterium, or even Escherichia coli, have the ability to genetically transform their host cells under laboratory conditions. This DNA transfer relies on type IV secretion systems (T4SSs, the molecular machines that transport macromolecules during conjugative plasmid transfer and also during transport of proteins and/or DNA to the eukaryotic recipient cells. In this review article, we explore the extent of possible transfer of genetic information from bacteria to eukaryotic cells as well as the evolutionary implications and potential applications of this transfer.

  8. Intracellular bacteria: the origin of dinoflagellate toxicity. (United States)

    Silva, E S


    Dinoflagellate blooms of the same species have been registered either as toxic or nontoxic and, in the latter case, toxicity may be of different types. A hypothesis has been formulated according to which the bacteria having in some way taken part in the toxin formation are either inside the dinoflagellate cell or in the nutritive liquid. The presence of intracellular bacteria in those microorganisms has been studied mainly in material from cultures, a few from the sea, and several strains were isolated from different species. Experiments with crossed inoculations have shown that the bacterial strain from Gonyaulax tamarensis caused the cells of some other species to become toxic. From nontoxic clonal cultures of Prorocentrum balticum, Glenodinium foliaceum, and Gyrodinium instriatum, after inoculation of that bacterial strain, cultures were obtained whose cell extracts showed the same kind of toxicity as G. tamarensis. No toxic action could be found in the extracts of the bacterial cells form the assayed strains. The interference of intracellular bacteria in the metabolism of dinoflagellates must be the main cause of their toxicity.

  9. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics Team Team; Soft; Bio Group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  10. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo


    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria. (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W


    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  12. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D; Bastiaens, L; Carpels, M; Mergaey, M; Diels, L


    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  13. Magnesium and manganese content of halophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Medicis, E.; Paquette, J.; Gauthier, J.J.; Shapcott, D.


    Magnesium and manganese contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bacteria of several halophilic levels, in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic eubacterium growing in 1 M NaCl, Halobacterium volcanii, a halophilic archaebacterium growing in 2.5 NaCl, Halobacterium cutirubrum, an extremely halophilic archaebacterium growing in 4 M NaCl, and Escherichia coli, a nonhalophilic eubacterium growing in 0.17 M NaCl. Magnesium and manganese contents varied with the growth phase, being maximal at the early log phase. Magnesium and manganese molalities in cell water were shown to increase with the halophilic character of the logarithmically growing bacteria, from 30 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 0.37 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for E. coli to 102 mmol of Mg per kg of cell water and 1.6 mmol of Mn per kg of cell water for H cutirubrum. The intracellular concentrations of manganese were determined independently by a radioactive tracer technique in V. costicola and H. volcanii. The values obtained by 54 Mn loading represented about 70% of the values obtained by atomic absorption. The increase of magnesium and manganese contents associated with the halophilic character of the bacteria suggests that manganese and magnesium play a role in haloadaptation

  14. Fish skin bacteria: Colonial and cellular hydrophobicity. (United States)

    Sar, N; Rosenberg, E


    Bacteria were desorbed from the skin of healthy, fast-swimming fish by several procedures, including brief exposure to sonic oscillation and treatment with nontoxic surface active agents. The surface properties of these bacteria were studied by measuring their adhesion to hexadecane, as well as by a newly developed, simple method for studying the hydrophobicity of bacterial lawns. This method, referred to as the "Direction of Spreading" (DOS) method, consists of recording the direction to which a water drop spreads when introduced at the border between bacterial lawns and other surfaces. Of the 13 fish skin isolates examined, two strains were as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method. Suspended cells of one of these strains adhered strongly to hexadecane (84%), whereas cells of the other strain adhered poorly (13%). Another strain which was almost as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method did not adhere to hexadecane at all. Similarly, lawns of three other strains were more hydrophobic than glass by the DOS method, but cell suspensions prepared from these colonies showed little or no adhesion to hexadecane. The high colonial but relatively low cellular hydrophobicity could be due to a hydrophobic slime that is removed during the suspension and washing procedures. The possibility that specific bacteria assist in fish locomotion by changing the surface properties of the fish skin and by producing drag-reducing polymers is discussed.

  15. Engineering bacteria for enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Chen


    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth of microorganisms as well as difficulty of downstream separation. Future engineering on PHA producing microorganisms should be focused on contamination resistant bacteria especially extremophiles, developments of engineering approaches for the extremophiles, increase on carbon substrates to PHA conversion and controlling Mw of PHA. The concept proof studies could still be conducted on E. coli or Pseudomonas spp. that are easily used for molecular manipulations. In this review, we will use E. coli and halophiles as examples to show how to engineer bacteria for enhanced PHA biosynthesis and for increasing PHA competitiveness.

  16. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti


    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  17. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria. (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus


    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  18. NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria | News | NREL (United States)

    Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria News Release: NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria February 13, 2018 Nature is full of surprises - not to mention solutions. A research team ) recently explored the possibilities provided by the natural world by researching how the bacteria

  19. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.


    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  20. Isolation and characterization of feather degrading bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at isolating and characterizing new culturable feather degrading bacteria from soils of the University of Mauritius Farm. Bacteria that were isolated were tested for their capability to grow on feather meal agar (FMA). Proteolytic bacteria were tested for feather degradation and were further identified ...

  1. Bacteria associated with cultures of psathyrella atroumbonata (Pleger)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacteria include Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The average bacteria count was 1.0 x 106 cfu/ml and these bacteria grew within pH range of 5.0 and 9.0. the optimum temperature range of growth lied ...

  2. The growth of bacteria on organic compounds in drinking water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der D.


    Growth ("regrowth") of bacteria In drinking water distribution systems results in a deterioration of the water quality. Regrowth of chemoheterotrophic bacteria depends on the presence of organic. compounds that serve as a nutrient source for these bacteria. A batch-culture technique was

  3. Bacteria associated with contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria associated with contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) cooked rice in Lagos, Nigeria were studied using standard microbiological methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria recovered from RTE cooked rice in Lagos, assess bacteria load in the contaminated RTE ...

  4. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections (United States)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA

  5. Isolation and Presumptive Identification of Adherent Epithelial Bacteria (“Epimural” Bacteria) from the Ovine Rumen Wall


    Mead, Lorna J.; Jones, G. A.


    One hundred sixty-one strains of adherent bacteria were isolated under anaerobic conditions from four sites on the rumen epithelial surface of sheep fed hay or a hay-grain ration. Before isolation of bacteria, rumen tissue was washed six times in an anaerobic dilution solution, and viable bacteria suspended in the washings were counted. Calculation indicated that unattached bacteria would have been removed from the tissue by this procedure, but a slow and progressive release of attached bacte...

  6. Bacteria-Mineral Interactions on the Surfaces of Metal-Resistant Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, A.J.


