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Sample records for bacteria modulates infections

  1. Modulation of Stat-1 in Human Macrophages Infected with Different Species of Intracellular Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Dominici, Sabrina; Rinaldi, Laura; Cangiano, Alfonsina Mariarosaria; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The infection of human macrophages by pathogenic bacteria induces different signaling pathways depending on the type of cellular receptors involved in the microorganism entry and on their mechanism(s) of survival and replication in the host cell. It was reported that Stat proteins play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the changes in Stat-1 activation (phosphorylation in p-tyr701) after uptake of two Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Legionella pneumophila) characterized by their varying abilities to enter, survive, and replicate in human macrophages. Comparing the results obtained with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Stat-1 activation in macrophages does not seem to be related to LPS content. The p-tyr701Stat-1 expression levels were found to be independent of the internalized bacterial number and IFN-γ release. On the contrary, Jak/Stat-1 pathway activation only occurs when an active infection has been established in the host macrophage, and it is plausible that the differences in the expression levels of p-tyr701Stat-1 could be due to different survival mechanisms or to differences in bacteria life cycles within macrophages. PMID:27437406

  2. Extract of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) displays anti-infective properties by enhanced phagocytosis and differential modulation of host-bacteria interactions.

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    Conrad, Andreas; Frank, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    EPs 7630 is an aqueous-ethanolic extract of the roots of PELARGONIUM SIDOIDES that displays well-documented benefits in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). IN VITRO and animal investigations have revealed various anti-infective properties of EPs 7630. The present review sums up recently published IN VITRO investigations that have shown positive effects on the activity of human peripheral blood phagocytes (PBP) and differential modulation of the interactions between group A streptococci and the host's epithelial barrier.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

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    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  4. Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection

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    Marketon, Melanie M.; DePaolo, R. William; DeBord, Kristin L.; Jabri, Bana; Schneewind, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop β-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune cells for injection. In vivo, dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were injected most frequently, whe...

  5. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

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    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA

  6. The interplay between Entamoeba and enteropathogenic bacteria modulates epithelial cell damage.

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    José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui

    : The in vitro system presented here provides evidence that the Entamoeba/enteropathogenic bacteria interplay modulates epithelial cell responses to the pathogens. In mixed intestinal infections, where such interactions are possible, they could influence the outcome of disease. The results offer insights to continue research on this phenomenon.

  7. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

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    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  8. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

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    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  9. Immune regulation of a chronic bacteria infection and consequences for pathogen transmission

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    Pathak Ashutosh K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of host immunity has been recognized as not only playing a fundamental role in the interaction between the host and pathogen but also in influencing host infectiousness and the ability to shed pathogens. Despite the interest in this area of study, and the development of theoretical work on the immuno-epidemiology of infections, little is known about the immunological processes that influence pathogen shedding patterns. Results We used the respiratory bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and its common natural host, the rabbit, to examine the intensity and duration of oro-nasal bacteria shedding in relation to changes in the level of serum antibodies, blood cells, cytokine expression and number of bacteria colonies in the respiratory tract. Findings show that infected rabbits shed B. bronchiseptica by contact up to 4.5 months post infection. Shedding was positively affected by number of bacteria in the nasal cavity (CFU/g but negatively influenced by serum IgG, which also contributed to the initial reduction of bacteria in the nasal cavity. Three main patterns of shedding were identified: i- bacteria were shed intermittently (46% of individuals, ii- bacteria shedding fell with the progression of the infection (31% and iii- individuals never shed bacteria despite being infected (23%. Differences in the initial number of bacteria shed between the first two groups were associated with differences in the level of serum antibodies and white blood cells. These results suggest that the immunological conditions at the early stage of the infection may play a role in modulating the long term dynamics of B. bronchiseptica shedding. Conclusions We propose that IgG influences the threshold of bacteria in the oro-nasal cavity which then affects the intensity and duration of individual shedding. In addition, we suggest that a threshold level of infection is required for shedding, below this value individuals never shed bacteria

  10. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

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    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  11. Secular Trends in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections : Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Increase the Total Burden of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Harbarth, S.; Buiting, A. G. M.; Crook, D. W.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Hanberger, H.; Herwaldt, L. A.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Kola, A.; Kuchenbecker, R. S.; Lingaas, E.; Meessen, N.; Morris-Downes, M. M.; Pottinger, J. M.; Rohner, P.; dos Santos, R. P.; Seifert, H.; Wisplinghoff, H.; Ziesing, S.; Walker, A. S.; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether rising incidence rates of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) replace antibiotic-susceptible bacteria (ASB), leaving the total BSI rate unaffected. Methods. We investigated temporal trends in annual incidence densit

  12. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

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    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  13. Lactic acid bacteria protect human intestinal epithelial cells from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

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    Affhan, S; Dachang, W; Xin, Y; Shang, D

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and food-borne infections. They promote intestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal colonization by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa has rarely been researched. These organisms spread to extra gastrointestinal niches, resulting in increasingly progressive infections. Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid as the major end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. These bacteria inhibit pathogen colonization and modulate the host immune response. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enteric infections caused by the paradigmatic human pathogens S. aureus ATCC25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC27853. The effect of whole cells and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the lactobacilli on LoVo human carcinoma enterocyte (ATCC CCL-229) infection was analyzed by co-exposure, pre-exposure, and post-exposure studies. Simultaneous application of whole cells and CFS of the lactobacilli significantly eradicated enterocyte infection (P 0.05). This result could be attributed to interference by extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in the development of a pathogen that did not form colonies. Furthermore, results of the plate count and LIVE/ DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining attributed this inhibition to a non-bacteriocin-like substance, which acted independently of organic acid and H2O2 production. Based on these results, the cell-free supernatant derived from lactobacilli was concluded to restrain the development of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa enteric infections. PMID:26681052

  14. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

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    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  15. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

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    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  16. Reactive oxygen species modulate Anopheles gambiae immunity against bacteria and Plasmodium.

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    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; DeJong, Randall J; Charles, Bradley; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev; Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Giovanna; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mosquito immunity against bacteria and Plasmodium was investigated in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Strains of An. gambiae with higher systemic levels of ROS survive a bacterial challenge better, whereas reduction of ROS by dietary administration of antioxidants significantly decreases survival, indicating that ROS are required to mount effective antibacterial responses. Expression of several ROS detoxification enzymes increases in the midgut and fat body after a blood meal. Furthermore, expression of several of these enzymes increases to even higher levels when mosquitoes are fed a Plasmodium berghei-infected meal, indicating that the oxidative stress after a blood meal is exacerbated by Plasmodium infection. Paradoxically, a complete lack of induction of catalase mRNA and lower catalase activity were observed in P. berghei-infected midguts. This suppression of midgut catalase expression is a specific response to ookinete midgut invasion and is expected to lead to higher local levels of hydrogen peroxide. Further reduction of catalase expression by double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing promoted parasite clearance by a lytic mechanism and reduced infection significantly. High mosquito mortality is often observed after P. berghei infection. Death appears to result in part from excess production of ROS, as mortality can be decreased by oral administration of uric acid, a strong antioxidant. We conclude that ROS modulate An. gambiae immunity and that the mosquito response to P. berghei involves a local reduction of detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in the midgut that contributes to limit Plasmodium infection through a lytic mechanism. PMID:18065421

  17. Modulation of Wnt5a expression by periodontopathic bacteria.

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    Hiromi Nanbara

    Full Text Available Wingless proteins, termed Wnt, are involved in embryonic development, blood cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. In mammalian hematopoiesis, Wnt signaling is essential for stem-cell homeostasis and lymphocyte differentiation. Recent studies have suggested that these molecules are associated with cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Furthermore, Wnt5a signaling is essential for the general inflammatory response of human macrophages. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria and the resultant host immune response. Periodontitis is characterized by loss of tooth-supporting structures and alveolar bone resorption. There have been no previous reports on Wnt5a expression in periodontitis tissue, and only few study reported the molecular mechanisms of Wnt5a expression in LPS-stimulated monocytic cells. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that Wnt5a mRNA expression was up-regulated in chronic periodontitis tissue as compared to healthy control tissue. P. gingivalis LPS induced Wnt5a mRNA in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 with a peak at 4 hrs after stimulation. P. gingivalis LPS induced higher up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA than E. coli LPS. The LPS receptors TLR2 and TLR4 were equally expressed on the surface of THP-1 cells. P. gingivalis LPS induced IκBα degradation and was able to increase the NF-κB binding activity to DNA. P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression was inhibited by NF-κB inhibitors, suggesting NF-κB involvement. Furthermore, IFN-γ synergistically enhanced the P. gingivalis LPS-induced production of Wnt5a. Pharmacological investigation and siRNA experiments showed that STAT1 was important for P. gingivalis LPS-induced Wnt5a expression. These results suggest that the modulation of Wnt5a expression by P. gingivalis may play an important role in the periodontal inflammatory process and serve a target for the development of new therapies.

  18. Value of inflammatory biomarkers in early diagnosis of bacteriemia patients infected with gramnegative bacteria

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    陈炜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of inflammatory biomarkers such as procalcitonin(PCT),C-reactive protein(CRP),and endotoxin in early diagnosis of bacterie-mia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria.Methods A cohort of 79 bacteriemia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria admitted from February 2011 to May 2013 were enrolled for retrospective study.Collect-

  19. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulate mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection.

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    Renata L S Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS that modulate redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1, is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. CONCLUSION: We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection.

  20. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

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    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  1. STUDY ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ESBL PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

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    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections have been a major problem, because of the emergence of drug resistant bacteria, in particular B - lactamase producing bacteria. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative organisms pose a great challenge in treatment o f SSI present study is aimed at determining multiple drug resistance in gram negative bacteria & to find out ESBL producers, in correlation with treatment outcome. A total of 120 wound infected cases were studied. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bact erium - 20.Among gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas species is predominant (14 followed by Escherichia coli (13 , Klebsiella species (12 , Proteus (9 Citrobacter (4 Providencia (2 & Acinetobacter species (2 . Out of 56 gramnegative bacteria isolated, 20 were i dentified as ESBL producers, which was statistically significant. Delay in wound healing correlated with infection by ESBL producers, which alarms the need of abstinence from antibiotic abuse

  2. Commensal enteric bacteria lipopolysaccharide impairs host defense against disseminated Candida albicans fungal infection.

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    Jiang, T T; Chaturvedi, V; Ertelt, J M; Xin, L; Clark, D R; Kinder, J M; Way, S S

    2015-07-01

    Commensal enteric bacteria maintain systemic immune responsiveness that protects against disseminated or localized infection in extra-intestinal tissues caused by pathogenic microbes. However, as shifts in infection susceptibility after commensal bacteria eradication have primarily been probed using viruses, the broader applicability to other pathogen types remains undefined. In sharp contrast to diminished antiviral immunity, we show commensal bacteria eradication bolsters protection against disseminated Candida albicans fungal infection. Enhanced antifungal immunity reflects more robust systemic expansion of Ly6G(hi)Ly6C(int) neutrophils, and their mobilization into infected tissues among antibiotic-treated compared with commensal bacteria-replete control mice. Reciprocally, depletion of neutrophils from expanded levels or intestinal lipopolysaccharide reconstitution overrides the antifungal protective benefits conferred by commensal bacteria eradication. This discordance in antifungal compared with antiviral immunity highlights intrinsic differences in how commensal bacteria control responsiveness for specific immune cell subsets, because pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cells that protect against viruses were suppressed similarly after C. albicans and influenza A virus infection. Thus, positive calibration of antiviral immunity by commensal bacteria is counterbalanced by restrained activation of other immune components that confer antifungal immunity.

  3. A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

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    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.

  4. Platelets and Infections – Complex Interactions with Bacteria

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    Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Damien, Pauline; Chabert, Adrien; Pozzetto, Bruno; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Platelets can be considered sentinels of vascular system due to their high number in the circulation and to the range of functional immunoreceptors they express. Platelets express a wide range of potential bacterial receptors, including complement receptors, FcγRII, Toll-like receptors but also integrins conventionally described in the hemostatic response, such as GPIIb–IIIa or GPIb. Bacteria bind these receptors either directly, or indirectly via fibrinogen, fibronectin, the first complement C1q, the von Willebrand Factor, etc. The fate of platelet-bound bacteria is questioned. Several studies reported the ability of activated platelets to internalize bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Porphyromonas gingivalis, though there is no clue on what happens thereafter. Are they sheltered from the immune system in the cytoplasm of platelets or are they lysed? Indeed, while the presence of phagolysosome has not been demonstrated in platelets, they contain antimicrobial peptides that were shown to be efficient on S. aureus. Besides, the fact that bacteria can bind to platelets via receptors involved in hemostasis suggests that they may induce aggregation; this has indeed been described for Streptococcus sanguinis, S. epidermidis, or C. pneumoniae. On the other hand, platelets are able to display an inflammatory response to an infectious triggering. We, and others, have shown that platelet release soluble immunomodulatory factors upon stimulation by bacterial components. Moreover, interactions between bacteria and platelets are not limited to only these two partners. Indeed, platelets are also essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps by neutrophils, resulting in bacterial clearance by trapping bacteria and concentrating antibacterial factors but in enhancing thrombosis. In conclusion, the platelet–bacteria interplay is a complex game; its fine analysis is complicated by the fact that the inflammatory component adds to the aggregation response

  5. The role of beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria in mixed infections

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    Brook Itzhak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB can play an important role in polymicrobial infections. They can have a direct pathogenic impact in causing the infection as well as an indirect effect through their ability to produce the enzyme beta-lactamase. BLPB may not only survive penicillin therapy but can also, as was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies, protect other penicillin-susceptible bacteria from penicillin by releasing the free enzyme into their environment. This phenomenon occurs in upper respiratory tract, skin, soft tissue, surgical and other infections. The clinical, in vitro, and in vivo evidence supporting the role of these organisms in the increased failure rate of penicillin in eradication of these infections and the implication of that increased rate on the management of infections is discussed.

  6. In Vivo Imaging of Infection Using a Bacteria-Targeting Optical Nanoprobe

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    Tang, Ewin N.; Nair, Ashwin; Baker, David W.; Hu, Wenjing; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Wound and device-associated infection is a leading cause for morbidity and mortality. As such, rapid and early diagnosis of bacterial colonization is critical to infection treatment. The current diagnostic methods however, are not able to meet this requirement. Therefore, there is a practical need for the development of a new method to rapidly identify colonized bacteria. This study aims to develop optical nanoprobes that can detect and quantify the number of colonized bacteria in real time. To this end, we have synthesized an imaging nanoprobe with three elements: Concanavalin A (Con A) as a bacterial targeting ligand, a nanoparticle carrier, and a near infrared fluorescent dye. An MTS assay revealed that the bacteria nanoprobe is cell compatible. In vitro testing further showed that the bacteria nanoprobe had a very high specificity and affinity to bacteria. Using a murine wound and catheter infection model, we found that the bacteria nanoprobes can rapidly detect and quantify the extent of bacterial colonization on wounds and catheters in real time. PMID:24734538

  7. An epidemiologically successful Escherichia coli sequence type modulates Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito midgut.

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    Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Boissière, Anne; Nsango, Sandrine E; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Berry, Antoine; Oswald, Eric; Dubois, Damien; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals. PMID:27154329

  8. Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria

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    Bliziotis Ioannis A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to all available antibiotics, including polymyxins. Methods We present a case series of patients with infections due to pathogens resistant to all antimicrobial agents tested, including polymyxins. An isolate was defined as pandrug-resistant (PDR if it exhibited resistance to all 7 anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents, i.e. antipseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins. Results Clinical cure of the infection due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in 4 out of 6 patients with combination of colistin and beta lactam antibiotics. Conclusion Colistin, in combination with beta lactam antibiotics, may be a useful agent for the management of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The re-use of polymyxins, an old class of antibiotics, should be done with caution in an attempt to delay the rate of development of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

  9. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eBozzaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defence mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other "iron genes" will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to

  10. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defense mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A) family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other "iron genes" will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to pathogens.

  11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization rapidly detects three different pathogenic bacteria in urinary tract infection samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Ming; Pan, Xiao P; Tang, Yong F

    2010-11-01

    The detection of pathogenic bacteria in urine is an important criterion for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs). By using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes, bacterial pathogens present in urine samples were identified within 3-4 h. In this study, three probes that are specific for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus were designed based on the conserved 16S RNA sequences, whereas probe Eub338 broadly recognizes all bacteria. We collected a total of 1000 urine samples, and 325 of these samples tested positive for a UTI via traditional culturing techniques; additionally, all 325 of these samples tested positive with the Eub338 probe in FISH analysis. FISH analyses with species-specific probes were performed in parallel to the test the ability to differentiate among several pathogenic bacteria. The samples for these experiments included 76 E. coli infected samples, 32 E. faecalis infected samples and 9 S. aureus infected samples. Compared to conventional methods of bacterial identification, the FISH method produced positive results for >90% of the samples tested. FISH has the potential to become an extremely useful diagnostic tool for UTIs because it has a quick turnaround time and high accuracy.

  12. Host factors and genetic susceptibility to infections due to intracellular bacteria and fastidious organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, S A; Morré, S A; Bochud, P-Y; Greub, G

    2014-12-01

    While genetic polymorphisms play a paramount role in tuberculosis (TB), less is known about their contribution to the severity of diseases caused by other intracellular bacteria and fastidious microorganisms. We searched electronic databases for observational studies reporting on host factors and genetic predisposition to infections caused by intracellular fastidious bacteria published up to 30 May 2014. The contribution of genetic polymorphisms was documented for TB. This includes genetic defects in the mononuclear phagocyte/T helper cell type 1 (Th1) pathway contributing to disseminated TB disease in children and genome-wide linkage analysis (GWAS) in reactivated pulmonary TB in adults. Similarly, experimental studies supported the role of host genetic factors in the clinical presentation of illnesses resulting from other fastidious intracellular bacteria. These include IL-6 -174G/C or low mannose-binding (MBL) polymorphisms, which are incriminated in chronic pulmonary conditions triggered by C. pneumoniae, type 2-like cytokine secretion polymorphisms, which are correlated with various clinical patterns of M. pneumoniae infections, and genetic variation in the NOD2 gene, which is an indicator of tubal pathology resulting from Chamydia trachomatis infections. Monocyte/macrophage migration and T lymphocyte recruitment defects are corroborated to ineffective granuloma formation observed among patients with chronic Q fever. Similar genetic polymorphisms have also been suggested for infections caused by T. whipplei although not confirmed yet. In conclusion, this review supports the paramount role of genetic factors in clinical presentations and severity of infections caused by intracellular fastidious bacteria. Genetic predisposition should be further explored through such as exome sequencing.

  13. O-antigen modulates infection-induced pain states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available The molecular initiators of infection-associated pain are not understood. We recently found that uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC elicited acute pelvic pain in murine urinary tract infection (UTI. UTI pain was due to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS and its receptor, TLR4, but pain was not correlated with inflammation. LPS is known to drive inflammation by interactions between the acylated lipid A component and TLR4, but the function of the O-antigen polysaccharide in host responses is unknown. Here, we examined the role of O-antigen in pain using cutaneous hypersensitivity (allodynia to quantify pelvic pain behavior and using sacral spinal cord excitability to quantify central nervous system manifestations in murine UTI. A UPEC mutant defective for O-antigen biosynthesis induced chronic allodynia that persisted long after clearance of transient infections, but wild type UPEC evoked only acute pain. E. coli strains lacking O-antigen gene clusters had a chronic pain phenotype, and expressing cloned O-antigen gene clusters altered the pain phenotype in a predictable manner. Chronic allodynia was abrogated in TLR4-deficient mice, but inflammatory responses in wild type mice were similar among E. coli strains spanning a wide range of pain phenotypes, suggesting that O-antigen modulates pain independent of inflammation. Spinal cords of mice with chronic allodynia exhibited increased spontaneous firing and compromised short-term depression, consistent with centralized pain. Taken together, these findings suggest that O-antigen functions as a rheostat to modulate LPS-associated pain. These observations have implications for an infectious etiology of chronic pain and evolutionary modification of pathogens to alter host behaviors.

  14. Neutrophils of Scophthalmus maximus produce extracellular traps that capture bacteria and inhibit bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophils constitute an essential part of the innate immune system. Recently, neutrophils have been found to produce a complex extracellular structure called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In fish, a few studies on NETs production have been reported, however, the function of fish NETs is unknown. In this study, we examined the ability of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) neutrophils to produce NETs and investigated the effect of turbot NETs on bacterial infection. We found that upon lipopolysaccharides treatment, turbot head kidney neutrophils produced typical NETs structures that contained DNA and histones. Bacteria treatment also induced production of NETs, which in turn entrapped the bacterial cells and inhibited bacterial replication. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot, NETs-trapped bacteria exhibited significantly weakened ability of tissue dissemination and colonization. These results indicate for the first time that teleost NETs possess apparent antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26586641

  15. Detection of bacteria with molecular methods in prosthetic joint infection: sonication fluid better than periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Mitja; KavčIč, Martina; Trebše, Rihard; CőR, Andrej

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - The correct diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult because bacteria form a biofilm on the surface of the implant. The sensitivity of culture from sonication fluid is better than that from periprosthetic tissue, but no comparison studies using molecular methods on a large scale have been performed. We assessed whether periprosthetic tissue or sonication fluid should be used for molecular analysis. Patients and methods - Implant and tissue samples were retrieved from 87 patients who underwent revision operation of total knee or total hip arthroplasty. Both sample types were analyzed using broad-range (BR-) PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The results were evaluated based on the definition of periprosthetic joint infection from the Workgroup of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Results - PJI was diagnosed in 29 patients, whereas aseptic failure was diagnosed in 58 patients. Analysis of sonication fluid using BR-PCR detected bacteria in 27 patients, whereas analysis of periprosthetic tissue by BR-PCR detected bacteria in 22 patients. In 6 of 7 patients in whom BR-PCR analysis of periprosthetic tissue was negative, low-virulence bacteria were present. The sensitivity and specificity values for periprosthetic tissue were 76% and 93%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity values for sonication fluid were 95% and 97%. Interpretation - Our results suggest that sonication fluid may be a more appropriate sample than periprosthetic tissue for BR-PCR analysis in patients with PJI. However, further investigation is required to improve detection of bacteria in patients with so-called aseptic failure. PMID:27123818

  16. Antiviral activity of bacteria-derived human alpha interferons against encephalomyocarditis virus infection of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Weck, P K; Rinderknecht, E; Estell, D A; Stebbing, N

    1982-01-01

    Bacteria-derived human leukocyte interferon (IFN) subtypes, IFN-alpha A, -alpha B, and -alpha D, and two hybrid IFNs, IFN-alpha AD and -alpha DA, were examined for both in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity. Two of these materials in highly purified form (IFN-alpha D and -alpha D) protect mice against lethal doses of encephalomyocarditis virus infection. A single dose of 1 microgram of protein of IFN-alpha D 3 h before infection conferred protection in both BDF1 and CD-1 mice against enceph...

  17. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N; Belden, Lisa K; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-04-22

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics. PMID:25788591

  18. Treatment of hemorrhagic shock with hypertonic saline solution modulates the inflammatory response to live bacteria in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Shock and resuscitation render patients more susceptible to acute lung injury due to an exacerbated immune response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli. To study the role of innate immunity in this situation, we investigated acute lung injury in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R followed by an early challenge with live bacteria. Conscious rats (N = 8 in each group were submitted to controlled hemorrhage and resuscitated with isotonic saline (SS, 0.9% NaCl or hypertonic saline (HS, 7.5% NaCl solution, followed by intratracheal or intraperitoneal inoculation of Escherichia coli. After infection, toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 mRNA expression was monitored by RT-PCR in infected tissues. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins 6 and 10 were determined by ELISA. All animals showed similar hemodynamic variables, with mean arterial pressure decreasing to nearly 40 mmHg after bleeding. HS or SS used as resuscitation fluid yielded equal hemodynamic results. Intratracheal E. coli inoculation per se induced a marked neutrophil infiltration in septa and inside the alveoli, while intraperitoneal inoculation-associated neutrophils and edema were restricted to the interseptal space. Previous I-R enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration upon bacterial challenge when SS was used as reperfusion fluid, whereas neutrophil influx was unchanged in HS-treated animals. No difference in TLR expression or cytokine secretion was detected between groups receiving HS or SS. We conclude that HS is effective in reducing the early inflammatory response to infection after I-R, and that this phenomenon is achieved by modulation of factors other than expression of innate immunity components.

  19. Isolation of bacteria causing secondary bacterial infection in the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Ziaie Hengameh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. Secondary bacterial infection is one of the complications of the disease that can increase the tissue destruction and the resulting scar. Objective: To effectively determine the incidence of real secondary bacteria infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we designed the current study. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Centre, Isfahan, Iran. In this study, 854 patients with confirmed CL were enrolled. Samples were taken from all the patients. Sterile swaps were achieved for the ulcer exudates and scraping was used for nonulcerated lesions. All the samples were transferred to tryptic soy broth medium. After 24 h of incubation in 37°C, they were transferred to eosin methylene blue agar (EBM and blood agar. Laboratory tests were used to determine the species of bacteria. All of the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi-square. Results: Among 854 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis, 177 patients (20.7% had positive cultures for secondary bacterial infection. Bacteria isolated from the lesions were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus - 123 cases (69.4%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus - 41 cases (23.1%, E. coil - 7 cases (3.9%, Proteus - 3 cases (1.7% and Klebsiella - 3 cases (1.7%. Conclusions: The incidence of secondary bacterial infection in lesions of CL was 20.7%. The most common isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus . The incidence of secondary bacterial infection was significantly more in the ulcerated lesions as compared with nonulcerated lesions ( P = 0.00001.

  20. Treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in the era of multi-drug resistant Bacteria

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    Herzog T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The management of severe intra-abdominal infections remains a major challenge facing surgeons and intensive care physicians, because of its association with high morbidity and mortality. Surgical management and intensive care medicine have constantly improved, but in the recent years a rapidly continuing emergence of resistant pathogens led to treatment failure secondary to infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. In secondary peritonitis the rate of resistant germs at the initial operation is already 30%. The lack of effective antibiotics against these pathogens resulted in the development of new broad-spectrum compounds and antibiotics directed against resistant germs. But so far no "super-drug" with efficacy against all resistant bacteria exists. Even more, soon after their approval, reports on resistance against these novel drugs have been reported, or the drugs were withdrawn from the market due to severe side effects. Since pharmaceutical companies reduced their investigations on antibiotic research, only few new antimicrobial derivates are available. In abdominal surgery you may be in fear that in the future more and more patients with tertiary peritonitis secondary to multi-drug resistant species are seen with an increase of mortality after secondary peritonitis. This article reviews the current treatment modalities for complicated intra-abdominal infections with special reference to the antibiotic treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections with multi-drug resistant species.

  1. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. OBJEC...

  2. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  3. A prebiotic role of Ecklonia cava improves the mortality of Edwardsiella tarda-infected zebrafish models via regulating the growth of lactic acid bacteria and pathogen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Kil-Nam; Ahn, Ginnae; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the beneficial prebiotic roles of Ecklonia cava (E. cava, EC) were evaluated on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pathogen bacteria and the mortality of pathogen-bacteria infected zebrafish model. The result showed that the original E. cava (EC) led to the highest growth effects on three LABs (Lactobacillus brevis, L. brevis; Lactobacillus pentosus, L. pentosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; L. plantarum) and it was dose-dependent manners. Also, EC, its Celluclast enzymatic (ECC) and 100% ethanol extracts (ECE) showed the anti-bacterial activities on the fish pathogenic bacteria such as (Edwardsiella tarda; E. tarda, Streptococcus iniae; S. iniae, and Vibrio harveyi; V. harveyi). Interestingly, EC induced the higher production of the secondary metabolites from L. plantarum in MRS medium. The secondary metabolites produced by EC significantly inhibited the growth of pathogen bacteria. In further in vivo study, the co-treatment of EC and L. plantarum improved the growth and mortality of E. tarda-infected zebrafish as regulating the expression of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS and COX2. Taken together, our present study suggests that the EC plays an important role as a potential prebiotic and has a protective effect against the infection caused by E. tarda injection in zebrafish. Also, our conclusion from this evidence is that EC can be used and applied as a useful prebiotic. PMID:27192145

  4. ``Fatal Scream'' Of Bacteria Infected By Phages: Nanoscale Detection Of Bacteriophage Triggered Ion Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Maria D.; Seo, Sungkyu; Kim, Jong; Cheng, Mosong; Young, Ryland; Biard, Robert J.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Granqvist, Claes-Goran; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2005-11-01

    A rapid, inexpensive and specific identification of arbitrary bacteria under field conditions is urgently needed. To this end, we have introduced and tested a new technology, called SEPTIC, SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade. In its prototype form based on a nanowell chip, SEPTIC has already been shown to be capable of unambiguous identification of live bacteria on a time scale of seconds to minutes, many times faster than any other system. The technology is based on using noise analysis to detect the massive ionic fluxes associated with the initial step of bacteriophage infection, the injection of the phage DNA into the cell. Here we show the results and pose a number of unsolved problems of noise. Ultimately, sensors based on this new technology would be able to save many lifes.

  5. Isolation and life-cycle characterization of lytic viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Chan, Amy; Bertelsen, Sif Koldborg

    2010-01-01

    Basic knowledge on viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria is key to future progress in understanding the role of viruses in aquatic systems and the influence of virus–host interactions on microbial mortality, biogeochemical cycles, and genetic exchange. Such studies require...... the isolation, propagation, and purification of host–virus systems. This contribution presents some of the most widely used methodological approaches for isolation and purification of bacteriophages and cyanophages, the first step in detailed studies of virus–host interactions and viral genetic composition......, and discusses the applications and limitations of different isolation procedures. Most work on phage isolation has been carried out with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria, culturable both on agar plates and in enriched liquid cultures. The procedures presented here are limited to lytic viruses...

  6. A Study on Infections Caused By Metallo Beta Lactamase Producing Gram Negative Bacteria in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasrita Chakraborty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Metallo Beta Lactamse (MBL producing bacteria is gradually increasing throughout the globe. There is no report of MBL producing bacteria from the city of Kolkata so far although it is a very big metropolice city in India. Thus this study was aimed to investigate the impact of this highly virulent group of bacteria in this city. Approach: In this experiment we studied the prevalence, following standard methods of isolation and identification techniques of these bacteria from clinical materials and also studied some characteristics and clinical data in relation to MBL producing bacterial infections in this locality. Results: It was seen that a high prevalence of MBL producing bacteria was present in this city and there were many differences between MBL producing bacterial infection in comparison to the MBL non producing bacterial infection, particularly in relation to age distribution, sex predominance, mortality rate, hematological changes, nature of primary diseases in which infection occurred. There were also some electron microscopic morphological alterations in MBL positive bacterial isolates. Conclusion: This study confirmed significant occurrence of MBL producing bacterial infections in Kolkata showing distinct clinic microbial changes in this type of infection.

  7. Molecular identification of multi drug resistant bacteria from urinary tract infected urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Das, A P

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are of great concern in both developing and developed countries all over the world. Even though the infections are more common in women and children, they are at a considerable rate in men and of all ages. The uropathogens causing the infections are spread through various routes. The treatment generally recommended by the physicians is antibiotic usage. But, most of the uropathogens have evolved antibiotic resistance mechanisms. This makes the present situation hectic in control and prevention of UTIs. The present study aims to illustrate the multidrug resistance patterns among isolated bacterial strains from infected urine samples in Odisha state, India. Four bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Proteus sp. SK3, Pseudomonas sp. ADMK77, Proteus sp. BLKB2 and Enterobacter hormaechei strain CW-3 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetc analysis indicated the strains belong to three various genera namely, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. The evolutionary timeline of the bacteria was studied by constructing phylogenetic trees by Neighborhood Joining method. The presence of ESBL gene and biofilm forming capability were studied for the four strains. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were studied toward the commonly recommended antibiotics. Both the Proteus strains were found commonly susceptible to aminoglycoside and sulphonamide groups. Pseudomonas strain was found to be susceptible to cephems, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Enterobacter sp was found to be resistant to almost all antibiotic groups and susceptible to only sulphonamides group. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the bacteria help in choosing the empirical antibiotic treatment for UTI. PMID:27354209

  8. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  9. Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria in non-ventilated patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted over a three-year period at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. We included only non-ventilated patients diagnosed with HAP and presenting with positive bacterial cultures. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for HAP caused by MDR bacteria. RESULTS: Of the 140 patients diagnosed with HAP, 59 (42.1% were infected with MDR strains. Among the patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and those infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, mortality was 45.9% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.763. Among the patients infected with MDR and those infected with non-MDR gram-negative bacilli, mortality was 45.8% and 38.3%, respectively (p = 0.527. Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors for infection with MDR bacteria: COPD; congestive heart failure; chronic renal failure; dialysis; urinary catheterization; extrapulmonary infection; and use of antimicrobial therapy within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.56-7.61; p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center study, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients with HAP.

  10. Primed Immune Responses Triggered by Ingested Bacteria Lead to Systemic Infection Tolerance in Silkworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined whether microorganisms collaterally ingested by insects with their food activate the innate immune system to confer systemic resistance against subsequent bacterial invasion. Silkworms orally administered heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells showed resistance against intra-hemolymph infection by P. aeruginosa. Oral administration of peptidoglycans, cell wall components of P. aeruginosa, conferred protective effects against P. aeruginosa infection, whereas oral administration of lipopolysaccharides, bacterial surface components, did not. In silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells, P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited in the hemolymph, and mRNA amounts of the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A and moricin were increased in the hemocytes and fat body. Furthermore, the amount of paralytic peptide, an insect cytokine that activates innate immune reactions, was increased in the hemolymph of silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells. These findings suggest that insects sense bacteria present in their food by peptidoglycan recognition, which activates systemic immune reactions to defend the insects against a second round of infection.

  11. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faden, H.; Hong, J.J.; Ogra, P.L.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced by prior RSV infection. The degree of adherence was directly related to the amount of viral antigen expressed on the cell surface. The adherence was temperature dependent, with maximal adherence observed at 37/sup 0/C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP.

  12. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Osherov

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  13. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Neil; Livermore, David M

    2009-09-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria represent a major public health burden, not just in terms of morbidity and mortality, but also in terms of increased expenditure on patient management and implementation of infection control measures. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. are established pathogens in the hospital environment, and their frequent multidrug resistance complicates therapy. The archetypal hospital "superbug", methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), regularly attracts mass-media interest and, in many countries, there is political pressure to reduce MRSA infection rates, with some progress now being made in the United Kingdom and the United States. To compound these established problems, we have witnessed the emergence and spread of virulent clones of MRSA in the community, and of Clostridium difficile in hospitals. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones are major community pathogens in many parts of the world, but are now being challenged by new conjugate vaccines. Using combinations of molecular epidemiological tools, which characterize the resistant isolates and their resistance determinants, scientists can track highly successful bacterial strains at local, national, and international levels. These methods have provided new insights into the evolution of key pathogens, and this information may aid the design of control strategies and vaccines. In addition, the development of new antimicrobials including oxazolidinones, lipopeptides, glycylcyclines, ketolides, and new generations of fluoroquinolones, antistaphylococcal b-lactams, and glycopeptides must remain a high priority for the continued effective treatment of infections caused by resistant strains. So far, resistance to these newer agents is identified rarely in surveillance programs, but occasional reports of resistance causing therapeutic failure (e.g., with linezolid, daptomycin, telithromycin, or newer fluoroquinolones) give cause for concern

  14. Dengue virus life cycle : viral and host factors modulating infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2010-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV 1-4) represents a major emerging arthropod-borne pathogen. All four DENV serotypes are prevalent in the (sub) tropical regions of the world and infect 50-100 million individuals annually. Whereas the majority of DENV infections proceed asymptomatically or result in self-limited de

  15. Dietary modulation of the resistance to intestinal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are still a major health problem, not only in developing countries. Even in Europe and the United States about 10-15 % of the population contracts an intestinal infection each year, mostly of foodborne origin. The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics stresses th

  16. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Pedro L Oliveira; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses ...

  17. Hypoxia modulates infection of epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schaible

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with lung and wound infections. Hypoxia is a frequent feature of the microenvironment of infected tissues which induces the expression of genes associated with innate immunity and inflammation in host cells primarily through the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF and Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB pathways which are regulated by oxygen-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases. Hypoxia also affects virulence and antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, less is known about the impact of hypoxia on host-pathogen interactions such as bacterial adhesion and infection. In the current study, we demonstrate that hypoxia decreases the internalization of P. aeruginosa into cultured epithelial cells resulting in decreased host cell death. This response can also be elicited by the hydroxylase inhibitor Dimethyloxallyl Glycine (DMOG. Reducing HIF-2α expression or Rho kinase activity diminished the effects of hypoxia on P. aeruginosa infection. Furthermore, in an in vivo pneumonia infection model, application of DMOG 48 h before infection with P. aeruginosa significantly reduced mortality. Thus, hypoxia reduces P. aeruginosa internalization into epithelial cells and pharmacologic manipulation of the host pathways involved may represent new therapeutic targets in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection.

  18. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    REIS, Ana Carolina Costa; SANTOS, Susana Regia da Silva; de SOUZA, Siane Campos; SALDANHA, Milena Góes; PITANGA, Thassila Nogueira; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Riccio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014). All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy. PMID:27410913

  19. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa REIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014. All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy.

  20. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  1. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess;

    2013-01-01

    ) in vertebrae are observed in 6 % of the general population and in 35-40 % of people with low back pain. These changes are strongly associated with low back pain. There are probably a mechanical cause and an infective cause that causes MC. Several studies on nuclear tissue from herniated discs have demonstrated...... the presence of low virulent anaerobic microorganisms, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes, in 7-53 % of patients. At the time of a herniation these low virulent anaerobic bacteria may enter the disc and give rise to an insidious infection. Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary effect...... isolated. In the discs with a nucleus with anaerobic bacteria, 80 % developed new MC in the vertebrae adjacent to the previous disc herniation. In contrast, none of those with aerobic bacteria and only 44 % of patients with negative cultures developed new MC. The association between an anaerobic culture...

  2. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoads Daniel D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in markedly different results being reported to clinicians. This study compares the results of aerobic culturing and molecular testing (culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and it examines the relative abundance score that is generated by the molecular test and the usefulness of the relative abundance score in predicting the likelihood that the same organism would be detected by culture. Methods Parallel samples from 51 chronic wounds were studied using aerobic culturing and 16S DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. Results One hundred forty-five (145 unique genera were identified using molecular methods, and 68 of these genera were aerotolerant. Fourteen (14 unique genera were identified using aerobic culture methods. One-third (31/92 of the cultures were determined to be Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis with higher relative abundance scores were more likely to be detected by culture as demonstrated with regression modeling. Conclusion Discordance between molecular and culture testing is often observed. However, culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and its relative abundance score can provide clinicians with insight into which bacteria are most abundant in a sample and which are most likely to be detected by culture.

  3. Peptide IDR-1018: modulating the immune system and targeting bacterial biofilms to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sarah C; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-05-01

    Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides, produced by all complex organisms, typically contain an abundance of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues. A small synthetic peptide termed innate defense regulator (IDR-)1018 was derived by substantial modification of the bovine neutrophil host defense peptide bactenecin. Here, we review its intriguing properties that include anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and anti-biofilm activities. It was initially developed as an immune modulator with an ability to selectively enhance chemokine production and polarize cellular differentiation while suppressing/balancing the pro-inflammatory response. In this regard, it has demonstrated in vivo activity in murine models including enhancement of wound healing and an ability to protect against Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus, and inflammatory disorders, including cerebral malaria and neuronal damage in a pre-term birth model. More recently, IDR-1018 was shown, in a broad-spectrum fashion, to selectively target bacterial biofilms, which are adaptively resistant to many antibiotics and represent the most common growth state of bacteria in human infections. Furthermore, IDR-1018 demonstrated synergy with conventional antibiotics to both prevent biofilm formation and treat pre-existing biofilms. These data are consistent with a strong potential as an adjunctive therapy against antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25358509

  4. Atorvastatin and metformin administration modulates experimental Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmad A; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Ashour, Dalia S; Saied, Eman M; Zineldeen, Doaa H; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2016-04-01

    The host-parasite interaction can be altered by the changes in the host environment that may be or may not be in favor of successful invasion by the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis. Metformin and atorvastatin are applied on a wide scale, to the degree that they could be considered as part of the host biochemical environment that can affect the parasite. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of alteration of the host's biochemical environment by these commonly used drugs upon the course of T. spiralis infection. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) received atorvastatin, (2) received metformin, and (3) untreated, then after one week, animals were infected with T. spiralis. The treatment continued until the end of the experiment. From each group, small intestines and muscles were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses as well as total muscle larval counts. We found that the oxidative stress and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the muscles were significantly reduced in both drug-receiving groups, while the total larval counts in muscles were only significantly reduced in atorvastatin-receiving group as compared to the infected control group. Moreover, marked reduction in the inflammatory cellular infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and oxidative stress was noted in the small intestines of the treated groups as compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, this study provides many insights into the different biochemical changes in the host that the parasite has to face. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects should be taken into consideration when treating infections in patients on therapy with atorvastatin or metformin. PMID:26546571

  5. Relevance of biofilm bacteria in modulating the larval metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Raghukumar, S.

    Balanus amphitrite, on its larval metamorphosis. The effect of multispecies bacterial film was also assessed. The production of different molecules by the bacteria was influenced by the nutrient media under which they were grown. It was observed...

  6. HLA-B27 modulates intracellular growth of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 mutants and production of cytokines in infected monocytic U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 KS8822/88 replicates rapidly in HLA-B27-transfected human monocytic U937 cells. In this process, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2 genes play a crucial role. Our previous study indicated that 118 Salmonella genes, including 8 SPI-2 genes were affected by HLA-B27 antigen during Salmonella infection of U937 cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further investigate Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive U937 monocytic cells, two SPI-2 genes, ssaS and sscA up-regulated most during Salmonella infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells, were mutated by using one-step gene disruption method. Intracellular survival and replication of the mutants in the U937 cells was compared to that of the wild type strain. Surprisingly, the two mutated strains replicated significantly more than the wild type bacteria in HLA-B27-transfected cells. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 10 (IL-10 was significantly induced during the infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells with the mutants. The results indicated that the certain SPI-2 genes in wild type bacteria suppress Salmonella intracellular growth and production of cytokines in infected HLA-B27-transfected cells. HLA-B27-associated modulation of Salmonella SPI-2 genes and cytokine production may have importance in the persistent infection of the bacteria and the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that certain virulence factors of pathogens can reduce the intracellular growth in the host cells. We suggest that the limiting intracellular growth might be a strategy for persistence of bacteria in host cells, keeping a balance between pathogenic growth and pathogenesis.

  7. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x108 CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 μm optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm2. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at the periapical

  8. Microglia and Memory: Modulation by Early-life Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Sholar, Paige W.; Mistry, Rishi S.; Smith, Susan H.; Staci D. Bilbo

    2011-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is critical for normal hippocampus (HP)-dependent cognition, whereas high levels can disrupt memory and are implicated in neurodegeneration. However, the cellular source of IL-1β during learning has not been shown, and little is known about the risk factors leading to cytokine dysregulation within the HP. We have reported that neonatal bacterial infection in rats leads to marked HP-dependent memory deficits in adulthood. However, deficits are ...

  9. A gastrointestinal rotavirus infection mouse model for immune modulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Amerongen Geert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess whether colostrum containing rotavirus-specific antibodies (Gastrogard-R® could protect against rotavirus infection. In addition, this illness model was used to study modulatory effects of intervention on several immune parameters after re-infection. Methods BALB/c mice were treated by gavage once daily with Gastrogard-R® from the age of 4 to 10 days, and were inoculated with rhesus rotavirus (RRV at 7 days of age. A secondary inoculation with epizootic-diarrhea infant-mouse (EDIM virus was administered at 17 days of age. Disease symptoms were scored daily and viral shedding was measured in fecal samples during the post-inoculation periods. Rotavirus-specific IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses in serum, T cell proliferation and rotavirus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses were also measured. Results Primary inoculation with RRV induced a mild but consistent level of diarrhea during 3-4 days post-inoculation. All mice receiving Gastrogard-R® were 100% protected against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Mice receiving both RRV and EDIM inoculation had a lower faecal-viral load following EDIM inoculation then mice receiving EDIM alone or Gastrogard-R®. Mice receiving Gastrogard-R® however displayed an enhanced rotavirus-specific T-cell proliferation whereas rotavirus-specific antibody subtypes were not affected. Conclusions Preventing RRV-induced diarrhea by Gastrogard-R® early in life showed a diminished protection against EDIM re-infection, but a rotavirus-specific immune response was developed including both B cell and T cell responses. In general, this intervention model can be used for studying clinical symptoms as well as the immune responses required for protection against viral re-infection.

  10. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  11. Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

  12.  Mycolic acids – potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kowalski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20�0to 40�0of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae.

  13. A study on the prevention of salmonella infection by using the aggregation characteristics of lactic Acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2013-06-01

    Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning. This study investigated whether heat-killed as well as live Lactobacillus protects host animal against Salmonella infection. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillusacidophilus was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks before the rats were inoculated with Salmonella. Rise in body temperature was moderate in the group that was treated with heat-killed bacteria as compared to the Salmonella control group. The mean amount of feed intake and water consumption of each rat in the heat-killed bacteria group were nearly normal. The number of fecal Salmonellae was comparable between the live and the heat-killed L. acidophilus groups. This finding shows that L. acidophilus facilitates the excretion of Salmonella. Moreover, the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, in the heat-killed L. acidophilus group were significantly lower when compared to the levels in the Salmonella control group. These results indicate that nonviable lactic acid bacteria also could play an important role in preventing infections by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella.

  14. Influence of Modified Natural or Synthetic Surfactant Preparations on Growth of Bacteria Causing Infections in the Neonatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Rauprich, Petra; Möller, Oliver; Walter, Gabriele; Herting, Egbert; Robertson, Bengt

    2000-01-01

    Connatal bacterial pneumonia is common in neonates. Animal studies and initial clinical reports indicate that surfactant dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of severe neonatal pneumonia. Since respiratory distress syndrome and connatal pneumonia may be difficult to differentiate in the first hours of life, neonates with respiratory failure due to bacterial infections might receive surfactant. Under such conditions surfactant components might be catabolized by bacteria and promote b...

  15. Mucosal and systemic immune modulation by Trichuris trichiura in a self-infected individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Anders; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse; Nejsum, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic...... immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T. trichiura clearance, and this served as a positive infectious control. T....... trichiura colonisation induced equally increased expressions of T-helper (h)1-, Th2-, Th17-, and Treg- associated cytokines and transcription factors, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed several indicators of modulation of systemic immunity during the T. trichiura infection...

  16. Chronic Schistosome Infection Leads to Modulation of Granuloma Formation and Systemic Immune Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Lundy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

  17. Engineering bioinspired bacteria-adhesive clay nanoparticles with a membrane-disruptive property for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yuan; Hu, Xiurong; Yao, Qi; Hu, Qida; Amini, Shahrouz; Miserez, Ali; Tang, Guping

    2016-09-28

    We present a bioinspired design strategy to engineer bacteria-targeting and membrane-disruptive nanoparticles for the effective antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Antibacterial nanoparticles were self-assembled from highly exfoliated montmorillonite (eMMT) and cationic linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) via electrostatic interactions. eMMT functions as a bioinspired 'sticky' building block for anchoring antibacterial nanoparticles onto the bacterial cell surface via bacteria-secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), whereas membrane-disruptive lPEI is able to efficiently lyse the bacterial outer membrane to allow topical transmembrane delivery of antibiotics into the intracellular cytoplasm. As a result, eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles intercalated with the antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) not only efficiently target bacteria via EPS-mediated adhesion and kill bacteria in vitro, but also can effectively remain in the stomach where H. pylori reside, thereby serving as an efficient drug carrier for the direct on-site release of MTZ into the bacterial cytoplasm. Importantly, MTZ-intercalated eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles were able to efficiently eradicate H. pylori in vivo and to significantly improve H. pylori-associated gastric ulcers and the inflammatory response in a mouse model, and also showed superior therapeutic efficacy as compared to standard triple therapy. Our findings reveal that bacterial adhesion plays a critical role in promoting efficient antimicrobial delivery and also represent an original bioinspired targeting strategy via specific EPS-mediated adsorption. The bacteria-adhesive eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles with membrane-disruptive ability may constitute a promising drug carrier system for the efficacious targeted delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  18. Modulation of innate antigen-presenting cell function by pre-patent schistosome infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Ferragine

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are intravascular helminths that infect over 200 million people worldwide. Deposition of eggs by adult schistosomes stimulates Th2 responses to egg antigens and induces granulomatous pathology that is a hallmark of schistosome infection. Paradoxically, schistosomes require host immune function for their development and reproduction and for egress of parasite eggs from the host. To identify potential mechanisms by which immune cells might influence parasite development prior to the onset of egg production, we assessed immune function in mice infected with developing schistosomes. We found that pre-patent schistosome infection is associated with a loss of T cell responsiveness to other antigens and is due to a diminution in the ability of innate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate T cells. Diminution of stimulatory capacity by schistosome worms specifically affected CD11b(+ cells and did not require concomitant adaptive responses. We could not find evidence for production of a diffusible inhibitor of T cells by innate cells from infected mice. Rather, inhibition of T cell responsiveness by accessory cells required cell contact and only occurred when cells from infected mice outnumbered competent APCs by more than 3∶1. Finally, we show that loss of T cell stimulatory capacity may in part be due to suppression of IL-12 expression during pre-patent schistosome infection. Modulation of CD4(+ T cell and APC function may be an aspect of host immune exploitation by schistosomes, as both cell types influence parasite development during pre-patent schistosome infection.

  19. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  20. Multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in ICU%ICU多药耐药菌感染的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏丽; 梁世芬; 王冬国

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究分析ICU多药耐药菌的耐药性,探讨多药耐药菌感染的影响因素及控制感染的综合干预措施.方法 对ICU2011年1-12月多药耐药菌感染率进行调查,统计前5位多药耐药菌对主要抗菌药物的耐药率,回顾性总结多药耐药菌感染的影响因素及预防控制方法.结果 ICU全年多药耐药菌平均感染率为16.56%,以呼吸道感染率最高,为12.49%,导尿管感染率次之为3.12%,中心静脉导管感染率最低为1.86%;居前5位多药耐药菌分别为铜绿假单胞菌13株、鲍氏不动杆菌11株、产超广谱β-内酰胺酶肺炎克雷伯菌9株、奇异变形菌4株、多药耐药大肠埃希菌6株;通过综合干预措施的实施使ICU的2次多药耐药菌感染流行得到了较好的控制,三、四季度的多药耐药菌感染率也分别由一、二季度的25.65%、17.07%下降至13.95%、9.46%.结论 环境格局的合理改造、严格执行手卫生及消毒隔离制度、开展连续的耐药性监测、加强对医护人员的教育培训,对控制ICU多药耐药菌感染暴发具有非常重要意义.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the drug resistance of the multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from ICU and explore the risk factors of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections so as to put forward the comprehensive interventions to the control of infections.METHODS The incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in ICU was investigated from Jan to Dec 2011,the drug resistance rates of the top five species of multidrug-resistant bacteria to the main antibiotics were taken for statistics,then the influencing factors of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and the prevention and control measures were retrospectively summarized.RESULTS The average incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in the ICU was 16.56% in the while year,the incidence of respiratory tract infections was highest (12.49%),followed by the catheter

  1. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  2. Multi-bacteria multi-antibiotic testing using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kastanos, Evdokia; Pitris, Costas

    2013-06-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance, which is a major health care problem. The current method for determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics requires overnight cultures. However most of the infections cannot wait for the results to receive treatment, so physicians administer general spectrum antibiotics. This results in ineffective treatments and aggravates the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. In this work, a rapid method for diagnosis and antibiogram for a bacterial infection was developed using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles. The advantages of this novel method include its rapidness and efficiency which will potentially allow doctors to prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic for an infection. SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp. were obtained after 0 and 4 hour exposure to the seven different antibiotics. Bacterial strains were diluted in order to reach the concentration of (2x105 cfu/ml), cells/ml which is equivalent to the minimum concentration found in urine samples from UTIs. Even though the concentration of bacteria was low, species classification was achieved with 94% accuracy using spectra obtained at 0 hours. Sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics was predicted with 81%-100% accuracy from spectra obtained after 4 hours of exposure to the different antibiotics. This technique can be applied directly to urine samples, and with the enhancement provided by SERS, this method has the potential to be developed into a rapid method for same day UTI diagnosis and antibiogram.

  3. Aminoglycoside resistance rates, phenotypes, and mechanisms of Gram-negative bacteria from infected patients in upper Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal F Gad

    Full Text Available With the re-emergence of older antibiotics as valuable choices for treatment of serious infections, we studied the aminoglycoside resistance of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with ear, urinary tract, skin, and gastrointestinal tract infections at Minia university hospital in Egypt. Escherichia coli (mainly from urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infections was the most prevalent isolate (28.57%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.7% (mainly from ear discharge and skin infections. Isolates exhibited maximal resistance against streptomycin (83.4%, and minimal resistance against amikacin (17.7% and intermediate degrees of resistance against neomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Resistance to older aminoglycosides was higher than newer aminoglycosides. The most common aminoglycoside resistance phenotype was that of streptomycin resistance, present as a single phenotype or in combination, followed by kanamycin-neomycin as determined by interpretative reading. The resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were capable of producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and using efflux as mechanisms of resistance. Using checkerboard titration method, the most frequently-observed outcome in combinations of aminoglycosides with β-lactams or quinolones was synergism. The most effective combination was amikacin with ciprofloxacin (100% Synergism, whereas the least effective combination was gentamicin with amoxicillin (53.3% Synergistic, 26.7% additive, and 20% indifferent FIC indices. Whereas the studied combinations were additive and indifferent against few of the tested strains, antagonism was never observed. The high resistance rates to aminoglycosides exhibited by Gram-negative bacteria in this study could be attributed to the selective pressure of aminoglycoside usage which could be controlled by successful implementation of infection control measures.

  4. Highly active modulators of indole signaling alter pathogenic behaviors in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, Marine J; Eguren, Kristen; Melander, Christian

    2013-12-16

    Indole is a universal signal that regulates various bacterial behaviors, such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. To generate mechanistic probes of indole signaling and control indole-mediated pathogenic phenotypes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives to generate highly active indole mimetics. We have developed non-microbicidal dFBr derivatives that are 27-2000 times more active than indole in modulating biofilm formation, motility, acid resistance, and antibiotic resistance. The activity of these analogues parallels indole, because they are dependent on temperature, the enzyme tryptophanase TnaA, and the transcriptional regulator SdiA. This investigation demonstrates that molecules based on the dFBr scaffold can alter pathogenic behaviors by mimicking indole-signaling pathways.

  5. Relevance of Dietary Lipids as Modulators of Immune Functions in Cells Infected with Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Puertollano, María A.; de Pablo, Manuel A.; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional status may have significant importance for the immune system, and particularly, unsaturated fatty acids may serve as modulators of immune functions. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that fatty acids are involved in the reduction of the inflammatory processes that occur in diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system. At the same time, an increase in susceptibility to infection has also been reported. The importance of immune system modulat...

  6. Epigenetic modulations in activated cells early after HIV-1 infection and their possible functional consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana T Maricato

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications refer to a number of biological processes which alter the structure of chromatin and its transcriptional activity such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational processing. Studies have tried to elucidate how the viral genome and its products are affected by epigenetic modifications imposed by cell machinery and how it affects the ability of the virus to either, replicate and produce a viable progeny or be driven to latency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate epigenetic modifications in PBMCs and CD4+ cells after HIV-1 infection analyzing three approaches: (i global DNA- methylation; (ii qPCR array and (iii western blot. HIV-1 infection led to methylation increases in the cellular DNA regardless the activation status of PBMCs. The analysis of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 suggested a trend towards transcriptional repression in activated cells after HIV-1 infection. Using a qPCR array, we detected genes related to epigenetic processes highly modulated in activated HIV-1 infected cells. SETDB2 and RSK2 transcripts showed highest up-regulation levels. SETDB2 signaling is related to transcriptional silencing while RSK2 is related to either silencing or activation of gene expression depending on the signaling pathway triggered down-stream. In addition, activated cells infected by HIV-1 showed lower CD69 expression and a decrease of IL-2, IFN-γ and metabolism-related factors transcripts indicating a possible functional consequence towards global transcriptional repression found in HIV-1 infected cells. Conversely, based on epigenetic markers studied here, non-stimulated cells infected by HIV-1, showed signs of global transcriptional activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 infection exerts epigenetic modulations in activated cells that may lead these cells to transcriptional repression with important functional consequences. Moreover, non-stimulated cells seem to increase gene transcription after HIV-1 infection

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae filamentous phage NgoΦ6 is capable of infecting a variety of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Kłyż, Aneta; Majchrzak, Michał; Szczêsna, Ewa; Piechucki, Marcin; Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Maugel, Timothy K; Stein, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a phagemid consisting of the whole genome of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteriophage NgoΦ6 cloned into a pBluescript plasmid derivative lacking the f1 origin of replication (named pBS::Φ6). Escherichia coli cells harboring pBS::Φ6 were able to produce a biologically active phagemid, NgoΦ6fm, capable of infecting, integrating its DNA into the chromosome of, and producing progeny phagemids in, a variety of taxonomically distant Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria sicca, Pseudomonas sp., and Paracoccus methylutens. A derivative of pBS::Φ6 lacking the phage orf7 gene, a positional homolog of filamentous phage proteins that mediate the interaction between the phage and the bacterial pilus, was capable of producing phagemid particles that were able to infect E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, N. sicca, Pseudomonas sp., and Paracoccus methylutens, indicating that NgoΦ6 infects cells of these species using a mechanism that does not involve the Orf7 gene product and that NgoΦ6 initiates infection through a novel process in these species. We further demonstrate that the establishment of the lysogenic state does not require an active phage integrase. Since phagemid particles were capable of infecting diverse hosts, this indicates that NgoΦ6 is the first broad-host-range filamentous bacteriophage described. PMID:24198404

  8. Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection.

  9. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 infection modulates autophagy in a permissive cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnaro, Serena; Ciarcia, Roberto; Pagnini, Francesco; De Martino, Luisa; Puzio, Maria Valeria; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Avino, Franca; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4), like other herpesviruses, induces a series of alterations in the host cell that modify the intracellular environment in favor of viral replication, survival and spread. This research examined the impact of BoHV-4 infection on autophagy in BoHV-4 infected Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Protein extracts of BoHV-4 infected and control MDBK cells were subjected to Western blot. The concentrations of the autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins Beclin 1, p21, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2, mTOR, phospho mTOR, p62 and the light chain three (LC3) were normalized to the actin level and expressed as the densitometric ratio. Western blot analysis of virus-infected cells revealed that autophagic degradation pathway was induced in the late phase of BoHV-4 infection. After 48 h post-infection the protein LC3II, which is essential for autophagy was found to be markedly increased, while infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-4 resulted in a depletion of p62 levels. Becline 1, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2 and p21 expression increased between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Surprisingly, mTOR and its phosphorylated form, which are negative regulators of autophagy, also increased after 24 h post-infection. In conclusion, our findings suggest that BoHV-4 has developed mechanisms for modulation of autophagy that are probably part of a strategy designed to enhance viral replication and to evade the immune system. Additional studies on the relationship between autophagy and BoHV-4 replication and survival, in both lytic and latent replication phases, are needed to understand the role of autophagy in BoHV-4 pathogenesis.

  10. Assessment of the Ozone-Mediated Killing of Bacteria in Infected Dentine Associated with Non-Cavitated Occlusal Carious Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Baysan, A.; Beighton, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ozone to kill micro-organisms associated with non-cavitated occlusal caries was investigated. The occlusal surfaces were treated with ozone (n = 53) or air (n = 49) for 40 s, and the underlying infected dentine was exposed. There was no significant difference between the number of bacteria recovered from the ozone-treated and the control sites (p > 0.1). Treatment of the exposed dentine with ozone resulted in a just significant (p = 0.044) reduction in bacterial counts. Ozone t...

  11. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management.

  12. Dengue virus type 2 infections of Aedes aegypti are modulated by the mosquito's RNA interference pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Vargas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that both innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms greatly influence the course of human dengue virus (DENV infections, but little is known about the innate immune response of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to arbovirus infection. We present evidence here that a major component of the mosquito innate immune response, RNA interference (RNAi, is an important modulator of mosquito infections. The RNAi response is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, which occurs in the cytoplasm as a result of positive-sense RNA virus infection, leading to production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. These siRNAs are instrumental in degradation of viral mRNA with sequence homology to the dsRNA trigger and thereby inhibition of virus replication. We show that although dengue virus type 2 (DENV2 infection of Ae. aegypti cultured cells and oral infection of adult mosquitoes generated dsRNA and production of DENV2-specific siRNAs, virus replication and release of infectious virus persisted, suggesting viral circumvention of RNAi. We also show that DENV2 does not completely evade RNAi, since impairing the pathway by silencing expression of dcr2, r2d2, or ago2, genes encoding important sensor and effector proteins in the RNAi pathway, increased virus replication in the vector and decreased the extrinsic incubation period required for virus transmission. Our findings indicate a major role for RNAi as a determinant of DENV transmission by Ae. aegypti.

  13. HIV-1 Nef Inhibits Ruffles, Induces Filopodia, and Modulates Migration of Infected Lymphocytes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Cinzia; Rudnicka, Dominika; Hasan, Milena; Aulner, Nathalie; Porrot, Françoise; Machu, Christophe; Renaud, Olivier; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Hivroz, Claire; Schwartz, Olivier; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV-1 Nef protein is a pathogenic factor modulating the behavior of infected cells. Nef induces actin cytoskeleton changes and impairs cell migration toward chemokines. We further characterized the morphology, cytoskeleton dynamics, and motility of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. By using scanning electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and ImageStream technology, which combines flow cytometry and automated imaging, we report that HIV-1 induces a characteristic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In infected lymphocytes, ruffle formation is inhibited, whereas long, thin filopodium-like protrusions are induced. Cells infected with HIV with nef deleted display a normal phenotype, and Nef expression alone, in the absence of other viral proteins, induces morphological changes. We also used an innovative imaging system to immobilize and visualize living individual cells in suspension. When combined with confocal “axial tomography,” this technique greatly enhances three-dimensional optical resolution. With this technique, we confirmed the induction of long filopodium-like structures in unfixed Nef-expressing lymphocytes. The cytoskeleton reorganization induced by Nef is associated with an important impairment of cell movements. The adhesion and spreading of infected cells to fibronectin, their spontaneous motility, and their migration toward chemokines (CXCL12, CCL3, and CCL19) were all significantly decreased. Therefore, Nef induces complex effects on the lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton and cellular morphology, which likely impacts the capacity of infected cells to circulate and to encounter and communicate with bystander cells. PMID:20015995

  14. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host’s defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNFα and IFNγ, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNFα. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria.

  15. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  16. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Amy Liese; Cole, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa. PMID:27025760

  17. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect.

  18. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect. PMID:21413423

  19. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Danish Salmonella surveillance in 2000-2001, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis caused by antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Domestic food products accounted for 53.1% of all cases, mainly caused...... from Danish food, but was common in cases related to imported products (49.7% and 35.6% of attributable cases) and travelling (26.5% and 38.3% of attributable cases). For most serovars, the quinolone-resistant isolates were found to be associated with relatively more human infections than...... that of resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark...

  20. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Nisbet, David J; Kogut, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in U.S. poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry is lacking. In the present study, the above mentioned Salmonella serovars were examined for invasion, intracellular survival, and their ability to modulate oxidative burst and nitric oxide (NO) responses in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. All Salmonella serovars demonstrated similar capacity to invade HD11 cells. At 24 h post-infection, a 36-43% reduction of intracellular bacteria, in log(10)(CFU), was observed for Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg, whereas a significantly lower reduction (16%) was observed for Salmonella Enteritidis, indicating its higher resistance to the killing by HD11 cells. Production of NO was completely diminished in HD11 cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, but remained intact when infected with Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg. Phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated oxidative burst in HD11 cells was greatly impaired after infection by each of the five serovars. When newly hatched chickens were challenged orally, a high rate (86-98%) of systemic infection (Salmonella positive in liver/spleen) was observed in birds challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Kentucky, while only 14% of the birds were Salmonella Senftenberg positive. However, there was no direct correlation between systemic infection and in vitro differential intracellular survival and modulation of NO response among the tested serovars.

  1. Precise temporal modulation in the response of the SOS DNA repair network in individual bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Friedman

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The SOS genetic network is responsible for the repair/bypass of DNA damage in bacterial cells. While the initial stages of the response have been well characterized, less is known about the dynamics of the response after induction and its shutoff. To address this, we followed the response of the SOS network in living individual Escherichia coli cells. The promoter activity (PA of SOS genes was monitored using fluorescent protein-promoter fusions, with high temporal resolution, after ultraviolet irradiation activation. We find a temporal pattern of discrete activity peaks masked in studies of cell populations. The number of peaks increases, while their amplitude reaches saturation, as the damage level is increased. Peak timing is highly precise from cell to cell and is independent of the stage in the cell cycle at the time of damage. Evidence is presented for the involvement of the umuDC operon in maintaining the pattern of PA and its temporal precision, providing further evidence for the role UmuD cleavage plays in effecting a timed pause during the SOS response, as previously proposed. The modulations in PA we observe share many features in common with the oscillatory behavior recently observed in a mammalian DNA damage response. Our results, which reveal a hitherto unknown modulation of the SOS response, underscore the importance of carrying out dynamic measurements at the level of individual living cells in order to unravel how a natural genetic network operates at the systems level.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is needed to minimize the economic loss by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infection seeds such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time polymerase chain reaction...

  3. Translocation of phospholipase A2α to apoplasts is modulated by developmental stages and bacterial infection in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye eJung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2 position to yield lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Of the four paralogs expressed in Arabidopsis, the cellular functions of PLA2α in planta are poorly understood. The present study shows that PLA2α possesses unique characteristics in terms of spatiotemporal subcellular localization, as compared with the other paralogs that remain in the ER and/or Golgi apparatus during secretory processes. Only PLA2α is secreted out to extracellular spaces, and its secretion to apoplasts is modulated according to the developmental stages of plant tissues. Observation of PLA2α-RFP transgenic plants suggests that PLA2α localizes mostly at the Golgi bodies in actively growing leaf tissues, but is gradually trans-located to apoplasts as the leaves become mature. When Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying the avirulent factor avrRpm1 infects the apoplasts of host plants, PLA2α rapidly trans-locates to the apoplasts where bacteria attempt to become established. PLA2α promoter::GUS assays show that PLA2α gene expression is controlled in a developmental stage- and tissue-specific manner. It would be interesting to investigate if PLA2α functions in plant defense responses at apoplasts where secreted PLA2α confronts with invading pathogens.

  4. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-06-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity 6-fold during a 19-day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly suppressed in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be partially inhibited by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to an equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related type Ia MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. An increase in 13C assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition partially inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, as well as growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These

  5. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and pmoA genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity by 6-fold during a 19 day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly inhibited in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like type Ia MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be suppressed by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. Strikingly, type Ib MOB did not respond to methane nor to urea. Increase in 13C-assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, in

  6. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the biodiversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacterial and algal communities in soils is important for obtaining a mechanistic view of terrestrial carbon sinks operating at global scales. "Red" acidic soils (Orthic Acrisols) cover large geographic areas and are subject to a range of management practices, which may alter the balance between carbon dioxide production and assimilation through changes in microbial CO(2)-assimilating populations. Here, we determined the abundance and diversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacteria and algae in acidic soils using quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the cbbL gene, which encodes the key CO(2) assimilation enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the Calvin cycle. Within the framework of a long-term experiment (Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem, subtropical China), paddy rice fields were converted in 1995 to four alternative land management regimes: natural forest (NF), paddy rice (PR), maize crops (CL), and tea plantations (TP). In 2012 (17 years after land use transformation), we collected and analyzed the soils from fields under the original and converted land management regimes. Our results indicated that fields under the PR soil management system harbored the greatest abundance of cbbL copies (4.33 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil). More than a decade after converting PR soils to natural, rotation, and perennial management systems, a decline in both the diversity and abundance of cbbL-harboring bacteria and algae was recorded. The lowest abundance of bacteria (0.98 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil) and algae (0.23 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil) was observed for TP soils. When converting PR soil management to alternative management systems (i.e., NF, CL, and TP), soil edaphic factors (soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were the major determinants of bacterial autotrophic cbbL gene diversity. In contrast, soil phosphorus concentration was the major regulator

  7. Bryostatin modulates latent HIV-1 infection via PKC and AMPK signaling but inhibits acute infection in a receptor independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Mehla

    Full Text Available HIV's ability to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing in resting memory T lymphocytes and other non dividing cells including monocytes. Despite an undetectable viral load in patients treated with potent antiretrovirals, current therapy is unable to purge the virus from these latent reservoirs. In order to broaden the inhibitory range and effectiveness of current antiretrovirals, the potential of bryostatin was investigated as an HIV inhibitor and latent activator. Bryostatin revealed antiviral activity against R5- and X4-tropic viruses in receptor independent and partly via transient decrease in CD4/CXCR4 expression. Further, bryostatin at low nanomolar concentrations robustly reactivated latent viral infection in monocytic and lymphocytic cells via activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC -alpha and -delta, because PKC inhibitors rottlerin and GF109203X abrogated the bryostatin effect. Bryostatin specifically modulated novel PKC (nPKC involving stress induced AMP Kinase (AMPK inasmuch as an inhibitor of AMPK, compound C partially ablated the viral reactivation effect. Above all, bryostatin was non-toxic in vitro and was unable to provoke T-cell activation. The dual role of bryostatin on HIV life cycle may be a beneficial adjunct to the treatment of HIV especially by purging latent virus from different cellular reservoirs such as brain and lymphoid organs.

  8. Tissue reactions to bacteria-challenged implantable leads with enhanced infection resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Blaauw, EH; de Vries-Hospers, HG; Geerdes, BP; Woloszko, J; Verhoeven, MLPM; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; van Luyn, MJA

    1998-01-01

    Tissue reactions to implantable pacemaker leads were investigated in an early infection model in rabbits. Both standard leads and surface-modified leads were used. The surface modification technique was applied to achieve controlled release of the antibiotic gentamicin. The insulating polyurethane t

  9. Limited Specificity in the Injury and Infection Priming against Bacteria in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Valeria; Moreno-García, Miguel; Duarte-Elguea, Erika; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Injury and infection priming has been observed in several insect groups, reported as host immune protection against contact with a pathogen caused by a previous infection with the same. However, the specific response against a pathogen has not been demonstrated in all insect species. Investigating the specific priming response in insects is important because their immune strategies probably reflect particular selective pressures exerted by different pathogens. Here, we determined whether previous infection of Aedes aegypti would enhance survival and/or lead to greater and specific AMP expression after a second exposure to the same or a distinct bacterium. Mosquitoes previously immunized with a low dose of Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus, showed increased survival. Although the host protection herein demonstrated was not specific, each bacterium elicited differential AMP expression. These results can be explained by the susceptible-primed-infected (SPI) epidemiological model, which poses that in the evolution of memory-like responses (priming), a pivotal role is played by pathogen virulence, associated host damage, and the host capacity of pathogen recognition. PMID:27446016

  10. Epidemiology of Ocular Infection Due to Bacteria and Fungus – A Prospective Study

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    AK Verma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 400 cases of eye infection were studied. Among them, 250 were conjunctivitis (59.2%,120were keratitis (53.34% 15 were endophthalmitis (26.67% and 15 were suffering from other infections(40%. The corneal scrapping, conjunctival swab and biopsy material ( endophthalmitis cases was collectedasceptically. The material was examined using 10% Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining and Giemsastaining. The specimens were cultured on sheeps’ blood agar, chocolate agar and sabourauds’ dextroseagar. In the bacterial cause of eye infection Staphylococcus aureus (19.13% was the most commonlyisolated organism and other pathogens isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.93%, Streptococcuspyogens (0.55%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.92%, Klebsiella species(2.74%, Escherichia colli (1.10%and Proteus mirabilis (0.55%. Among the opportunistic pathogens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, (19.13%were the most common isolate followed by Acinetobacter species(2.74%. Alkaligenes faecalis (1.10%,Staphylococcus saprophyticus (0.55%, Staphylococcus cohnii (0.55%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus(0.55%. In the endopthalmitis patients only Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20% and Staphylococcusepidermidis (6.67% were isolated. In the fungal keratitis, the total fungal isolates were 32.50%. Amongthem Aspergillus species (56.42% was the most common fungus isolated followed by Curvurlaria (17.95%,Cladosporium (7.70%, Candida species (5.13%, Fusarium (5.13%, Alternaria (5.13%, Penicillium(2.57%. Fungal infection is a life threatening condition, which needs early diagnosis and treatment tosave the patients’ eye. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are still the most commonisolates among the known and opportunistic pathogens in ocular infection. Pseudomonas is the mostcommon cause of endophthalmitis. Aspergillus remains most common cause for fungal keratitis.

  11. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...

  12. Lactic acid bacteria activating innate immunity improve survival in bacterial infection model of silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Satoshi; Ono, Yasuo; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thought to be helpful for human heath in the gut as probiotics. It recently was noted that activity of LAB stimulating immune systems is important. Innate immune systems are conserved in mammals and insects. Silkworm has innate immunity in response to microbes. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (ex. peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induces a muscle contraction of silkworm larva. In this study, we established an efficient method to isolate lactic acid bacteria derived from natural products. We selected a highly active LAB to activate the innate immunity in silkworm by using the silkworm muscle contraction assay, as well. The assay revealed that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 was highly active on the stimulation of the innate immunity in silkworm. L. lactis 11/19-B1 solely fermented milk with casamino acid and glucose. This strain would be a starter strain to make yogurt. Compared to commercially available yogurt LAB, L. lactis 11/19-B1 has higher activity on silkworm contraction. Silkworm normally ingested an artificial diet mixed with L. lactis 11/19-B1 or a yogurt fermented with L. lactis 11/19-B1. Interestingly, silkworms that ingested the LAB showed tolerance against the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These data suggest that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 would be expected to be useful for making yogurt and probiotics to activate innate immunity. PMID:26971556

  13. Effectiveness of probiotic Phaeobacter bacteria grown in biofilters against Vibrio anguillarum infections in the rearing of Turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prol-García, María J; Pintado, José

    2013-12-01

    The rearing environment of first-feeding turbot larvae, usually with high larvae densities and organic matter concentrations, may promote the growth of opportunistic pathogenic Vibrionaceae bacteria, compromising the survival of the larvae. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the biofilm-forming probiotic Phaeobacter 27-4 strain grown on a ceramic biofilter (probiofilter) in preventing Vibrio anguillarum infections in turbot larvae. In seawater with added microalgae and maintained under turbot larvae rearing conditions, the probiofilter reduced the total Vibrionaceae count and the concentration of V. anguillarum, which was undetectable after 144 h by real-time PCR. The probiofilter also improved the survival of larvae challenged with V. anguillarum, showing an accumulated mortality similar to that of uninfected larvae (35-40 %) and significantly (p biofilters can constantly inoculate probiotics into rearing tanks and are therefore potentially useful for bacterial control in both open and recirculating industrial units.