    The extraordinary ability of indigenous microorganisms, like metal-resistant bacteria, for biotransformation of toxic compounds is of considerable interest for the emerging area of environmental bioremediation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which metal-resistant bacteria transform toxic compounds are currently unknown and await elucidation. The project's objective was to study stress-induced responses of metal-resistant bacteria to environmental changes and chemical stimulants. This project involved a multi-institutional collaboration of our LLNL group with the group of Dr. H.-Y. Holman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). In this project, we have utilized metal-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model bacterial system. We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize for the first time at the nanometer scale formation of stress-induced structures on bacterial surfaces in response to Cr (VI) exposure. We have demonstrated that structure, assembly, and composition of these stress-induced structures are dependent on Cr (VI) concentrations. Our AFM observations of the appearance and development of stress-induced layers on the surfaces of Arthrobacter oxydans bacteria exposed to Cr (VI) were confirmed by Dr. Holman's biochemical, electron microscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy studies. In general, in vitro imaging of live microbial and cellular systems represents one of the most challenging issues in application of AFM. Various approaches for immobilization of bacteria on the substrate for in vitro imaging were tested in this project. Imaging of live bacteria was achieved, however further optimization of experimental methods are needed for high-resolution visualization of the cellular environmental structural dynamics by AFM. This project enhanced the current insight into molecular architecture, structural and environmental variability of bacterial systems. The project partially funded research for two book chapters (1

  7. Screening and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from isolate of thermophilic bacteria (United States)

    Yulianti, Evy; Rakhmawati, Anna


    The aims of this study were to select bacteria that has the ability to dissolve phosphate from thermophilic bacteria isolates after the Merapi eruption. Five isolates of selected bacteria was characterized and continued with identification. Selection was done by using a pikovskaya selective medium. Bacterial isolates were grown in selective medium and incubated for 48 hours at temperature of 55 ° C. Characterization was done by looking at the cell and colony morphology, physiological and biochemical properties. Identification was done with the Profile Matching method based on the reference genus Oscillospira traced through Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Dendogram was created based on similarity index SSM. The results showed there were 14 isolates of bacteria that were able to dissolve phosphate indicated by a clear zone surrounding the bacterial colony on selective media. Five isolates were selected with the largest clear zone. Isolates D79, D92, D110a, D135 and D75 have different characters. The result of phenotypic characters identification with Genus Oscillospira profile has a percentage of 100% similarity to isolate D92 and D110a; 92.31% for isolates D79, and 84.6% for isolates D75 and D135. Dendogram generated from average linkage algorithm / UPGMA using the Simple Matching Coefficient (SSM) algorithms showed, isolate thermophilic bacteria D75 and D135 are combined together to form cluster 1. D110a and D92 form a sub cluster A. Sub cluster A and D79 form cluster 2

  8. Screening and biological characteristics of fufenozide degrading bacteria (United States)

    Xu, Chenhao; Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Deng, Xia; Deng, Hongyan; Huang, Jiao


    Fufenozide was a novel pesticide for the control of Lepidoptera pests, which was highly toxic to silkworm. Fufenozide-contaminated soil samples were collected and the bacteria that degrade fufenozide were isolated and screened by selective medium. The colony characteristics, cell characteristics and degradation characteristics in different concentrations fufenozide of the fufenozide degrading bacteria were studied. The results indicated that seven strains of fufenozide degradeing bacteria, named as DDH01, DDH03, DDH04, DDH04, DDH05, DDH07 and DDH07 respectively, were isolated from soil contaminated with fufenozide. DDH01, DDH02, DDH04 and DDH05 of seven fufenozide degrading bacteria, was gram-positive bacteria, and DDH03, DDH06 and DDH07 was gram-negative bacteria. All of seven strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria were not spores, weeks flagella, rod-shaped bacteria. DDH06 and DDH07 had capsules, and the remaining five strains had not capsule. The colonies formed by seven strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria on beef extract peptone medium plate were milky white colonies with irregular edges, thinner lawn, smaller colony with smooth surface. The growth of 7 strains of fufenozide degradation bacteria was significantly affected by the concentration of fufenozide, All of 7 strains grown in the range from 0.00025 g/mL to 1 g/mL of 10% fufenozide suspension. DDH2 was the best among the 7 strains of fufenozide degrading bacteria grown in 10% fufenozide suspension medium.

  9. Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods. (United States)

    Shah, N P


    A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. Viability of probiotic bacteria can be improved by appropriate selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable containers, two-step fermentation, micro-encapsulation, stress adaptation, incorporation of micronutrients such as peptides and amino acids and by sonication of yogurt bacteria. This review will cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods.

  10. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian


    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  11. Catecholate siderophores protect bacteria from pyochelin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Adler

    Full Text Available Bacteria produce small molecule iron chelators, known as siderophores, to facilitate the acquisition of iron from the environment. The synthesis of more than one siderophore and the production of multiple siderophore uptake systems by a single bacterial species are common place. The selective advantages conferred by the multiplicity of siderophore synthesis remains poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that siderophores may have other physiological roles besides their involvement in iron acquisition.Here we provide the first report that pyochelin displays antibiotic activity against some bacterial strains. Observation of differential sensitivity to pyochelin against a panel of bacteria provided the first indications that catecholate siderophores, produced by some bacteria, may have roles other than iron acquisition. A pattern emerged where only those strains able to make catecholate-type siderophores were resistant to pyochelin. We were able to associate pyochelin resistance to catecholate production by showing that pyochelin-resistant Escherichia coli became sensitive when biosynthesis of its catecholate siderophore enterobactin was impaired. As expected, supplementation with enterobactin conferred pyochelin resistance to the entE mutant. We observed that pyochelin-induced growth inhibition was independent of iron availability and was prevented by addition of the reducing agent ascorbic acid or by anaerobic incubation. Addition of pyochelin to E. coli increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS while addition of ascorbic acid or enterobactin reduced them. In contrast, addition of the carboxylate-type siderophore, citrate, did not prevent pyochelin-induced ROS increases and their associated toxicity.We have shown that the catecholate siderophore enterobactin protects E. coli against the toxic effects of pyochelin by reducing ROS. Thus, it appears that catecholate siderophores can behave as protectors of

  12. Repair by genetic recombination in bacteria: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard-Flanders, P.


    DNA molecules that have been damaged in both strands at the same level are not subject to repair by excision but instead can be repaired through recombination with homologous molecules. Examples of two-strand damage include postreplication gaps opposite pyrimidine dimers, two-strand breaks produced by x-rays, and chemically induced interstrand cross-links. In ultraviolet-irradiated bacteria, and newly synthesized DNA is of length equal to the interdimer spacing. With continued incubation, this low-molecular-weight DNA is joined into high-molecular-weight chains (postreplication repair), a process associated with sister exchanges in bacteria. Recombination is initiated by pyrimidine dimers opposite postreplication gaps and by interstrand cross-links that have been cut by excision enzymes. The free ends at the resulting gaps presumably initiate the exchanges. Postreplication repair in Escherichia coli occurs in recB - and recC - but is greatly slowed in recF - mutants. RecB and recC are the structural genes for exonuclease V, which digests two-stranded DNA by releasing oligonucleotides first from one strand and then from the other. The postreplication sister exchanges in ultraviolet-irradiated bacteria result in the distribution of pyrimidine dimers between parental and daughter strands, indicating that long exchanges involving both strands of each duplex occur. The R1 restriction endonuclease from E. coli has been used to cut the DNA of a bacterial drug-resistance transfer factor with one nuclease-sensitive site, and also DNA from the frog Xenopus enriched for ribosomal 18S and 28S genes. The fragments were annealed with the cut plasmid DNA and ligated, producing a new larger plasmid carrying the eukaryotic rDNA and able to infect and replicate in E. coli

  13. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban


    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  14. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina; Moura, Jose J.G.


    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m -2 that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces

  15. Isolation and biochemical characterizations of the bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These isolates yielded off white convex colonies on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media at 29°C with 1.7 to 1.9 mm diameter and were yellow on yeast extract dextrose chalk agar (YDC) media at 27°C with 1.8 to 2.0 mm diameter. The bacteria were rod shape measuring 0.5 to 0.6 × 1.4 to 1.6 μm on PDA and 0.6 to 0.7 × 1.5 to ...

  16. Bioluminescent bacteria: lux genes as environmental biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes-Halldorson Vânia da Silva


    Full Text Available Bioluminescent bacteria are widespread in natural environments. Over the years, many researchers have been studying the physiology, biochemistry and genetic control of bacterial bioluminescence. These discoveries have revolutionized the area of Environmental Microbiology through the use of luminescent genes as biosensors for environmental studies. This paper will review the chronology of scientific discoveries on bacterial bioluminescence and the current applications of bioluminescence in environmental studies, with special emphasis on the Microtox toxicity bioassay. Also, the general ecological significance of bioluminescence will be addressed.

  17. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria (United States)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration


    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  18. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit. (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina


    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  19. Are Bacteria more dangerous in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leys, N.; Baatout, S.


    With a mission to Mars and a permanent base on the moon as the ultimate dream, space travel is continually pushing back the frontiers. But long space missions present great challenges for science, for example in the field of microbiology. Together with the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is studying the effects of space travel conditions on the behaviour of bacteria. In 2009 the SCK-CEN experts completed four innovative research projects at the cutting edge of microbiology, radiation sciences and space travel.

  20. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail:


    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  1. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... bacterial lipases are particularly abundant at sites of infection. Herein it is shown how active or proactive compounds attached to polymeric surfaces using lipase‐sensitive linkages, such as fatty acid esters or anhydrides, may be released in response to infection. Proof‐of‐concept of the responsive...

  2. Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics. (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian


    Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential.

  3. Bacteria in atmospheric waters: Detection, characteristics and implications (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Niu, Hongya; Murata, Kotaro; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min; Kojima, Tomoko; Zhang, Daizhou


    In this review paper, we synthesize the current knowledges about bacteria in atmospheric waters, e.g., cloud, fog, rain, and snow, most of which were obtained very recently. First, we briefly describe the importance of bacteria in atmospheric waters, i.e., the essentiality of studying bacteria in atmospheric waters in understanding aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions in the Earth system. Next, approaches to collect atmospheric water samples for the detection of bacteria and methods to identify the bacteria are summarized and compared. Then the available data on the abundance, viability and community composition of bacteria in atmospheric waters are summarized. The average bacterial concentration in cloud water was usually on the order 104-105 cells mL-1, while that in precipitation on the order 103-104 cells mL-1. Most of the bacteria were viable or metabolically active. Their community composition was highly diverse and differed at various sites. Factors potentially influencing the bacteria, e.g., air pollution levels and sources, meteorological conditions, seasonal effect, and physicochemical properties of atmospheric waters, are described. After that, the implications of bacteria present in atmospheric waters, including their effect on nucleation in clouds, atmospheric chemistry, ecosystems and public health, are briefly discussed. Finally, based on the current knowledges on bacteria in atmospheric waters, which in fact remains largely unknown, we give perspectives that should be paid attention to in future studies.

  4. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation. (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham


    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  5. Metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls by marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Harvey, G.R.


    There have been no reports of laboratory studies of PCB metabolism by marine organisms. A few workers have analyzed marine animals for products of PCB metabolism. A search for hydroxylated PCBs in marine fish proved inconclusive. Phenolic metabolites of PCBs have been identified in seals and guillemot. PCBs that had been hydroxylated and excreted by marine organisms would most likely be found in the sediments, so in our laboratory we conducted a search for these compounds in marine sediments. Two kilograms of organic-rich surface sediment from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, were extracted. The phenolic fraction was isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Neither wide mass scans nor selected mass searches produced any evidence of hydroxylated PCB derivatives. It was felt that if any marine organisms were capable of metabolism of PCBs, some marine bacteria should have that capability. Thus a series of laboratory experiments was conducted to test this possibility. Reported here is the finding of PCB metabolism by marine bacteria in batch culture

  6. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria. (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao


    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  7. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health. (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R


    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  8. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz


    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  9. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  10. Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, N.G.


    The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with 14 C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular 14 C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used

  11. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria using FTIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Nalepa


    Full Text Available In the present study, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria have been identified at the genus level with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Bacterial strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were analyzed since they deliver health benefits and are routinely used in the food processing industry. The correctness of bacterial identification by ANNs and FTIR was evaluated at two stages. At first stage, ANNs were tested based on the spectra of 66 reference bacterial strains. At second stage, the evaluation involved 286 spectra of bacterial strains isolated from food products, deposited in our laboratory collection, and identified by genus-specific PCR. ANNs were developed based on the spectra and their first derivatives. The most satisfactory results were reported for the probabilistic neural network, which was built using a combination of W5W4W3 spectral ranges. This network correctly identified the genus of 95 % of the lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria strains analyzed.

  12. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites (United States)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle


    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  13. Antibacterial Activities of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Taxus brevifolia Against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria. (United States)

    Islam, Nurul; Choi, Jaehyuk; Baek, Kwang-Hyun


    Endophytes are a potential source of novel bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. In this study, 41 endophytic bacteria (EB) were isolated from tissues of a medicinally important plant Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew). The objective was to screen all the EB isolates for their antibacterial effects against five foodborne pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus cereus ATCC10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Escherichia coli ATCC43890, and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC19585. Among the EB isolates, T. brevifolia seed (TbS)-8, T. brevifolia fleshy part of fruit (TbFl)-10, T. brevifolia leaf (TbL)-22, TbS-29, and TbL-34 exerted significant antibacterial activity against the tested foodborne pathogens. Especially TbFl-10 showed the highest antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria and was identified as Paenibacillus kribbensis (Pk). Furthermore, an ethyl acetate extract of Pk-TbFl-10 possessed antibacterial activities against the tested five foodborne pathogenic bacteria, with zones of inhibition from 15.71 ± 2.85 to 13.01 ± 2.12 mm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed ruptured, lysed, shrunk, and swollen cells of all the tested foodborne pathogens treated with the ethyl acetate extract of Pk-TbFl-10, suggesting that a metabolite(s) of Pk-TbFl-10 penetrates the cell membrane and causes cell lysis leading to cell death. Our results indicate that Pk-TbFl-10 isolated from T. brevifolia can serve as a novel source of natural antibacterial agents against foodborne pathogenic bacteria, with potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. [Effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population]. (United States)

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing


    The effect of transgenic cotton on the rhizosphere bacteria can be important to the risk assessment for the genetically modified crops. We studied the rhizosphere microbial community with cultivating genetically modified cotton. The effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI Cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere total bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population size were studied by using droplet digital PCR. We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting and along with the cotton growth stage (squaring stage, flowering stage, belling stage and boll opening stage). There was no significant change on the total bacterial population between the transgenic cotton and the receptor cotton along with the growth stage. However, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both type of cottons showed significant difference between different growth stages, and the variation tendency was different. In squaring stage, the numbers of AOB in rhizosphere of SY321 and SGK321 increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. In flowering stage, AOB number in rhizosphere of SY321 significantly decreased to be 5.96 x 10(5) copies/g dry soil, however, that of SGK321 increased to be 1.25 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil. In belling stage, AOB number of SY321 greatly increased to be 1.49 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil, but no significant change was observed for AOB number of SGK321. In boll opening stage, both AOB number of SY321 and SGK321 clearly decreased and they were significantly different from each other. Compared to the non-genetically modified cotton, the change in abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was slightly smooth in the transgenic cotton. Not only the cotton growth stage but also the cotton type caused this difference. The transgenic cotton can slow down the speed of ammonia transformation through impacting the number of AOB, which is advantageous for plant growth.