  14. Mechanisms of infection by pathogens transmitted by ticks on the example of bacteria: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wróblewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are transmission diseases belonging to the group of zoonoses but carried by ticks. These diseases are a major public health problem but also a problem for groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Ixodes ricinus is a species of ticks which is the most common reservoir and the vector of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans. It transfers, among others, bacteria of the species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. The article discusses the mechanisms of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum for both ticks as well as for animals and humans. The two microorganisms discussed have developed many characteristics and mechanisms of adaptation to the environment, as well as defense mechanisms against the body's immune response. Understanding the biology of ticks and the function of proteins produced by ticks and pathogenic microorganisms is the key in the development of effective treatments and prevention of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.

  15. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Feng

    Full Text Available Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5 and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231 and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1 were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  16. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Luoxiong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5) and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0%) conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231) and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1) were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  17. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens.

  18. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25073519

  19. Modulation of IL-12 and IFNγ by probiotic supplementation promotes protection against Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, L F D C; de Leon, P M M; de Moura, M Q; Berne, M E A; Scaini, C J; Leivas Leite, F P

    2016-05-01

    In this study, supplementation with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii promoted a reduction in intensity of infection by Toxocara canis and modulates cytokines mRNA expression in experimentally infected mice. IL-12 gene transcription had 40-fold increase in S. boulardii supplemented uninfected mice and sevenfold increase in supplemented infected mice comparing with not supplemented group. Regarding IFNγ, similar results were observed, since probiotic supplementation induced approximately 43-fold increase, but only in uninfected mice (P canis infection upregulated IL-10 expression while S. boulardii downregulated it and no change was observed for IL-4. Thus, based in these findings; we suggest that one possible mechanism responsible for S. boulardii protection effect against T. canis infection is by the modulation of cytokines expression, especially IL-12. PMID:26971490

  20. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Depletion of Butyrogenic Bacteria in Clostridium difficile Infection and Nosocomial Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Antharam, Vijay C.; Li, Eric C.; Ishmael, Arif; Sharma, Anuj; Mai, Volker; Rand, Kenneth H.; Wang, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nearly half a million cases of diarrhea and colitis in the United States each year. Although the importance of the gut microbiota in C. difficile pathogenesis is well recognized, components of the human gut flora critical for colonization resistance are not known. Culture-independent high-density Roche 454 pyrosequencing was used to survey the distal gut microbiota for 39 individuals with CDI, 36 subjects with C. difficile-negative nosocomial diarr...

  1. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  2. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  3. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

  4. Human Invariant Natural Killer T cells possess immune-modulating functions during Aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzen-Heineke, Antonia; Bouzani, Maria; Schmitt, Anna-Lena; Kurzai, Oliver; Hünniger, Kerstin; Einsele, Hermann; Loeffler, Juergen

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause for invasive fungal infections, a disease associated with high mortality in immune-compromised patients. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells compose a small subset of T cells known to impact the immune response toward various infectious pathogens. To investigate the role of human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection, we studied their activation as determined by CD69 expression and cytokine production in response to distinct fungal morphotypes in the presence of different CD1d(+) antigen presenting cells using flow cytometry and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among CD1d(+) subpopulations, CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs showed the highest potential to activate iNKT cells on a per cell basis. The presence of A. fumigatus decreased this effect of CD1d(+)CD1c(+) mDCs on iNKT cells and led to reduced secretion of TNF-α, G-CSF and RANTES. Production of other Th1 and Th2 cytokines was not affected by the fungus, suggesting an immune-modulating function for human iNKT cells during A. fumigatus infection.

  5. An anti-infective peptide that selectively modulates the innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Monisha G; Dullaghan, Edie; Mookherjee, Neeloffer; Glavas, Natalie; Waldbrook, Matthew; Thompson, Annick; Wang, Aikun; Lee, Ken; Doria, Silvana; Hamill, Pam; Yu, Jie Jessie; Li, Yuexin; Donini, Oreola; Guarna, M Marta; Finlay, B Brett; North, John R; Hancock, Robert E W

    2007-04-01

    We show that an innate defense-regulator peptide (IDR-1) was protective in mouse models of infection with important Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. When given from 48 h before to 6 h after infection, the peptide was effective by both local and systemic administration. Because protection by IDR-1 was prevented by in vivo depletion of monocytes and macrophages, but not neutrophils or B- and T-lymphocytes, we conclude that monocytes and macrophages are key effector cells. IDR-1 was not directly antimicrobial: gene and protein expression analysis in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages indicated that IDR-1, acting through mitogen-activated protein kinase and other signaling pathways, enhanced the levels of monocyte chemokines while reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. To our knowledge, an innate defense regulator that counters infection by selective modulation of innate immunity without obvious toxicities has not been reported previously.

  6. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens. PMID:27472897

  7. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19605.001 PMID:27472897

  8. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-07-29

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL BANDING PATTERN BASED IDENTIFICATION OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION CAUSING BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulomi Nandy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI affects all age groups, but women are more susceptible than men. These infections are typically caused by E coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus fecalis and so on. Since uncultivable microbes are numerically abundant in urine samples, culture independent detection seems to be the method of choice for diagnosing UTI. This study was an attempt to design a database of banding pattern of microbial variety inhabiting normal and infected subjects. The 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR product was digested with 14 different restriction enzymes and run on a 2% agarose gel. From the restriction digestion images, their banding pattern and dendogram analysis, it was possible to differentiate and distinguish between E.coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Enterococci genus. Most of the enzymes like XbaI, ApaI, KpnI, PstI gave similar banding patterns for Klebsiella, E.coli and Pseudomonas, which could be differentiated from the Staphylococcus members. BgII and SmaI gave similar patterns for Klebsiella and E.coli, which was in turn different from that of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. Enzyme BamHI not only differentiated among Staphylococcus and the other three groups but was also able to show a distinct variation in banding pattern among Staphylococcus members. The database generated was used to identify pathogens from unknown patient samples without cultivating them. HindIII and HinfI can be used as two separate potential enzymes to differentiate and distinguish between the various microbes.

  10. Poly I:C enhances susceptibility to secondary pulmonary infections by gram-positive bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tian

    Full Text Available Secondary bacterial pneumonias are a frequent complication of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, but the mechanisms underlying viral-induced susceptibility to bacterial infections are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether the host's response against the viral infection, independent of the injury caused by the virus, results in impairment of antibacterial host defense. Here, we sought to determine whether the induction of an "antiviral" immune state using various viral recognition receptor ligands was sufficient to result in decreased ability to combat common bacterial pathogens of the lung. Using a mouse model, animals were administered polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C or Toll-like 7 ligand (imiquimod or gardiquimod intranasally, followed by intratracheal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We found that animals pre-exposed to poly I:C displayed impaired bacterial clearance and increased mortality. Poly I:C-exposed animals also had decreased ability to clear methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we showed that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and Retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG-I/Cardif pathways, which recognize viral nucleic acids in the form of dsRNA, both contribute to poly I:C mediated impairment of bacterial clearance. Finally, we determined that poly I:C administration resulted in significant induction of type I interferons (IFNs, whereas the elimination of type I IFN signaling improved clearance and survival following secondary bacterial pneumonia. Collectively, these results indicate that in the lung, poly I:C administration is sufficient to impair pulmonary host defense against clinically important gram-positive bacterial pathogens, which appears to be mediated by type I IFNs.

  11. Electrochemical sensing of biomarker for diagnostics of bacteria-specific infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    a direct, selective and rapid detection technique of pyocyanin. Materials & methods: Pyocyanin was detected by amperometry at a relatively high potential where the pyocyanin signal was unaffected by background contributions. Results & conclusion: Pyocyanin was detected at concentrations down to 125 n......M in a 50 μM mixture of interfering compounds with a reproducibility of r2 = 0.999 (n = 5) within 200 s. The results document a step toward a point-of-care technique for diagnosis of P. aeruginosa infections....

  12. Future potential for anti-infectives from bacteria - how to exploit biodiversity and genomic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rolf; Wink, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of antibiotic development include the identification of novel hit compounds. Since actinomycetes and myxobacteria are still the most important natural sources of active metabolites, we provide an overview on these producers and discuss three of the most promising approaches toward finding novel anti-infectives from microorganisms. These are defined as the use of biodiversity to find novel producers, the variation of culture conditions and induction of silent genes, and the exploitation of the genomic potential of producers via "genome mining". Challenges that exist beyond compound discovery are outlined in the last section. PMID:24119567

  13. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  14. Antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid against bacteria responsible for respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; Cappelletti, Laura; De Vecchi, Elena; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Torretta, Sara; Mattina, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    To address the problem of limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial biofilm, it is necessary to find alternative remedies. One candidate could be hyaluronic acid; this study therefore aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid toward bacterial species commonly isolated from respiratory infections. Interference exerted on bacterial adhesion was evaluated by using Hep-2 cells, while the antibiofilm activity was assessed by means of spectrophotometry after incubation of biofilm with hyaluronic acid and staining with crystal violet. Our data suggest that hyaluronic acid is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion to a cellular substrate in a concentration-dependent manner, being notably active when assessed as pure substance. Moreover, we found that Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was more sensitive to the action of hyaluronic acid than biofilm produced by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid is characterized by notable antiadhesive properties, while it shows a moderate activity against bacterial biofilm. As bacterial adhesion to oral cells is the first step for colonization, these results further sustain the role of hyaluronic acid in prevention of respiratory infections. PMID:24698341

  15. Population Density Modulates Drug Inhibition and Gives Rise to Potential Bistability of Treatment Outcomes for Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltas, Jeff; Brumm, Peter; Wood, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The inoculum effect (IE) is an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic as a function of the initial size of a microbial population. The IE has been observed in a wide range of bacteria, implying that antibiotic efficacy may depend on population density. Such density dependence could have dramatic effects on bacterial population dynamics and potential treatment strategies, but explicit measures of per capita growth as a function of density are generally not available. Instead, the IE measures MIC as a function of initial population size, and population density changes by many orders of magnitude on the timescale of the experiment. Therefore, the functional relationship between population density and antibiotic inhibition is generally not known, leaving many questions about the impact of the IE on different treatment strategies unanswered. To address these questions, here we directly measured real-time per capita growth of Enterococcus faecalis populations exposed to antibiotic at fixed population densities using multiplexed computer-automated culture devices. We show that density-dependent growth inhibition is pervasive for commonly used antibiotics, with some drugs showing increased inhibition and others decreased inhibition at high densities. For several drugs, the density dependence is mediated by changes in extracellular pH, a community-level phenomenon not previously linked with the IE. Using a simple mathematical model, we demonstrate how this density dependence can modulate population dynamics in constant drug environments. Then, we illustrate how time-dependent dosing strategies can mitigate the negative effects of density-dependence. Finally, we show that these density effects lead to bistable treatment outcomes for a wide range of antibiotic concentrations in a pharmacological model of antibiotic treatment. As a result, infections exceeding a critical density often survive otherwise effective treatments. PMID:27764095

  16. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  17. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

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    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  18. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections Due to Catheterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Isolated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available UTI is the most common infection in all ages and urinary catheters especially long-term catheterization are important predisposing factors of UTI. Urinary catheters are used in different hospital wards as a complementary curative method for the patients who are undergone various surgical procedures, such as : cesarean, hysterectomy , laparotomy, etc and they who are unable to control their voided urine . 226 urine specimens were collected from 119 catheterized patients which had been hospitalized in seven wards of Razi and Golestan hospitals in Ahwas city . At least two urine specimens were collected from each patient , before and after the insertion of the catheter . All of the specimens were inoculated to suitable Media, after transportation to the Microbiology Lab . Isolated colonies were identified and their resistance patterns were determined by the standard disk diffusion method (Kirby –Bauer procedure to 8 different antibiotics. 38 cases (43.6% out of 87 patients showed Bacteriuria in the end of catheterization . They had no bacteriuria symptoms or sign before the catheterization. The most cases(28.9% of bacteriuria occured in 30-39 years group and the lowest cases (2.6 % of them occured in 60-69 years group. Out of 50 bacterial strains isolated from urine cultures , E.coil (with 17 cases was the highest (34% and Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Edwardsiella tarda , Enterobacter sakazakii (with 2% for each were the lowest cases. E.coli, Enterobacter and Kl. rhinoscleromatis , showed the most resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin , Cephalexin , and the lowest rate to Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin . Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates ,also,showed the most resistance (100% to Penicillin and Ampicillin , and the lowest rate to Gentamicin (with 66.7%, Cotrimoxazol and Nitrofurantoin (with 50% .The results of this study suggested that catheterization , especially long- term catheterization causes the rise of

  20. A Possible Link between Infection with Burkholderia Bacteria and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Epitope Mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that purified polyclonal and monoclonal anti-dsDNA antibodies bind a 15-mer peptide ASPVTARVLWKASHV in ELISA and Dot blot. This 15-mer peptide partial sequence ARVLWKASH shares similarity with burkholderia bacterial cytochrome B 561 partial sequence ARVLWRATH. In this study, we show that purified anti-dsDNA antibodies react with burkholderia fungorum bacterial cell lysates in Western blot. We used anti-dsDNA antibodies to make an anti-dsDNA antibodies affinity column and used this column to purify the burkholderia fungorum bacterial protein. Purified anti-dsDNA antibodies bind specifically to purified bacterial antigen and purified bacterial antigen blocked the anti-dsDNA antibodies binding to dsDNA antigen. Sera with anti-dsDNA antibodies bind specifically to purified bacterial antigen. We obtained protein partial sequence of RAGTDEGFG which is shared with burkholderia bacterial transcription regulator protein sequence. Sera with anti-dsDNA antibodies bind to RAGTDEGFG peptide better than control groups. These data support our hypothesis that the origin of anti-dsDNA antibodies in SLE may be associated with burkholderia bacterial infection.

  1. Modulation of cytokine release by differentiated CACO-2 cells in a compartmentalized coculture model with mononuclear leucocytes and nonpathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Haller, D.; Brinz, S.;

    2004-01-01

    cells when leucocytes were stimulated directly with bacteria. This suppression was not paralleled by changes in the production of IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. When the bacteria were applied apically to the CACO-2 cell layer, the production of TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta, IL-8......To further investigate the interaction between human mononuclear leucocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and enterocytes, the effect of a confluent layer of differentiated CACO-2 cells on cytokine kinetics during challenge with bacteria in a compartmentalized coculture model...... analysis revealed that IL-8 gene expression was equally induced in both CACO-2 and PBMC after apical stimulation with bacteria. Of note, bacteria-stimulated CACO-2 cells produced little or no cytokines in the absence of leucocytes, supporting the concept of leucocyte-epithelial cell cross...

  2. Association with Soil Bacteria Enhances p38-Dependent Infection Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Katz, Sirena; Huang, Hao; Appel, Michael David; Berg, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The importance of our inner microbial communities for proper immune responses against invading pathogens is now well accepted, but the mechanisms underlying this protection are largely unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate such mechanisms. Since very little is known about the microbes interacting with C. elegans in its natural environment, we began by taking the first steps to characterize the C. elegans microbiota. We established a natural-like environment in which initially germfree, wild-type larvae were grown on enriched soil. Bacterial members of the adult C. elegans microbiota were isolated by culture and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Using pure cultures of bacterial isolates as food, we identified two, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas mendocina, that enhanced resistance to a subsequent infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whereas protection by B. megaterium was linked to impaired egg laying, corresponding to a known trade-off between fecundity and resistance, the mechanism underlying protection conferred by P. mendocina depended on weak induction of immune genes regulated by the p38 MAPK pathway. Disruption of the p38 ortholog, pmk-1, abolished protection. P. mendocina enhanced resistance to P. aeruginosa but not to the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. Furthermore, protection from P. aeruginosa was similarly induced by a P. aeruginosa gacA mutant with attenuated virulence but not by a different C. elegans-associated Pseudomonas sp. isolate. Our results support a pivotal role for the conserved p38 pathway in microbiota-initiated immune protection and suggest that similarity between microbiota members and pathogens may play a role in such protection. PMID:23230286

  3. [DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA OF THE KLEBSIELLA STRAIN IN WATER OBJECTS AND THEIR VALUE IN DEVELOPING OF THE WATER CAUSED ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Ivanova, L V; Artyomova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaynova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasnyak, A V; Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P

    2016-01-01

    The wide circulation of Klebsiella bacteria in water ofwater objects of different climatic zones of Russia and various function is established. So bacteria of the Klebsiella strain are in superficial sources of the centralized water supply depending on extent of their biological and chemical pollution; underground waters at the unprotected water-bearing horizons; in drinking water at insufficiently effective system of its cleaning and disinfecting. Klebsiella circulating in water was shown to keep properties of pathogenicity and a virulence, possess resistance both to modern preparations and disinfecting agents (chlorine, an ultraviolet to radiation). Bacteria of the Klebsiella strain have high penetration in the water-bearing horizons. At strains of Klebsiella there is allocated considerable pathogenic potential (adhesive, invasive, phosphatase, lecithinase, DNA-ase, hemolytic activity) and genetic markers of pathogenicity of cnf-1. The etiologic role of bacteria of Klebsiella and an infecting (100, COE/dm3) dose emergence of acute intestinal infections (AII) is established. Detection of Klebsiella in water objects and especially in water of drinking appointment, in the absence of total coliform bacteria (TCB) contributes to the epidemic danger of water use.

  4. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  5. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  6. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFNα modulates Th17 differentiation during early Bordetella pertussis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Smith, A A; You, H; Nguyen, T A; Ferguson, R; Taylor, M; Park, J E; Llontop, P; Youngman, K R; Abramson, T

    2016-05-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis). T helper 17 (Th17) cells have a central role in the resolution of the infection. Emerging studies document that type I interferons (IFNs) suppress Th17 differentiation and interleukin (IL)-17 responses in models of infection and chronic inflammation. As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I IFNs, we hypothesize that during B. pertussis infection in mice, pDC-derived IFNα inhibits a rapid increase in Th17 cells. We found that IFNα-secreting pDCs appear in the lungs during the early stages of infection, while a robust rise of Th17 cells in the lungs is detected at 15 days post-infection or later. The presence of IFNα led to reduced Th17 differentiation and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo blocking of IFNα produced by pDCs during infection with B. pertussis infection resulted in early increase of Th17 frequency, inflammation, and reduced bacterial loads in the airways of infected mice. Taken together, the experiments reported here describe an inhibitory role for pDCs and pDC-derived IFNα in modulating Th17 responses during the early stages of B. pertussis infection, which may explain the prolonged nature of whooping cough.

  8. The Comparison of Antagonistic Effects of Normal Vaginal Lactobacilli and Some Commonly used Antibiotics on Isolated Bacteria of Uterine Infections in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Dini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine infections are one of the major reproductive complications during postpartum. The antibiotics and antiseptic agents used in the treatment of postpartum infections have residues in food, induce bacterial resistance, increase the financial costs and cause failure in defense mechanism of host. On the other hand, nowadays the administration of probiotics is considered as an alternative method for the prevention and treatment of infections. Therefore, preventive treatment with probiotic product could decrease the usage of antibiotic and bring advantages in dairy farm systems. The objective of this study was screening of the antagonistic properties of isolated vaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB against the most prevalent bacteria in uterine infections in order to investigate their probiotic potentials as an alternative approach for prevention of uterine infections. LAB were isolated from sampling of cranial part of vagina during estrus phase and luteal phase of Holstein dairy cattle and pathogens bacteria were isolated from merits and endometritis specimens which referred to our veterinary laboratory. The antagonistic activity of isolated LAB against uterine pathogens was tested by Agar spot test. Antibiotic susceptibilities of pathogenic strains to commonly used antibiotics were investigated by using disc diffusion method. Inhibition zones around both the probiotic spots and the antibiotic discs were classified to weak, moderate and strong categories and their antagonistic efficacies were compared. Isolated LAB had antagonistic effects against all the pathogenic strains including both gram negative and gram positive, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were the most sensitive bacteria (with 12.60 and 14 mm an average inhibition zone, respectively. LAB had the least antagonistic effects on Clostridium perfringens (3.6 mm of an average inhibition zone. Comparing the antagonistic efficacies, the percentages of overall

  9. A new approach for the discovery of antibiotics by targeting non-multiplying bacteria: a novel topical antibiotic for staphylococcal infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.

  10. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sreevatsan Srinand; An Ruisheng; Grewal Parwinder S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. The mutualistic bacteria living in the intestines of the nematode infective juveniles are pathogenic to the insect upon release by the nematodes into the insect hemolymph. Such a switch needs activation of genes that promote bacterial virulence. We studied in vivo gene expression in Ph...

  11. Correlation between uropathogenic properties of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections and the antibody-coated bacteria test and comparison with faecal strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, H. J.; Benseman, B. A.; Peck, J.; Bettelheim, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli isolated from adult females with symptomatic urinary tract infection were found to possess the following properties significantly more frequently than faecal strains: (i) high K-antigen titre: (ii) haemolysin; (iii) type 1 pili; (iv) mannose-resistant haemagglutination; (v) fermentation of dulcitol and salicin; (vi) O serotype 2, 6 and 75; (vii) H serotype 1. E. coli isolated form urine specimens containing significant numbers of antibody-coated bacteria were riche...

  12. Gel-Entrapped Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria as Models of Biofilm Infection Exhibit Growth in Dense Aggregates, Oxygen Limitation, Antibiotic Tolerance, and Heterogeneous Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Breana; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Stewart, Philip S

    2016-10-01

    An experimental model that mimicked the structure and characteristics of in vivo biofilm infections, such as those occurring in the lung or in dermal wounds where no biomaterial surface is present, was developed. In these infections, microbial biofilm forms as cell aggregates interspersed in a layer of mucus or host matrix material. This structure was modeled by filling glass capillary tubes with an agarose gel that had been seeded with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and then incubating the gel biofilm in medium for up to 30 h. Confocal microscopy showed that the bacteria formed in discrete pockets distributed throughout the gel matrix. These aggregates enlarged over time and also developed a size gradient, with the clusters being larger near the nutrient- and oxygen-supplied interface and smaller at greater depths. Bacteria entrapped in gels for 24 h grew slowly (specific growth rate, 0.06 h(-1)) and were much less susceptible to oxacillin, minocycline, or ciprofloxacin than planktonic cells. Microelectrode measurements showed that the oxygen concentration decreased with depth into the gel biofilm, falling to values less than 3% of air saturation at depths of 500 μm. An anaerobiosis-responsive green fluorescent protein reporter gene for lactate dehydrogenase was induced in the region of the gel where the measured oxygen concentrations were low, confirming biologically relevant hypoxia. These results show that the gel biofilm model captures key features of biofilm infection in mucus or compromised tissue: formation of dense, distinct aggregates, reduced specific growth rates, local hypoxia, and antibiotic tolerance. PMID:27503656

  13. Detection of bacteria bearing resistant biofilm forms, by using the universal and specific PCR is still unhelpful in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections(PJI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool eZegaer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative conventional bacteriological cultures were compared with different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods in patients with total joint arthroplasties. The isolated bacteria were investigated for biofilm formation, and the biofilm forming strains, in their planktonic and biofilm forms, were further tested for their antimicrobial resistance against several clinically important antimicrobials. Forty four bone and joint samples were included and classified as infected or non-infected according to standard criteria for periprosthetic hip and knee infections. For the bacteriological diagnosis, conventional culture, two types of universal PCR and species specific PCR for three selected pathogens (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa were applied. Biofilm formation determination was performed by the tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the planktonic bacteria was performed by the minimal inhibitory concentration determination and, of the biofilm forms, by the minimal inhibitory concentration for bacterial regrowth from the biofilm. Twenty samples were culture positive, with S. epidermidis, S. aureus or P. aeruginosa. All PCR methods were very ineffective in detecting only one pathogen. All isolates were biofilm positive and their biofilm forms, were highly resistant. In this study, compared to PCR, culture remains the gold standard. The biofilm formation by the causative bacteria and the concomitant manifold increased antimicrobial resistance may explain the clinical failure of treatment in some cases and should be considered in the future for therapeutic planning.

  14. 急诊科多药耐药菌感染与定植的趋势分析%Multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization in emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聚源; 蔡虻; 王旭涛; 董凡; 张献文; 邵文博; 胡云建; 刘安雷; 张新超

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct long-term and continuous intervention to the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization in emergency department through hand hygiene promotion activity and understand the epidemiological trend of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization through daily monitoring so as to verify the intervention effect .METHODS The targeted monitoring was conducted for the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization from Jan 2012 to Mar 2012 ,the controlled intervention study was carried out by using epidemiologic cross-sectional study ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed by using the IBM SPSS 21 .0 .RESULTS The multidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated from 297 patients who were hospitalized from the emergency department from Jan 2012 to Mar 2014 ;the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ,multidrug-resistant or pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ,and carbapenem-resistant Escherich-ia coli ranked the top three species of the multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated .The rate of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization decreased from 42 .5% to 19 .8% (P<0 .05) .The hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers of the emergency department increased from 20 .2% to 49 .3% (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION It is an effective way to take interventions to the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections so as to reduce the rate of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization and block the spread of the multidrug-resistant bacteria .%目的:通过采取手卫生促进活动,长期、持续地对急诊科多药耐药菌感染与定植进行干预,并通过日常监测了解多药耐药菌感染与定植流行趋势以验证干预效果。方法2012年1-3月医院开展多药耐药菌感染与定植目标性监测;采取流行病学横断面研究的方法进行自身前后对照干预研究;应用 IBM SPSS 21.0对数据进行

  15. Efflux Pump Blockers in Gram-Negative Bacteria: The New Generation of Hydantoin Based-Modulators to Improve Antibiotic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otręebska-Machaj, Ewa; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Szymańska, Ewa; Schabikowski, Jakub; Boyer, Gérard; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Alibert, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility toward nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria. PMID:27199950

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  17. Infection with street strain rabies virus induces modulation of the microRNA profile of the mouse brain

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    Zhao Pingsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies virus (RABV causes a fatal infection of the central nervous systems (CNS of warm-blooded animals. Once the clinical symptoms develop, rabies is almost invariably fatal. The mechanism of RABV pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNA (miRNA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Our recent findings have revealed that infection with laboratory-fixed rabies virus strain can induce modulation of the microRNA profile of mouse brains. However, no previous report has evaluated the miRNA expression profile of mouse brains infected with RABV street strain. Results The results of microarray analysis show that miRNA expression becomes modulated in the brains of mice infected with street RABV. Quantitative real-time PCR assay of the differentially expressed miRNAs confirmed the results of microarray assay. Functional analysis showed the differentially expressed miRNAs to be involved in many immune-related signaling pathways, such as the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, the MAPK signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis. The predicted expression levels of the target genes of these modulated miRNAs were found to be correlated with gene expression as measured by DNA microarray and qRT-PCR. Conclusion RABV causes significant changes in the miRNA expression profiles of infected mouse brains. Predicted target genes of the differentially expression miRNAs are associated with host immune response, which may provide important information for investigation of RABV pathogenesis and therapeutic method.

  18. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreevatsan Srinand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. The mutualistic bacteria living in the intestines of the nematode infective juveniles are pathogenic to the insect upon release by the nematodes into the insect hemolymph. Such a switch needs activation of genes that promote bacterial virulence. We studied in vivo gene expression in Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the white grub Rhizotrogus majalis using selective capture of transcribed sequences technique. Results A total of 40 genes in P. temperata and 39 in X. koppenhoeferi were found to be upregulated in R. majalis hemolymph at 24 h post infection. Genomic presence or upregulation of these genes specific in either one of the bacterium was confirmed by the assay of comparative hybridization, and the changes of randomly selected genes were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The identified genes could be broadly divided into seven functional groups including cell surface structure, regulation, virulence and secretion, stress response, intracellular metabolism, nutrient scavenging, and unknown. The two bacteria shared more genes in stress response category than any other functional group. More than 60% of the identified genes were uniquely induced in either bacterium suggesting vastly different molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity to the same insect host. In P. temperata lysR gene encoding transcriptional activator was induced, while genes yijC and rseA encoding transcriptional repressors were induced in X. koppenhoeferi. Lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene lpsE was induced in X. koppenhoeferi but not in P. temperata. Except tcaC and hemolysin related genes, other virulence genes were different between the two bacteria. Genes involved in TCA cycle were induced in P. temperata whereas

  19. SURVAILANCE REPORT ON INFECTION OF HOSPITAL DRUG- RESISTANT BACTERIA%医院耐药菌感染监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐遂转; 魏春玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the epidemic status of drug - resistant bacteria, and to make control measurements of drug - resistant bacteria infection. Methods Retrospective investigation and bacteria detection technology were used to investigate drug - resistant bacteria infection from 2008 to 2010. Results S31 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected out for consecutive three years, which include 173 strains of drug - resistant, accounted for 32.58%. Drug - resistant bacteria conclude Baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, which were 48.94% , 53. 33% and 41. 56% respectively. S. Aureus was the highest rate of drug - resistant. Baumarmii and P. Aeruginosa were widely resistance. Part of Enterococcus strains resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion Antibiotic resistant bacteria rate in this hospital is high. It should improve infection specimens susceptibility test rate and reasonable use of antibiotics, adopt effective disinfection measurements.%目的 了解医院耐药菌感染流行情况,制定耐药菌感染控制措施.方法采用回顾性调查和细菌检验鉴定技术,对2008-2010年本医院住院病人耐药菌感染情况进行了调查.结果该医院连续3年从医院感染患者标本中共检出致病菌531株,其中耐药菌株为173株,占32.58%;耐药菌构成比以鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌和大肠埃希菌比较高,分别为53.33% 、48.94%和41.56%.金黄色葡萄球菌耐药率最高,鲍曼不动杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌呈广泛耐药;肠球菌中部分菌株耐万古霉素.结论该医院医院感染致病菌中耐药菌比例较高,必须提高感染标本送检率和药敏试验率,合理使用抗生素和采取有效消毒隔离措施.

  20. ANALYSIS OF MULTIDRUG -RESISTANT BACTERIA INFECTIONS IN THE GERIATRIC WARD%老年病房患者多重耐药菌感染的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 杨军; 张剑江

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解医院老年病房住院患者多重耐药菌感染特点,探讨有效防控措施。方法采用回顾性调查方法,对某医院老年病房住院患者多重耐药菌感染特征、病原菌分布以及危险因素进行调查。结果该医院老年病房在2年内共调查老年患者957例,发生多重耐药菌感染30例,感染率为3.14%,病死率70%。老年患者多重耐药菌感染以下呼吸道感染为主,其构成比达到66.67%。分离出的多重耐药菌主要是产超广谱β-内酰胺酶( ES-BLs)肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌及耐碳青酶烯铜绿假单菌。病人的年龄、基础疾病、住院时间、侵入性操作、激素使用等构成感染的主要危险因素。结论该医院老年患者多重耐药菌感染率较高,以下呼吸道感染最多见,免疫力的改善、无菌技术保障和合理使用抗菌药物为主要防控措施。%Objective To study the clinical features of multidrug-resistant bacteria infection in the geriatric wards,so as to explore the effective measures for prevention and control. Methods The retrospective investigation was used to ana-lyze multi-resistant bacteria infection characteristics,pathogen distribution and risk factors of the inpatients in geriatric ward of a hospital. Results 957 elderly patients in the hospital geriatric ward were investigated in 2 years. 30 cases oc-curred multidrug-resistant bacteria infection and the infection rate was 3. 14%,the mortality was 70%. Most of them were lower respiratory tract infections and the constituent ratio was 66. 67%. The main pathogens included ESBLs -produing Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The risk factors of multidrug-resistant bacteria infection were age,disease kind and extent,hospitalization,invasive operation and glucocorticoid u-sing,et al. Conclusion The infection rate of the elderly patients with multiple drug-resistant bacteria is

  1. Antibacterial Surface Design of Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Enhanced Bacteria-Killing and Cell-Assisting Functions Against Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Qian, Shi; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the formidable and recalcitrant complications after orthopedic surgery, and inhibiting biofilm formation on the implant surface is considered crucial to prophylaxis of PJI. However, it has recently been demonstrated that free-floating biofilm-like aggregates in the local body fluid and bacterial colonization on the implant and peri-implant tissues can coexist and are involved in the pathogenesis of PJI. An effective surface with both contact-killing and release-killing antimicrobial capabilities can potentially abate these concerns and minimize PJI caused by adherent/planktonic bacteria. Herein, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in titania (TiO2) nanotubes by anodic oxidation and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to form a contact-killing surface. Vancomycin is then incorporated into the nanotubes by vacuum extraction and lyophilization to produce the release-killing effect. A novel clinical PJI model system involving both in vitro and in vivo use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 is established to systematically evaluate the antibacterial properties of the hybrid surface against planktonic and sessile bacteria. The vancomycin-loaded and Ag-implanted TiO2 nanotubular surface exhibits excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against planktonic/adherent bacteria without appreciable silver ion release. The fibroblasts/bacteria cocultures reveal that the surface can help fibroblasts to combat bacteria. We first utilize the nanoarchitecture of implant surface as a bridge between the inorganic bactericide (Ag NPs) and organic antibacterial agent (vancomycin) to achieve total victory in the battle of PJI. The combination of contact-killing and release-killing together with cell-assisting function also provides a novel and effective strategy to mitigate bacterial infection and biofilm formation on biomaterials and has large potential in orthopedic applications. PMID:27054673

  2. Modulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by the Attaching and Effacing Bacterial Pathogen Citrobacter rodentium in Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Bruce A.; Deng, Wanyin; De Grado, Myriam; Chan, Crystal; Jacobson, Kevan; Finlay, B. Brett

    2002-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium belongs to the attaching and effacing family of enteric bacterial pathogens that includes both enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. These bacteria infect their hosts by colonizing the intestinal mucosal surface and intimately attaching to underlying epithelial cells. The abilities of these pathogens to exploit the cytoskeleton and signaling pathways of host cells are well documented, but their interactions with the host's antimicrobial defenses, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), are poorly understood. To address this issue, we infected mice with C. rodentium and found that iNOS mRNA expression in the colon significantly increased during infection. Immunostaining identified epithelial cells as the major source for immunoreactive iNOS. Finding that nitric oxide (NO) donors were bacteriostatic for C. rodentium in vitro, we examined whether iNOS expression contributed to host defense by infecting iNOS-deficient mice. Loss of iNOS expression caused a small but significant delay in bacterial clearance without affecting tissue pathology. Finally, immunofluorescence staining was used to determine if iNOS expression was localized to infected cells by staining for the C. rodentium virulence factor, translocated intimin receptor (Tir), as well as iNOS. Interestingly, while more than 85% of uninfected epithelial cells expressed iNOS, fewer than 15% of infected (Tir-positive) cells expressed detectable iNOS. These results demonstrate that both iNOS and intestinal epithelial cells play an active role in host defense during C. rodentium infection. However, the selective expression of iNOS by uninfected but not infected cells suggests that this pathogen has developed mechanisms to locally limit its exposure to host-derived NO. PMID:12379723

  3. Modulation of the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 infected patients by drugs of abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Reynolds; Supriya D Mahajan; Aalinkeel, Ravikunar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E; Agosto-Mujica, Arnadri; Hsiao, Chiu Bin; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    We used proteomic analyses to assess how drug abuse modulates immunologic responses to infections with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Two dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis was utilized to determine changes in the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from HIV-1 positive donors that occurred after treatment with cocaine or methamphetamine. Both drugs differentially regulated the expression of several functional classes of proteins. We fu...

  4. In vitro volatile organic compound profiling using GC×GC-TOFMS to differentiate bacteria associated with lung infections: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizio, K D; Perrault, K A; Troobnikoff, A N; Ueland, M; Shoma, S; Iredell, J R; Middleton, P G; Forbes, S L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infections are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the polymicrobial nature of these infections, the identification of the particular bacterial species responsible is an essential step in diagnosis and treatment. Current diagnostic procedures are time-consuming, and can also be expensive, invasive and unpleasant in the absence of spontaneously expectorated sputum. The development of a rapid, non-invasive methodology capable of diagnosing and monitoring early bacterial infection is desired. Future visions of real-time, in situ diagnosis via exhaled breath testing rely on the differentiation of bacteria based on their volatile metabolites. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to investigate whether a range of CF-associated bacterial species (i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus milleri) could be differentiated based on their in vitro volatile metabolomic profiles. Headspace samples were collected using solid phase microextraction (SPME), analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the multivariate structure of the data. Although it was not possible to effectively differentiate all six bacteria using this method, the results revealed that the presence of a particular pattern of VOCs (rather than a single VOC biomarker) is necessary for bacterial species identification. The particular pattern of VOCs was found to be dependent upon the bacterial growth phase (e.g. logarithmic versus stationary) and sample storage conditions (e.g. short-term versus long-term storage at  -18 °C). Future studies of CF-associated bacteria and exhaled breath condensate will benefit from the approaches presented in this study and further

  5. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Function by Interleukin 19 and Interleukin 24 During Filarial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections. PMID:26486636

  6. Critical Role of Airway Macrophages in Modulating Disease Severity during Influenza Virus Infection of Mice ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, M.D.; Pickett, D L; Rooijen, van, J.; Brooks, A G; Reading, P C

    2010-01-01

    Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus str...