  15. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.


    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  16. Reducing gas content of coal deposits by means of bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska-Lipowa, A A; Kozlowski, B


    This paper discusses the results of experiments carried out in Poland under laboratory conditions on efficiency of methane control using bacteria from Methanosarcina and Methanomonas groups. Malashenko and Whittenburry culture mediums were used. Bacteria growth in an atmosphere of air and methane (48.2%, 8.6% and 5.21%) was observed. Temperature ranged from 19 to 20 C. Investigations show that the bacteria are characterized by high oxidation activity. Depending on methane concentration in the air the bacteria consume from 75% to 100% of methane during biosynthesis. The bacteria reduce methane and oxygen content and increase carbon dioxide content in the air. Using bacteria methane concentration in the air was reduced from 48.2% to 12.3%, from 8.6% to 0.0% and from 5.21% to 0.01%. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  17. Influence of irradiation of bacteria on their thermoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Stefaniakowa, A.; Tropilo, J.; Stanczak, B.; Peconek, J.; Mierzewska, H.; Bielecka, J.


    The influence of x-radiation on thermoresistance of bacteria was determined. The studies were carried out on: E. coli, Pr. vulgaris, S. typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Str. faecalis. The bacteria were irradiated in PBS (physiological buffer solution) and in broth (containing about 1% of protein) with x-rays at radium absorbed doses of 100, 1000, 5000 and 10 000, which was followed immediately by heating at temperatures causing death of part of the bacteria. The results obtained indicate that irradiation of bacteria with small x-ray doses distinctly decreases their thermoresistance. Synergetic action of irradiation and heating of bacteria was observed, increasing with increased irradiation dose. The greatest changes of thermoresistance occurred with Pr. vulgaris, the smallest with S. typhimurium. Thermoresistance of bacteria decreased more strongly on their irradiation in protein-free medium (PBS). (author)

  18. Deployable micro-traps to sequester motile bacteria (United States)

    di Giacomo, Raffaele; Krödel, Sebastian; Maresca, Bruno; Benzoni, Patrizia; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman; Daraio, Chiara


    The development of strategies to reduce the load of unwanted bacteria is a fundamental challenge in industrial processing, environmental sciences and medical applications. Here, we report a new method to sequester motile bacteria from a liquid, based on passive, deployable micro-traps that confine bacteria using micro-funnels that open into trapping chambers. Even in low concentrations, micro-traps afford a 70% reduction in the amount of bacteria in a liquid sample, with a potential to reach >90% as shown by modelling improved geometries. This work introduces a new approach to contain the growth of bacteria without chemical means, an advantage of particular importance given the alarming growth of pan-drug-resistant bacteria.

  19. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan


    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  20. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida


    Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.


    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

  1. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria


    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen


    Abstract Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacill...

  2. Bioremediation of trace cobalt from simulated spent decontamination solutions of nuclear power reactors using E. coli expressing NiCoT genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, G.; Maruthi Mohan, P.; Balaji, V.; Venkateswaran, G.; Rodrigue, A.; Lyon 1 Univ., 69


    Removal of radioactive cobalt at trace levels (∼nM) in the presence of large excess (10 6 -fold) of corrosion product ions of complexed Fe, Cr, and Ni in spent chemical decontamination formulations (simulated effluent) of nuclear reactors is currently done by using synthetic organic ion exchangers. A large volume of solid waste is generated due to the nonspecific nature of ion sorption. Our earlier work using various fungi and bacteria, with the aim of nuclear waste volume reduction, realized up to 30% of Co removal with specific capacities calculated up to 1 μg/g in 6-24 h. In the present study using engineered Escherichia coli expressing NiCoT genes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 (RP) and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F-199 (NA), we report a significant increase in the specific capacity for Co removal (12 μg/g) in 1-h exposure to simulated effluent. About 85% of Co removal was achieved in a two-cycle treatment with the cloned bacteria. Expression of NiCoT genes in the E. coli knockout mutant of NiCoT efflux gene (rcnA) was more efficient as compared to expression in wild-type E. coli MC4100, JM109 and BL21 (DE3) hosts. The viability of the E. coli strains in the formulation as well as at different doses of gamma rays exposure and the effect of gamma dose on their cobalt removal capacity are determined. The potential application scheme of the above process of bioremediation of cobalt from nuclear power reactor chemical decontamination effluents is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Study on improvement of continuous hydrogen production by photosynthetic biofilm in interior illuminant reactor. (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Yuan, Linjiang; Wei, Bo


    In the present study, a new type of interior optical fiber illuminating reactor was developed for H2 production to solve the problem of luminous intensity attenuation at the center portion of a reactor, and an immobilization technique was used to enhance the stability of a continuous hydrogen production process with attached photosynthetic bacteria, using glucose as a sole carbon substrate for the indigenous photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) Rhodopseudomonas palustris SP-6. Results of the experiments showed that the interior optical fiber illuminating reactor produces H2 more efficiently and productively than the exterior light source reactor, with the cumulative H2 production, the maximum H2 production rate and H2 yield increased by 813ml, 11.3ml l-1 h-1 and 22.3%, respectively. The stability of the product of continuous hydrogen was realized by immobilizing PSB on the surface of powder active carbon(PAC). After adding the dosage of 2.0g l-1 PAC, the continuous steady operation of H2 production gave a high H2 yield of 1.398 mol H2 mol-1 glucose and an average H2 production rate of 35.1ml l-1 h-1 illuminating with a single interior optical fiber light source. Meanwhile, a higher H2 yield of 1.495 mol H2 mol-1 glucose and an average H2 production rate of 38.7ml l-1 h-1 were attained illuminating with a compound lamp in the continuous H2 production for 20 days.

  4. Biodegradation of endosulfan by mixed bacteria culture strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of endosulfan by mixed bacteria culture strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Nsidibeabasi Calvin Nwokem, Calvin Onyedika Nwokem, Casmir Emmanuel Gimba, Beatrice Nkiruka Iwuala ...

  5. Effect of radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Gusejnov, M.M.


    The effect of γ-radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria has been studied. Concentration of biogenic hydrogen, generated in the medium, is the main criterion, characterizing corrosion activity of the bacteria studied. The developed method of suppression of active development of sulfate reducing bacteria considerably reduces, and at lethal doses of γ-radiation eliminates altogether the bacteria activity and formation of the main corrosion agent-hydrogen sulphide-in the medium and that, in its turn, liquidates hydrogen sulphide corrosion

  6. Characterization of Bacteria Associated with Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (United States)

    Vicente, Claudia S. L.; Nascimento, Francisco; Espada, Margarida; Barbosa, Pedro; Mota, Manuel; Glick, Bernard R.; Oliveira, Solange


    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease integrating three major agents: the pathogenic agent, the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector Monochamus spp.; and the host pine tree, Pinus sp. Since the early 80's, the notion that another pathogenic agent, namely bacteria, may play a role in PWD has been gaining traction, however the role of bacteria in PWD is still unknown. The present work supports the possibility that some B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may play a significant role in the development of this disease. This is inferred as a consequence of: (i) the phenotypic characterization of a collection of 35 isolates of B. xylophilus-associated bacteria, in different tests broadly used to test plant pathogenic and plant growth promoting bacteria, and (ii) greenhouse experiments that infer the pathogenicity of these bacteria in maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. The results illustrate the presence of a heterogeneous microbial community associated with B. xylophilus and the traits exhibited by at least, some of these bacteria, appear to be related to PWD symptoms. The inoculation of four specific B. xylophilus-associated bacteria isolates in P. pinaster seedlings resulted in the development of some PWD symptoms suggesting that these bacteria likely play an active role with B. xylophilus in PWD. PMID:23091599

  7. Characterization of carbofuran-degrading bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Pesticides, carbofuran, methomyl, biodegradation, bacteria. INTRODUCTION .... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and partial sequence analysis of ..... Beutel KK (1986). Chlorinated hydrocarbon, In W. Gerhartz (ed.),.