  7. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce infections of ESBL- and AmpC-producing, gram-negative bacteria at a University Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Dahl Knudsen

    Full Text Available In response to a considerable increase in the infections caused by ESBL/AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in 2008, a multidisciplinary intervention, with a main focus on antimicrobial stewardship, was carried out at one university hospital. Four other hospitals were used as controls. Stringent guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL/AmpC-producing and other resistant bacteria, in addition to their use in severe sepsis/septic shock. Piperacillin-tazobactam ± gentamicin was recommended for empiric treatments of most febrile conditions. The intervention also included education and guidance on infection control, as well as various other surveillances. Two year follow-up data on the incidence rates of patients with selected bacterial infections, outcomes, and antibiotic consumption were assessed, employing before-and-after analysis and segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series, using the other hospitals as controls. The intervention led to a sustained change in antimicrobial consumption, and the incidence of patients infected with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae decreased significantly (p<0.001. The incidences of other hospital-associated infections also declined (p's<0.02, but piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium infections increased (p's<0.033. In wards with high antimicrobial consumption, the patient gut carrier rate of ESBL-producing bacteria significantly decreased (p = 0.023. The unadjusted, all-cause 30-day mortality rates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were unchanged over the four-year period, with similar results in all five hospitals. Although not statistically significant, the 30-day mortality rate of patients

  8. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk. PMID:24171573

  9. 肺部感染常见病原菌与感染正相关因素分析%Analysis of Positive-related Factors between Pathogenic bacteria and Infection in Pulmonary Infection Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 邵瑞芳; 赵天海

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解肺部感染常见的病原菌,探讨其感染相关因素及致病菌构成比,为防治和治疗提供指导。方法:对诊断为肺部感染的316例患者进行痰菌培养及药敏试验,并对感染相关因素进行分析。结果:痰菌培养阳性率41.77%。病原菌中革兰氏阴性菌占49.24%;真菌40.91%;革兰氏阳性菌9.84%。与肺部感染关系密切的相关因素中,使用广谱抗生素94例,占71.21%;侵入性操作史者34例,占25.75%;腹部或胸部手术史者24例,占18.18%;使用激素和免疫抑制剂13例,占9.84%。结论:肺部感染的致病菌主要为革兰氏阴性菌,其次为真菌和革兰氏阳性菌。致病菌中占比例较高的主要有铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、白色念珠菌和金黄色葡萄球菌等。不合理使用广谱抗生素和免疫抑制剂;侵入性操作;原有基础疾病所引起的抵抗力下降;胸腹部手术等是引起或加重肺部感染的主要因素。%Objective:To explore the common pathogenic bacteria of lung infection,the infection related factors and percentage so as to provide direction of prevention and therapy.Method:The sputum samples of 316 patients with pulmonary infection were cultured and given drug sensitivity test,along with analyzing infection-related factors.Result:The positive proportion of sputum culture were 41.77%,including Gram-negative bacteria(49.24%),fungi(40.91%)and gram-positive bacteria(9.84%). In the factors of close-related with pulmonary infection,using broad-spectrum antibiotic were 94(71.21%)cases,invasive operation were 34(25.75%)cases,abdomen and thoracic surgical operation were 24(18.18%) cases,using glucocorticoid and immunosuppressants were 13(9.84%)cases.Conclusion:The main pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection are gram-negative bacteria,followed by fungi and gram-positive bacteria. The below are the high percentage of pathogenic bacteria,such as Pseudomonas

  10. Modulation of Cell Sialoglycophenotype: A Stylish Mechanism Adopted by Trypanosoma cruzi to Ensure Its Persistence in the Infected Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; da Fonseca, Leonardo M.; da Silva, Vanessa A.; da Costa, Kelli M.; Morrot, Alexandre; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Previato, Jose O.; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease exhibits multiple mechanisms to guarantee its establishment and persistence in the infected host. It has been well demonstrated that T. cruzi is not able to synthesize sialic acids (Sia). To acquire the monosaccharide, the parasite makes use of a multifunctional enzyme called trans-sialidase (Tc-TS). Since this enzyme has no analogous in the vertebrate host, it has been used as a target in drug therapy development. Tc-TS preferentially catalyzes the transfer of Sia from the host glycoconjugates to the terminal β-galactopyranosyl residues of mucin-like molecules present on the parasite’s cell surface. Alternatively, the enzyme can sialylate/re-sialylate glycoconjugates expressed on the surface of host cells. Since its discovery, several studies have shown that T. cruzi employs the Tc-TS activity to modulate the host cell sialoglycophenotype, thus favoring its perpetuation in the infected vertebrate. In this review, we summarize the dynamic of host/parasite sialoglycophenotype modulation, highlighting its role in the subversion of host immune response in order to promote the establishment of persistent chronic infection. PMID:27242722

  11. period-Regulated Feeding Behavior and TOR Signaling Modulate Survival of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria W; O'Connor, Reed M; Ulgherait, Matthew; Zhou, Clarice G; Stone, Elizabeth F; Hill, Vanessa M; Murphy, Keith R; Canman, Julie C; Ja, William W; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi M

    2016-01-25

    Most metazoans undergo dynamic, circadian-regulated changes in behavior and physiology. Currently, it is unknown how circadian-regulated behavior impacts immunity against infection. Two broad categories of defense against bacterial infection are resistance, control of microbial growth, and tolerance, control of the pathogenic effects of infection. Our study of behaviorally arrhythmic Drosophila circadian period mutants identified a novel link between nutrient intake and tolerance of infection with B. cepacia, a bacterial pathogen of rising importance in hospital-acquired infections. We found that infection tolerance in wild-type animals is stimulated by acute exposure to dietary glucose and amino acids. Glucose-stimulated tolerance was induced by feeding or direct injection; injections revealed a narrow window for glucose-stimulated tolerance. In contrast, amino acids stimulated tolerance only when ingested. We investigated the role of a known amino-acid-sensing pathway, the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway, in immunity. TORC1 is circadian regulated and inhibition of TORC1 decreased resistance, as in vertebrates. Surprisingly, inhibition of the less well-characterized TOR complex 2 (TORC2) dramatically increased survival, through both resistance and tolerance mechanisms. This work suggests that dietary intake on the day of infection by B. cepacia can make a significant difference in long-term survival. We further demonstrate that TOR signaling mediates both resistance and tolerance of infection and identify TORC2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for increasing survival of infection.

  12. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  13. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Zouache

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commensal and symbiotic microbes have a considerable impact on the behavior of many arthropod hosts, including hematophagous species that transmit pathogens causing infectious diseases to human and animals. Little is known about the bacteria associated with mosquitoes other than the vectorized pathogens. This study investigated Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria that persist through generations in Ae. albopictus organs known to host transmitted arboviruses, such as dengue and chikungunya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used culturing, diagnostic and quantitative PCR, as well as in situ hybridization, to detect and locate bacteria in whole individual mosquitoes and in dissected tissues. Wolbachia, cultivable bacteria of the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Delftia and Pseudomonas co-occurred and persisted in the bodies of both males and females of Ae. albopictus initially collected in La Réunion during the chikungunya outbreak, and maintained as colonies in insectaries. In dissected tissues, Wolbachia and the cultivable Acinetobacter can be detected in the salivary glands. The other bacteria are commonly found in the gut. Quantitative PCR estimates suggest that Wolbachia densities are highest in ovaries, lower than those of Acinetobacter in the gut, and approximately equal to those of Acinetobacter in the salivary glands. Hybridization using specific fluorescent probes successfully localized Wolbachia in all germ cells, including the oocytes, and in the salivary glands, whereas the Acinetobacter hybridizing signal was mostly located in the foregut and in the anterior midgut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that Proteobacteria are distributed in the somatic and reproductive tissues of mosquito where transmissible pathogens reside and replicate. This location may portend the coexistence of symbionts and pathogens, and thus the possibility that competition or cooperation phenomena may occur in the mosquito vector Ae

  14. 糖尿病足感染的病原菌及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in diabetic foot infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周滇; 王雯; 虞俊杰; 吕国忠

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To explore the distribution and drug resistance of disease producing germ in diabetic foot infection and to analyze the risk factors for diabetic foot infected with drug resistance bacteria.Methods A total of 110 patients with diabetic foot infection treated in the Third People's Hospital of Wuxi and the Second People s Hospital of Wuxi were enrolled in this study.The secretion at the wound surface was collected and sent for the bacterial culture within 1 hour.The distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria were analyzed.Then,the patients were divided into drug resistance group and non-drug resistance group.The risk factors for drug-resistant bacteria infection in diabetic foot were analyzed,too.Results Among the samples from 110 patients,the cultured positive rate was 64.5%(71/110).A total of 72 strains of pathogens were isolated,among which there were 43 strains of gram-negative bacteria (59.7%,mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli)and 23 strains of gram-positive bacteria (3 1 .9%,mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis).There were also 6 strains of fungus,accounting for 8.3%.The resistant rate of gram-positive bacteria against vancomycin and cephalosporins were low,and that of gram-negative bacteria against vancomycin and amikacin were also low.Duration of diabetes more than 10 years(OR =2.115),the use of antimicrobial agents more than twice per year (OR=2.342)and osteomyelitis (OR=4.579)were the risk factors associated with the drug-resistant bacteria infection in diabetic foot.Conclusion The species of pathogens causing the diabetic foot infection are varied and most of them have drug resistance against the main antibiotics.Diabetic foot infection with drug-resistant pathogens is closely related to a variety of factors.Thus,rational use of drugs should be considered according to the multidrug resistant pathogen test so as to reduce the incidence of drug-resistant bacteria infection.%目的:调查

  15. Acute human herpesvirus-6A infection of human mesothelial cells modulates HLA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Elisabetta; Campioni, Diana; Cavazzini, Francesco; Gentili, Valentina; Bortolotti, Daria; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) causes ubiquitous infections and has been associated with several diseases in immunosuppressed and immune dysregulated individuals. Although considered a lymphotropic virus, HHV-6A has the potential to infect many cell types, inducing important alterations in the infected cell. In our search for additional potential targets for HHV-6A infection, we analyzed the susceptibility of human mesothelial cells to viral infection. HHV-6A infection was performed and analyzed on primary human mesothelial cells isolated from serous cavity fluid, infected in vitro with a cell-free HHV-6A inoculum. The results demonstrated that mesothelial cells are susceptible to in vitro HHV-6A infection, and more importantly, that the virus induces an alteration of HLA expression on the cell surface, inducing HLA class II and HLA-G de novo expression. Since mesothelial cells play a pivotal role in many processes, including inflammation and antigen presentation, we speculate that, in vivo, this virus-induced perturbation might be correlated to alterations in mesothelium functions. PMID:26085284

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 interaction: Pathogenesis and disease modulation in dual infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mayanja-Kizza

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the clinical and immunological impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-1 infection and disease. We show that, unlike other HIV related opportunistic infections, successful treatment of MTB disease may in some patients be associated with some degree of decrease in

  17. Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis redirects the mucosal immune system from a Th1 to a protective Th2 response with a reduction in the severity of trinitrobenzesulfonic acid-induced colonic damage. T. spiralis infection induced IL-10 production in a dose-dependent manner in oxazolone (OXZ)-...

  18. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with Increased respiratory morbiditses and susceptibility to Infections Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet Its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known ‘the greater Mexico City area was the pri...

  19. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  20. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage-Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host-virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  1. Interactions between bacteria and the intestinal mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on epithelium cells influence mucosal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms governing the ability of bacteria to adhere to and colonize human and animal hosts in health and disease are still incompletely understood. Throughout the extensive mucosal surfaces of the body that are in contact with the external environment, epithelial cells represent the first po...

  2. Influence of environmental factors on phage-bacteria interaction and on the efficacy and infectivity of phage P100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Fister

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host-virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control L. monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after two weeks at 4 °C. However, thereafter re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered.

  3. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  4. Ertapenem for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum AND#946;-lactamase-producing bacteria: a case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yildiz Sevgi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL are an increasing public health concern. We evaluated our experience with the use of ertapenem for complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI caused by ESBL- producing bacteria. Sixty-four patients aged >18 years who had a cUTI caused by ESBL- producing microorganisms that were treated with ertapenem at Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2011, were included in this study. Data on patients demographic, clinical and laboratory results were collected. The median age was 65.8 years (range, 30 to 95. All patients had at least one risk factor complicating factor except two of them. The most common underlying problem was prior antibiotic exposure. The pathogens isolated from urine samples were ESBL-producing E. coli in 49, ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in 12 and ESBL-producing K. oxytoca in 2 patients. All were susceptible to ertapenem in vitro. The average duration of ertapenem therapy was 14+/-4 days for upper UTI and 11+/-2 days for lower UTI. All patients achieved clinical cure and bacteriological eradication in urine. One patient had relapse and six of them had reinfection. Only one case had diarrhea which did not require discontinuation of therapy. Our results demonstrate that ertapenem is suitable for the treatment of cUTI cause by ESBL-producing bacteria. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(1.000: 7-11

  5. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonito Pages

    Full Text Available Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  6. Culicoides Midge Bites Modulate the Host Response and Impact on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses. PMID:24421899

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Neonatal Infections%新生儿临床标本抗生素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余加林; 吴仕孝

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索新生儿感染病原菌分布及常见抗菌药物敏感性,为经验性治疗提供依据。方法:按《全国临床检验操作规程》鉴定细菌,纸片扩散法做药敏试验。结果:1987~1998年内分离出病原菌2 244株。院外感染前三位是表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌及大肠埃希菌,院内感染前三位是大肠埃希菌、克雷白菌及绿脓杆菌。院内外感染菌株对青霉素、氨苄西林等15种抗生素的耐药率差异显著。阿米卡星的总敏感率86.2%,与青霉素联用敏感率增至89.0%。结论:院外感染致病菌以革兰阳性菌为主,而院内感染致病菌以革兰阴性菌为主,后者对许多抗菌药物更易产生耐药性,阿米卡星联合青霉素作为第一线抗菌药物值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of bacteria and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and to establish a basis for empirical treatment of the neonatal infections.  Methods:Identification of bacteria were performed according to the National Standard of Clinical Microbiological Test. Disk diffusion were used for antimicrobial susceptibility test. Results: A total of 2,244 strains were isolated from the samples collected in our neonatal ward from Jan. 1987 to Dec. 1998. The predominant species ranked the first three were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli in the group I (infections acquired outside of hospital). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa ranked the first three in the group Ⅱ(nosocomial infections). The resistance rates of bacterial isolates from group Ⅱ to antimicrobial agents including penicillin and ampicillin were significantly higher than that from group I (P<0.05). The sensitivity rate was 82.2% by using amikacin only, but raised to 89% when combined with penicillin.  Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens of nosocomial infections

  8. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection occurs in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. ... Campylobacter enteritis is a common cause of intestinal infection . ... of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning . People most often ...

  9. Exposure to Ozone Modulates Human Airway Protease/Antiprotease Balance Contributing to Increased Influenza A Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kesic, Matthew J.; Megan Meyer; Rebecca Bauer; Ilona Jaspers

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) is essential for influenza ...

  10. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  11. pH-regulated activation and release of a bacteria-associated phospholipase C during intracellular infection by Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marquis, Hélène; Hager, Elizabeth J.

    2000-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes grows in the cytosol of mammalian cells and spreads from cell to cell without exiting the intracellular milieu. During cell–cell spread, bacteria become transiently entrapped in double-membrane vacuoles. Escape from these vacuoles is mediated in part by a bacterial phospholipase C (PC-PLC), whose activation requires cleavage of an N-terminal peptide. PC-PLC activation occurs i...

  12. Surveillance of multidrug resistant suppurative infection causing bacteria in hospitalized patients in an Indian tertiary care hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh K Lenka; Rabindra N Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine antibiograms of a cohort of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs from hospitalized patients of all economic groups of a typicalIndian teaching hospital. Methods:In surveillance, antibiotic resistance patterns of10 species of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs over a period of24 months were recorded.Those were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test, using16 prescribed antibiotics of5 different groups(3 aminoglycosides, 4 beta-lactams,3 cephalosporins,4 fluoroquinolones, and2 stand-alone) in each6-month interval of the study period.Results:Of1156 samples collected,819 samples yielded pathogenic bacteria, of which,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus),Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa),Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis), Klebsiella pneumoniae(K. pneumoniae),Acinetobacter baumannii(A. baumannii),Enterobacter aerogenes(E. aerogenes),Proteus mirabilis(P. mirabilis) andProteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) were isolated in the order of predominance.Isolated bacterial strains were floridly multidrug resistant.Strains ofE. faecalis andS. aureus were found resistant to vancomycin, one of the newly introduced antibiotics.Conclusions:Of theseS. aureus, particularly the methicillin resistant strain predominates, followed by strains ofS. pyogenes andP. aeruginosa that were in the higher proportions of multidrug resistance.

  13. Chicken-specific kinome array reveals that Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis modulates host immune signaling pathways in the cecum to establish a persistence infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induce an early, short-lived, pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The und...

  14. Genomes of the most dangerous epidemic bacteria have a virulence repertoire characterized by fewer genes but more toxin-antitoxin modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgiades

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a comparative genomic study based on a neutral approach to identify genome specificities associated with the virulence capacity of pathogenic bacteria. We also determined whether virulence is dictated by rules, or if it is the result of individual evolutionary histories. We systematically compared the genomes of the 12 most dangerous pandemic bacteria for humans ("bad bugs" to their closest non-epidemic related species ("controls". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found several significantly different features in the "bad bugs", one of which was a smaller genome that likely resulted from a degraded recombination and repair system. The 10 Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG functional categories revealed a significantly smaller number of genes in the "bad bugs", which lacked mostly transcription, signal transduction mechanisms, cell motility, energy production and conversion, and metabolic and regulatory functions. A few genes were identified as virulence factors, including secretion system proteins. Five "bad bugs" showed a greater number of poly (A tails compared to the controls, whereas an elevated number of poly (A tails was found to be strongly correlated to a low GC% content. The "bad bugs" had fewer tandem repeat sequences compared to controls. Moreover, the results obtained from a principal component analysis (PCA showed that the "bad bugs" had surprisingly more toxin-antitoxin modules than did the controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that pathogenic capacity is not the result of "virulence factors" but is the outcome of a virulent gene repertoire resulting from reduced genome repertoires. Toxin-antitoxin systems could participate in the virulence repertoire, but they may have developed independently of selfish evolution.

  15. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  16. Comparative study of CXC chemokines modulation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) following infection with a bacterial or viral pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Zahran, Eman; Taylor, Nick G H; Feist, Stephen W; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Chemokine modulation in response to pathogens still needs to be fully characterised in fish, in view of the recently described novel chemokines present. This paper reports the first comparative study of CXC chemokine genes transcription in salmonids (brown trout), with a particular focus on the fish specific CXC chemokines (CXCL_F). Adopting new primer sets, optimised to specifically target mRNA, a RT-qPCR gene screening was carried out. Constitutive gene expression was assessed first in six tissues from SPF brown trout. Transcription modulation was next investigated in kidney and spleen during septicaemic infection induced by a RNA virus (Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus, genotype Ia) or by a Gram negative bacterium (Yersinia ruckeri, ser. O1/biot. 2). From each target organ specific pathogen burden, measured detecting VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA, and IFN-γ gene expression were analysed for their correlation to chemokine transcription. Both pathogens modulated CXC chemokine gene transcript levels, with marked up-regulation seen in some cases, and with both temporal and tissue specific effects apparent. For example, Y. ruckeri strongly induced chemokine transcription in spleen within 24h, whilst VHS generally induced the largest increases at 3d.p.i. in both tissues. This study gives clues to the role of the novel CXC chemokines, in comparison to the other known CXC chemokines in salmonids. PMID:26866873

  17. 感染加德纳菌对早产的影响及内分泌激素水平的变化∗%The influence of Gardiner bacteria infection on premature birth and changes of endocrine hormone levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池巧珍; 魏炳华; 冯永玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Gardiner bacteria infection on preterm delivery and changes of endocrine hor-mone levels.Methods Application of Gardiner bacteria fluorescent marker detection kit in 120 cases of suspected Gardiner bacteria infection pregnant women with immunofluorescence assay,and the levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),luteinizing hormone (LH),estradiol (E2),progesterone (P)were measured at the same time,90 cases of non maternal Gardiner bacteria infec-tion were enrolled as control.Results After the treatment,98 cases of pregnant women with Gardiner bacteria infection should ex-perienced premature delivery (24-37 week),accounted for 81.67%,compared with the normal pregnant women were statistically significant (P 0.05),E2 increased,P decreased,changed significantly (P 0.05),E2水平升高、P 水平降低,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论感染加德纳菌孕妇发生早产的可能性明显高于健康孕妇,同时使机体内分泌激素水平发生变化,故应对怀孕前及怀孕初期进行加德纳菌检查。

  18. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Harizanis, Paschalis; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Nychas, George-John E.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations) along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen’s persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h) and type (live or heat-killed cells) of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322), B282 (p 0.0325), and LGG (p 0.0356). In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161) and B282 (p 0.0096) and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175). Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after infection by

  19. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Harizanis, Paschalis; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-01-01

    The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations) along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h) and type (live or heat-killed cells) of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322), B282 (p 0.0325), and LGG (p 0.0356). In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161) and B282 (p 0.0096) and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175). Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after infection by

  20. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step.

  1. Kupffer cells modulate hepatic fatty acid oxidation during infection with PR8 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Singh, Larry N; Chatterji-Len, Milani; Zerfas, Patricia M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    In response to infection, patients with inborn errors of metabolism may develop a functional deterioration termed metabolic decompensation. The biochemical hallmarks of this disruption of metabolic homeostasis are disease specific and may include acidosis, hyperammonemia or hypoglycemia. In a model system previously published by our group, we noted that during influenza infection, mice displayed a depression in hepatic mitochondrial enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that this normal adaptation may extend to other metabolic pathways, and as such, may impact various inborn errors of metabolism. Since the liver is a critical organ in inborn errors of metabolism, we carried out untargeted metabolomic profiling of livers using mass spectrometry in C57Bl/6 mice infected with influenza to characterize metabolic adaptation. Pathway analysis of metabolomic data revealed reductions in CoA synthesis, and long chain fatty acyl CoA and carnitine species. These metabolic adaptations coincided with a depression in hepatic long chain β-oxidation mRNA and protein. To our surprise, the metabolic changes observed occurred in conjunction with a hepatic innate immune response, as demonstrated by transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry. By employing an immunomodulation strategy to deplete Kupffer cells, we were able to improve the expression of multiple genes involved in β-oxidation. Based on these findings, we are the first to suggest that the role of the liver as an immunologic organ is central in the pathophysiology of hepatic metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism due to respiratory viral infection.

  2. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity. PMID:9849628

  3. Prevalence of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections Caused By Gram-negative Bacteria in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Zorgani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Device-associated nosocomial infections (DANIs have a major impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to determine the distribution rate of DANIs and causative agents and patterns of antibiotic resistance in the trauma-surgical intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: Our study was conducted at Abusalim Trauma Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. All devices associated with nosocomial infections, including central venous catheters (CVC, endotracheal tubes (ETT, Foley’s urinary catheters, chest tubes, nasogastric tubes (NGT, and tracheostomy tubes, were removed aseptically and examined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB. Results: During a one-year study period, 363 patients were hospitalized; the overall mortality rate was 29%. A total of 79 DANIs were identified, the most common site of infection was ETT (39.2%, followed by urinary catheters (19%, NGTs (18%, tracheostomy tubes (11%, CVCs (10%, and chest tubes (3%. The most frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. Extremely high resistance rates were observed among GNB to ampicillin (99%, cefuroxime (95%, amoxicillin-clavulante (92%, and nitrofurantoin (91%. Lower levels of resistance were exhibited to amikacin (38%, imipenem (38%, and colistin (29%. About 39% of the isolates were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR. Overall, extended spectrum β-lactmase producers were expressed in 39% of isolates mainly among K. pneumonia (88%. A. baumannii isolates exhibited extremely high levels of resistance to all antibiotics except colistin (100% sensitive. In addition, 56.3% of A. baumannii isolates were found to be MDR. P. aeruginosa isolates showed 46%–55% effectiveness to anti-pseudomonas antibiotics. Conclusion: High rates of DANI’s and the emergence of MDR organisms poses a serious threat to patients. There is a need to strengthen infection control within the ICU environment

  4. CD4+ T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Lund, Pia; Kjær, Tanja;

    2010-01-01

    provided by dendritic cells (DCs). Upon interaction with DCs primed by different concentrations and species of gut bacteria, CD4+ T cells were activated according to the type of DC stimulus. The levels of CD80 were found to correlate to the levels of expression of CD28 and to the proliferation of CD4+ T...... and CTLA-4. Diminished T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signalling was found to be responsible for n-3 PUFA effects. Thus, the dietary fatty acid composition influences the overall level of CD4+ T-cell activation induced by DCs, while the priming effect of the DC stimuli modulates CD80, CD86 and CD40 levels......Appropriate activation of CD4+ T cells is fundamental for efficient initiation and progression of acquired immune responses. Here, we showed that CD4+ T-cell activation is dependent on changes in membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is dynamically regulated by the type of signals...

  5. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano essential oil (OEO has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased (P<0.05 endotoxin level in serum and increased (P<0.05 villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower (P<0.05 population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation (P<0.05 of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, protein kinase B (Akt, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs.

  6. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiang, Quanhang; Wang, Jun; Peng, Jian; Wei, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased (P < 0.05) endotoxin level in serum and increased (P < 0.05) villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower (P < 0.05) population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation (P < 0.05) of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs. PMID:27314026

  7. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting.Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012.Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4% bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g and Enterobacter (19.2%, Klebsiella (12.3%, and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1% were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%, cefixime (85.7% and cephalexin (77.3%, and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%. Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%, ampicillin (92.85%, and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%.A high ratio (> 92.85% of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  8. Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the sand lizard Lacerta agilis and co-infection of these bacteria in hosted Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekner Anna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are important tick-borne bacteria maintained in nature by transmission between ticks and vertebrate hosts. However, the potential role of lizards as hosts has not been sufficiently studied. Results The current study showed that 23 of 171 examined sand lizards Lacerta agilis were PCR positive for Anaplasmataceae. The nucleotide sequences of the several selected PCR products showed 100% homology with Anaplasma spp. found in Ixodes ricinus collected in Tunisia and Morocco (AY672415 - AY672420. 1.2% of lizard collar scale samples were PCR positive for B. lusitaniae. In addition, 12 of 290 examined I. ricinus were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 82 were PCR positive for Anaplasmatacea. The number of ticks per lizard and the number of ticks PCR positive for both microorganisms per lizard were strongly correlated. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between numbers of ticks infected with Anaplasmataceae and with B. burgdorferi s.l. living on the same lizard. However, there was no significant correlation between detection of both bacteria in the same tick. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasmataceae DNA and additionally the second report of B. burgdorferi s.l DNA detection in the sand lizard.

  9. The application of High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) for rapid detection of bacteria responsible for bloodstream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbak, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The diagnosis of bloodstream infection is a significant challenge for healthcare providers and is often associated with severe illness (sepsis) and poor outcomes. Rapid detection and identification of pathogens followed by characterisation of antibiotic resistance could help direct early treatment and improve patient care. Standard blood culture methods, which usually take 2-5 days to complete, can confirm if there is a bacteraemia or not in suspected patients. However, ...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Paulino, Tony De Paiva; Soares, Siomar De Castro; De Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Araújo, Marcelo Costa; Oliveira, Carlo José

    2016-01-01

    Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. PMID:27649224

  11. HLA-B27 Expression Does Not Modulate Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J. L.; Smith, L; Matyszak, M. K.; Gaston, J S H

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. Infection of susceptible individuals with this bacterium can trigger the development of reactive arthritis, an acute inflammation that is associated with the expression of the class I major histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B27. Other facultative intracellular pathogens, such as Yersinia and Salmonella spp., are also known triggers of reactive arthritis. Previous studies report conflicting results concerning whether the presence of HL...

  12. Kupffer cells modulate hepatic fatty acid oxidation during infection with PR8 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Singh, Larry N; Chatterji-Len, Milani; Zerfas, Patricia M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    In response to infection, patients with inborn errors of metabolism may develop a functional deterioration termed metabolic decompensation. The biochemical hallmarks of this disruption of metabolic homeostasis are disease specific and may include acidosis, hyperammonemia or hypoglycemia. In a model system previously published by our group, we noted that during influenza infection, mice displayed a depression in hepatic mitochondrial enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that this normal adaptation may extend to other metabolic pathways, and as such, may impact various inborn errors of metabolism. Since the liver is a critical organ in inborn errors of metabolism, we carried out untargeted metabolomic profiling of livers using mass spectrometry in C57Bl/6 mice infected with influenza to characterize metabolic adaptation. Pathway analysis of metabolomic data revealed reductions in CoA synthesis, and long chain fatty acyl CoA and carnitine species. These metabolic adaptations coincided with a depression in hepatic long chain β-oxidation mRNA and protein. To our surprise, the metabolic changes observed occurred in conjunction with a hepatic innate immune response, as demonstrated by transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry. By employing an immunomodulation strategy to deplete Kupffer cells, we were able to improve the expression of multiple genes involved in β-oxidation. Based on these findings, we are the first to suggest that the role of the liver as an immunologic organ is central in the pathophysiology of hepatic metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism due to respiratory viral infection. PMID:26319418

  13. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Puri Raj K; Bhattacharya Bhaskar; Sharma Anuj; Maheshwari Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated...

  14. Macrophages and lymphocytes differentially modulate the ability of RANTES to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eleanore; Amella, Carol A; Pompucci, Lorena; Franchin, Giovanni; Sherry, Barbara; Schmidtmayerova, Helena

    2003-11-01

    The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES inhibit HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells by inhibiting interactions between the virus and CCR5 receptors. However, while beta-chemokine-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of primary lymphocytes is well documented, conflicting results have been obtained using primary macrophages as the virus target. Here, we show that the beta-chemokine RANTES inhibits virus entry into both cellular targets of the virus, lymphocytes and macrophages. However, while virus entry is inhibited at the moment of infection in both cell types, the amount of virus progeny is lowered only in lymphocytes. In macrophages, early-entry restriction is lost during long-term cultivation, and the amount of virus produced by RANTES-treated macrophages is similar to the untreated cultures, suggesting an enhanced virus replication. We further show that at least two distinct cellular responses to RANTES treatment in primary lymphocytes and macrophages contribute to this phenomenon. In lymphocytes, exposure to RANTES significantly increases the pool of inhibitory beta-chemokines through intracellular signals that result in increased production of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, thereby amplifying the antiviral effects of RANTES. In macrophages this amplification step does not occur. In fact, RANTES added to the macrophages is efficiently cleared from the culture, without inducing synthesis of beta-chemokines. Our results demonstrate dichotomous effects of RANTES on HIV-1 entry at the moment of infection, and on production and spread of virus progeny in primary macrophages. Since macrophages serve as a reservoir of HIV-1, this may contribute to the failure of endogenous chemokines to successfully eradicate the virus.

  15. Host Cell Autophagy Modulates Early Stages of Adenovirus Infections in Airway Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xuehuo; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However, adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present, it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lys...

  16. Viral infection controlled by a calcium-dependent lipid-binding module in ALIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Christin; Lenoir, Marc; Velluz, Marie-Claire; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael; Gruenberg, Jean

    2013-05-28

    ALIX plays a role in nucleocapsid release during viral infection, as does lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that LBPA is recognized within an exposed site in ALIX Bro1 domain predicted by MODA, an algorithm for discovering membrane-docking areas in proteins. LBPA interactions revealed a strict requirement for a structural calcium tightly bound near the lipid interaction site. Unlike other calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins, the all-helical triangle-shaped fold of the Bro1 domain confers selectivity for LBPA via a pair of hydrophobic residues in a flexible loop, which undergoes a conformational change upon membrane association. Both LBPA and calcium binding are necessary for endosome association and virus infection, as are ALIX ESCRT binding and dimerization capacity. We conclude that LBPA recruits ALIX onto late endosomes via the calcium-bound Bro1 domain, triggering a conformational change in ALIX to mediate the delivery of viral nucleocapsids to the cytosol during infection. PMID:23664863

  17. The epigenetic control of hepatitis B virus modulates the outcome of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemonica eKoumbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are stable alterations in gene expression that do not involve mutations of the genetic sequence itself. It has become increasingly clear that epigenetic factors contribute to the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection by affecting cellular and virion gene expression, viral replication and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV persists in the nucleus of infected hepatocytes as a stable non-integrated covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA which functions as a minichromosome. There are two major forms of HBV epigenetic regulation: posttranslational modification of histone proteins associated with the cccDNA minichromosome and DNA methylation of viral and host genomes. This review explores how HBV can interphase with host epigenetic regulation in order to evade host defences and to promote its own survival and persistence. We focus on the effect of cccDNA bound-histone modifications and the methylation status of HBV DNA in regulating viral replication. Investigation of HBV epigenetic control has important clinical correlates with regards to the development of potential therapeutic regimens that will successfully eradicate HBV infection and deal with HBV reactivation in those undergoing treatment with demethylating agents.

  18. Cannabinoid modulation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Jian Feng; Kunos, George; Groopman, Jerome E

    2007-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also named human herpesvirus 8) is necessary but not sufficient for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. A variety of factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma in addition to KSHV. Marijuana is a widely used recreational agent, and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major active component of marijuana, is prescribed for medicinal use. To evaluate how cannabinoids may affect the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, we studied primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) exposed to KSHV. There was an increased efficiency of KSHV infection in the presence of low doses of Delta(9)-THC. We also found that Delta(9)-THC increased the viral load in KSHV-infected HMVEC through activation of the KSHV lytic switch gene, the open reading frame 50. Furthermore, we observed that Delta(9)-THC stimulated expression of the KSHV-encoded viral G protein-coupled receptor and Kaposi's sarcoma cell proliferation. Our results indicate that Delta(9)-THC can enhance KSHV infection and replication and foster KSHV-mediated endothelial transformation. Thus, use of cannabinoids may place individuals at greater risk for the development and progression of Kaposi's sarcoma. PMID:17671191

  19. Modulation of macrophage cytokine profiles during solid tumor progression: susceptibility to Candida albicans infection

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    Venturini James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to attain a better understanding of the interactions between opportunist fungi and their hosts, we investigated the cytokine profile associated with the inflammatory response to Candida albicans infection in mice with solid Ehrlich tumors of different degrees. Methods Groups of eight animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 × 106 C. albicans 7, 14 or 21 days after tumor implantation. After 24 or 72 hours, the animals were euthanized and intraperitoneal lavage fluid was collected. Peritoneal macrophages were cultivated and the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-4 released into the supernatants were measured by ELISA. Kidney, liver and spleen samples were evaluated for fungal dissemination. Tumor-free animals and animals that had only been subjected to C. albicans infection were used as control groups. Results Our results demonstrated that the mice produced more IFN-γ and TNF-α and less IL-10, and also exhibited fungal clearance, at the beginning of tumor evolution. With the tumor progression, this picture changed: IL-10 production increased and IFN-γ and TNF-α release decreased; furthermore, there was extensive fungal dissemination. Conclusion Our results indicate that solid tumors can affect the production of macrophage cytokines and, in consequence, affect host resistance to opportunistic infections.

  20. HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Tachedjian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proline repeat motif (PxxP of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell.

  1. HIV-1 infection of T cells and macrophages are differentially modulated by virion-associated Hck: a Nef-dependent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Alyssa; Mak, Johnson; Greenway, Alison; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2013-09-01

    The proline repeat motif (PxxP) of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell. PMID:24051604

  2. Development of aptamers for use as radiopharmaceuticals in the bacterial infection identification; Desenvolvimento de aptameros especificos para aplicacao como radiofarmacos na identificacao de bacterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ieda Mendes

    2013-08-01

    The difficulty in early detection of specific foci caused by bacteria in the bacterial infection has raised the need to search for new techniques for this purpose, since these foci require prolonged treatment with antibiotics and in some cases even drainage or, if applicable, removal of prostheses or grafts. Detection of bacterial infections by scintigraphy had the advantage that a whole body image could be obtained, since specific tracers were available. This study aims to obtain aptamers specific for bacteria identification for future use as radiopharmaceutical. The SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) methodology can generate oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are able to bind with high affinity and specificity to a specific target, from small molecules to complex proteins, by using rounds of enrichment and amplification. Aptamers can be labeled with different radionucleotides such as {sup 99}mTc, {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P. In this study, aptamers anti-peptidoglycan, the main component of the bacterial outer cell wall, were obtained through SELEX. Whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus were also used to perform the SELEX to cells (cell-SELEX). The selection of aptamers was performed by two different procedures (A and B). The A process has been accomplished by 15 SELEX rounds in which the separation of the oligonucleotides bound to the peptidoglycan of unbound ones was performed by filtration. In the B process 15 SELEX rounds were performed using the centrifugation for this separation, followed by 5 rounds cell-SELEX. The SELEX started with a pool of ssDNA (single stranded DNA). For A process, initially a library of ssDNA was incubated with peptidoglycan and the amplification of oligonucleotides that were able to bind to peptidoglycan was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reation). The amplified oligonucleotides were again incubated with peptidoglycan, amplified and purified. At the end of 15 selection rounds the selected oligonucleotides

  3. C-Myc regulation by costimulatory signals modulates the generation of CD8+ memory T cells during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Wang, Youfei; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Norbury, Christopher; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    The signalling mechanisms of costimulation in the development of memory T cells remain to be clarified. Here, we show that the transcription factor c-Myc in CD8(+) T cells is controlled by costimulatory molecules, which modulates the development of memory CD8(+) T cells. C-Myc expression was dramatically reduced in Cd28(-/-) or Ox40(-/-) memory CD8(+) T cells, and c-Myc over-expression substantially reversed the defects in the development of T-cell memory following viral infection. C-Myc regulated the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, which promoted the generation of virus-specific memory CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, over-expression of survivin with bcl-xL, a downstream molecule of NF-κB and intracellular target of costimulation that controls survival, in Cd28(-/-) or Ox40(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, reversed the defects in the generation of memory T cells in response to viral infection. These results identify c-Myc as a key controller of memory CD8(+) T cells from costimulatory signals.