  8. Investigation of IR absorption spectra of oral cavity bacteria (United States)

    Belikov, Andrei V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Moroz, Boris T.; Pavlovskaya, Irina V.


    The results of comparative investigation for IR and visual absorption spectra of oral cavity bacteria are represented by this paper. There are also shown the main differences in absorption spectra of such pure bacteria cultures as : E- coli, Candida, Staph, Epidermidis, and absorption spectra of bacteria colonies cultured in tooth root canals suspected to harbour several endodontical problems. The results of experimental research targeted to investigate an effect of such combined YAG:Nd and YAG:Cr; Tm; Ho laser parameters like: wavelength, energy density, average power and etc., to oral cavity bacteria deactivation are given finally.

  9. Physical mode of bacteria and virus coevolution (United States)

    Han, Pu; Niestemski, Liang; Deem, Michael


    Single-cell hosts such as bacteria or archaea possess an adaptive, heritable immune system that protects them from viral invasion. This system, known as the CRISPR-Cas system, allows the host to recognize and incorporate short foreign DNA or RNA sequences from viruses or plasmids. The sequences form what are called ``spacers'' in the CRISPR. Spacers in the CRISPR loci provide a record of the host and predator coevolution history. We develop a physical model to study the dynamics of this coevolution due to immune pressure. Hosts and viruses reproduce, die, and evolve due to viral infection pressure, host immune pressure, and mutation. We will discuss the differing effects of point mutation and recombination on CRISPR evolution. We will also discuss the effect of different spacer deletion mechanisms. We will describe population structure of hosts and viruses, how spacer diversity depends on position within CRISPR, and match of the CRISPR spacers to the virus population.

  10. Streptomyces bacteria as potential probiotics in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern


    Full Text Available In response to the increased seafood demand from the ever-going human population, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing sector. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as a biological control agents for fish pathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Probiotics are defined as living microbial supplement that exert beneficial effects on hosts as well as improvement of environmental parameters. Probiotics have been proven to be effective in improving the growth, survival and health status of the aquatic livestock. This review aims to highlight the genus Streptomyces can be a good candidate for probiotics in aquaculture. Studies showed that the feed supplemented with Streptomyces could protect fish and shrimp from pathogens as well as increase the growth of the aquatic organisms. Furthermore, the limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture is also highlighted and solutions are discussed to these limitations.

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria]. (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada


    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Setubal


    Full Text Available Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  13. Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikriye Alev Akçay


    Full Text Available Metal particles reduced to nano size by nanotechnological methods are confronted in many different fields such as biomedical and physicochemical, pharmaceutical, electric-electronic, automotive and food industries. Nanoparticles can be produced using chemical, physical and biological methods, of which chemical processes are in common use. However, physical and chemical methods are not environmentally friendly and economical because they require the use of high temperature, high pressure and toxic chemicals. For this reason, interest in the production of metal nanoparticles by biological methods, also called green technology, an environmentally friendly and sustainable approach, has increased in recent years. With some plant extracts and intracellular and extracellular secretions of microorganisms, some reduction reactions take place and metal nanoparticles are produced. Bacteria have been actively involved in nanotechnology in recent years due to their diversity in nature, their ease of isolation, and ease of nanoparticle synthesis. In this article, production and application of metal nanoparticles by using bacterial methods have been reviewed.

  14. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena; Chouaia, Bessem; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Bourtzis, Kostas; Daffonchio, Daniele


    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of bacteria (United States)

    Hilton, Peter J.


    This paper outlines a method for optically detecting bacteria on various backgrounds, such as meat, by imaging their laser induced auto-fluorescence response. This method can potentially operate in real-time, which is many times faster than current bacterial detection methods, which require culturing of bacterial samples. This paper describes the imaging technique employed whereby a laser spot is scanned across an object while capturing, filtering, and digitizing the returned light. Preliminary results of the bacterial auto-fluorescence are reported and plans for future research are discussed. The results to date are encouraging with six of the eight bacterial strains investigated exhibiting auto-fluorescence when excited at 488 nm. Discrimination of these bacterial strains against red meat is shown and techniques for reducing background fluorescence discussed.

  16. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria. (United States)

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S; Setubal, João C


    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  17. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Petersen, Elijah J.; Habteselassie, Mussie Y.; Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo


    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14 C-labeled MWCNTs into 14 CO 2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14 C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14 CO 2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  18. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena


    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  19. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar


    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  20. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.


    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  1. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis, and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5. There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3 and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4 in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the

  2. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie


    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  3. Effect of air pollution on the total bacteria and pathogenic bacteria in different sizes of particulate matter. (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Xiangwu; Zhou, Meng; Wang, Jiaqi; He, Zhanfei; Zhang, Huihui; Lou, Liping; Mao, Weihua; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan


    In recent years, air pollution events have occurred frequently in China during the winter. Most studies have focused on the physical and chemical composition of polluted air. Some studies have examined the bacterial bioaerosols both indoors and outdoors. But few studies have focused on the relationship between air pollution and bacteria, especially pathogenic bacteria. Airborne PM samples with different diameters and different air quality index values were collected in Hangzhou, China from December 2014 to January 2015. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA was used to categorize the airborne bacteria. Based on the NCBI database, the "Human Pathogen Database" was established, which is related to human health. Among all the PM samples, the diversity and concentration of total bacteria were lowest in the moderately or heavily polluted air. However, in the PM2.5 and PM10 samples, the relative abundances of pathogenic bacteria were highest in the heavily and moderately polluted air respectively. Considering the PM samples with different particle sizes, the diversities of total bacteria and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria in the PM10 samples were different from those in the PM2.5 and TSP samples. The composition of PM samples with different sizes range may be responsible for the variances. The relative humidity, carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations were the main factors, which affected the diversity of total bacteria and the proportion of pathogenic bacteria. Among the different environmental samples, the compositions of the total bacteria were very similar in all the airborne PM samples, but different from those in the water, surface soil, and ground dust samples. Which may be attributed to that the long-distance transport of the airflow may influence the composition of the airborne bacteria. This study of the pathogenic bacteria in airborne PM samples can provide a reference for environmental and public health researchers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Cadmium resistance of endophytic bacteria and rizosféricas bacteria isolated from Oriza sativa in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Ayubb T


    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to evaluate in vitro the resistance of endophytic bacteria and rizospheric bacteria to different concentrations of Cadmium.This bacteria were isolated fron different tissues of commercial rice varieties and from bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere in rice plantations of the Nechí (Antioquía and Achí (Bolivar.  Plant growth promotion was evaluated in vitro by nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and siderophores production of endophytic bacteria. Of each tissue isolated from rice plants was carried out isolation in culture medium for endophytic bacteria, and the soil samples were serially diluted in peptone water. Each sample was determined the population density by counting in CFU / g of tissue and morphotypes were separated by shape, color, size and appearance in culture media. Significant differences were observed for density population of bacteria with respect to tissue, with higher values in root (4x1011 g/root, followed of the stem (3x1010g/etem, leaf (5x109 g/ leaf, flag leaf (3x109 g/ flag leaf and with less density in panicle (4x108 g/panicle. The results of the identification with kit API were confirmed the presence of endophytic bacteria Burkholderia cepaceae and rizospheric bacteria Pseudomona fluorescens With the ability to tolerate different concentrations of Cd, fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphates and produce siderophores.

  5. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilis Ari Setyati


    Full Text Available Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36. Pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi was used as positive control. Pathogenic assay was carried out in two different bacterial concentrations, i.e. 10⁸ and 10⁶ cells.mL-1. The results showed that the lowest survival rate (SR of shrimp larvae in positive control V. harveyi was 53 and 65%. Whereas isolates with the highest SR value (100% were obtained from bacteria coded as 13 and 30. Isolates no. 19, 33 and 36 had SR of more than 90%. Total plate count (TPC data showed that the bacteria increased significantly at the end of the study with an average increase value of 24%. The smallest TPC value was shown by bacterial isolate no. 19, while the largest was obtained from the isolate no. 13. These results suggest that all probiotic bacteria were not pathogenic to the vannamei shrimp larvae.   Keywords: aquaculture, shrimp, bioremediation, pathogenesis, vibrio.

  6. Isolation of Crude Oil from Polluted Waters Using Biosurfactants Pseudomonas Bacteria: Assessment of Bacteria Concentration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalifeh


    Full Text Available Biological decomposition techniques and isolation of environmental pollutions using biosurfactants bacteria are effective methods of environmental protection. Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds that are produced by local microorganisms and are able to reduce the surface and the stresses between surfaces. As a result, they will increase solubility, biological activity, and environmental decomposition of organic compounds. This study analyzes the effects of biosurfactants on crude oil recovery and its isolation using pseudomonas sea bacteria species. Preparation of biosurfactants was done in glass flasks and laboratory conditions. Experiments were carried out to obtain the best concentration of biosurfactants for isolating oil from water and destroying oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions in two pH ranges and four saline solutions of different concentrations. The most effective results were gained when a concentration of 0.1% biosurfactants was applied.

  7. Determination of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria in Wastewater and Bioreactors (United States)

    Francis, Somilez Asya


    The process of water purification has many different physical, chemical, and biological processes. One part of the biological process is the task of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Both play critical roles in the treatment of wastewater by oxidizing toxic compounds. The broad term is nitrification, a naturally occurring process that is carried out by AOB and NOB by using oxidation to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. To monitor this biological activity, bacterial staining was performed on wastewater contained in inoculum tanks and biofilm samples from bioreactors. Using microscopy and qPCR, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if the population of AOB and NOB in wastewater and membrane bioreactors changed depending on temperature and hibernation conditions to determine the optimal parameters for AOB/NOB culture to effectively clean wastewater.

  8. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station; Bacteria, unos inquilinos permanentes de la estacion espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, B.


    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a {sup c}leanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  9. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings. (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. BioNLP Shared Task--The Bacteria Track. (United States)

    Bossy, Robert; Jourde, Julien; Manine, Alain-Pierre; Veber, Philippe; Alphonse, Erick; van de Guchte, Maarten; Bessières, Philippe; Nédellec, Claire


    We present the BioNLP 2011 Shared Task Bacteria Track, the first Information Extraction challenge entirely dedicated to bacteria. It includes three tasks that cover different levels of biological knowledge. The Bacteria Gene Renaming supporting task is aimed at extracting gene renaming and gene name synonymy in PubMed abstracts. The Bacteria Gene Interaction is a gene/protein interaction extraction task from individual sentences. The interactions have been categorized into ten different sub-types, thus giving a detailed account of genetic regulations at the molecular level. Finally, the Bacteria Biotopes task focuses on the localization and environment of bacteria mentioned in textbook articles. We describe the process of creation for the three corpora, including document acquisition and manual annotation, as well as the metrics used to evaluate the participants' submissions. Three teams submitted to the Bacteria Gene Renaming task; the best team achieved an F-score of 87%. For the Bacteria Gene Interaction task, the only participant's score had reached a global F-score of 77%, although the system efficiency varies significantly from one sub-type to another. Three teams submitted to the Bacteria Biotopes task with very different approaches; the best team achieved an F-score of 45%. However, the detailed study of the participating systems efficiency reveals the strengths and weaknesses of each participating system. The three tasks of the Bacteria Track offer participants a chance to address a wide range of issues in Information Extraction, including entity recognition, semantic typing and coreference resolution. We found common trends in the most efficient systems: the systematic use of syntactic dependencies and machine learning. Nevertheless, the originality of the Bacteria Biotopes task encouraged the use of interesting novel methods and techniques, such as term compositionality, scopes wider than the sentence.

  11. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications. (United States)

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka


    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria and Others Cultivable Facultative Bacteria in Dental Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio de Souza Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Aim: To detect for the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB and evaluate the possible association between SRB and cultivable facultative bacterial of oral sites with different periodontal conditions. Methods: The study was carried out on 9 samples from different oral sites in 8 patients (two samples were collected from the same patient. Material was collected using modified Postgate E culture medium, indicated for the growth and isolation of SRB. In addition, a reducing solution for anaerobic bacteria was used as a transport solution for facultative bacteria and identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results: SRB was found in 3 patient samples: the first in a root fragment, the second in a root fragment and a healthy tooth with vertical bone loss and a mobility degree of 3; and the third in a healthy tooth extracted for orthodontic treatment. In the final patient, the cultivable facultative species Lactobacillus casei was identified. Other facultative bacterial species were identified in patient 5 (Kurthia Gibsonii and patient 7 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The detection of SRB in different dental tissues with distinct periodontal features demonstrated that new studies need to be developed in order to determine the true role of SRB in the oral microbiota. In addition, it was possible to verify the presence of Lactobacillus casei together with SRB in one sample.

  13. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria. (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue


    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laminar flow assisted anisotropic bacteria absorption for chemotaxis delivery of bacteria-attached microparticle (United States)

    Huh, Keon; Oh, Darong; Son, Seok Young; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Song, Byeonghwa; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Seo, Jong-Mo; Kim, Sung Jae


    The concepts of microrobots has been drawn significant attentions recently since its unprecedented applicability in nanotechnology and biomedical field. Bacteria attached microparticles presented in this work are one of pioneering microrobot technology for self-propulsion or producing kinetic energy from ambient for their motions. Microfluidic device, especially utilizing laminar flow characteristics, were employed for anisotropic attachment of Salmonella typhimurium flagellated chemotactic bacteria to 30 um × 30 um and 50 um × 50 um microparticles that made of biodegradable polymer. Any toxic chemicals or harmful treatments were excluded during the attachment process and it finished within 100 s for the anisotropic attachment. The attachments were directly confirmed by fluorescent intensity changes and SEM visualization. Chemotaxis motions were tracked using aspartate and the maximum velocity of the bacteria-attached microrobot was measured to be 5 um/s which is comparable to prior state of art technologies. This reusable and scalable method could play a key role in chemotaxis delivery of functional microparticles such as drug delivery system.

  15. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy


    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  16. Seeing green bacteria in a new light: genomics-enabled studies of the photosynthetic apparatus in green sulfur bacteria and filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A


    Based upon their photosynthetic nature and the presence of a unique light-harvesting antenna structure, the chlorosome, the photosynthetic green bacteria are defined as a distinctive group in the Bacteria. However, members of the two taxa that comprise this group, the green sulfur bacteria...... (Chlorobi) and the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria ("Chloroflexales"), are otherwise quite different, both physiologically and phylogenetically. This review summarizes how genome sequence information facilitated studies of the biosynthesis and function of the photosynthetic apparatus...... a and carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, gene cluster analysis in Cfx. aurantiacus, and gene inactivation studies in Chl. tepidum. Based on these results, BChl a and BChl c biosynthesis is similar in the two organisms, whereas carotenoid biosynthesis differs significantly. In agreement with its facultative anaerobic...