  4. C-Myc regulation by costimulatory signals modulates the generation of CD8+ memory T cells during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Wang, Youfei; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Norbury, Christopher; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    The signalling mechanisms of costimulation in the development of memory T cells remain to be clarified. Here, we show that the transcription factor c-Myc in CD8(+) T cells is controlled by costimulatory molecules, which modulates the development of memory CD8(+) T cells. C-Myc expression was dramatically reduced in Cd28(-/-) or Ox40(-/-) memory CD8(+) T cells, and c-Myc over-expression substantially reversed the defects in the development of T-cell memory following viral infection. C-Myc regulated the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, which promoted the generation of virus-specific memory CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, over-expression of survivin with bcl-xL, a downstream molecule of NF-κB and intracellular target of costimulation that controls survival, in Cd28(-/-) or Ox40(-/-) CD8(+) T cells, reversed the defects in the generation of memory T cells in response to viral infection. These results identify c-Myc as a key controller of memory CD8(+) T cells from costimulatory signals. PMID:26791245

  5. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  6. Use of Dithiothreitol to Dislodge Bacteria From the Biofilm on an Aortic Valve in the Operating Theatre: A Case of Infective Endocarditis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Sara G; De Vecchi, Elena; Pagani, Cristina; Zambelli, Agostino; Di Gregorio, Annamaria; Bosisio, Enrica; Vanelli, Paolo; Scrofani, Roberto; Gismondo, Maria R; Cagnoni, Giovanni; Antona, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    This is the first reported case of 2 biofilm-producing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis, identified from an aortic valve using an innovative device with dithiothreitol solution, able to dislodge bacterial biofilm. The method is usable in the operating theatre and recommended in infective endocarditis nonresponders to empiric therapy. PMID:27645982

  7. Analysis of pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in oral and maxillofacial infection%口腔颌面部间隙感染患者多药耐药菌分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贤寅; 沈波; 林莉莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the multi -drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofacial space infection , so as to provide the basis for the control of clinical infections .Methods A total of 51 cases of patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were selected , and a total 10 strains of the multi -drug resistant bacteria were detected .The antibiotic sus-ceptibility tests were carried out .The species and drug resistance of the bacteria were compared with that of the multi -drug resistant bacteria de-tected during the same period in our hospital .Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the software SPSS 19.0.Results The main multi-drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofacial infection were gram-positive bacteria accounting for 80.00%, and gram -negative bacteria accounting for 20.00%.During the same period in our hospital , 1773 strains of multi-drug resistant bacteria were isolated .A total of 431 strains were gram -positive bacteria accounting for 24.31%, and 1342 strains were gram -negative bacteria accounting for 75.69%. The Staphylococcus aureus in oral and maxillofacial infection were highly resistant to penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin.There was no signifi-cant difference in the drug resistance between pathogenic bacteria in oral and maxillofacial region and those in our hospital .Conclusion Gram positive bacteria were the main multi-drug resistant bacteria in oral and maxillofa-cial region infection.In the treatment, pathogenic bacteria detection and antibiotic susceptibility tests should be performed in time , so as to make the use of antibiotics more reasonably in clinic .%目的 观察口腔颌面部感染的多药耐药菌,为临床感染的控制提供相关的依据. 方法 口腔科共送检感染标本51例,检出多药耐药菌10株,与同期医院检出的多药耐药菌种类及耐药情况进行比较,用SPSS 19.0软件进行统计分析.结果 口腔颌面部感染的多药耐药菌10株,以革兰阳性菌为主(占80

  8. Clinical Test of Pathogenic Bacteria in Elderly Patients With Respiratory Tract Infections%老年呼吸道感染者的病原体细菌培养检验方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 焦冬梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical test of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with respiratory tract infection. Methods Sputum of 191 cases of elderly patients with respiratory tract infection were tested by bacterial culture. Results 191 samples were tested and 184 strains were isolated with 96.34%positive rates,the pathogens were gram negative bacteria(55.43%)and gram positive bacteria(35.33%),fungi(13.04%),the resistance was higher in gram negative bacteria to ampicil in,and it was higher in gram positive bacteria to penicil in. Conclusion Gram negative bacteria is the main pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with respiratory tract infection,the most efficient test method is should choosed,strengthen quality control.%目的:探讨老年呼吸道感染者的病原体细菌培养检验方法。方法选择191例老年呼吸道感染患者的痰液进行细菌培养检验。结果检测191份标本,分离阳性菌株184份,阳性率为96.34%,其中革兰阴性菌占55.43%,革兰阳性菌占35.33%,真菌占13.04%。革兰阴性菌对氨苄西林的耐药性较高,革兰阳性菌对青霉素耐药率较高。结论老年呼吸道感染者的病原体主要为革兰阴性菌,应选择有效的检测方法,加强质量控制。

  9. Intravascular catheter related infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of bacterial colonisation and catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI together with the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital. CRBSI was detected with semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. The antimicrobial susceptible patterns of the isolated organisms were performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The rate of catheter colonisation and CRBSI were 42.1% and 14% (16.1/1000 catheter days respectively. The most common causative pathogens were Pseudomonas sp. (23.7%, Acinetobacter sp. (18.4%, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2% and Enterobacteriaceae (10.5%. The rate of isolation of methicillin resistance S. aureus, imipenem resistant Pseudomonas sp. and extended spectrum β lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae were 60%, 44.0% and 100%. The result of this study would be useful for control and treatment of CRBSI.

  10. Modulation of monocyte/macrophage-derived cytokine and chemokine profile by persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection leads to chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Mavromara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection presents a major public health problem, with more than 170 million people infected worldwide. Chronicity and persistence of infection constitute the hallmark of the disease. Although HCV is a hepatotropic virus, subsets of immune cells have been found to be permissive to infection and viral replication. Peripheral blood monocytes, attracted to the site of infection and differentiated into macrophages, and resident hepatic macrophages, known as Kupffer cells, are important mediators of innate immunity, through production of several chemokines and cytokines in addition to their phagocytic activity. HCV proteins have been shown to modulate the cytokine and chemokine production profile of monocytes/macrophages, as it is suggested by both in vitro and clinical studies. This modified expression profile appears crucial for the establishment of aberrant inflammation that leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Sortilin is associated with the chlamydial inclusion and is modulated during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Xuan; Kerr, Markus Charles; Huston, Wilhelmina May; Teasdale, Rohan David

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a major impact on human health. The pathogen replicates within an intracellular niche called an inclusion and is thought to rely heavily on host-derived proteins and lipids, including ceramide. Sortilin is a transmembrane receptor implicated in the trafficking of acid sphingomyelinase, which is responsible for catalysing the breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. In this study, we examined the role of sortilin in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 development. Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that endogenous sortilin is not only associated with the inclusion, but that protein levels increase in infected cells. RNAi-mediated depletion of sortilin, however, had no detectable impact on ceramide delivery to the inclusion or the production of infectious progeny. This study demonstrates that whilst Chlamydia redirects sortilin trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion, RNAi knockdown of sortilin expression is insufficient to determine if this pathway is requisite for the development of the pathogen. PMID:26962046

  12. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

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    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  13. Role of Phenothiazines and Structurally Similar Compounds of Plant Origin in the Fight against Infections by Drug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Amaral

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenothiazines have their primary effects on the plasma membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane affected are efflux pumps, their energy sources and energy providing enzymes, such as ATPase, and genes that regulate and code for the permeability aspect of a bacterium. The response of multidrug and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis to phenothiazines shows an alternative therapy for the treatment of these dreaded diseases, which are claiming more and more lives every year throughout the world. Many phenothiazines have shown synergistic activity with several antibiotics thereby lowering the doses of antibiotics administered to patients suffering from specific bacterial infections. Trimeprazine is synergistic with trimethoprim. Flupenthixol (Fp has been found to be synergistic with penicillin and chlorpromazine (CPZ; in addition, some antibiotics are also synergistic. Along with the antibacterial action described in this review, many phenothiazines possess plasmid curing activities, which render the bacterial carrier of the plasmid sensitive to antibiotics. Thus, simultaneous applications of a phenothiazine like TZ would not only act as an additional antibacterial agent but also would help to eliminate drug resistant plasmid from the infectious bacterial cells.

  14. Antibiotic Pattern of Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Animal and It’s Relation to Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alhababi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done on 186 isolates obtained from both animals (107 isolates and patients (79 isolates. The study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial patterns of pathogens isolated from animal and human cases (nosocomial infections. The isolates were identified and the antibiograms were reported. The results pointed out that E. coli was the most common isolate followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human samples, while in animal samples the most common Gram negative isolates recovered were Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Proteus spp. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common Gram positive isolate in animal and human samples. Conclude that, both animal and human isolates were markedly resistant to different types of antibacterial agents. However, animal isolates compared with human isolates showed more resistance to most of the used antibacterial agents. This can be attributed to the fact that in our country, animals are generally exposed to several antibacterial agents either as therapeutic, prophylactic or as growth promoter agents.

  15. 肛肠科医院感染特点与多药耐药菌感染的分析%Characteristics of nosocomial infections in patients of anorectal department and prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世华; 潘娟; 刘桂花; 祁芝花; 张海云

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the characteristics of nosocomial infections in the patients of anorectal depart‐ment and observe the drug resistance of multidrug‐resistant pathogens so as to provide theoretical basis for preven‐tion and treatment of the nosocomial infections .METHODS A total of 634 patients who underwent the anorectal surgery in the hospital from Jan 2012 to Jun 2014 were enrolled in the study ,then the clinical data of the partici‐pants were retrospectively analyzed ,and the types of nosocomial infections and the distribution of pathogens and multidrug‐resistant bacteria were observed .RESULTS The nosocomial infections occurred in 98 of 634 patients un‐dergoing the anorectal surgery ,with the infection rate of 15 .46% ;the surgical incision ,respiratory tract ,urinary tract ,and gastrointestinal tract were the main infection sites .Totally 98 strains of pathogens have been isolated , including 59 (60 .20% ) strains of gram‐negative bacteria ,25 (25 .51% ) strains of gram‐positive bacteria ,and 12 (12 .25% ) strains of fungi .The Escherichia coli ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Bacillus fragilis ,Staphylococcus au‐reus ,and Staphylococcus epidermidis were multidrug‐resistant ;the drug resistance rates of the E .coli strains to ceftriaxone ,ceftazidime ,amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid ,and gatifloxacin were 100 .00% ;the drug resistance rates of the K .pneumoniae strains to ceftriaxone ,cefepime ,ceftazidime ,and amoxicillin‐clavulanic acid were more than 75 .00% ;the drug resistance rates of the S .aureus and S .epidermidis strains to penicillin ,cefazolin ,and amoxi‐cillin‐clavulanic acid were more than 90 .00% .CONCLUSION The incidence of nosocomial infections is high in the patients of anorectal department .The gram‐negative bacteria are dominant among the pathogens causing infections and are highly resistant to the commonly used antibiotics .It is necessary for the hospital to reasonably use antibiot‐ics based on the results of the

  16. Modulation of La Crosse virus infection in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes following larval exposure to coffee extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Eastep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had signficantly reduced whole-body LACV titers five days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

  17. Clinical analysis on 355 cases of gram-negative bacteria blood infection%革兰阴性杆菌血流感染355例临床及病原学特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝咏云; 单斌; 段勇

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective In order to offer guides for experimental medication,we analyzed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with gram-negative bacteria blood infection in the People’s Hospital of Chuxiongl.Methods Microbiological and clinical data of 355 patients with gram-negative bacteria blood infection were retrospectively collected and evaluated.Results Compared with other patients,the patients with diabetes and urinary tract disease were more easily attacked by gram-negative bacteria blood infection.The patients using mechanical ventilation and patients with the urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infection source were more likely attacked by gram-negative bacteria blood infection.The patients with the skin infection source,the catheter infection source,and the central nervous infection source were liable to cause non gram-negative bacteria blood infection.Septic shock was more likely to occur in patients of gram-negative bacteria blood infection.Gram-negative bacteria species in the hospital were still highly susceptible to Carbapenems.Conclusion Analysis of route of pathogen invasion,basic diseases, laboratory indicators and bacterial drug resistance could help forecast for gram-negative bacteria blood infection and guide the early experience administration.%目的:分析革兰阴性杆菌血流感染病例的临床及病原学特点,为临床诊治提供帮助。方法收集确诊355例革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患者的临床资料及病原学结果,进行回顾性分析研究。结果糖尿病和泌尿系疾病的患者、接受机械通气的患者及有胃肠道感染的患者易发生革兰阴性杆菌血流感染;使用静脉导管、有皮肤黏膜和中枢神经感染的患者易发生非革兰阴性杆菌血流感染。革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患者更易引发脓毒性休克。革兰阴性杆菌血流感染组的降钙素原(PCT)和白细胞介素6(IL-6)水平高于非革兰阴性杆菌血流感染

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Yang Qiwen; Xiao Meng; Chen Minjun; Robert E.Badal; Xu Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    Background The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide.Methods In 2011,1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected.All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents,and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs,Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated,followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%),and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%).Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates.Among the antimicrobial agents tested,ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae,with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%,followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%).Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,ceftazidime,and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%,38.3%,61.1%,and 50.8%,respectively.The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%).The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E.coli,K.pneumoniae,Klebsiella oxytoca,and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%,38.1%,41.2%,and 57.7%,respectively.Conclusions Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs,and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem,imipenem,and amikacin.Including the carbapenems,most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  19. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria collected from urinary tract infections in the ASL3 in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fedele

    2010-06-01

    epidemiological study will be necessary to monitor the evolution toward resistance to antibiotics of the strains collected from urinary tract infections.

  20. Salicylic acid is a modulator of catalase isozymes in chickpea plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between salicylic acid level catalases isoforms chickpea cv. ICCV-10 infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Pathogen-treated chickpea plants showed high levels of SA compared with the control. Two isoforms of catalases in shoot extract (CAT-IS and CAT-IIS) and single isoform in root extract (CAT-R) were detected in chickpea. CAT-IS and CAT-R activities were inhibited in respective extracts treated with pathogen whereas, CAT-IIS activity was not inhibited. These isoforms were purified and their kinetic properties studied in the presence or absence of SA. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE of CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R was found to be 97, 40 and 66 kDa respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that Km and V(max) of CAT-IS were 0.2 mM and 300 U/mg, 0.53 mM and 180 U/mg for CAT-IIS and 0.25 mM and 280 U/mg for CAT-R, respectively. CAT-IS and CAT-R were found to be more sensitive to SA and 50% of their activities were inhibited at 6 and 4 μM respectively, whereas CAT-IIS was insensitive to SA up to 100 μM. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified catalases were used to quantitate SA binding; the estimated K(d) value for CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R found to be 2.3 μM, 3.1 mM and 2.8 μM respectively. SA is a modulator of catalase isozymes activity, supports its role in establishment of SAR in chickpea plants infected with the pathogen.

  1. 黄酒淋饭酒母染菌后对发酵的影响研究%The influence study of bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast on the fermentation of yellow rice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2011-01-01

    The harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast will have bad effects on the fermentation of yellow rice wine.Some abnormal forms of harmful bacteria are detected in the microorganism of rice-sprinkling mother yeast.The fermentation with the bacterial-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast and that of the normal mother yeast were compared.The final result proved the negative impacts of harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast in the fermentation of yellow rice wine,such as the slow increase in alcohol content,the possible emergence of rancidity.Therefore,the harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast can not be adopted in the fermentation.The possible measures to prevent contamination of harmful bacteria include:the control of the fermentation process conditions,the choice of normal yeast and rice-sprinkling mother yeast and etc.%为了研究传统黄酒淋饭酒母被少量有害菌污染后对发酵的影响,对淋饭酒母中微生物进行了检测,发现有少量异常形态的细菌——有害菌,通过用含有有害菌的淋饭酒母和正常淋饭酒母分别酿制加饭酒,结果表明:用含有有害菌的淋饭酒母单独酿制加饭酒,对发酵有影响,酒精度上升慢,易出现酸败,不能作酒母使用。采取的措施有:控制工艺条件,选择正常的酒药和淋饭酒母等。

  2. Control of Vibrio harveyi Infection in Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus Larvae by the Gut Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria under Challenge Bioassay

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    Allah Dad Talpur*§, Abdul Jabbar Memon§, Muhammad Iqbal Khan§, Muhammad Ikhwanuddin, Muhammad Mhd Danish Daniel2 and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from the gut of female Portunus pelagicus with inhibitory activity against shellfish pathogens and validation as probiotics via small scale in vivo model were tested for hatchery trials pathogen probiotic assay. Vibrio harveyi previously isolated from the gut of P. pelagicus, was added at 104 cfu mL-1 to test larvae for 10h. Test (LAB isolates were inoculated at a concentration of 106 cfu mL-1 to pathogen addition aquaria once and until day four during the experiment. 20 larvae/liter were stocked and larval survival was determined over five days. Lactobacillus plantarum did produce highest survival 28.33% to 48.33% in one day and daily inoculations respectively and in probiotic control it produced 58.33% survival followed by L. rhamnosus 55% and L. salivarius 53.33% respectively over non inoculated control 43.33% and 0% survival in V. harveyi inoculated control. However, Weissella confusa and W. cibaria did show less probiotic activity compared to rests of three LAB isolates. In the present study, it was determined that three LAB probiotics were effective in hatchery trials challenge assays which may significantly control the infection and increased the survival of larvae.

  3. Conserved Residues in Lassa Fever Virus Z Protein Modulate Viral Infectivity at the Level of the Ribonucleoprotein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capul, Althea A.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  4. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  5. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  6. Modulation of α-enolase post-translational modifications by dengue virus: increased secretion of the basic isoforms in infected hepatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza M Higa

    Full Text Available Hepatic cells are major sites of dengue virus (DENV replication and liver injury constitutes a characteristic of severe forms of dengue. The role of hepatic cells in dengue pathogenesis is not well established, but since hepatocytes are the major source of plasma proteins, changes in protein secretion by these cells during infection might contribute to disease progression. Previously, we showed that DENV infection alters the secretion pattern of hepatic HepG2 cells, with α-enolase appearing as one of the major proteins secreted in higher levels by infected cells. ELISA analysis demonstrated that DENV infection modulates α-enolase secretion in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but has no effect on its gene expression and on the intracellular content of the protein as assessed by PCR and western blot analyses, respectively. Two-dimensional western blots showed that both intracellular and secreted forms of α-enolase appear as five spots, revealing α-enolase isoforms with similar molecular weights but distinct isoeletric points. Remarkably, quantification of each spot content revealed that DENV infection shifts the isoform distribution pattern of secreted α-enolase towards the basic isoforms, whereas the intracellular protein remains unaltered, suggesting that post-translational modifications might be involved in α-enolase secretion by infected cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying α-enolase secretion by hepatic cells and its relationship with the role of liver in dengue pathogenesis. In addition, preliminary results obtained with plasma samples from DENV-infected patients suggest an association between plasma levels of α-enolase and disease severity. Since α-enolase binds plasminogen and modulates its activation, it is plausible to speculate the association of the increase in α-enolase secretion by infected hepatic cells with the haemostatic dysfunction observed in dengue patients including the

  7. A critical role of IL-17 in modulating the B-cell response during H5N1 influenza virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Wang; Bo-Jian Zheng; Liwei Lu; Chris CS Chan; Min Yang; Jun Deng; Vincent KM Poon; Virtual HC Leung; King-Hung Ko; Jie Zhou; Kwok Yung Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17),a member of the IL-17 cytokine family,plays a crucial role in mediating the immune response against extracellular bacteria and fungi in the lung.Although there is increasing evidence that IL-17 is involved in protective immunity against H 1 and H3 influenza virus infections,little is known about the role of IL-17 in the highly pathogenic H5N 1 influenza virus infection.In this study,we show that H5N1-infected IL-17 knockout (KO) mice exhibit markedly increased weight loss,more pronounced lung immunopathology and significantly reduced survival rates as compared with infected wild-type controls.Moreover,the frequency of B cells in the lung were substantially decreased in IL-17 KO mice after virus infection,which correlated with reduced CXCR5 expression in B cells and decreased CXCL13 production in the lung tissue of IL-17 KO mice.Consistent with this observation,B cells from IL-17 KO mice exhibited a significant reduction in chemokine-mediated migration in culture.Taken together,these findings demonstrate a critical role for IL-17 in mediating the recruitment of B cells to the site of pulmonary influenza virus infection in mice.

  8. 糖尿病足患者多药耐药菌感染的危险因素分析%Risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in diabetic foot patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车立群; 李兴媚; 李敏; 赵文杰

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the causes of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in the patients with diabetic foot and analyze the risk factors for the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections so as to reduce the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections .METHODS A total of 160 patients with diabetic foot infections who were treated in the department of endocrinology and department of orthopedics from May 2010 to May 2013 were enrolled in the study ,then the submitted specimens were cultured for the isolation of pathogens ,the results of the drug susceptibility testing for the isolated pathogens were analyzed ,and the risk factors for the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in the diabetic foot patients were observed .RESULTS Of the 160 patients with diabetic foot ,51 cases were infected with the multidrug-resistant bacteria ,accounting for 31 .8% .Totally 75 strains of multidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated ,among which the Staphylococcus aureus ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,and En-terobacteriaceae ranked the top three species ,accounting for 40 .0% ,25 .4% ,and 24 .0% ,respectively .The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the history of exposure to antibiotics ,time of exposure , frequency of hospitalization more than twice a year due to the same site infections ,complication of osteomyelitis , and neurological ischemic wounds were the risk factors for the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections . CONCLUSIONS The incidence of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in the diabetic foot patients is closely related to multiple factors ,and the clinicians should take corresponding control measures .%目的:研究糖尿病足患者多药耐药菌发生原因,分析多药耐药菌感染的危险因素,以降低多药耐药菌感染。方法对2010年5月-2013年5月医院内分泌科与骨科收治的160例糖尿病足感染患者送检标本进行培养,并对检出病原菌及其药敏结果进行分析;研究糖尿

  9. Study of pathogenic bacteria characteristics and prevention strategies of nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury after operation%颅脑损伤患者术后医院感染病原菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涓; 梁耕田; 黄文霞; 刘莉; 汪斌如; 段冰玉

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the pathogenic bacteria characteristics and prevention strategies of nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury after operation ,so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of the infections .METHODS The clinical data of 201 cases of craniocerebral injury patients in our hospi‐tal from Mar .2009 to Mar .2013 were collected .The incidence of nosocomial infections and infection sites were recorded .The types of pathogenic bacteria and their drug resistance were analyzed .All data were statistically ana‐lyzed by SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS Totally 38 cases in the all 201 patients appeared hospital infections and the infection rate was 18 .91% .Respiratory system was prone to be infected and 13 cases suffered from respiratory system infections ,accounting for 34 .21% .And a total of 59 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated ,inclu‐ding 36 strains of gram‐negative bacteria ,which accounted for 61 .20% .Gram‐negative bacteria were found to be highly resistant to common antibiotics ,especially cefoperazone ,cefazolin and gentamicin with the drug resistance rate of more than 60 .0% .CONCLUSION Gram‐negative bacteria were the main pathogenic bacteria which caused nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury .Antibiotics should be carefully chosen according to drug sensitive test so as to prevent and cure the postoperative infections .%目的:探讨颅脑损伤患者术后医院感染病原菌特点、耐药性,为其为预防、治疗其感染提供参考依据。方法收集2009年3月-2013年3月201例颅脑损伤患者临床资料,记录患者医院感染发生率及发生部位,并分析病原菌种类和耐药性,采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计分析。结果201例患者中共有38例发生医院感染,感染率为18.91%;感染部位以呼吸系统为主,共13例占34.21%;共分离出59株病原菌,以革兰阴性菌为主,共36株占61.02%

  10. The clinical value of PCT levels in bacteria identification in ICU patients with bloodstream infection%血清降钙素原对ICU血流感染患者菌种鉴别中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 庄国华; 牛野; 李宏; 夏建萍

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清降钙素原(PCT)水平测定在ICU血流感染患者菌种鉴别中的应用价值.方法 对本院ICU 2007年12月至2013年12月收治的540例血流感染患者的PCT水平进行检测并对患者标本分离的菌种进行鉴别,分析PCT水平在鉴别血流感染菌种的有效性.结果 540例血流感染患者中,G+菌感染患者比例最高(49.63%),G-菌感染患者比例次之(38.52%),真菌感染患者比例最低(11.85%),三者间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).G-菌感染组PCT水平及阳性率均显著高于G+菌感染组和真菌感染组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),G+菌和真菌感染组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PCT界定为2.04 ng/ml时,血清PCT水平区分G-和G+的灵敏度和特异度分别为82.18%和76.09%;PCT界定为3.16 ng,/ml时,血清PCT水平鉴别血流感染G-菌与真菌种的灵敏度和特异度分别为59.42%和65.73%.结论 应用血清PCT水平鉴别G-菌与G+菌、真菌所致血流感染具有较高的临床价值,PCT水平≥2.04 ng/ml时,发生G-菌感染几率较大,PCT水平对G+菌与真菌的鉴别准确度较差.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in bacteria identification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with bloodstream infection.Methods There were 540 cases of patients with bloodstream infection in our ICU between December 2007 and December 2013.The PCT levels and bacteria were identified.The application effectiveness of PCT levels in the bacteria identification was studied.Results The G+ bacteria infection rate was 49.63% (268/540),G-bacteria infection rate was 38.52% (208/540),and the fungal infection rate was 11.85% (64/540).The patients of G-bacteria had significant difference with G + bacteria and fungal infection (P < 0.05).The PCT average and positive rate of G-bacteria were significantly higher than G + bacteria and fungi group (P < 0.05),respectively.G+ bacteria and fungi infection did not

  11. The monitoring analysis of multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection of hospitalized patients%住院患者多重耐药菌感染的监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英; 王永梅; 郝巧歆; 李燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查医院住院患者多重耐药菌感染情况,为预防和控制医院多重耐药菌感染提供依据。方法采取细菌分离培养方法和药敏试验,对医院临床多重耐药菌感染及其致病菌分布情况进行调查与分析。结果从2013年共检出致病菌1331株,其中革兰氏阴性菌715株,革兰氏阳性球菌499株,多重耐药菌致病菌171株,占致病菌总数的12.83%。多重耐药菌依次为产超广谱β-内酰胺酶的细菌(ESBLs)、耐碳青酶烯类抗菌药物鲍曼不动杆菌(CR-AB)、耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)、多重耐药铜绿假单胞菌(MDR-RA)、耐万古肠球菌(VRE);引起医院感染部位主要是呼吸系统和泌尿系统;感染的主要科室分布为ICU、神经内科、呼吸内科,分别为25.15%、12.28%和12.28%。结论加强医院感染监测,了解相关流行病学信息,有针对的采取预防与控制措施能有效遏制医院感染的暴发与流行。%Objective To provide basis for preventing and controlling hospital multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection by investigating the multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection of hospitalized patients. Methods The bacterial cultiure and drug sensitivity test were adopted to analyze and investigate the clinical multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection and the distri-bution of in the hospital pathogenic bacteria. Results A total of 1 331 pathogenic bacteria were surveyed in 2013 , which in-cluded 715 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, 499 strains of Gram positive coccus and 171 strains of multiple drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The species of multiple drug-resistant bacteria , accounting for 12.83% of the total number were extended spectrum β-lactamase bacteria(ESBLs), resistance to carbapenems Bauman Acinetobacter bacillus (CR-AB), methicillin-re-sistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multiple drug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-RA) and resistant enterococ

  12. 口腔正畸治疗感染患者病原菌分布及耐药性分析%The distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria for infection patients of orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚岭; 王岩莉; 舒明芳

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria for infection patients of orthodontic treatment ,so as to control the occurrence of infections .METHODS A total of 765 cases of patients with orthodontic treatment from Jan .2011 to Jun .2013 were chosen ,and pathogenic bacteria were isolated and cultured ,with the drug sensitivity tests were conducted by K-B test .RESULTS A total of 85 cases with infections after orthodontic treatment and the occurrence rate was 11 .11% .A total of 91 strains of bacteria were isolated , including 25 strains of the respiratory tract accounting for 27 .47% ,19 strains of urinary tract accounting for 20 .88% ,14 strains of the gastrointestinal tract accounting for 15 .38% , 11 strains of skin accounting for 12 .09% ,7 strains from blood accounting for 7 .69% ,15 strains of other accounting for 16 .48% .There were 38 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounted for 41 .76% .53 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounted for 58 . 24% .gram-positive bacteria had no resistance on acetazolamide and linezolid .gram-negative bacteria had no re-sistance on meropenem and imipenem .CONCLUSION The infection occurrence rate for orthodontic treatment pa-tients is high ,especially more by drug-resistance bacteria .Therefore measures should be taken to control infec-tions .Pathogenic bacteria should be isolated and tested .The antibacterial with low resistance should be used for treating infections once infections occurred .%目的:研究口腔正畸治疗感染患者病原菌的分布及其耐药性,控制口腔正畸治疗感染的发生。方法选取2011年1月-2013年6月医院口腔正畸治疗765例,对其发生感染患者分离培养出的病原菌,采用K-B琼脂法进行药敏试验。结果经口腔正畸治疗后发生感染的患者共85例,感染率为11.11%;分离出病原菌91株,感染部位呼吸道25株占27.47%,泌尿道19株占20.88%,胃肠道14株占15.38

  13. 呼吸科院内尿路感染患者病原菌及耐药分析%Distribution and resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with nosocomial urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of the pathogenic bacteria in patients with nosocomial urinary tract infections.Methods The results of urine culture in 35 patients with nosocomial urinary tract infection were analyzed.Results There were 58 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated,including 27 strains of Gram-negative bacteria (46.55%),1 0 strains of Gram-positive bacteria (1 7.24%),and 21 strains of fungi (36.21%).The top three pathogens were escherichia coli (1 8.97%),Candida albicans (1 7.24%)and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1 0.34%).Drug sensitivity test showed that high drug resistance occurred in both Gram-negative bacte-ria and Gram-positive bacteria.Conclusion Nosocomial urinary tract infection in respiratory department is mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria,showing multi-drug resistance.Fungal infection shows a higher detection rate, which should be paid more attention in clinic.%目的:分析呼吸科院内尿路感染患者的病原菌种类分布及其耐药性,为合理用药提供参考。方法回顾性分析呼吸科明确诊断的院内尿路感染患者35例,分析其尿培养病原菌结果。结果35例患者共分离出58株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌27株,占46.55%,革兰阳性菌10株,占17.24%,真菌21株,占36.21%。病原菌按检测率排序前3位依次是大肠埃希菌(18.97%)、白色念珠菌(17.24%)、肺炎克雷伯杆菌(10.34%),药物敏感试验显示:革兰阴性菌及革兰阳性菌耐药性严重。结论呼吸科院内尿路感染病原菌以革兰阴性菌为主,且呈多重耐药现象。真菌感染检出率明显增高,临床需加以重视。

  14. 泌尿外科医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性研究%STUDY ON THE DRUG TOLERANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN URINARY SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景华; 庄晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the drug tolerance and distribution of pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial infection in urinary surgery in order to provide the reference of rational use of drug. Methods Retrospective survey and drug susceptibility test were used to study and analyze the clinic data of patients that discharged from hospital of urinary surgery of our hospital in 2009. Results Among 2 786 patients of urinary surgery that discharged from this hospital in 2009, 62 person/times of nosocomial infection happened which accounted for 2.2%. Of the infected patients, urinary tract infections accounted for 42.1%, and 41.9% infections happened after urinary tract intubation. Respiratory tract infections accounted for 32.3% and operative incision infections or infections of other places accounted for 12.9%. There were 278 strains of bacteria isolated from specimens of infected patients, and the most common bacteria were Escherichia coli ( 18.35% ) and Enterococcus faecium ( 14.39% ). The two kinds of bacteria were resistant to most of antibiotics that rational used in clinic and some of the drug tolerance rates were over 70%. Conclusion The urinary tract infection is the most common infection in urinary surgery of our hospital and the second is respiratory tract infection. The most common bacteria of infections is intestinal flora which is resistant to most of antibiotics.%目的 了解泌尿外科患者医院感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性,为合理选用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 采用回顾性调查和药敏试验方法,对本医院泌尿外科2009年度出院患者临床资料进行了调查和分析.结果 该医院2009年度泌尿外科共出院患者2 786例,发生医院感染62人次,感染率发病率为2.2%.在感染病人中,泌尿道感染占42.11%,有41.9%的感染发生在泌尿道术后插管.呼吸道感染占32.3%,手术切口感染占12.9%.从62例感染病人标本中共分离出感染细菌278株,以大肠埃希菌(占18

  15. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  16. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Uzunović; Branka Bedenić; Ana Budimir; Amir Ibrahimagić; Farah Kamberović; Zlatko Fiolić; Michelle I. A. Rijnders; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL), and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic charact...

  17. 多药耐药菌医疗相关感染经济损失评价%Evaluation of economic losses induced by multidrug-resistant bacteria health care-associated infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉花; 邢敏; 姜雪锦; 王琳; 邱会芬; 赵爱荣; 李卫光

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of multidrug‐resistant bacteria health care‐associated infections (HAIs) on length of hospital stay and hospitalization expenses and evaluate the economical losses induced by the multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs .METHODS In 2012 and 2013 ,a retrospective survey was conducted to collect the related data of the patients with multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs and the patients without multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs ,and the occurrence tendency of HAIs ,length of hospital stay ,and hospitalization expenses were statistically analyzed by using SPSS17 .0 software .RESULTS The detection rate of the multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs was 44 .16% in 2012 and dropped to 23 .68% in 2013 .The average length of hospital stay of the patients with multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs was 51 .48 days in 2012 ,significantly longer than 20 .67 days of the pa‐tients without multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs ;it was 45 .16 days in 2013 ,significantly longer than 21 .19 days of the patients without multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAIs .The total hospitalization expense of the patients with multidrug‐resistant bacteria HAI was 130 749 .80 yuan in 2012 ,significantly more than 20 919 .86 yuan of the pa‐tients without multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections ;it was 127 473 .29 yuan in 2013 ,significantly more than 29 225 .12 yuan of the patients without multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections .CONCLUSIONS The multidrug‐resist‐ant bacteria HAIs may increase the length of hospital stay and the economic losses ,and it is urgent to take effec‐tive prevention measures .%目的:了解多药耐药菌(MDROs)医疗相关感染(HAIs)对住院日及住院费用的影响,评价其导致的经济损失。方法回顾性调查2012及2013年多药耐药菌 H A Is及非多药耐药菌 H A Is患者的相关资料,采用SPSS17.0软件对 HAIs发生趋势、两组患者的住院日及住院费用进行统计

  18. 呼吸内科下呼吸道感染病原菌及耐药探讨%Exploration of the Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance for Patients with Lower Respiratory Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝明

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析呼吸内科下呼吸道感染病原菌及耐药。方法:收集2013年1月-2014年1月本院收治的120例下呼吸道感染患者的临床资料,分析痰培养结果及药敏试验结果,并探讨患者病原菌分布情况和耐药性。结果:革兰阴性菌所占百分率明显高于革兰阳性球菌和真菌,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);革兰阴性杆菌对磺胺甲噁唑耐药率明显高于革兰阳性球菌,敏感率明显低于革兰阳性球菌,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).The drug resistance rate for sulfamethoxazole with gram negative bacteria were higher than gram-positive bacteria,with significant difference(P<0.05), the susceptibility were lower than gram-positive bacteria,with significant difference(P<0.05);The drug resistance rate of amoxicillin ,gentamicin,levofloxacin, imipenem with gram negative bacteria were lower than gram-positive bacteria,with significant difference(P<0.05),the susceptibility were higher than gram-positive bacteria,with significant difference(P<0.05). Conclusion:Most of respiratory medicine lower respiratory infection pathogens in gram-negative bacteria,in the clinical drug susceptibility test must be based on patients,provide a reasonable regimen for patients,in order to improve patients’ prognosis.

  19. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  20. Efflux pump blockers in Gram-negative bacteria:The new generation of hydantoin based-modulators to improve antibiotic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eOtrębska-Machaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility towards the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility towards nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria.