  17. Biochanin A improves fiber fermentation by cellulolytic bacteria (United States)

    The objective was to determine the effect of the isoflavone biochanin A (BCA) on rumen cellulolytic bacteria and consequent fermentative activity. When bovine microbial rumen cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39 °C) with ground hay, cellulolytic bacteria proliferated, short chain fatty...

  18. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria. (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo


    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  19. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005 (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  20. Lactic Acid Bacteria : embarking on 30 more years of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan; Johansen, Eric; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas


    The 11th International Symposium on Lactic Acid Bacteria Lactic Acid Bacteria play important roles in the pro- duction of food and feed and are increasingly used as health-promoting probiotics. The incessant scientific interest in these microorganisms by academic research groups as well as by

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    antigen presenting cells and T-cells. Bacteria translocating across the gastrointestinal mucosa are presumed to gain access to NK cell compartments, as consumption of certain strains of lactic acid bacteria has been shown to increase in vivo NK cytotoxic activity. On-going research in our lab aims...

  2. Population dynamics of bacteria introduced into bentonite amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, C.


    Bacteria have frequently been introduced into the soil environment, e.g. for increasing crop production or for biological control purposes. Many applications require high numbers of surviving organisms in order to be effective. However, survival of bacteria after introduction into soil is

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in aerobic bacteria isolated from oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... varied antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The oral cavities of hunting dogs are laden with multi-drug resistant bacteria of significant public health importance that could be transferred to humans through contaminated hunted games and bite wound. Keywords: Aerobic bacteria, Antimicrobial resistance, Dogs, Oral cavity, ...

  4. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria


    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat


    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  5. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as photoautotrophs, chemolithotrophs and heterotrophs play an important role in the mangrove environment for the oxidation of the toxic sulphide produced by sulphur reducing bacteria and act as a key driving force behind all sulphur transformations in the mangrove ecosystem which is ...

  6. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.; Smit, B.; Santos, dos F.; Riel, van J.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait.

  7. The identification of anaerobic bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Welling, G. W.; Degener, J. E.

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has gained more and more popularity for the identification of bacteria. Several studies show that bacterial diagnosticis is being revolutionized by the application of MALDI-TOF MS. For anaerobic bacteria,

  8. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent lubricating oil contaminated soil. ... This study has shown that resident bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of developing models and strategies ...

  9. Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize-Planted, Kerosene-contaminated Ilorin Alfisol. ... also revealed that some bacteria survive and even thrive in kerosene contaminated soil and hence have the potential to be used in biodegradation and/or bioremediation of oil contaminated soils and water.

  10. Rapid separation of bacteria from blood - Chemical aspects. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahsa; Wood, Ryan L; Buchanan, Clara M; Bledsoe, Colin G; Wood, Madison E; McClellan, Daniel S; Blanco, Rae; Ravsten, Tanner V; Husseini, Ghaleb A; Hickey, Caroline L; Robison, Richard A; Pitt, William G


    To rapidly diagnose infectious organisms causing blood sepsis, bacteria must be rapidly separated from blood, a very difficult process considering that concentrations of bacteria are many orders of magnitude lower than concentrations of blood cells. We have successfully separated bacteria from red and white blood cells using a sedimentation process in which the separation is driven by differences in density and size. Seven mL of whole human blood spiked with bacteria is placed in a 12-cm hollow disk and spun at 3000rpm for 1min. The red and white cells sediment more than 30-fold faster than bacteria, leaving much of the bacteria in the plasma. When the disk is slowly decelerated, the plasma flows to a collection site and the red and white cells are trapped in the disk. Analysis of the recovered plasma shows that about 36% of the bacteria is recovered in the plasma. The plasma is not perfectly clear of red blood cells, but about 94% have been removed. This paper describes the effects of various chemical aspects of this process, including the influence of anticoagulant chemistry on the separation efficiency and the use of wetting agents and platelet aggregators that may influence the bacterial recovery. In a clinical scenario, the recovered bacteria can be subsequently analyzed to determine their species and resistance to various antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. unanswerable questions just as interesting as unculturable bacteria!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. UNANSWERABLE QUESTIONS JUST AS INTERESTING AS UNCULTURABLE BACTERIA! How can landmark research be done in a college? What is the need to isolate novel bacteria when the ones already isolated are not completely studied? How can one do ...

  12. Bacteria isolated from the airways of paediatric patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of which bacteria are found in the airways of paediatric patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. (CF) is important in defining empirical antibiotic guidelines for the treatment of acute infective exacerbations. Objective. To describe the bacteria isolated from the airways of children with non-CF ...

  13. Effect of inulin and probiotic bacteria on growth, survival, immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of inulin and probiotic bacteria on the growth, survival, immune response and viral prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp was evaluated. Presumptive bacilli and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were characterized for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity and antagonism against ...

  14. Isolation and characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panteka stream is a flowing stream polluted with wastes from the activities of mechanics. Water samples collected at different points of the stream were analysed in order to determine the level of heavy metal contamination and bacteria diversity with the view to elucidating the bioremediating potentials of the bacteria isolates ...

  15. 9th International Symposium on Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Poolman, Berend; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    What’s new in the field of lactic acid bacteria? The 9th International Symposium on Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB9) will take place 31 August to 4 September 2008 in Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands. Traditionally, the triannual LAB symposium focuses on the themes of genetics, physiology, and applications

  16. Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; De, J.

    A sharp rise in mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) capable of tolerating very high concentration of Hg was observed over the last 3-4 years in the coastal environs of India. While none or negligible colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted...

  17. Screening of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic bacteria, inhabiting the endosphere of plants, presents a major opportunity to develop cheap and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic agrochemicals. Using standard microbiological procedures, culturable bacteria were isolated from the endosphere (root, stem and leaf) of two Nigerian rice varieties (Ofada and ITA ...

  18. Stalking Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Common Vegetables (United States)

    Brock, David; Boeke, Caroline; Josowitz, Rebecca; Loya, Katherine


    The study developed a simple experimental protocol for studying antibiotic resistant bacteria that will allow students to determine the proportion of such bacteria found on common fruit and vegetable crops. This protocol can open up the world of environmental science and show how human behavior can dramatically alter ecosystems.

  19. Effects of supplementing lactic acid bacteria on fecal microbiota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum strain L.p X3-2B increased fecal lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Bifidobacterium while resisting the growth of harmful bacteria. Viable counts of LAB and Bifidobacterium reached 8 log cfu/mL after feeding for 14 days. Fecal pH in the control group was high in ...

  20. Compatible solutes in lactic acid bacteria subjected to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.


    The goal of the research project described in this thesis was to investigate the protective effect of compatible solutes on tactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Dried preparations of lactic acid bacteria are applied as starter cultures in feed and food industries. Dried starter

  1. The Shared Antibiotic Resistome of Soil Bacteria and Human Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Kevin J.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wang, Bin


    protocol to assemble short-read sequence data after antibiotic selection experiments, using 12 different drugs in all antibiotic classes, and compared antibiotic resistance gene sequences between soil bacteria and clinically occurring pathogens. Sixteen sequences, representing seven gene products, were...... discovered in farmland soil bacteria within long stretches of perfect nucleotide identity with pathogenic proteobacteria....