  1. 许昌地区新型甲型H1N1流感合并细菌感染分析%Analyze on Novel A/H1N1 influenza infected by bacteria in Xuchang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽娟; 艾根伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新型甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染情况.方法 收集咽拭子标本800份,检测其甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA,同时做咽拭子的细菌培养,根据结果 分析甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染及致病菌的药敏情况.结果 800份样本中423例H1N1 RNA阳性;其中73例合并不同的细菌感染,占甲流患者的17%,多数细菌的耐药性较强.结论 许昌地区2009年的甲流疫情中,甲流患者合并细菌感染的情况值得关注,治疗中要注意细菌培养并合理用药.%Objective To research the patients with Novel A/H1N1 who had infected by bacteria.Methods To collect 800 examples of fauces swabs and incubat the swabs and detect the novel A( H1N1 ) influenza virus RNA,on the basis of the results,we could analyze whether the novel A/H1N1 influenza patients infected by bacteria.Results There were 423 patients who had infected by novel A/H1N1 influenza and 73( 17% ) of them had co-infected by bacteria,most of the bacteria were drug fast.Conclusions During the epidemic disease of novel A/H1N1 influenza in Xuchang area in 2009, the co-infected by bacteria and A/H1N1 should be payed more attention, furthermore, we should gave our attention to germicultue and prescribe medicines in reason.

  2. Analysis of Clinical Lower Respiratory Infection Pathogenic Bacteria Species and Drug Resistance in A Hospital%某院临床下呼吸道感染病原菌种类及耐药性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand and grasp our hospital in 2013 clinical lower respiratory infection pathogenic bacteria species and drug resistance, to guide clinical rational drug use.Methods The BD phoenix 100 automatic bacteria identification application database data in 2013 and drug susceptibility testing system WHONET5.5 retrospective statistical analysis of bacterial drug resistance monitoring software.Results Gram-negative bacteria 60.42%;Gram-positive bacteria 9.98%; Fungi was 29.60%. Gram-negative bacteria klebsiella pneumoniae in 31.01%, 13.62% E. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa 7.83%; Gram positive bacterium staphylococcus aureus 54.39%, streptococcus pneumoniae 22.81%; Fungi white candida yeast 55.03%, and 31.95% tropical candida.Conclusions The lower respiratory tract infection is given priority to with gram-negative bacteria 60.42%, klebsiella pneumoniae detection rate is highest, its to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, ampicillin/shu ba present high drug resistance. E. coli resistance, resistance to an average of 33.68%. Gram-positive bacteria infection is given priority to with staphylococcus aureus, sugar peptide, pbo alkane ketone is still the most effective treatment of gram-positive bacteria infection. Bacteria merged fungi double infection should not be ignored, to strengthen the resistant monitoring and to guide clinical rational drug use.%目的:了解并掌握2013年我院临床下呼吸道感染病原菌种类及耐药性,指导临床合理用药。方法美国BD phoenix 100全自动细菌鉴定药敏检测系统数据库2013年数据并应用WHONET5.5细菌耐药监测软件进行回顾性统计分析。结果革兰阴性菌60.42%;革兰阳性菌9.98%;真菌29.60%。革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌31.01%,大肠埃希菌13.62%,铜绿假单胞菌7.83%;革兰阳性菌中金黄色葡萄球菌54.39%,肺炎链球菌22.81%;真菌中白假丝酵母菌55.03%,热带假丝酵母菌31.95%。结论下呼吸道

  3. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes , ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  5. Characteristics of distribution of drug resistance detection of common pathogenic bacteria for surgical infection in our hospital%我院外科感染常见病原菌分布特点及耐药性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆学安; 杨春水; 秦文静; 王龙安; 张治中

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解外科感染常见病原菌分布特点以及对常用抗生素的耐药情况,为临床合理用药提供科学依据。方法采用纸片扩散法(Kirby-Bauer法)对来自外科感染患者的临床分离菌进行药敏试验。按CLSI 2011版标准判断结果。结果临床分离菌共305株,革兰阴性菌183株,革兰阳性菌122株。在各类细菌中,主要分离菌为:革兰阴性菌的大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯杆菌;革兰阳性菌的凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌。耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)和耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)检出率为23.3%和31.3%,都未发现对万古霉素耐药菌株。大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌中产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)株检出率分别为34.4%和21.9%。铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南的耐药率为5.3%。结论定期分析医院病原菌的耐药性,可以为临床治疗和预防感染提供依据。临床重视病原菌的检查,根据药敏试验选择合理的抗生素,可以减少细菌耐药的发生。%Objective To understand the characteristics of distribution of common pathogenic bacteria for surgical infection, and their drug resistance to common antibacterial agents, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable clinical drug use. Methods Antimicobial susceptibility testing was carried out for the clinical isolated bacteria from patients with surgical infection by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2011 criterion. Results A total of 305 clinical isolated bacteria were collected. Among them, there were 183 strains of gram-negative bacteria, and 122 strains of gram-positive bacteria. The main isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and klebsiella pneumonia in gram-negative bacteria, and coagulase negative staphylococcus and staphylococcus aureus in gram-positive bacteria. The detection rates of methicillin

  6. 大鲵细菌性感染综合症的病原分离与药敏试验分析%Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Giant Salamander with Bacterial Infection Syndrome and Drug Sensitivity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于喆; 江辉; 钟蕾; 肖克宇; 谭情; 毛盼

    2012-01-01

    On the base of the experiment of isolating and purifying bacterial from the body surface, liver, kidney, intestine, limb, ascites of Giant salamander with bacterial infection syndrome, a total of 12 strains bacteria were obtained. The identification of the morphological structure, physiological and biochemical characteristics and artificial infection experiment of the bacteria showed that Citrobacter braakii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Acinetobact-er lwoffi isolated from the Giant salamander are the 3 main strains pathogenic bacteria. Drug sensitive test showed that the 3 strains pathogenic bacteria put up different degrees of drug resistance on many antibiotics, even these pathogenic bacteria were extremely sensitive to Meropenem. Therefore it is concluded that Meropenem can be used as the first option for preventing this disease.%对细菌性感染综合症病鲵的体表、肝脏、肾脏、肠道、四肢、腹水等进行细菌分离培养与纯化,共得到12株细菌.经细菌的形态结构、生理生化特性鉴定和人工感染试验证实,布拉克枸橼酸杆菌(Citrobacter braakii),嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)和洛菲不动杆菌(Acinetobacter lwoffi)为主要致病菌.药敏试验结果表明,3种病原菌对很多抗生素均存在不同程度的耐药性,而对美洛培南(Meropenem)高度敏感,其可作为防治该病的首选药物.

  7. 厌氧菌检测技术在口腔颌面部感染治疗中的应用%Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包振英; 林琴; 孟彦宏; 何淳; 苏家增; 彭歆

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection.Methods:Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,Peking University School of Stomatology were identified.The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method.The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected,and the final outcomes were recor-ded.Results:The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens,with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9 .8%),anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (1 1 .5%),and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%).There were 55 infected cases (90.2%)with anaerobic bacteria,and 81 anaero-bic bacteria stains were isolated.The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus,Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium.No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphy-romonas and Prevotella.No metronidazole,cefoxitin,amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria.In the study,48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing,and the clinical cure rate was 81 .3%. Conclusion:Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofa-cial infection patients.Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨口腔颌面部感染患者的厌氧菌病原菌分布及耐药情况,以指导临床治疗。方法:对北京大学口腔医学

  8. Co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides modulates protective immune responses against Giardia duodenalis in school Venezuelan rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (plumbricoides lightly parasitized children, G. duodenalis infection was associated to a significant increase (plumbricoides moderately parasitized group, being those levels similarly lower as those observed in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between the levels of anti G duodenalis antibodies, skin test hyper-reactivity and cytokines with the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection (p>0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.

  9. Minocycline fails to modulate cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection or immune activation in chronic untreated HIV-1 infection: results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Dietmar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been shown to attenuate central nervous system (CNS lentivirus infection, immune activation, and brain injury in model systems. To initiate assessment of minocycline as an adjuvant therapy in human CNS HIV infection, we conducted an open-labelled pilot study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood biomarkers of infection and immune responses in 7 viremic subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy. Results There were no discernable effects of minocycline on CSF or blood HIV-1 RNA, or biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation including: CSF and blood neopterin, CSF CCL2, CSF white blood cell count, and expression of cell-surface activation markers on CSF and blood T lymphocytes and monocytes. Conclusions This pilot study of biological responses to minocycline suggests little potential for its use as adjunctive antiviral or immunomodulating therapy in chronic untreated HIV infection.

  10. 骨外科老年感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药监测研究%The Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance Monitoring of Senile Patients with Infection in Bone Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution of main pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of senile patients with infection in bone surgery so as to provide a reference for clinical use of antibiotic drugs. Methods 300 cases of senile orthopedic patients admitted in our hospital from April, 2011 to April, 2013 were randomly selected. Secretion samples were collected from the wound of the patients for bacteria culture and bacteria identification, and drug sensitive test was conducted. Results Of the 300 cases of patients, a total of 298 strains of bacteria were detected, including 142 strains of gram negative bacteria (47.7%), 150 strains of gram positive bacteria (50.3%), 6 strains of fungi (2%). Conclusion The drug resistance of nosocomial infection pathogens is relatively complex, which changes quickly, so appropriate antibiotic drugs for the treatment of senile orthopedic patients, should be chosen in accordance with the pathogen resistance test and the result of appraisal strictly in order to reduce the infection rate of the patients.%目的:分析骨外科老年感染患者主要病原菌的分布情况及耐药率,为临床抗菌药用药提供参考。方法随机选取该院300例骨科老年患者,从患者的伤口中采集分泌物标本,并对标本进行细菌培养及细菌鉴定,并进行药敏试验。结果在300例患者中,共检出298株细菌,142株格兰阴性菌(47.7%),150株格兰阳性菌(50.3%),6株真菌(2%)。结论医院感染病原菌的耐药性较复杂,构成变化快,应严格按照病原菌耐药性检测及鉴定结果,选择合适的抗生素药物为骨科老年患者进行治疗,降低患者感染率。

  11. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of opportunistic infection pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病机会感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福会; 柴茂凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, and to provide reliable and scientific basis for clinical treatment.Methods:Collected from our hospital inpatient treatment of elderly diabetic patients with opportunistic infections in patients with totally (January2010-December2011),248specimens,125patho gens were isolated ,using the France bio-Merieux ATB-new production of bacterial identification and susceptibility analysis system and supporting the identification and susceptibility andpanels on the separation of bacteria identification and susceptibility testing. Results: Totally 248 specimens, 125 pathogens were isolated,and the positive rate is 50.4%,The gram negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%, gram positive bacteria accounted for 21.6%, fungi accounted for 8.8%. The detection rate of major pathogens in descending order: Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia grams Klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, and Acinetobacter.Conclusions:Opportunistic infections in elderly patients with opportunistic infections are gram negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the main infection bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal infection rate increased gradually. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes, rational use of antimicrobial agents, control the incidence of opportunistic infections, and reduce the occurrence of drug resistant strains.%目的:探讨老年糖尿病机会感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性,为临床提供可靠而科学的治疗依据。方法:收集我院2010年1月至2011年12月住院治疗的老年糖尿病合并机会感染患者的送检标本,248份标本中,共分离出125株病原菌,采用法国生物-梅里埃公司生产的ATB-new细菌鉴定及药敏分析系统

  12. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...

  13. Oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdigón Gabriela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches. Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing

  14. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglet...

  15. 感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance in Patients with Endocarditis Infected Blood Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宗利

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性,为临床提供参考。方法:通过对52例2003年9月-2013年9月本院收治的感染性心内膜炎患者进行血培养实验和病原菌耐药性实验,分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性。结果:52例患者共筛选出32株病原菌,感染率为61.54%,其中革兰阳性菌株28株,占87.50%,主要为金黄色葡萄球菌、草绿色链球菌、粪肠球菌、牛链球菌、口腔链球菌和表皮葡萄球菌,革兰阳性菌对环丙沙星和庆大霉素耐药性较强,对万古霉素耐药性较差;革兰阴性菌4株,占12.50%,主要为铜绿假单胞、产气肠杆菌和大肠埃希菌,革兰阴性菌对庆大霉素耐药性较强,对头孢哌酮和环丙沙星耐药性较差。结论:金黄色葡萄球菌和草绿色链球菌是感染性心内膜炎的主要致病菌,而这两株菌对万古霉素的耐药性均较差,所以临床上可以用万古霉素作为预防和治疗感染性心内膜炎的主要抗生素,这对临床治疗感染性心内膜炎有重要的指导意义。%Objective:To analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in blood of patients with infective endocarditis,and to provide reference for clinical.Method:52 cases of patients with infective endocarditis were obtained from 2003 September to 2013 September in our hospital,which were used to do pathogen resistance experiment and blood culture experiment,and the endocarditis culture and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed.Result:32 strains of pathogenic bacteria were screened from 52 patients,the infection rate was 61.54%,of which 28 strains were gram positive strains,accounting for 87.50%,mainly included Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus viridans,Enterococcus faecalis,Streptococcus bovis,oral Streptococcus and Staphylococcus epidermidis,the resistance of gram positive bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was strong,but the

  16. 腹部手术切口感染危险因素及病原菌调查%Risk factors for abdominal surgical wound infection and pathogenic bacteria investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海波

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study pathogenic bacteria and risk factors in abdominal surgical wound infection to provide the evidence for prevention and controlling of surgical wound infection.METHODS The clinical data were investigated retrospectively for the patients with abdominal surgical wound infection in our hospital.The risk factors and pathogenic bacteria were analyzed.RESULTS The infection rate of abdominal surgical wound infection was 5.1 %.The risk factors included underlying diseases, sorts of operation, gender, age, obesity, diabetes, use of antibiotics, and so on.The main pathogenic bacteria included Escherichia coli (25.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.6%), Enterococcius faecium (10.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.5 %), Candida albicans and so on.CONCLUSION The comprehensive intervention should be taken to prevent and control abdominal surgical incision infection.%目的 探讨腹部手术切口感染的病原菌及危险因素,为预防与控制切口感染提供理论依据.方法 回顾性调查医院腹部手术切口感染患者的临床病历,分析腹部手术切口感染的危险因素,并对感染病原菌进行分析.结果 医院腹部手术切口感染率为5.1%;切口感染的危险因素为:原发基础疾病、手术种类、性别、年龄、肥胖、糖尿病、抗菌药物的使用等;感染病原菌主要有大肠埃希菌(25.0%)、铜绿假单胞菌(21.9%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(16.6%)、金黄色葡萄球菌(12.5%)、粪肠球菌(10.4%)等.结论 必须采取综合性干预措施,预防与控制腹部手术切口感染.

  17. Mechanical ventilation enhances lung inflammation and caspase activity in a model of mouse pneumovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B.M. van Woensel; A.P. Bos; A. Koski; A.W. Farnand; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg; T.R. Martin; G. Matute-Bello

    2009-01-01

    Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children can progress to respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI). Accumulating evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation (MV) is an important cofactor in the development of ALI by modulating the host immune responses to bacteria

  18. 脑梗塞患者呼吸道感染的病原菌及耐药分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance of Respiratory Infection on Cerebral Infarction Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of respiratory infection on cerebral infarction patients. Methods An retrospective review was adopted to analyze the results of sputum culture and drug sensitive test among 226 cases of cerebral infarction patients with respiratory infection. Results 235 strains of 32 kinds of pathogenic bacteria were found, including 78.6% Gram-negative bacteria ,17.5% strains of fungus and 3.9% Gram-positive bacteria. The Gram negative bacil i with higher separation rate were Klebesiel a pneumoniae, Escherichia coli,Acinetobacter baumanni , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and they constituted a dominant flora,which were resistant to common antibiotics. Conclusion The respiratory infection in patients with cerebral infarction was mainly due to Gram-negative bacteria,which were resistant to common antibiotics.Clinicians should strengthen the supervision and drug sensitive test and drug resistance.%目的了解住院脑梗塞患者引起呼吸道感染的病原菌的种类及耐药情况。方法回顾分析226例脑梗塞伴呼吸道感染患者的痰培养及药敏试验的临床资料。结果检出病原菌32种235株,其中革兰阴性杆菌占78.6%,真菌占17.4%,革兰阳性球菌占3.9%。革兰阴性杆菌中以肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌比例较高,构成优势菌群且常用抗生素耐药。结论脑梗塞患者的呼吸道感染病菌多为革兰阴性菌,常用抗生素耐药明显。临床医生应加强耐药菌监测和药敏试验。

  19. 骨与关节化脓性感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性分析%The pathogenic bacteria distribution of bone and joint purulent infection and its drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继学

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenic bacteria distribution of bone and joint purulent infection and its drug resistance for providing the basis of antimicrobial treatment. Methods:The pathogenic bacteria from 418 samples of patients with bone and joint purulent infection were isolated and identified, and the antibiotics sensitivity tests were examined. Results:Two hundred and twelve strains gram-positive bacteria and 176 gram-negative bacteria were isolated form 418 samples. The detection rates of Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomon asaeruginosa,Escherichia coli,Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were 38. 28%,11. 48%,8. 13%, 5. 26% and 4. 78%,respectively. Conclusions:The drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the mainly pathogenic bacteria of bone and joint purulent infection. The antibiotics treatment should be taken according to the results of antibiotics sensitivity tests which can induce the resistance to antibiotics.%目的:评估骨与关节化脓性感染的主要病原菌分布及其抗菌谱变化情况,为临床抗菌药物治疗提供参考依据。方法:分析骨与关节化脓性感染患者的418份各类标本中分离出的病原菌,进行菌种鉴定和药敏试验。结果:418份送检标本中共分离出388株病原菌,其中G+球菌212株,G-杆菌176株。金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠埃希菌、奇异变形菌和表皮葡萄球菌的检出率最高,分别为38.28%、11.48%、8.13%、5.26%和4.78%。结论:耐药的金黄色葡萄球菌是骨与关节化脓性感染的主要致病菌,治疗应依据药敏试验结果实施个体化的抗生素治疗方案,降低细菌耐药性的发生。

  20. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Uzunović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL, and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic characterization of MRSA was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat patterns (BURP. Double-disk-synergy test was used to screen for ESBLs. PCR was used to detect blaESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by PFGE. Results Seventeen in-patients with MRSA, 13 with ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria and three patients co-infected with both, were detected. Five MRSA and 16 ESBL-producing Gramnegative bacteria were found in outpatient samples. Klebsiella spp. was isolated in 11 in- and seven outpatients. MLST CC152 was the most prevalent MRSA. Seven (38.9% Klebsiella spp. yielded amplicons with primers specific for SHV, TEM-1 and CTXM group 1 β-lactamases. Eight K. pneumonia (44.4% and 16 (64% MRSA (including the in- and outpatient strains were clonally related. Conclusion The presence of MRSA and ESBL-producing organisms causing SSTIs in the community poses a substantial concern, due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with possible consequent hospital infections.

  1. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Carpio, Yamila; Secombes, Christopher J; Taylor, Nick G H; Lugo, Juana María; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) are structurally similar peptides encoded in the same transcripts. Their transcription has been detected not only in the brain but also in a wide range of peripheral tissues, even including organs of the immune system. PACAP exerts pleiotropic activities through G-protein coupled membrane receptors: the PACAP-specific PAC-1 and the VPAC-1 and VPAC-2 receptors that exhibit similar affinities for the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and PACAP. Recent findings added PACAP and its receptors to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in fish. In this study the expression of genes encoding for PACAP and PRP, as well as VIP/PACAP receptors was studied in laboratory-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) after septicaemic infections. Respectively Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV-Ia) or the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri (ser. O1 - biot. 2) were used in infection challenges. Kidney and spleen, the teleost main lymphopoietic organs, were sampled during the first two weeks post-infection. RT-qPCR analysis assessed specific pathogens burden and gene expression levels. PACAP and PRP transcription in each organ was positively correlated to the respective pathogen burden, assessed targeting the VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA. Results showed as the transcription of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors is modulated in these organs during an acute viral and bacterial septicaemic infections in brown trout. These gene expression results provide clues as to how the PACAP system is modulated in fish, confirming an involvement during active immune responses elicited by both viral and bacterial aetiological agents. However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. PMID:26481517

  2. 肿瘤医院ICU血流感染病原菌致炎症反应的比较%Comparison of inflammatory reaction between pathogenic bacteria bloodstream infections in ICU of tumor hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉; 方敏峰; 许华; 杨峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较肿瘤医院ICU血流感染病原菌炎症反应指标及引起的临床表现与炎症反应程度,以此指导ICU严重感染患者的早期经验性抗菌药物选择.方法 回顾性分析入住ICU 48 h后血培养阳性患者60例,根据血培养结果,分为革兰阳性菌血流感染组及革兰阴性菌血流感染组,比较两组患者的一般资料及临床炎症反应的各项指标.结果 两组患者体温、心率、白细胞计数、中性粒细胞计数、C反应蛋白及降钙素原比较,差异均无统计学意义;革兰阳性菌血流感染组与革兰阴性菌血流感染组严重脓毒症或脓毒症休克发生率分别为4.1%与22.0%(P<0.05),血清脑肽素值分别为(112.0±15.2)pg/ml与(812.0±25.3) pg/ml(P<0.05),行机械通气感染率分别为75.0%与94.4% (P=0.016);两组肾脏替代治疗例数、ICU住院时间、临床死亡率分别为10例与12例、(34.3±16.5)与(26.0±27.1)d及12.50%与22.20%,两组比较差异无统计学意义;共分离出病原菌60株,其中革兰阴性菌36株占60.0%,以大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌为主,分别占25.0%、11.7%,革兰阳性菌24株占40.0%,以金黄色葡萄球菌、肠球菌属为主,分别占16.7%、13.3%.结论 肿瘤医院ICU血流感染中革兰阴性菌的发生率偏高,与革兰阳性菌血流感染患者相比较,革兰阴性菌血流感染患者的炎症反应较重,临床表现严重,预后差.%OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical manifestations and the inflammatory reaction degrees caused by the pathogens causing bloodstream infections in the ICU of a tumor hospital so as to guide the empirical use of antibiotics for the ICU patient with severe infections.METHODS A total of 60 blood culture-positive patients,who have been hospitalized in the ICU for 48 hours,were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups(the gram-negative bacteria bloodstream infection patients and gram-positive bacteria bloodstream infection

  3. Evidence that Vpu modulates HIV-1 Gag-envelope interaction towards envelope incorporation and infectivity in a cell type dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Gautam

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Vpu is required for efficient virus particle release from the plasma membrane and intracellular CD4 degradation in infected cells. In the present study, we found that the loss of virus infectivity as a result of envelope (Env incorporation defect caused by a Gag matrix (MA mutation (L30E was significantly alleviated by introducing a start codon mutation in vpu. Inactivation of Vpu partially restored the Env incorporation defect imposed by L30E substitution in MA. This effect was found to be comparable in cell types such as 293T, HeLa, NP2 and GHOST as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. However, in HeLa cells BST-2 knockdown was found to further alleviate the effect of Vpu inactivation on infectivity of L30E mutant. Our data demonstrated that the impaired infectivity of virus particles due to Env incorporation defect caused by MA mutation was modulated by start codon mutation in Vpu.

  4. Protective Effect of Galectin-1 during Histoplasma capsulatum Infection Is Associated with Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secatto, Adriana; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Prado, Morgana Kelly Borges; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Cummings, Richard D.; Stowell, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that develops a yeast-like morphology in host's tissue, responsible for the pulmonary disease histoplasmosis. The recent increase in the incidence of histoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients highlights the need of understanding immunological controls of fungal infections. Here, we describe our discovery of the role of endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the immune pathophysiology of experimental histoplasmosis. All infected wild-type (WT) mice survived while only 1/3 of Lgals1−/− mice genetically deficient in Gal-1 survived 30 days after infection. Although infected Lgals1−/− mice had increased proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and elevations in neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, they presented higher fungal load in lungs and spleen. Infected lung and infected macrophages from Lgals1−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a prostanoid regulator of macrophage activation) and prostaglandin E synthase 2 (Ptgs2) mRNA. Gal-1 did not bind to cell surface of yeast phase of H. capsulatum, in vitro, suggesting that Gal-1 contributed to phagocytes response to infection rather than directly killing the yeast. The data provides the first demonstration of endogenous Gal-1 in the protective immune response against H. capsulatum associated with NO and PGE2 as an important lipid mediator in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. PMID:27698545

  5. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  6. Related factors for multiple resistant bacteria infections and prevention measures in respiratory department%呼吸科多重耐药菌感染的相关因素及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯保英; 耿荣华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevention measures for multiple resistant bacteria infections, and to prevent the multiple resistant bacteria infections. Methods Total of 70 patients with multiple resistant bacteria infections, who were treated in the Respiratory Department, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University from October 2013 to September 2014, then the routine sputum culture, uncle culture and blood culture, the bacterial susceptibilities to majority of antimicrobial agents were determined by VITEK-2 compact, respectively. The results were analyzed with WHONET 5.6 software. Results Total of 68 strains of multiple resistant bacteric were isolated, among which the Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens ranked the top three species, accounting for 42.6% (29/68), 39.7%(27/68) and 8.8%(6/68), respectively. The main Gram-positive bacteria remained high antibacterial activity against vancomycin, with the drug resistance rates of 7.9%, the main Gram-negative bacteria remained high antibacterial activity against tigecycline, with the drug resistance rates of 1.7%. Conclusions It is necessary to strengthen the detection of the multiple resistant bacteria, with the detection and diagnosis in a timely manner. It is necessary to choose sensitive antibiotics based on the result of drug susceptibility testing, strictly implement the hand hygiene, reinforce medical staff’s sterile operation concept. Train nursing workers and cleaning staff to better know multiple resistant bacteria. Intensify environment disinfection to avoid infections.%目的:探讨多重耐药菌感染在医院的预防措施,以期指导控制医院多重耐药菌的感染。方法收集中国医科大学航空总医院呼吸科病房2013年10月至2014年9月多重耐药菌感染者共70例,进行常规痰培养、尿培养和血培养,应用VITEK-2鉴定系统进行微生物鉴定和药敏分析,采用WHONET 5.6软件对药敏结果进行分析。

  7. Types of bacteria causing nosocomial infection in patients undergoing breast surgery and changes in their drug resistance%乳腺外科院内感染病菌类型及耐药性变迁分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平贤

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in patients developing a nosocomial infection following breast surgery and to ascertain changes in drug resistance. Methods Pathogenic bacteria were isolated and i-dentified with a Vitek32 automated microbe analyzer. K-B disc diffusion was used to determine drug sensitivity. Results Of 656 patients who underwent breast surgery from January 2010 to December 2011. 185 developed a nosocomial infection for an incidence rate of 28. 20%. One hundred and sixty-three strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated; 99 strains were Gram-positive bacteria, 56 strains were Gram-negative bacteria, and 8 stains were fungi. Gram-positive bacteria were resistant to ceftazidime, gentamycin. erythromycin, and piperacillin and sensitive to imipenem and gatifloxacin; Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, and cefoperazone and sensitive to imi-penem. gatifloxacin and ceftazidime. Compared to 2010. there were no significant differences in drug resistance in 2011. Conclusion Pathogens causing a nosocomial infection in patients undergoing breast surgery were highly resistant. Changes in resistance were not marked. Rational use of antibiotics in accordance with drug sensitivity results is beneficial to the treatment of nosocomial infection.%目的 了解乳腺外科手术患者的院内感染病原菌及其耐药性变迁情况,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据. 方法 院内感染患者送检标本分离病原菌,Vitek32全自动微生物分析仪鉴定菌种,K-B纸片法作药物敏感性试验. 结果 2010年1月~2011年12月656例乳腺外科患者院内感染185例,院内感染发生率28.20%;分离病原菌163株,其中革兰阳性菌99株,占60.74%,革兰阴性菌56株,占34.36%,真菌8株,占4.91%.革兰阳性菌对头孢他啶、庆大霉素、红霉素、哌拉西林耐药率较高,对亚胺培南和加替沙星较敏感;革兰阴性菌对克林

  8. 神经外科肺部感染多重耐药菌调查分析与防控对策%ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR MULTI-RESISTANT BACTERIA IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY INFECTION IN NEUROSURGERY DEPARTMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠文; 丘宇茹; 洪丽霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究医院神经外科住院患者肺部感染多重耐药菌特点,探讨有效防控对策.方法 通过回顾性调查的方法,对某医院神经外科住院患者肺部感染的病原菌进行了分离鉴定与分析.结果 从63例肺部感染患者标本中共分离出病原菌20种134株,包括革兰阴性杆菌82株、革兰阳性球菌33株以及真菌19株.82株革兰阴性杆菌中鲍曼不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和铜绿假单胞菌分居前三位,构成比分别为15.67%、13.43%和13.43%;革兰阳性球菌居首位的是金黄色葡萄球菌,占13.43%.所检出的病原菌多数呈多重耐药,同时耐受三种或三种以上抗菌药物.结论 神经外科住院患者肺部感染以革兰阴性杆菌为主,多数呈多重耐药,以控制侵入性操作和消毒隔离为主要防控对策.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of multi - resistant bacteria in patients with pulmonary infection in neurosurgery department and to discuss effective prevention strategies. Methods The retrospective investigation was used to investigate the pathogenic bacteria infected in pulmonary of inpatients in neurosurgery department of this hospital. Results 134 strains of pathogenic bacteria with 20 species were isolated from 63 cases of pulmonary infection patients, which including 82 strains Gram - negative bacilli, 33 strains Gram - positive coccus and 19 strains fungi. Within 82 strains of Gram - negative bacilli, the top three were Acinelobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the ratios were 15. 67% ,13. 43% and 13. 43% , respectively. Slaphylococcus aureus was the primary pathogenic bacteria in Gram - positive coccus, accounting for 13. 43% . Most of the detected pathogenic bacteria were multi - resistant to three or more antibiotics. Conclusion Gram - negative bacteria is presented as the main pathogenic bacteria in hospitalized patients with pulmonary infection in neurosurgery department, and

  9. 医院感染细菌的临床分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and antibiotic resistance analysis on bacteria of nosocomial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈映; 乔岩; 赵燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance of hospitalized infection bacteria in clinical departments and specimens. Methods French biology-bioMerieux ATB bacterial identification system, susceptibility detection instrument and supporting microbial detection reagent were applied for bacterial identification and susceptibility testing. The distribution of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance data from January 2011 to December 2011 were analyzed, respectively. Results Among 455 bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus were the seven major infection bacteria, accounting for 68. 13% of the total detected bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) and Staphylococcus epidermidis ( MRSE ) were with 46. 43% and 75. 68% detection, no vancomycin-resistant and teicoplain-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were detected. There were 38 cases with multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria with positive rate as 8. 35% . There was 37. 93% ( 11/29 ) Acinetobacter baumannii detected as pan-resistant bacteria. The sources of bacterial were mainly from respiratory medicine and intensive care unit ( ICU ). Sputum samples had the highest positive bacteria with 178 ( 39. 12% ). Conslusions That conducting regular surveillance of antibiotic resistance could help analyze changes of antibiotic resistant of hospital bacteria, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical experience of drug use.%目的 了解医院感染细菌在临床科室和标本中的分布及耐药情况.方法 回顾性分析2011年1月~2011年12月本院感染菌的分布及耐药情况.使用法国生物-梅里埃ATB细菌鉴定系统,应用药敏测试仪及配套微生物检测试剂进行细菌鉴定和药敏试验.结果 本研究分离的455株感染菌中,大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、白假丝酵母菌、表皮葡萄球菌、

  10. Distribution of infecting bacteria and an analysis of drug resistance after abdominal surgery in children%小儿腹部伤口术后感染细菌分布及耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于琳琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:对小儿腹部伤口术后感染细菌分布以及耐药情况进行分析探讨,为今后的临床检验工作提供可靠的理论依据。方法:抽取2012年6月-2014年6月我院收治的小儿腹部伤口感染患者1022例,对其术后感染引流物病原菌进行培养、分离、鉴定,并展开药敏试验,统计分析试验结果。结果:在1022例感染患儿中,腹部外科病原菌分离率依次为铜绿假单胞菌、大肠埃希菌、克雷伯菌属,除此之外还包括革兰阳性需氧菌、厌氧菌、变形梭杆菌等,药敏结果证实,革兰阴性需氧菌对亚胺培南的敏感性较高,对氨苄西林的耐药率较高。结论:小儿腹部伤口术后感染病原菌分布较广,对抗生素存在明显的耐药现象,临床应对其给予重视,积极采取有效手段进行干预,减少耐药的发生。coli, klebsiella, gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fusobacterius varium. Drug allergy test conifrmed the higher susceptibility of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to imipenem, and higher resistance rate to ampicillin. Conclusion: Infecting bacteria are widespread and signiifcantly resist to antibiotic. In clinic, the phenomenon should be paid more attention.%Objective: To analyze distribution of infecting bacteria and on analysis of drug resistance after abdominal surgery in children, in order to provide a reliable theoretical basis for future clinical inspection. Methods: Pathogenic bacteria of drain in 1022 cases were cultured, separated, identiifed and tested by drug allergy. Results: Pathogens can be divided into pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, klebsiella, gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fusobacterius varium. Drug allergy test confirmed the higher susceptibility of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to imipenem, and higher resistance rate to ampicillin. Conclusion: Infecting bacteria are widespread and significantly resist to antibiotic. In clinic, the

  11. Distribution and Resistance Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection in ICU%ICU导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊; 郑瑞强; 林华; 卢年芳; 於江泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective :To explore the distribution and resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing catheter associated uri-nary tract infection in ICU so as to guide the clinical rational use of antibiotics .Methods :Urine culture and its drug sus-ceptibility results of patients who were diagnosed catheter associated urinary tract infection were analyzed retrospective-ly from July 2009 to June 2013 in ICU of Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province .Results:226 strains of pathogenic bacteria was detected from 4558 urine specimens ,of which 138 strains of gram-negative bacteria (61 .06% ) ,57 strains of gram-positive bacteria(25 .22% ) ,31 fungi strains(13 .72% ) .Top five of pathogenic bacteria was followed by acine-tobacter baumannii ,pneumonia klebsiella ,Escherichia coli ,Enterococcus faecalis ,candida albicans .Resistance of acine-tobacter baumannii in most drug was >50% .Under 50% of the resistance was just cefoperazone/sulbactam ,meropen-em ,imipenem/Cilastatin ,SMZ/TMP .Conclusion:Gram-negative bacteria is still the main pathogenic bacteria of catheter associated urinary tract infections in ICU .Acinetobacter baumannii has risen to the first pathogenic bacteria ,and drug resistance is very severe .Rational use of antibiotics and good hand hygiene is very important according to the results of drug susceptibility .%目的:探讨IC U导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原学分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法:回顾性对2009年7月-2013年6月入住我院IC U确诊导尿管相关性尿路感染的患者送检的尿液标本培养及药敏结果进行统计分析。结果:4558份尿标本共检出226株致病菌,其中革兰氏阴性菌138株,占61.06%,革兰氏阳性菌株57株,占25.22%,真菌株31株,占13.72%。排名前五位的病原菌依次是鲍曼不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、大肠埃希菌、粪肠球菌、白色念珠菌。鲍曼不动杆菌对大部分药物耐药性均>50

  12. Modulation of host ROS metabolism is essential for viral infection of a bloom-forming coccolithophore in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Uri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Porat, Ziv; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-07-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga responsible for vast blooms in the ocean. These blooms have immense impact on large biogeochemical cycles and are terminated by a specific large double-stranded DNA E. huxleyi virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae). EhV infection is accompanied by induction of hallmarks of programmed cell death and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we characterized alterations in ROS metabolism and explored its role during infection. Transcriptomic analysis of ROS-related genes predicted an increase in glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 production during infection. In accordance, using biochemical assays and specific fluorescent probes we demonstrated the overproduction of GSH during lytic infection. We also showed that H2O2 production, rather than superoxide, is the predominant ROS during the onset of the lytic phase of infection. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, we showed that the profound co-production of H2O2 and GSH occurred in the same subpopulation of cells but at different subcellular localization. Positively stained cells for GSH and H2O2 were highly infected compared with negatively stained cells. Inhibition of ROS production by application of a peroxidase inhibitor or an H2O2 scavenger inhibited host cell death and reduced viral production. We conclude that viral infection induced remodeling of the host antioxidant network that is essential for a successful viral replication cycle. This study provides insight into viral replication strategy and suggests the use of specific cellular markers to identify and quantify the extent of active viral infection during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean. PMID:26784355

  13. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hughes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus. Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology.

  14. Modulation of the expression of mimivirus-encoded translation-related genes in response to nutrient availability during Acanthamoeba castellanii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSilva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of giant virus genomes is intriguing, especially the presence of genes encoding components of the protein translation machinery such as transfer RNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetases; these features are uncommon among other viruses. Although orthologs of these genes are codified by their hosts, one can hypothesize that having these translation-related genes might represent a gain of fitness during infection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of translation-related genes by mimivirus during infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii under different nutritional conditions. In silico analysis of amino acid usage revealed remarkable differences between the mimivirus isolates and the A. castellanii host. Relative expression analysis by quantitative PCR revealed that mimivirus was able to modulate the expression of eight viral translation-related genes according to the amoebal growth condition, with a higher induction of gene expression under starvation. Some mimivirus isolates presented differences in translation-related gene expression; notably, polymorphisms in the promoter regions correlated with these differences. Two mimivirus isolates did not encode the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase in their genomes, which may be linked with low conservation pressure based on amino acid usage analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that mimivirus can modulate the expression of translation-related genes in response to nutrient availability in the host cell, allowing the mimivirus to adapt to different hosts growing under different nutritional conditions.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni infection increases anxiety-like behavior in the holeboard: possible anatomical substrates for viscerosensory modulation of exploratory behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Goehler, Lisa E.; Park, Su Mi; Opitz, Noel; Lyte, Mark; Gaykema, Ronald P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of certain bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract influences behavior and brain function. For example, challenge with live Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a common food-born pathogen, reduces exploration of open arms of the plus maze, consistent with anxiety-like behavior, and activates brain regions associated with autonomic function, likely via a vagal pathway. As yet, however, little is known regarding the interface of immune sensory signals with brain substrates that mediat...