  2. Flow cytometric assessment of viability of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Bloemen, K.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.


    The viability of lactic acid bacteria is crucial for their applications as dairy starters and as probiotics. We investigated the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria. The esterase substrate carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and the dye exclusion DNA

  3. Performance of shcc with bacteria for concrete patch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.


    The overall performance of concrete patch repair systems depends on the durability of and compatibility between the concrete substrate and the repair material. This paper investigates the performance of a new type of SHCC material with embedded bacteria as a repair material. The bacteria are a

  4. CcpA-dependent carbon catabolite repression in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, JB; Lolkema, JS; Warner, Jessica B.


    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) by transcriptional regulators follows different mechanisms in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, CcpA-dependent CCR is mediated by phosphorylation of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system intermediate HPr at a

  5. Visualizing aquatic bacteria by light and transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Silva, Thiago P; Noyma, Natália P; Duque, Thabata L A; Gamalier, Juliana P; Vidal, Luciana O; Lobão, Lúcia M; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Roland, Fábio; Melo, Rossana C N


    The understanding of the functional role of aquatic bacteria in microbial food webs is largely dependent on methods applied to the direct visualization and enumeration of these organisms. While the ultrastructure of aquatic bacteria is still poorly known, routine observation of aquatic bacteria by light microscopy requires staining with fluorochromes, followed by filtration and direct counting on filter surfaces. Here, we used a new strategy to visualize and enumerate aquatic bacteria by light microscopy. By spinning water samples from varied tropical ecosystems in a cytocentrifuge, we found that bacteria firmly adhere to regular slides, can be stained by fluorochoromes with no background formation and fast enumerated. Significant correlations were found between the cytocentrifugation and filter-based methods. Moreover, preparations through cytocentrifugation were more adequate for bacterial viability evaluation than filter-based preparations. Transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed a morphological diversity of bacteria with different internal and external structures, such as large variation in the cell envelope and capsule thickness, and presence or not of thylakoid membranes. Our results demonstrate that aquatic bacteria represent an ultrastructurally diverse population and open avenues for easy handling/quantification and better visualization of bacteria by light microscopy without the need of filter membranes.

  6. Transmission of nephridial bacteria of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A


    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bacterial ancestor. Previous microscopy and culture studies revealed the presence of bacteria within the egg capsules and on the surface of embryos but did not demonstrate that the bacteria within the egg capsule were the same bacteria that colonized the nephridia. We present evidence, based on curing experiments, in situ hybridizations with Acidovorax-specific probes, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, that the egg capsules contain high numbers of the bacterial symbiont and that juveniles are colonized during development within the egg capsule. Studies exposing aposymbiotic hatchlings to colonized adults and their bedding material suggested that juvenile earthworms do not readily acquire bacteria from the soil after hatching but must be colonized during development by bacteria deposited in the egg capsule. Whether this is due to the developmental stage of the host or the physiological state of the symbiont remains to be investigated.

  7. Response of resident bacteria in a tropical detergent effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria were isolated from a tropical detergent-polluted stream, and their responses to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were investigated. The responses of the resident bacteria were assessed in terms of their ability or failure to grow in the presence of LAS and of their potential to degrade the surfactant. Eighteen ...

  8. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.


    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin

  9. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina


    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  10. Prevalence and drug resistance in bacteria of the urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To obtain data on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from patients with suspected urinary tract infection in Bulawayo province, Zimbabwe. Method: Over a period of one year, 257 urine samples were analyzed for bacteria by standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolated ...

  11. Use of thermophilic bacteria for bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maghrabi, I.M.A.; Bin Aqil, A.O.; Chaalal, O.; Islam, M.R.


    Several strains of thermophilic bacteria were isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. These bacteria show extraordinary resistance to heat and have their maximum growth rate around 60--80 C. This article investigates the potential of using these facultative bacteria for both in situ and ex situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminants. In a series of batch experiments, bacterial growth was observed using a computer image analyzer following a recently developed technique. These experiments showed clearly that the growth rate is enhanced in the presence of crude oil. This is coupled with a rapid degradation of the crude oil. These bacteria were found to be ideal for breaking down long-chain organic molecules at a temperature of 40 C, which is the typical ambient temperature of the Persian Gulf region. The same strains of bacteria are also capable of surviving in the presence of the saline environment that can prevail in both sea water and reservoir connate water. This observation prompted further investigation into the applicability of the bacteria in microbial enhanced oil recovery. In the United Arab Emirates, the reservoirs are typically at a temperature of around 85 C. Finally, the performance of the bacteria is tested in a newly developed bioreactor that uses continuous aeration through a transverse slotted pipe. This reactor also uses mixing without damaging the filamentous bacteria. In this process, the mechanisms of bioremediation are identified

  12. Removal of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by heterotrophic bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) plant effluents from NAFCON were used in amending plots of land experimentally polluted with crude oil. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria (THBC) and fungi (TF), and of petroleum utilizing bacteria (PUB) and fungi (PUF) were monitored during an 8 weeks period. Counts obtained showed that ...

  13. Bacteriocins and lactic acid bacteria - a minireview | Savadogo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation of various foods by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the oldest forms of biopreservation practised by mankind. Bacterial antagonism has been recognized for over a century but in recent years this phenomenon has received more scientific attention, particulary in the use of various strains of lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Selection of local extremophile lactic acid bacteria with high capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is related to the isolation and identification of strains of local thermophilic lactic acid bacteria belonging to the species, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria can exist under extreme conditions of the digestive tract (acidity and high concentration of bile salts) and have a high ...

  15. The bacteria profiles of wounds in diabetic patients hospitalized in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic wound infections still remain a health concern such that correct identification of bacteria is essential in monitoring the spread of the infections as well as in the administration of the correct treatment. This study therefore focuses on isolating and identifying bacteria present in diabetic wounds of hospitalized patients in ...

  16. Antibacterial Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Members of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known probiotics and have been reported to have antimicrobial properties. Although various researchers have documented the isolation of these bacteria from fruits and vegetables, studies on LAB associated with lettuce, cucumber and cabbage are limited and non-existing in ...

  17. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L.) silage were identified during different periods of evolution of sorghum silage in west Algeria. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and technological techniques were used to characterize lactic acid bacteria isolates. A total number of 27 ...

  18. Damage mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at elucidating the inactivation mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water during chlorine and solar disinfection using a simple plating method. The well-known bacterial model Escherichia coli was used as pathogenic bacteria for the experiments. The damage mechanisms of E. coli were ...

  19. Utilization of Cypermethrin by bacteria isolated from irrigated soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil bacteria capable of utilizing Cypermethrin as a source of carbon were isolated using enrichment technique. The bacteria were Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Serratia spp Micrococcus sp, Staphylococci and Streptococcus sp. Growth of P. aeruginosa was determined in the presence of 1:106 and 1:105 Cypermethrin in ...

  20. The Effect of Antioxidants on Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacteria


    Azade ATTAR; Akif İ. QURBANOV


    Objective: The effect of different concentrations of antioxidants (ascorbic acid, emoxipin, tocopherol acetate and ionol) on antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria was studied. Method: Bacteria belong to different respiration types: Pseudomonas aeruginosa as aerobe and Escherichia coli as facultative anaerobe were used. Antibiotic sensitivity of microorganisms was determined as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by dilution test. Results: Different concentrations of antioxidants increased the...