  16. Study on pathogenic bacteria causing surgical incision infections in patients with anorectal disease%肛肠疾病手术切口感染病原菌的临床调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锡元; 郭景泉; 蒋清平; 邹武军; 程涛; 卢吉英

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析肛肠疾病手术切口感染(SSI)的病原菌特点,并分析了其相关的危险因素,以期为肛肠疾病SSI的预防治疗提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析医院2010年7月-2012年6月因肛肠疾病手术的患者临床资料287例,统计分析肛肠疾病患者SSI的危险因素.结果 287例肛肠疾病手术患者共有59例发生SSI,感染率为20.6%,其中痔疮感染38例感染率为20.4%、肛瘘12例感染率为20.7%、肛裂9例感染率为20.9%,3组之间差异无统计学意义;59例SSI患者中共分离培养出病原菌38株,阳性率为64.4%,其中革兰阴性菌占了81.5%,革兰阳性菌占了13.2%,真菌占了5.3%;革兰阴性菌主要以大肠埃希菌、变形菌属、克雷伯菌属和肠杆菌属为主,分别占了42.1%、15.8%、10.5%和7.9%,革兰阳性菌以肠球菌属和表皮葡萄球菌为主,分别占了7.9和5.3%;单因素x2检验显示,年龄>40岁、手术时间>100min,体重指数(BMI)≥25的患者具有较高的SSI发生率(P<0.05).结论 肛肠疾病术后具有高的SSI发生率,感染的病原菌主要是革兰阴性菌,患者的年龄、手术时间和BMI是其SSI发生的高危因素,积极采取相应的预防措施有利于降低肛肠疾病SSI的发生.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristics of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical incision infections in the patients with anorectal disease and to explore the related risk factors so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention of surgical incision infections. METHODS The clinical data of 287 patients with anorectal diseases who underwent surgery from Jul 2010 to Jun 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and the risk factors of surgical incision infections in the patients were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Of totally 287 cases of patients investigated, the surgical incision infections occurred in 59 cases with the infection rate of 20. 6% , among which there were 37 (20. 4%)cases with hemorrhoids

  17. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Monali P.; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's di...

  19. Real-time PCR detection of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers fed soybean oligosaccharides and soluble soybean polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Y.; Xun, S.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Erdi, G.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test whether dietary soybean meal oligosaccharides (SMO) and water-soluble polysaccharides (SMP) can assist broiler chickens in resisting Eimeria tenella, and to determine the survival of lactic acid bacteria in cecal contents postinfection. All birds received a soyb

  20. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter.

  1. 临终期肿瘤患者120例肺部感染病原菌分析%Clinical study and analysis of pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection in patients with terminal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾斌; 景建军; 尹挺立; 张云江; 李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze of pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection in patients with terminal cancer.Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed including the general cultivation of pathogenic bac-teria in sputum and the results of drug sensitivity of hospitalization of patients with lung cancer from July 2013 to May 2014.Results 132 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured from120 cases of patients with pulmonary infection, including gram-negative bacilli accounted for the vast majority of 27.3%,accounted for 59.8% of Gram-positive coc-ci,Ranked in the top 5 pathogenic bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae,there arevarying degrees of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in bacteria.Conclusion Selecting and using the antimicrobial agents according to the results of pathogen detection in patients,could improve the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and reduce bacterial resistance.%目的:对临终期肿瘤患者肺部感染行病原学分析。方法对川北医学院附属三台县人民医院2013年7月至2014年5月间住院肺癌患者药物敏感性试验结果进行统计分析,并对其防治作初步探讨。结果120例患者合并肺部感染患者共培养致病菌132株,其中革兰阴性菌占27.3%;革兰阳性菌占59.8%;排在前5位的致病菌分别是链球菌、肺炎双球菌、葡萄球菌、白色念球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,检出的细菌中对常用的抗生素存在不同程度的耐药性。结论根据患者的病原学检测结果指导抗菌药物的选择和使用,提高抗菌药物的治疗有效性,减少细菌耐药性。

  2. An Analysis of the Detection Rate and Drug Resistance of Infection with Pathogenic bacteria in ICU%ICU感染病原菌的检出率及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永茂

    2013-01-01

    目的:回顾性的分析某医院重症监护室(ICU)2012年1月1日至2012年12月31日之间感染病原菌的分布及其耐药情况。方法:用VITET-2Compact60全自动微生物分析仪鉴定细菌,K-B纸片扩散法做体外药敏试验,统计、分析细菌的检出率和药敏结果。结果:799份ICU标本,医院感染分离菌株249株,检出率31.16%。首位是洋葱伯克霍尔德菌(60株,24.10%),其次鲍曼不动杆菌(55株,22.09%),第三是肺炎克雷伯菌(39株,15.66%)。分离菌中标本来源痰和咽拭子最常见,其次静脉血、静脉导管。洋葱假单胞、鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、人葡萄球菌及金黄色葡萄球菌对多种抗菌药物均具有较高的耐药性。结论:医院感染病原菌中以非发酵菌的检出率最高,其次是肺炎克雷伯菌并且耐药性强。因此治疗医院感染病原菌所致的感染性疾病应根据体外药敏试验结果选用敏感的抗菌药物,减低耐药率。%Objective: To make a retrospective analysis of the infection pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in hospital intensive care unit (ICU) from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Methods: The identification of bacteria and susceptibility test were performed by using automatic bioanalysis-VITET-2 Compact 60 and Kirby-Bauer methods;the detection rate and the drug sensitivity results of bacterial were analyzed statistically. Results: 799 ICU specimens, 249 strains of hospital infection isolates, the detection rate of 31.16%. The first three bacteria in these samples were:onion burkholderia bacteria topped (60 strains, 24.10%), acinetobacter baumannii followed(55 cases, 22.09%), klebsiella pneumoniae was the third(39 strains, 15.66%). Isolated bacteria in sputum specimen source and pharyngeal swab the most common, followed by venous blood and venous catheter. Onion false unit cell, acinetobacter baumannii

  3. 医院感染常见革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药性分析%Analysis Clinical Distrbution and Drug Resistance of Gram-negative Bacteria in Nosoconmial Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文祥; 彭吉军; 蒋华; 周旭

    2014-01-01

    目的:以了解医院感染革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药特点,为临床抗菌药物的应用提供依据。方法对2010年~2012年我院常见的医院感染革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果在医院感染细菌前5位的革兰阴性菌为大肠埃氏菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、铜绿假单胞菌、鲍氏不动杆菌、奇异变形杆菌、其次是产气肠杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌、食麦芽假单胞菌。细菌均呈现多耐药趋势,临床常用的第一、二、三代头孢菌素类、单环内酰胺类、头霉素类、部分β-内酰胺酶抑制剂由于细菌产ESBLs及AmpC而发生耐药,第四代头孢吡肟耐药率也达50%~60%,耐碳青霉烯类鲍氏不动杆菌由于碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的使用强度增加而显著增加,我院美罗培南、亚胺培南耐药率逐年明显上升已接近60%。而氨基糖苷类中的阿米卡星除鲍曼氏不动杆菌外由于近期少用使敏感性有所提高。结论分析医院感染常见感染细菌分布及耐药性,对指导临床合理应用抗菌药物及预防和控制耐药菌在医院内传播有着重要意义。%Objective To investigate the clinical distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections and to proved the reference for reasonable use of the antibiotics.Methods The clinical distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections from 2010 to 2012 were analysis by the means of retrospective survey.Results The top ifve were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Proteus mirabilis. The behind three were Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterbacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections were multidrug resistance to antibiotics. The 1, 2, 3 generation of cephalosporin, single ring lactam, Cephamycins antibiotics and part β-lactamase inhibitor were resistance to

  4. The distribution of bacteria infected by urinary tract in adolescent patients and the analysis of drug resistance ability%青少年尿路感染细菌分布以及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究近一年来深圳光明新区尿路感染青少年患者细菌分布情况和耐药情况。方法将2014年7月到2015年7月就诊光明新区医院的18~20岁尿路感染患者44例作为研究对象,收集中段尿分离培养细菌共得1382株菌落,分析尿路感染细菌的种类、分布和通过药敏试验分析耐药性。结果革兰氏阳性菌20.12%,真菌3.04%,革兰氏阴性菌76.85%;屎肠球菌37.41%,近平滑假丝酵母菌38.10%,大肠埃希菌50.47%。金黄色葡萄球菌对环丙沙星耐药性最强,屎肠球菌耐药性最强的为左氧氟沙星,粪肠球菌耐药性最强的为克林霉素,大肠埃希菌耐药性最强的为头孢曲松,铜绿假单胞菌耐药性最强的为氨曲南,肺炎克雷伯菌耐药性最强的为头孢曲松,柠檬酸杆菌耐药性最强的为环丙沙星。结论对于18~20的青少年岁的尿路感染患者,革兰氏阴性菌尤其是大肠埃希菌为主产生耐药性较为广泛。%Objective To investigate the bacterial distribution and drug resistance of urinary tract infection in adolescent patients. Methods From July 2014 to July 2015, 44 patients (aged between 18 and 20) with urinary tract infections were assigned as research subjects. Urine specimen were collected in the middle of urination for urine culture. A total of 1382 isolated bacterial colonies were found. The kinds of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infection,bacterial distribution,antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant strains were analyzed. Results The causative organisms included gram-positive bacteria 20.12%, 3.04% fungi, Gram-negative bacteria 76.85%. Most of the bacteria were E.faecium and E.faecalis in the detected gram-positive bacteria (76.91%), E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the detected gram-negative bacteria (73.54%),Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans in the detected fungi. Staphylococcus aureus was the highest resistant to Ciprofloxacin, and E.faecium was

  5. Drug susceptibility of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing nosocomial infections%医院感染多药耐药菌的临床调查与药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟青; 张一兵; 刘阳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of multiple drug resistant bacteria causing nosocomial infections so as to raise the level of infection prevention and guide clinical rational administration. METHODS The specimens of nosocomial infection were isolated routinely from Jan to Jul 2011} the identification of bacteria and drug susceptibility testing were finished by VITEK2 automatic microbial analyzer. RESULTS A total of 230 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, including 129 (56.1%) multidrug-resistant bacteria. The isolation rate of gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria was 4. 8%, Stuphylococcus aureus accounted for 0. 9% and Enlerococci accounted for 3. 9% ; the isolation rate of gram-negative multidrug resistant bacteria was 45. 0% , Escherichia coli accounted for 16. 9%, KUbsiella pneumoniae accounted for 13.0%. CONCLUSION The distribution of multiple resistant bacteria isolated in our hospital is partly different from the target strains reported by the Ministry of Health, which indicates that the antibiotics should be used reasonably on the basis of the species of the pathogens isolated, drug resistance as well as the drug susceptibility testing.%目的 了解医院感染多药耐药菌的分布及耐药性,提高预防感染水平,指导临床合理使用抗菌药物.方法 对2011年1-7月临床标本按常规进行病原菌分离,采用VITEK IMS全自动细菌鉴定与药敏分析仪,对病原菌进行鉴定.结果 共检出病原菌230株,其中多药耐药菌129株,检出率为56.1%;革兰阳性多药耐药菌检出率为4.8%,主要为金黄色葡萄球菌占0,9%,屎肠球菌占3.9%;革兰阴性多药耐药菌检出率为45.0%,主要为大肠埃希菌占16,9%、肺炎克雷伯菌占13.0%.结论 医院分离的多药耐药菌分布与卫生部公布的主要多药耐药目标菌有一定差异,提示临床医师在使用抗菌药物时应根据病原菌的分离株种类、耐药性特点及药敏试验,合理选用抗菌药物.

  6. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Strong

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 10(2.55TCID50/ml, group B 10(5.25TCID50/ml and group C 10(6.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D was inoculated with a medium dose (10(5.25TCID50/ml and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds.

  7. Liver accumulation of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected red blood cells and modulation of regulatory T cell and dendritic cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M Medeiros

    Full Text Available It is postulated that accumulation of malaria-infected Red Blood Cells (iRBCs in the liver could be a parasitic escape mechanism against full destruction by the host immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the in vivo mechanism of this accumulation and its potential immunological consequences. A massive liver accumulation of P. c. chabaudi AS-iRBCs (Pc-iRBCs was observed by intravital microscopy along with an over expression of ICAM-1 on day 7 of the infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Phenotypic changes were also observed in regulatory T cells (Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs that were isolated from infected livers, which indicate a functional role for Tregs in the regulation of the liver inflammatory immune response. In fact, the suppressive function of liver-Tregs was in vitro tested, which demonstrated the capacity of these cells to suppress naive T cell activation to the same extent as that observed for spleen-Tregs. On the other hand, it is already known that CD4+ T cells isolated from spleens of protozoan parasite-infected mice are refractory to proliferate in vivo. In our experiments, we observed a similar lack of in vitro proliferative capacity in liver CD4+ T cells that were isolated on day 7 of infection. It is also known that nitric oxide and IL-10 are partially involved in acute phase immunosuppression; we found high expression levels of IL-10 and iNOS mRNA in day 7-infected livers, which indicates a possible role for these molecules in the observed immune suppression. Taken together, these results indicate that malaria parasite accumulation within the liver could be an escape mechanism to avoid sterile immunity sponsored by a tolerogenic environment.

  8. TLR2-Modulating Lipoproteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Enhance the HIV Infectivity of CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Skerry

    Full Text Available Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins, which are absent in M. smegmatis. M. tuberculosis production of mature lipoproteins and TLR2 stimulation is dependent on cleavage by lipoprotein signal peptidase A (LspA. In order to determine the role of potential TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins on mycobacterial-mediated HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells, we generated M. smegmatis recombinant strains overexpressing genes encoding various M. bovis BCG lipoproteins, as well as a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain deficient in LspA (ΔlspA. Exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to M. smegmatis strains overexpressing the BCG lipoproteins, LprF (p<0.01, LprH (p<0.05, LprI (p<0.05, LprP (p<0.001, LprQ (p<0.005, MPT83 (p<0.005, or PhoS1 (p<0.05, resulted in increased HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells isolated from these PBMC. Conversely, infection of PBMC with ΔlspA reduced HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells by 40% relative to BCG-infected cells (p<0.05. These results may have important implications for TB vaccination programs in areas with high mother-to-child HIV transmission.

  9. Investigation of pathogenic bacteria causing burn wound infection and analysis of drug-resistance%烧伤创面感染病原菌调查及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红升

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and drug resistance of bacteria causing burn wound infection. Methods Results of culture and drug susceptibility of bacteria causing burn wound infection were retrospectively analyzed. Results The isolation rates of Gram negative bacilli,Gram positive coccus and fungi were 82. 3%,17. 7% and 0. 0%. In pathogenic Staphylococcus au reus,the isolation rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 80. 0%. Isolation rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Esche richia Coli and Proteus mirabilis were 33. 1% ,15. 3% and 11. 3%. No imipenem resistant Enterobacter was found. No vancomycin and linezolid resistant Staphylococcus was found. Conclusion Gram negative bacilli might be the main pathogenic bacteria causing burn wound infection, folio wed by Gram positive coccus. Drug resistance might be raising. Imipenem could be the first chosen anti biotic to treat Gram negative bacilli inifection. Vancomycin and linezolid could be the first chosen antibiotic to treat Gram positive coccus infection.%目的 探讨烧伤创面感染菌分布及耐药性情况,为临床用药提供参考.方法 对烧伤创面细菌培养及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 革兰阴性杆菌占82.3%,革兰阳性球菌占17.7%,未检出真菌.铜绿假单胞菌占33.1%,大肠埃希菌占15.3%,奇异变形杆菌占11.3%;金黄色葡萄球菌占8.1%.其中大肠埃希菌ESBLs分离率为57.9%,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的分离率为80.0%,亚胺硫霉素对肠杆菌无一例耐药,万古霉素、利奈唑胺对葡萄球菌无一例耐药.结论 该院烧伤病房感染菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,革兰阳性球菌次之.耐药率增加的问题不容忽视.亚胺硫霉素应作为抗革兰阴性杆菌和革兰阳性球菌的首选药物,万古霉素和利奈唑胺作为抗革兰阳性球菌首选药物.

  10. Bacteria- and IMD pathway-independent immune defenses against Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Blumberg

    Full Text Available The mosquito Anopheles gambiae uses its innate immune system to control bacterial and Plasmodium infection of its midgut tissue. The activation of potent IMD pathway-mediated anti-Plasmodium falciparum defenses is dependent on the presence of the midgut microbiota, which activate this defense system upon parasite infection through a peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRPLC. We employed transcriptomic and reverse genetic analyses to compare the P. falciparum infection-responsive transcriptomes of septic and aseptic mosquitoes and to determine whether bacteria-independent anti-Plasmodium defenses exist. Antibiotic treated aseptic mosquitoes mounted molecular immune responses representing a variety of immune functions upon P. falciparum infection. Among other immune factors, our analysis uncovered a serine protease inhibitor (SRPN7 and Clip-domain serine protease (CLIPC2 that were transcriptionally induced in the midgut upon P. falciparum infection, independent of bacteria. We also showed that SRPN7 negatively and CLIPC2 positively regulate the anti-Plasmodium defense, independently of the midgut-associated bacteria. Co-silencing assays suggested that these two genes may function together in a signaling cascade. Neither gene was regulated, nor modulated, by infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, suggesting that SRPN7 and CLIPC2 are components of a defense system with preferential activity towards P. falciparum. Further analysis using RNA interference determined that these genes do not regulate the anti-Plasmodium defense mediated by the IMD pathway, and both factors act as agonists of the endogenous midgut microbiota, further demonstrating the lack of functional relatedness between these genes and the bacteria-dependent activation of the IMD pathway. This is the first study confirming the existence of a bacteria-independent, anti-P. falciparum defense. Further exploration of this anti-Plasmodium defense will help clarify

  11. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in ICU in 2010-2011%2010-2011年ICU下呼吸道医院感染病原菌分布及耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伏喜; 李学文; 赵水娣; 高天明; 张扬; 冯旰珠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重症医学科下呼吸道医院感染病原菌的分布及其耐药性,为指导临床科室尤其是重症医学科下呼吸道医院感染控制提供依据.方法 回顾性分析ICU住院患者痰标本细菌培养及药敏结果,对采集的合格痰标本采用VTTEK-2 Compact全自动细菌分析仪进行细菌鉴定,采用K-B纸片法进行药敏试验,按CLSI 2010年的标准判断.结果 共555株病原菌中革兰阴性菌、革兰阳性菌、真菌分别占67.6%、18.7%、13.7%;革兰阴性菌中以铜绿假单胞菌、鲍氏不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、褪色沙雷菌多见,分别占17.3%、11.9%、10.3%、6.1%;革兰阳性菌以金黄色葡萄球菌为主,占8.6%;真菌以白色假丝酵母菌为主,占10.5%;主要革兰阴性菌呈多药耐药或泛耐药,主要革兰阳性菌多为MRSA或MRSCN;革兰阳性球菌对万古霉素、喹奴普汀/达福普汀、替考拉宁及夫西地酸耐药率较低.结论 ICU住院患者下呼吸道医院感染的病原菌以非发酵菌、肠杆菌科细菌、MRSA及MRSCN多见,且菌株耐药现象严重,应加强对ICU患者下呼吸道医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性的监测.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in intensive care unit ( ICU) , and provide evidence for the control of lower respiratory tract infections in the clinical departments,especially the ICU. METHODS The results of the bacterial culture of sputum specimens and the drug susceptibility testing were analyzed retrospectively VTTEK-2 Compacl automatic bacteria analyzer was employed to identify the bacteria isolated from the qualified sputum specimens, and the dray susceptibility tesing was performed by K-B methoclg, the result was judged according to CLSI 2010. RESULTS A total of 555 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, including the gram-negative bacteria (67. 6%) , gram-positive bacteria(18

  12. 不同致病菌所致脓毒症患者低磷血症的临床研究%A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 曲彦; 黄建波

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较脓毒症组与非脓毒症组患者,并将脓毒症组进行亚组分析,探讨低磷血症的影响因素.方法 按年份分层随机抽取脓毒症组患者312例与非脓毒症组患者300例,脓毒症组患者中革兰阴性菌(G-菌)感染170例,革兰阳性菌(G+菌)感染142例,均包括4种不同细菌的感染.收集、整理各组患者的血磷值,比较各组间的低血磷发生率、平均血磷浓度和相对危险度(RR).结果 脓毒症组与非脓毒症组比较,低血磷发生率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),RR> 1.2; G-菌感染组与G+菌感染组比较、4种G+菌感染组间比较,低血磷发生率和平均血磷水平均差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),RR> 1.2;4种G-菌感染组间比较,低血磷发生率和平均血磷水平均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),RR<1.2.结论 脓毒症是发生低磷血症的危险因素,尤其是本研究中的4种G-菌以及G+菌中的金黄色葡萄球菌和肠球菌感染,在临床工作中我们应警惕脓毒症患者血磷水平的变化,预防发生严重并发症.%Objective The aim of this study was to compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between within the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.The data were statistically processed to compare the incidence rates of hypophosphatemia,mean serum phosphorus levels and relative risk among groups.Results There was a statistical difference between the sepsis cases and the non-sepsis cases in incidence rate of hypophosphatemia (P < 0.05,and RR > 1.2).There were statistical differences between the cases infected by gram-negative bacteria and the cases

  13. Analysis of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of hospital infection in department of digestion%消化科住院患者医院感染病原菌及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于剑瑞; 王卫明; 牛贺丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析消化科住院患者医院感染病原菌的种类及构成比,并对病原菌的耐药性进行分析,指导消化科医院感染患者的治疗。方法选取2011年6月-2013年6月消化科医院感染患者128例,取患者标本,分离培养病原菌,利用K‐B琼脂法进行耐药性分析。结果消化科住院患者医院感染的发生率为11.80%,感染的部位主要为消化系统感染43例占33.59%、上呼吸道感染25例占19.53%、下呼吸道感染22例占17.19%;28例消化科医院感染患者共分离培养出病原菌130株,其中革兰阳性菌57株占43.85%,革兰阴性菌66株占50.77%,真菌7株占5.38%;消化科医院感染患者的主要革兰阳性菌对乙酰唑胺耐药率为0。结论消化科住院患者医院感染发生率高,且病原菌多为耐药菌感染,临床应选取耐药率低的抗菌药物进行治疗。%OBJECTIVE To study the type and distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of nosocomial infection in department of digestion so as to provide some instruction to the treatment of nosocomial infection in department of digestion .METHODS Totally 128 cases of patients with nosocomial infection in department of digestion were chosen ,and pathogenic bacteria were isolated and cultured .The drug sensitivity tests were conduc‐ted by K‐B test .RESULTS The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection in department of digestion was 11 .8% . The main infection sites were digestive system ,upper respiratory tract ,and lower respiratory tract which accoun‐ted for 33 .59% ,19 .53% ,and 17 .19% ,respectively .Totally 130 strains of pathogens were isolated in the 28 pa‐tients ,in which there were 57 strains (43 .85% ) of gram‐positive bacilli ,66 strains (50 .77% ) of gram‐negative bacilli ,and 7 strains (5 .38% ) of fungi .The resistance rate of gram‐positive bacilli against acetazolamide was 0 . CONCLUSION The prevalence rate of

  14. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Device-associated module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Víctor Daniel; Maki, Dennis George; Mehta, Yatin; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Al-Mousa, Haifaa Hassan; Balkhy, Hanan; Hu, Bijie; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Raka, Lul; Cuellar, Luis E; Ahmed, Altaf; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; El-Kholy, Amani Ali; Kanj, Souha Sami; Bat-Erdene, Ider; Duszynska, Wieslawa; Van Truong, Nguyen; Pazmino, Leonardo N; See-Lum, Lucy Chai; Fernández-Hidalgo, Rosalia; Di-Silvestre, Gabriela; Zand, Farid; Hlinkova, Sona; Belskiy, Vladislav; Al-Rahma, Hussain; Luque-Torres, Marco Tulio; Bayraktar, Nesil; Mitrev, Zan; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Fisher, Dale; Abu-Khader, Ilham Bulos; Berechid, Kamal; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Arnaldo; Horhat, Florin George; Requejo-Pino, Osiel; Hadjieva, Nassya; Ben-Jaballah, Nejla; García-Mayorca, Elías; Kushner-Dávalos, Luis; Pasic, Srdjan; Pedrozo-Ortiz, Luis E; Apostolopoulou, Eleni; Mejía, Nepomuceno; Gamar-Elanbya, May Osman; Jayatilleke, Kushlani; de Lourdes-Dueñas, Miriam; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2007-December 2012 in 503 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 605,310 patients hospitalized in the INICC's ICUs for an aggregate of 3,338,396 days. Although device utilization in the INICC's ICUs was similar to that reported from ICUs in the U.S. in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in the INICC's ICUs, 4.9 per 1,000 central line days, is nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.9 per 1,000 central line days reported from comparable U.S. ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher (16.8 vs 1.1 per 1,000 ventilator days) as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (5.5 vs 1.3 per 1,000 catheter days). Frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (42.8% vs 10%) and imipenem (42.4% vs 26.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (71.2% vs 28.8%) and imipenem (19.6% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC's ICUs compared with the ICUs of the CDC's NHSN.

  15. 外科住院患者医院感染病原菌种类与耐药性分析%Species and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in surgical inpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔双红; 彭玉华; 黄丽燕; 郑菊红

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析外科住院患者医院感染病原菌种类及耐药性,为医师高效预防控制医院感染、合理应用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 调查2012年1月-2014年12月2793例外科住院患者临床资料,筛选出发生医院感染的患者,统计其感染部位等资料;感染病原菌分离与鉴定按细菌检验规范操作,药敏试验采用纸片扩散法,以CLSI每年更新折点确认抗菌药物敏感、中介或耐药,采取WHONET 5.6统计软件进行药敏率分析.结果 3年外科住院患者发生医院感染共268例、331例次,感染率9.6%、例次感染率11.9%;主要感染部位为手术切口、皮肤黏膜、呼吸系统、泌尿系统等;检测出348株病原菌中革兰阴性菌占65.5%、革兰阳性菌占23.8%、真菌占10.7%;除肠杆菌科细菌对碳青霉烯类、革兰阳性菌对糖肽类抗菌药物保持100.0%敏感性外,其他病原菌对抗菌药物表现出多药耐药性,以鲍氏不动杆菌最为突出;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌检出率为46.8%,产ESBLs菌检出率为47.9%.结论 外科住院患者感染病原菌以革兰阴性菌为首,表现出多药耐药性,外科医师应强化感染与规范用药意识,护士应指派专人负责科内流行感染菌的跟踪监控,以保障手术成功率.%OBJECTIVE To analyze species distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pathogenic bacteria , to provide basis for effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections and accurate medication .METHODS RESULTS Medical records of 2793 hospitalized surgical patients from Jan .2012 to Dec .2014 were reviewed . Those inpatients with nosocomial infections were screened .Information including infection sites was statistically summarized .Isolation and identification of infectious bacteria were performed in accordance with standard operat-ing protocol .Drug sensitivity tests were carried out by KB method using updated CLSI breakpoints to determine antibiotic sensitivity ,intermedia or

  16. 地震伤患儿感染创面病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from infected wounds of children after Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉迎春; 敖晓晓; 刘岚; 符宜龙; 庹慧; 许峰

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨地震伤患儿创面感染病原菌的分布和耐药情况.方法 2008年5月13日至6月12日,我院收治汶川地震伤患儿98例,对其临床诊断为创面感染的50例进行了创面分泌物分离培养,并就病原菌和耐药情况进行回顾性分析.结果 在50例临床诊断为创面感染的患儿中,有31例创而分离培养出病原菌,阳性率62.0%;其中21例为混合感染,占67.7%.共分离培养出病原菌99株,革兰阳性菌16株(16.16%),革兰阴性菌81株(81.82%),真菌2株(2.02%).革兰阳性菌以金黄色葡萄球菌5株(5.05%)、粪肠球菌3株(3.03%)、屎肠球菌2株(2.02%)为主,革兰阴性菌中以鲍曼不动杆菌27株(27.27%)、阴沟肠杆菌18株(18.18%)、铜绿假单胞菌13株(13.13%)为主.鲍曼不动杆菌居检出病菌的首位,患儿的被困时间和并发症情况与感染该菌有明显相关性.药敏结果显示病原菌对常用抗生素耐药较为严重.1株鲍曼复合醋酸钙不动杆菌和6株鲍曼不动杆菌对包括泰能在内的所有常用抗生素耐药.革兰阳性菌对万古霉素仍敏感.结论 地震伤患儿创面感染病原菌有所变化,以往分离率低的鲍曼不动杆菌反而成为主要的感染菌,产酶菌株多,细菌耐药率高,治疗困难.了解患儿创面感染病原菌的分布和耐药性情况,可指导临床合理用药,提高抢救成功率.%Objective To investigate the distribution and the drug resistance pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from pediatric cases suffering from wounds infection following the Wenchuan earthquake. Methods Of the ninety-eight injured children, 50 had wound infection diagnosed by clinical examination. Specimens for culture were collected from the fifty injured children and the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic resistance were retrospectively reviewed. Results In the fifty injured children with wound infection, microbial growth was detected in 31 (62.0%) and 21 children suffered from mixed

  17. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  18. Related factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and prevention and treatment measures%多药耐药菌感染相关因素分析及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯广华; 孟宪刚; 孙雪春

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the related factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in respiratory de-partment and explore the prevention measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria infections so as to prevent the multi-drug-resistant bacteria infections .METHODS Totally 74 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria infections ,who were treated in the respiratory department from Mar 2012 to Feb 2013 ,were enrolled in the study ,then the rou-tine sputum culture and the drug susceptibility testing were performed ,the drug susceptibility testing was per-formed with the use of MIC method ,the isolated bacteria were screened out by using VITEK-2 Compact automatic bacterial analyzer of BioMérieux ,France and the drug susceptibility plate ,and the result of the drug susceptibility testing was interpreted according to the standards of NCCLS .RESULTS A total of 78 strains of multidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated ,among which the Escherichia coli ,Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Pseudomonas aerugi-nosa ,Staphylococcus aureus ,and Acinetobacter baumannii ranked the top five species ,accounting for 25 .64% , 15 .38% ,14 .10% ,12 .82% ,and 10 .26% ,respectively .The main gram-positive bacteria remained high antibacte-rial activity against vancomycin and linezolid ,with the drug resistance rates of 0 ;the main gram-negative bacteria remained high antibacterial activity against imipenem and amikacin ,with the drug resistance rate varying from 0 to 37 .5% ,and the strains varied in the drug resistance to other antibiotics .CONCLUSION It is necessary to strength-en the targeted detection of the multidrug-resistant bacteria ,with the detection in a timely manner ,diagnosis in a early stage ;once the drug-resistant strains emerge ,it is necessary to choose sensitive antibiotics based on the re-sult of drug susceptibility testing ,strictly implement the hand hygiene ,and take disinfection and isolation meas-ures in a timely manner so as to effectively avoid the spread of

  19. 尿路感染病原菌的分布及药物敏感分析%Distribution on etiological bacteria and drug sensitivity analysis in urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖观清; 孔耀中; 李导; 陈斌鸿; 叶佩仪; 邵咏红; 陈统清

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of etiological bacteria for urinary tract infection in the region and analyse drug sensitivity, and to provide a scientific basis for the correct and rational using antimicrobial drugs in clinical. METHODS Accordance with procedures of national clinical laboratory, we used the French company bioMerieux VITEK-32 identified strains of bacteria identification instrument to identify 966 of urinary tract infection pathogens which isolated from clinical urine samples. RESULTS 49 species were in the separation of 966 pathogens, and 675 gram-negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%; 183 gram-positive bacteria accounted for 18.9%; 108 fungi accounted far 11.2%; Escherichia coli bacteria was the main in the gram-negative bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria mainly belonged to Enterococcus faecalis! Candida albicans bacteria was the main in the fungi; Separation of the first seven bacteria were Escherichia coli (49.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.6%), Kleb-siella pneumoniae (7.0%), Candida albicans (6.8%), Proteus mirabilis (3.9%), Pseudomonas aerugiaosa (3.3%), Staphy-lococcus epidermidis (3.0%). The detection rate of ESBLs producing by Escherichia cob' was 47.3%, and 33.8% by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The detection rate of oxacillin-resistant coagulase -negative staphylococci was 37.5%, and the detection rate of MRSA was 50.0%. The sensitivity of escherichia coli on cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem was good (70.6%-100%). CONCLUSION The pathogens of causing urinary tract infection are widely distributed, and escherichia coli are the major pathogens of urinary tract infection in the region. Clinicians should pay attention to bacteriological culture, combined with the drug susceptibility testing and drug-resistant strains of the special report, rational use of antibiotics to reduce drug—resistant strains and an outbreak of hospital infection.%目的 了解泌尿系感染的病原菌分布及药物敏感性,为

  20. 口腔颌面部间隙感染患者常见菌群分布和药敏分析%The distribution of general p athogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility of patients with oral and maxillofacial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧荣; 石磊; 路兴华; 雷玲利

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of general pathogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility of patient with oral and maxillofacial infections,which would provide evidence for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods:160 patients with oral and maxillofacial infections were chosen from Feb, 2014 to Feb,2015. The stains from each patient were cultured and identified respectively. The Bact-IST system was used to identify the bacterial flora, and KB method was used to test the drug susceptibility, as well as WHONET5.6 software was used to analyze the data. Results: 207 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 160 patients. which including 115 strains of gram-postive(55.56%), 84 of gram-negative(40.58%), as well as 8 strains of fungi(3.86%). The drug susceptibility test showed that the staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, rifampicin and vancomycin. Staphylococcus epidermidis was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Streptococcus pneumonia had a high susceptibility to vancomycin and imipenem. As well as the prevotella was susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin, imipenem and aztreonam. Conclusion: Gram-positive bacteria are the most common infection pathogen in patients with oral and maxillofacial space infection. Meanwhile anaerobic bacteria are the main detected gram-negative strains. Most pathogenic bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, which suggests should be used more reasonable to prevent drug resistance in clinical treatment antibiotics.%目的:了解口腔颌面部间隙感染患者常见病原菌分布及药物敏感性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供基础依据. 方法:收集2014年2月到2015年2月就诊于甘肃省人民医院的口腔颌面部间隙感染患者160例,取其感染部位脓液标本进行病原菌培养,采用微生物分析系统Bact-IST进行细菌菌群鉴定,K-B法进行药物敏感性测试,数据分析采用WHONET5.6统计软件进行.结果:160份送

  1. A novel functional T cell hybridoma recognizes macrophage cell death induced by bacteria: a possible role for innate lymphocytes in bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Koichi

    2006-06-15

    We have established a novel TCRalphabeta (TCRVbeta6)(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cell hybridoma designated B6HO3. When the B6HO3 cells were cocultured with bacterial-infected J774 macrophage-like cells, IFN-gamma production by B6HO3 cells was triggered through direct cell-cell contact with dying J774 cells infected with Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Shigella flexneri, or Salmonella typhimurium that expressed the type III secretion system, but not with intact J774 cells infected with heat-killed LM, nonhemolytic lysteriolysin O-deficient (Hly(-)) LM, plasmid-cured Shigella, or stationary-phase Salmonella. However, the triggering of B6HO3 cells for IFN-gamma production involved neither dying hepatoma cells infected with LM nor dying J774 cells caused by gliotoxin treatment or freeze thawing. Cycloheximide and Abs to H-2K(d), H-2D(d), Ia(d), CD1d, TCRVbeta6, and IL-12 did not inhibit the contact-dependent IFN-gamma response, indicating that this IFN-gamma response did not require de novo protein synthesis in bacterial-infected J774 cells and was TCR and IL-12 independent. Thus, in an as yet undefined way, B6HO3 hybridoma recognizes a specialized form of macrophage cell death resulting from bacterial infection and consequently produces IFN-gamma. Moreover, contact-dependent interaction of minor subsets of splenic alphabeta T cells, including NKT cells with dying LM-infected J774 and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells, proved to provide an IFN-gamma-productive stimulus for these minor T cell populations, to which the parental T cell of the B6HO3 hybridoma appeared to belong. Unexpectedly, subsets of gammadelta T and NK cells similarly responded to dying LM-infected macrophage cells. These results propose that innate lymphocytes may possess a recognition system sensing macrophage cell "danger" resulting from bacterial infection. PMID:16751404

  2. Role of Leukotrienes on Protozoan and Helminth Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerio, Alexandre P.; Anibal, Fernanda F.

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase-(5-LO-) catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid, are lipid mediators that have potent proinflammatory activities. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of 5-LO biosynthesis in animals is associated with increased mortality and impaired clearance of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. LTs play a role in the control of helminth and protozoan infections by modulating the immune system and/or through direct cytotoxicity to parasites; however, LTs may als...

  3. Primary cultures of female swine genital epithelial cells in vitro: a new approach for the study of hormonal modulation of Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Natalia V; Knight, Stephen T; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2003-08-01

    several weeks can, after thawing, reform characteristic polarized monolayers in 3 to 5 days. Thus, primary swine genital epithelia cultured ex vivo appear to be an excellent cell model for dissecting the hormonal modulation of several aspects of chlamydial pathogenesis and infection. PMID:12874351

  4. HIV-1 infected lymphoid organs upregulate expression and release of the cleaved form of uPAR that modulates chemotaxis and virus expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Nebuloni

    Full Text Available Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR and cleaved (c-suPAR form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1(+ individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of

  5. 口腔颌面部间隙感染患者病原菌分布及药物敏感性分析%DISTRIBUTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF PATIENTS WITH ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL INFECTIONS AND DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡圳; 朱德全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria of patients with oral and max-illofacial infections and drug susceptibility for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics .Methods The distribu-tion of pathogenic bacteria of patients with oral and maxillofacial infections in our hospital from January , 2010 to October ,2013 was retrospectively analyzed .The identification of bacteria and the antibiotic sus-ceptibility detection were performed by VITEK2 analyzor .Results 65 strains of pathogenic bacteria were i-solated from 107 specimens ,including 38 strains of gram-positive bacteria(58 .5% ) and 27 strains of gram-negative bacteria (41 .5% ) . The most common pathogenic bacteria strains were staphylococci aureus , streptococcus pneumoniae and streptococcus ,escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis were all found suscepti-ble to vancomycin ,and klebsiella pneumoniae ,proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli were all susceptible to imipenem .Conclusion Staphylococci aureus ,streptococcus pneumoniae ,klebsiella pneumoniae ,streptococ-cus ,proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli are the predominant species of pathogents ,and it is necessary to rationally use antibiotics based on the drug susceptibility .%目的:探讨口腔颌面部间隙感染中病原菌的分布及药物敏感性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法回顾分析我院2010年1月~2013年10月口腔颌面部间隙感染患者脓液分离菌分布情况,采用VITEK2compact全自动细菌鉴定分析仪配套试剂进行细菌鉴定及药敏试验。结果107例患者送检标本中共检测出病原菌65例,其中革兰阳性菌38例,占58.5%;革兰阴性菌27例,占41.5%。革兰阳性菌中金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎链球菌、草绿色链球菌等均对万古霉素100%敏感。革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形菌和大肠埃希菌均对亚胺培南100%敏感。结论口腔颌面部间隙感染脓液中菌种分布以金黄

  6. Infection Control Full-time Team and Checklist in the Application of ICU in the Control of Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria in Nosocomial Infection%感控专职小组联合查检单在ICU多重耐药菌医院感染控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华; 秦存玲; 刘敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the application effect of a combined checklist for the infection control ful-time team in multidrug-resistant bacteria infection management.Methods To establish a multidrug-resistant bacteria infection control ful-time team, and introduce the quality management tool of “checklist” to intervene the hospital patients being infected with ICU MDRO.ResultsThe compliance rate and various indexes by taking prevention and control measures for the interfered group were improved(P<0.05),and the length of stay in ICU was shorter than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The combined checklist for the infection control ful-time team can promote compliance of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infection control and isolation measures, effectively improve various indexes for hospital infection management quality control of MDRO, and shorten the length of stay in ICU.%目的:了解感控专职小组联合查检单在多重耐药菌感染管理中应用的效果。方法成立多重耐药菌感控专职小组,引用“查检单”质量管理工具对ICU MDRO感染的住院患者进行干预。结果干预组防控措施依从率及各项指标均有改善(P<0.05);ICU住院时间也低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论感控专职小组联合查检单能提高多重耐药菌感染控制隔离措施依从性,有效改善MDRO医院感染管理质量控制的各项指标;缩短ICU住院时间。

  7. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Sensitivity Test Analysis of Children with Urinary Tract Infection%小儿尿路感染的病原微生物分布及其药物敏感性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug sensitivity of common antibiotics in children with urinary tract infection. Methods 132 cases of children with urinary tract infection were selected,the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, and the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity test were discussed. Results 141 strains were cultured in 132 cases of patients with urinary tract infection. In all strains of gram negative bacteria,the gram negative bacteria accounted for the highest propor-tion of 85. 11%,in the gram negative bacteria,the top 3 strains were Escherichia coli,Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae,the proportions were 68. 79%,6. 38% and 4. 96%;gram positive bacteria were 19 strains,accounting for 13. 48%,the top two strains were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium ,the proportions were 7. 09% and 4. 26%;while in the bacterial culture of urine , 2 strains of fungi were cultured,accounting for 1. 42%;the preferred Cefoperazone + Sulbactam for treatment of gram negative bacteria infection,for the more serious illness in children,which should make application of imipenem for treatment as soon as possible;the pre-ferred Amoxicillin + Potassium Clavulanate for treatment of gram positive infections,Meropenem and Vancomycin were only used in children with critical illness infection. Conclusion Escherichia coli is the main pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to the occur-rence of urinary tract infection in children,and the observation of drug sensitivity test can be an instruction to clinical drug choice.%目的:探讨小儿尿路感染的病原微生物分布及常见抗菌药物的药物敏感性(简称药敏)试验。方法回顾性分析医院儿科收治的132例尿路感染患儿的临床资料,探讨其病原微生物分布情况及抗菌药物药敏试验情况。结果132例患儿尿液共培养出141株菌株,其中,革兰阴性菌占比最高(85.11%),排前3位的

  8. Bacteria Experiment May Point Way to Slow Zika's Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158661.html Bacteria Experiment May Point Way to Slow Zika's Spread Infecting ... 4, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Experiments in mosquitoes suggest that bacteria may help curb ...

  9. Qualitative Immune Modulation by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Adjuvant Therapy in Immunological Non Responder HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sabbatini; Alessandra Bandera; Giulio Ferrario; Daria Trabattoni; Giulia Marchetti; Fabio Franzetti; Mario Clerici; Andrea Gori

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV-infected patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces significant increases in CD4 T cell counts; however an associated qualitative improvement in cells function has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. By measuring mycobacterial killing activity, we evaluated IL-2-mediated functional immune enhancement ex vivo in immunological non-responders (INRs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: PBMC from 12 immunological non-responders (INRs) (CD4+

  10. Modulation of gene expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes following in vitro HIV infection: a comparison between human and chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant-Lubrano, Bénédicte; Apoil, Pol-André; Gleizes, Arnaud; Forestier, Lionel; Julien, Raymond; Winterton, Peter; Pasquier, Christophe; Izopet, Jacques; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to experimental infection by human deficiency virus (HIV)-1, but unlike humans, they exceptionally develop an immunodeficiency syndrome after HIV-1 inoculation. To explore the difference between human and chimpanzee, we analyzed the expression of 1547 genes of various functions in human or chimpanzee CD4+ lymphoblasts inoculated in vitro with HIV-1. We observed that, 1 day after HIV inoculation, fifty-eight genes were up-regulated in lymphoblasts of the three human...

  11. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo; Ana Laura Rodríguez-Morales; Fidel Orlando Buendía-González; Margarita Aguilar-Sánchez; Jorge Morales-Montor; Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower ...

  12. Human management of a wild plant modulates the evolutionary dynamics of a gene determining recessive resistance to virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 p...

  13. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  14. Immune modulation by group B Streptococcus influences host susceptibility to urinary tract infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Schwartz, Drew J; Gilbert, Nicole M; Hultgren, Scott J; Lewis, Amanda L

    2012-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is most often caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC inoculation into the female urinary tract (UT) can occur through physical activities that expose the UT to an inherently polymicrobial periurethral, vaginal, or gastrointestinal flora. We report that a common urogenital inhabitant and opportunistic pathogen, group B Streptococcus (GBS), when present at the time of UPEC exposure, undergoes rapid UPEC-dependent exclusion from the murine urinary tract, yet it influences acute UPEC-host interactions and alters host susceptibility to persistent outcomes of bladder and kidney infection. GBS presence results in increased UPEC titers in the bladder lumen during acute infection and reduced inflammatory responses of murine macrophages to live UPEC or purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phenotypes that require GBS mimicry of host sialic acid residues. Taken together, these studies suggest that despite low titers, the presence of GBS at the time of polymicrobial UT exposure may be an overlooked risk factor for chronic pyelonephritis and recurrent UTI in susceptible groups, even if it is outcompeted and thus absent by the time of diagnosis.

  15. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce infections of ESBL- and AmpC-producing, gram-negative bacteria at a University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2014-01-01

    In response to a considerable increase in the infections caused by ESBL/AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in 2008, a multidisciplinary intervention, with a main focus on antimicrobial stewardship, was carried out at one university hospital. Four other hospitals were used as controls. Stringent...... guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL....... Two year follow-up data on the incidence rates of patients with selected bacterial infections, outcomes, and antibiotic consumption were assessed, employing before-and-after analysis and segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series, using the other hospitals as controls. The intervention...

  16. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance observation of early wound infection in burn patients%烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌分布与耐药性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of early wound infection in burn patients. Methods:300 patients with burn wound infection were selected from July 2009 to July 2014.The infection test results of the patients were analyzed.The athogenic bacteria drug resistance was analyzed.Results:There detected 171 strains of gram negative bacteria,141 strains of gram positive bacteria,6 strains of fungi.The antibacterial drug resistance situation of pseudomonas aeruginosa:the drug resistance rates of imipenem,amikacin,ceftazidime and aztreonam were lower,the drug resistance rates were 10%,27.7%,33.7%,35.4%;the drug resistance rates of ampicillin,ceftriaxone,gentamicin,cefoperazone were higher,the drug resistance rates were 100%,79.2%,69.3%,65.3%.The drug resistance rate for majority antibacterial agents of acinetobacter were high,the drug resistance rates of imipenem,amikacin,netilmicin were lower,they were 0,46.9%,50%.Conclusion:Early burn wound infection gives priority to with pseudomonas aeruginosa,acinetobacter,staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis. Through drug sensitivity test to select the appropriate effective antimicrobial contribute to the prevention and treatment of early burn wound infection.%目的:探讨烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌分布情况与耐药性情况。方法:2009年7月-2014年7月收治烧伤创面感染患者300例,分析患者的感染检测结果;对病原菌耐药性进行分析。结果:检测到革兰阴性菌171株,革兰阳性菌141株,真菌6株。铜绿假单胞菌对抗菌药耐药情况:对亚胺培南、阿米卡星、头孢他啶和氨曲南耐药率较低,耐药率分别为10.0%、27.7%、33.7%、35.4%;对氨苄西林、头孢曲松、庆大霉素、头孢哌酮耐药率较高,分别为100%、79.2%、69.3%、65.3%。不动杆菌属对多数抗菌药物耐药率均高,对亚胺培南、阿米卡星、奈替米星耐药率较低,分别为0、46

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  18. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst;

    such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections......, especially the central role of aggregating bacteria in chronic infections. He has a combined position at University of Copenhagen and Copenhagen University Hospital. Due to this Thomas has both a scientific and applied approach to the role of biofilms in chronic infections. This has also been his approach...

  19. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    , the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  20. Soil moisture modulates the effects of the timing and amount of rainfall on faecal moisture and development of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis to infective third stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadijah, S; Kahn, L P; Walkden-Brown, S W; Bailey, J N; Bowers, S F

    2013-09-23

    Recent experiments on the effects of rainfall and/or soil moisture (SM) on development of sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes to infective L3 stage have used soil of relatively low moisture content in small experimental samples that dry out faster than field soil. To determine whether higher and more sustained SM content modulates the effects of rainfall amount and timing on faecal moisture (FM) and development of H. contortus and T. colubriformis to infective third stage larvae (L3), a climate-controlled chamber experiment was conducted. It was designed to test the effects of rainfall amount (0, 12 and 24 mm), rainfall timing (days -1, 0 and 3 relative to faecal deposition) and soil moisture maintained at 10, 20 and 30% on these variables. Total recovery of L3 14 days after faecal deposition was significantly affected by SM, rainfall timing and their interaction (Pinteractions. Recovery of L3 was maximal (28%) with a SM treatment of 30% and simulated rainfall on day 3. Faecal moisture was significantly affected by collection day, SM treatment, rainfall amount and rainfall timing with significant interaction between many of these effects (P<0.05). A positive linear association between FM and total L3 recovery was strongest on day 4 after faecal deposition (R(2)=0.64, P<0.001) for H. contortus and day 6 (R(2)=0.78, P<0.001) for T. colubriformis. Overall the results show that SM is able to modulate the effects of rainfall timing and amount with increased SM acting to broaden the window of opportunity for the free-living stages to respond to post deposition rainfall to complete development to L3. If SM is maintained in the range 10-30%, the reported benefits of early rainfall (days -1 and 0) of up to 24 mm appear to be negated with later rainfall (day 3) proving more beneficial. These results require field confirmation. PMID:23632251

  1. Investigation and analysis of multiple drug-resistant bacteria infection status in hospital%医院多重耐药菌感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 林仕忠; 张儒文; 陈立坚

    2014-01-01

    制日趋严重的多重耐药菌感染。%Objective:To explore the conditions of multiple resistant bacteria, infecting and provide data for prevention and control measures of hospital infection management. Methods: Information of inpatients who were infected by 1340 strains of multiple drug-resistant bacteria which were separated during January 1,2012 to December 31,2013 were retrospectively analysed.Methods:Information of inpatients who were infected by 1340 strains of multiple drug-resistant bacteria which were separated during January 1,2012 to December 31,2013 were retrospectively analysed.Results:There were 9355 pathogenic bacteria from the inspected 15108 samples, among which multi-drug resistant bacteria were 1341, accounting for 14.33%. Among the latter, 60,18% were Gram staining negative bacilli,and 39.82% were Gram positive bacteria . Major strains are ESBL producing e. coli (386 strains), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus (314 strains), ESBLs producing pneumonia klebsiella bacteria (223 strains), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (219 strains), multiple drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii (137 strains), multiple/generic drug resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa (48 strains), other (14 strains). Detection rate of sputum specimens was on the top, that was 48.70% ; Followed by the middle part of urine specimens, the detection rate was 24.83%.Followed was wound secretion, detection rate is 13.42%. The time distribution of multi-resistant bacteria was 558 in 2012,and 783 in 2013.Nosocomial infection most frequently occurred in neurology surgery department,urology surgery department, respiratory medicine department and urology medicine department,among them,respiratory tract, urinary tract and wound infection is the most common kinds.More than 84% of multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli resist to eight kinds of most frequently used antimicrobial, which are amoxicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime sodium, ampicillin, cephalosporins he

  2. ICU住院患者感染病原菌分布与耐药性监测%DISTRIBUTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA INFECTED BY INPATIENT OF ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪斌; 高敏; 王鲜平; 吕岩; 张娜; 刘敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infection in ICU providing basis of clinic rational drug use. Methods The identification of isolated bacteria and K - B test were used to monitor the specimens from the ICU inpatients of one hospital for the pathogenic bacteria and their drug resistance. Results From July 2011 to July 2012, 1 109 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated; 685 strains were gram - negative and accounted for 61.77% ; 249 strains were fungi, the ratio of that was 22.45% ; 175 strains were gram - positive, which accounted for 15.78%. Conclusion Gram - negative bacilli are the main pathogenic bacteria in ICU, and the rate of drug resistance is high. It is important to enhance local surveillance of bacterial resistance.%目的 了解医院重症监护病房(ICU)住院患者感染病原菌分布及耐药现状,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 通过分离鉴定方法和K-B试验法,对某医院ICU住院患者送检病原学标本进行了病原菌分离鉴定和耐药性监测.结果 2011年7月-2012年7月,从该医院ICU住院患者送检的标本中共分离出病原菌1 109株,其中革兰阴性菌685株,占61.77%;真菌249株,占22.45%;革兰阳性菌175株,占15.78%.结论 该医院ICU住院患者医院感染病原菌以革兰阴性菌占优势,且耐药率高,必须加强耐药菌监测与防范.

  3. 579株泌尿道感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 579 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with a urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蓬波; 杨广民; 侯晓杰; 荣爱红; 孙大勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods Five hundred and seventy-nine strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from u-rine were identified by VITEK 32 from January 2008 to December 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed via a disk diffusion test, and the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria was analyzed with WHONET 5.4, Results Among 579 strains of pathogenic bacteria, the most common was Gram-negative bacilli, the predominant strain of which was Escherichia coli (45.94 %). The predominant strains of Gram-positive bacteria were En-. terococcus faecalis (12.6%) and Enterococcus faecium (15.0%). The rate of ESBL-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia , and Proteus mirabilis was 53. 00% , 36. 00% , and 36. 59%. The antimicrobial resistance of these pathogenic bacteria differed. Resistance to most antibiotics was greater than 50%, although resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam, pip-eracillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin was relatively low. Conclusion The predominant bacteria from UTIs were Gram-negative bacteria, the most common of which was E. coli. Antibiotics should be used based on results of susceptibility testing.%目的 了解泌尿道感染的病原菌分布及其耐药情况.方法 采用VITEK32细菌鉴定系统对2008年1月~2010年12月尿培养分离的579株病原菌进行鉴定,纸片扩散法做药敏试验.结果 579株病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主(404株),优势菌为大肠埃希菌(266株),占45.94%,其次为肺炎克雷伯菌(50株)和奇异变形杆菌(41株);革兰阳性菌(175株)的优势菌为屎肠球菌(87株)和粪肠球菌(73株).产ESBL的大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和奇异变形杆菌的检出率分别为53.00%、36.00%和36.59%.病原菌对各抗生素的耐药率不同,对多数抗生素的耐药率高于50%,

  4. 急性脑血管病患者医院感染病原菌耐药性研究%Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉华; 黄宏耀; 肖小鸿; 姜华; 张莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究急性脑血管病住院患者医院感染的易感部位、病原菌分布及耐药性,为预防控制医院感染提供参考依据。方法选取2012年1月-2014年12月医院收治的2988例急性脑血管病患者临床资料,统计其感染部位、病原菌分布及对抗菌药物的耐药率;药敏检测采用 K-B法,检测数据采用WHONET 5.6软件处理。结果2988例急性脑血管病患者发生医院感染285例、336例次,感染率9.5%、例次感染率11.2%;感染部位以呼吸系统和泌尿系统为主,分别占54.2%和23.2%;送检标本培养出388株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌占64.2%,革兰阳性菌占25.0%,真菌占10.8%;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌检出率为54.2%,耐碳青霉烯类铜绿假单胞菌和鲍氏不动杆菌检出率分别为21.7%和32.6%,产ESBLs菌检出率为51.9%;革兰阴性菌对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率最高,均>65.0%。结论急性脑血管病患者易诱发医院感染,且感染菌耐药性日益加剧,医院应将预防控制感染暴发和阻断耐药菌传播途径作为第一要务,以提高疾病治愈率。%OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing noso-comial infections in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease and provide reference for prevention and control of the infections .METHODS The retrospective review was performed on the clinical data of 2 988 cases of hospitalized patients with acute cerebrovascular disease from Jan .2012 to Dec .2014 .Infected sites ,bacterial distribution and resistance rates were analyzed statistically .Susceptibility testing was carried out by K-B methods .The WHONET 5 .6 software was used to process the data .RESULTS Totally 285 cases (336 case-times) of nosocomial infections were found among 2988 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease .The infection rate was 9 .5% and the case

  5. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in nosocomial infections in patients with gynecological malignant tumor%妇科恶性肿瘤患者医院感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明阳; 陈敏; 向加林; 林振江; 刘颂

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨妇科恶性肿瘤患者术后医院感染的发生,并对病原菌分布及耐药性进行分析。方法选取2011年1月-2015年7月在医院接受手术治疗的妇科恶性肿瘤患者452例,病原菌的定量培养基菌种的鉴定均根据《全国临床检验操作规程》中与临床微生物学检验相关的规则,应用常规操作方法进行;M IC法进行药敏试验。结果452例患者发生医院感染42例,感染率9.29%;医院感染的主要类型为切口和尿路感染,分别占47.62%和28.57%;检出病原菌118株,其中革兰阴性菌占72.04%,以大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌及鲍氏不动杆菌为主,革兰阳性菌占25.42%,以金黄色葡萄菌为主,真菌占2.54%;铜绿假单胞菌及鲍氏不动杆菌对≥3种抗菌药物的耐药率达50.00%;金黄色葡萄菌与表皮葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率均达到100.00%,对利福平及万古霉素的耐药率均为0。结论妇科恶性肿瘤患者术后医院感染的主要类型为切口和尿路感染居多,病原菌主要以革兰阴性菌为主,具有较高的耐药性,在治疗时应根据药敏试验结果合理使用抗菌药物。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the nosocomial infections in patients with gynecologic malignant tumor ,and to analyze the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria .METHODS Totally 452 cases of gynecologic malignancy who underwent surgical treatment during Jan .2011 to Jul .2015 were enrolled .Identi-fication of pathogenic strains in quantitative culture medium was conducted using routine methods according to the national clinical laboratory procedures .The MIC method was used for drug sensitivity test .RESULTS Totally 42 patients among the 452 patients had nosocomial infections ,the infection rate was 9 .29% .The main types of noso-comial infections were wound infections and urinary tract infections accounting for 47 .62% and 28

  6. Common duckweed (Lemna minor is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the Burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan L S Thomson

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R(2 = 0.81 was found between the strains' virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R(2 = 0.93 was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhB(Bc. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial

  7. Effect of multidrug resistance modulators on the activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

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    Molento Marcelo B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites have shown resistance to the anthelmintics, ivermectin and moxidectin, and there is evidence that the over-expression of parasite P-glycoprotein (P-gp may account, at least in part, for resistance to ivermectin. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the multidrug resistance (MDR modulators, verapamil, CL 347.099 (an analog of verapamil and cyclosporin A, would enhance the efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus using an in vitro larval migration assay. The modulators had no effects on the number of migrating larvae when used alone. Ivermectin and moxidectin showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in its efficacy by 52.8 and 58.5% respectively, when used in association with verapamil against a moxidectin-selected strain. CL 347,099 also increased significantly (P<0.05 the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy by 24.2 and 40.0% respectively, against an ivermectin-selected strain and by 40.0 and 75.6% respectively, against an moxidectin-selected strain. At the concentrations tested cyclosporin A showed a variable effect on increasing the efficacy of the anthelmintics against the susceptible and resistant strains.

  8. The cell surface receptor Slamf6 modulates innate immune responses during Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Boaz; Wang, Guoxing; Liao, Gongxian; Halibozek, Peter J; Keszei, Marton; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Bhan, Atul K; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-09-01

    The homophilic cell surface receptors CD150 (Slamf1) and CD352 (Slamf6) are known to modulate adaptive immune responses. Although the Th17 response was enhanced in Slamf6(-/-) C57BL/6 mice upon oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the pathologic consequences are indistinguishable from an infection of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using a reporter-based binding assay, we show that Slamf6 can engage structures on the outer cell membrane of several Gram(-) bacteria. Therefore, we examined whether Slamf6, like Slamf1, is also involved in innate responses to bacteria and regulates peripheral inflammation by assessing the outcome of C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the pathology and immune responses in the lamina propria of C. rodentium-infected Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice were markedly reduced as compared with those of Rag(-/-) mice. Infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes into the lamina propria was consistently lower in Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice than in Rag(-/-) animals. Concomitant with the reduced systemic translocation of the bacteria was an enhanced production of IL-22, suggesting that Slamf6 suppresses a mucosal protective program. Furthermore, administering a mAb (330) that inhibits bacterial interactions with Slamf6 to Rag(-/-) mice ameliorated the infection compared with a control antibody. We conclude that Slamf6-mediated interactions of colonic innate immune cells with specific Gram(-) bacteria reduce mucosal protection and enhance inflammation, contributing to lethal colitis that is caused by C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice.

  9. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  10. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

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    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  11. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Oviedo Meza, Rodrigo; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal) and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal) parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies. PMID:20300584

  12. Patent filarial infection modulates malaria-specific type 1 cytokine responses in an IL-10-dependent manner in a filaria/malaria-coinfected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metenou, Simon; Dembélé, Benoit; Konate, Siaka; Dolo, Housseini; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Diallo, Abdallah A; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Sanogo, Dramane; Doumbia, Salif S; Wagner, Marissa; Traoré, Sekou F; Klion, Amy; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nutman, Thomas B

    2009-07-15

    The effect of filarial infections on malaria-specific immune responses was investigated in Malian villages coendemic for filariasis (Fil) and malaria. Cytokines were measured from plasma and Ag-stimulated whole blood from individuals with Wuchereria bancrofti and/or Mansonella perstans infections (Fil(+); n = 19) and those without evidence of filarial infection (Fil(-); n = 19). Plasma levels of IL-10 (geometric mean [GM], 22.8 vs 10.4) were higher in Fil(+) compared with Fil(-), whereas levels of IFN-inducible protein (IP)-10 were lower in Fil(+) (GM, 66.3 vs 110.0). Fil(+) had higher levels of spontaneously secreted IL-10 (GM, 59.3 vs 6.8 pg/ml) and lower levels of IL-2 (1.0 vs 1.2 pg/ml) than did Fil(-). Although there were no differences in levels of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B-induced cytokines between the two groups, Fil(+) mounted lower IL-12p70 (GM, 1.11 vs 3.83 pg/ml; p = 0.007), IFN-gamma (GM, 5.44 vs 23.41 pg/ml; p = 0.009), and IP-10 (GM, 29.43 vs 281.7 pg/ml; p = 0.007) responses following malaria Ag (MalAg) stimulation compared with Fil(-). In contrast, Fil(+) individuals had a higher MalAg-specific IL-10 response (GM, 7318 pg/ml vs 3029 pg/ml; p = 0.006) compared with those without filarial infection. Neutralizing Ab to IL-10 (but not to TGFbeta) reversed the down-regulated MalAg-specific IFN-gamma and IP-10 (p < 0.001) responses in Fil(+). Together, these data demonstrate that filarial infections modulate the Plasmodium falciparum-specific IL-12p70/IFN-gamma secretion pathways known to play a key role in resistance to malaria and that they do so in an IL-10-dependent manner. PMID:19561105

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of 207 strains of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical nosocomiai infections and intervention measures%外科207株医院感染病原菌的耐药性与干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓燕; 张建菊; 陈慧; 周谦

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To 'study the constituent rate and antimicrobial resistance status of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical nosocomial infections and adopted the intervention measurement to prevent nosocomial infection. METHODS The statistical data were investigated. Based on Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, bacterial culturation and drug sensitivity testing were performed for the secretion from infected wounds. RESULTS Among 207 pathogens causing surgical infection, the isolating rates were as follows: Pseudo-monas aeruginosa (26. 6‰, Slaphylococcus aureus (22.7%), Escherichia coli (16.4%) and Klebsiella pneu-moniae (14. 5%). The drug sensitivity testing results indicated that except for 92. 7% -100. 0% of sensitivity rate of carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative bacilli and 100. 0% of sensitivity rate of glycopeptide antibiotics against S. Aureus, pathogenic bacteria had more serious antimicrobial resistance. CONCLUSION The effective intervention measures should be taken to restrain the increasing tendency of antimicrobial resistance.%目的 了解山区医院外科感染病原菌的构成比及耐药现状,采取干预措施预防医院感染.方法调查外科感染患者病历资料,外科感染性分泌物细菌培养和药敏试验严格按照《全国临床检验操作规程》进行.结果207株外科感染病原菌中,分离率依次为铜绿假单胞菌26.6%、金黄色葡萄球菌22.7%、大肠埃希菌16.4%、肺炎克雷伯菌14.5%;药敏结果显示,除革兰阴性杆菌对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物敏感率为92.7%~100.0%、金黄色葡萄球菌对糖肽类抗菌药物敏感率为100.0%以外,病原菌均产生了较为严重的耐药性.结论 医院应采取切实有效的干预措施,遏制细菌耐药性快速增长的不良趋势.

  14. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

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    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower specific catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in their blood and spleen tissues compared with gonadectomised males. To further study the oxidative stress response in P. berghei ANKA-infected gonadectomised mice, nitric oxide levels were assessed in the blood and spleen, and MDA levels were assessed in the spleen. Intact, sham-operated, and gonadectomised female mice exhibited higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood and spleen compared with male mice. MDA levels were higher in all of the female groups. Finally, gonadectomy significantly increased the oxidative stress levels in females but not in males. These data suggest that differential oxidative stress is influenced by oestrogens that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in malaria.

  15. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

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    Michelle D. Tate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.

  16. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli modulates an ARF6:Rab35 signaling axis to prevent recycling endosome maturation during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, R Christopher D; Slater, Sabrina; Frankel, Gad; Clements, Abigail

    2016-08-28

    Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC) manipulate a plethora of host cell processes to establish infection of the gut mucosa. This manipulation is achieved via the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells using a Type III secretion system. We have previously reported that the conserved EHEC and EPEC effector EspG disrupts recycling endosome function, reducing cell surface levels of host receptors through accumulation of recycling cargo within the host cell. Here we report that EspG interacts specifically with the small GTPases ARF6 and Rab35 during infection. These interactions target EspG to endosomes and prevent Rab35-mediated recycling of cargo to the host cell surface. Furthermore, we show that EspG has no effect on Rab35-mediated uncoating of newly formed endosomes, and instead leads to the formation of enlarged EspG/TfR/Rab11 positive, EEA1/Clathrin negative stalled recycling structures. Thus, this paper provides a molecular framework to explain how EspG disrupts recycling whilst also reporting the first known simultaneous targeting of ARF6 and Rab35 by a bacterial pathogen.

  17. Infection and stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Infection may cause stillbirth by several mechanisms, including direct infection, placental damage, and severe maternal illness. Various organisms have been associated with stillbirth, including many bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In developed countries, between 10% and 25% of stillbirths may be caused by an infection, whereas in developing countries, which have much higher stillbirth rates, the contribution of infection is much greater. In developed countries, ascending bacterial infection...

  18. The relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and lower respiratory tract infection%牙周可疑致病菌与下呼吸道感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽思; 潘亚萍

    2011-01-01

    The biofilm of dental plaque is the initiation factor of periodontitis.It is known to all that there are relationships between periodontitis and many multi-organ or systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, alimentary tract and respiratory tract disease.Recently, people pay close attention to the relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and the respiratory tract disease, and this review will summarize the path and the role of the putative periodontopathic bacteria infecting the lower respiratory tract.%牙菌斑生物膜是牙周炎的始动因子.研究发现,牙周炎与全身多器官或系统的感染性疾病有关,如心脑血管疾病、糖尿病、消化道和呼吸道疾病.近年来,牙周炎与呼吸道疾病之间的关系备受关注,本文将近期对牙周可疑致病菌感染下呼吸道的途径及其作用研究做简要综述.

  19. Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with lower respiratory tract in-fection in ICU%ICU患者下呼吸道感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚旭明; 王盛华; 鞠瑛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in hospital ICU patients with lower respiratory tract infection , and provide scientific reference for clinical rational drug use . Methods The strains were identified by VITEK -32 automatic bacterial identification instrument , the bacterial sensitivity was determined by K -B disk diffusion method , and the statistical analysis was performed by WHONET 5.4 software.Results The total isolated pathogenic bacteria of lower respiratory tract infection in ICU patients was 453 strains.332 strains of gram negative bacteria accounted for 73.3%,and the former three ones were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (115 strains,accounted for 25.4%),Klebsiella pneumonia (90 strains,accounted for 19.8%),Acineto-bacter baumannii (38 strains,accounted for 8.4%).102 strains of gram positive bacteria accounted for 22.5%,and the top three were Staphylococcus aureus (31 strains,accounted for 6.8%),coagulase negative Staphylococcus (22 strains,accounted for 4.9%),Enterococcus (18 strains,accounted for 4%).Meropenem,imipenem (Stenotroph-omonas maltophilia was excepted ) ,Cefoperazone /sulbactam and Amikacin were most sensitive against gram negative bacteria;Teicoplanin and vancomycin were highly sensitive against gram positive bacteria .Conclusion The main pathogenic bacteria of respiratory tract infection in ICU patients was gram negative bacilli ,which were seriously resist-ant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs .So strengthening the infection management of ICU and the control for risk factors,and rationally using of antimicrobial drugs has great significance in reducing the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria rate .%目的:了解ICU患者下呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及其耐药性,为临床合理用药提供科学参考依据。方法采用VITEK-32全自动细菌鉴定仪进行菌种鉴定,用K-B药敏纸片扩散法测定细菌敏感性,使用WHONET 5.4软件

  20. Vagus Nerve through α7 nAChR Modulates Lung Infection and Inflammation: Models, Cells, and Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiya Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP bridges immune and nervous systems and plays pleiotropic roles in modulating inflammation in animal models by targeting different immune, proinflammatory, epithelial, endothelial, stem, and progenitor cells and signaling pathways. Acute lung injury (ALI is a devastating inflammatory disease. It is pathogenically heterogeneous and involves many cells and signaling pathways. Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung. Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

  1. Sodium hypochlorite decontamination of split-thickness cadaveric skin infected with bacteria and yeast with subsequent isolation and growth of basal cells to confluency in tissue culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Fader, R C; Maurer, A.; Stein, M D; Abston, S; Herndon, D N

    1983-01-01

    The ability of sodium hypochlorite to decontaminate skin while leaving sufficient epidermal cell viability for growth in tissue culture was investigated with an in vitro system. Split-thickness cadaveric skin was infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans and subsequently treated with various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for various time intervals. Exposure to a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite for 6 min effectively decontaminated the skin w...

  2. Lactobacillus reuteri strains reduce incidence and severity of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis via modulation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling in the intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y.; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading gastrointestinal cause of mortality and morbidity in the premature infant. Premature infants have a delay in intestinal colonization by commensal bacteria and colonization with potentially pathogenic organisms. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that inhibits enteric infections, modulates the immune system, and may be beneficial to prevent NEC. In previous studies, L. reuteri strains DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 4659 differentially modulated inflamma...

  3. Pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients and related factors%住院患者医院感染病原学类型与相关因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万兰; 郭晨霞; 邓艳芳; 郑春梅; 祝中年; 余凤姣

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between the species and distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in the hospitalized patients and the ward environment and the medical facilities so as to provide reliable bases for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections in grass-roots hospital. METHODS The patients who were enrolled in the hospital from Jan to Sep 2011 were selected as the monitoring subjects, the etiological examination of the patients with infections was performed, the air of the ward, bed unit and objects and the used medical facilities were set as the microbiologic monitoring indexes. RESULTS Of totally 18 037 case-times of hospitalized patients monitored, nosocomial infections occurred in 227 patients with the infection rate of 1. 26%; the etiological examination showed that the gram-negative bacteria accounted for 52. 01% , higher than 31. 51% of gram-positive bacteria and 16. 44% of the fungi; Esckerichia coli (28. 94%) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18. 42%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (10. 53%) were the predominant species of gram-negative bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus (34. 78%) and S. haemolyticus (21. 74%), and S. epidermidis (21. 74%) were the predominant gram-positive bacteria; Micrococcus luteus and S. epidermidis were the predominant species of gram-positive cocci in the ward, followed by Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacilli; medical facilities to Bacillus cereus bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacilli, followed by the gram-positive bacilli such as black variant spores of Bacillus subtilis ; Cereus and black variant spores of Bacillus subtilis were predominant species of gram-positive bacilli on the medical facilities, followed by the gram-positive cocci such as S. epidermidis; the difference in the constituent ratio of the bacterial species between the air, pillow, quilts and thr bedstands was statistically significant. CONCLUSION It is an effective measure to

  4. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C

    1989-02-01

    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  5. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.

    2009-01-01

    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  6. NKLP27: a teleost NK-lysin peptide that modulates immune response, induces degradation of bacterial DNA, and inhibits bacterial and viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Mo-fei; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including common aquaculture pathogens. The bactericidal activity of NKLP27 was dependent on the C-terminal five residues, deletion of which dramatically reduced the activity of NKLP27. During its interaction with the target bacterial cells, NKLP27 destroyed cell membrane integrity, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and induced degradation of genomic DNA. In vivo study showed that administration of tongue sole with NKLP27 before bacterial and viral infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. Further study revealed that fish administered with NKLP27 exhibited significantly upregulated expression of the immune genes including those that are known to be involved in antibacterial and antiviral defense. These results indicate that NKLP27 is a novel antimicrobial against bacterial and viral pathogens, and that the observed effect of NKLP27 on bacterial DNA and host gene expression adds new insights to the action mechanism of fish antimicrobial peptides.

  7. NKLP27: a teleost NK-lysin peptide that modulates immune response, induces degradation of bacterial DNA, and inhibits bacterial and viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including common aquaculture pathogens. The bactericidal activity of NKLP27 was dependent on the C-terminal five residues, deletion of which dramatically reduced the activity of NKLP27. During its interaction with the target bacterial cells, NKLP27 destroyed cell membrane integrity, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and induced degradation of genomic DNA. In vivo study showed that administration of tongue sole with NKLP27 before bacterial and viral infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. Further study revealed that fish administered with NKLP27 exhibited significantly upregulated expression of the immune genes including those that are known to be involved in antibacterial and antiviral defense. These results indicate that NKLP27 is a novel antimicrobial against bacterial and viral pathogens, and that the observed effect of NKLP27 on bacterial DNA and host gene expression adds new insights to the action mechanism of fish antimicrobial peptides.

  8. 导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程光敏; 姜玲; 尧兴水

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the constituent ratio and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and offer reference for clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, bacterial culture and identification were performed. The susceptibility testing was performed by K-B method as recommended by CLSI. RESULTS Among 159 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (38. 4%) ranked the top one, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13. 2%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (12. 6%). All of the pathogenic bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics to varying degrees. CONCLUSION Clinicians should attach importance to pathogenic surveillance and reasonably use the antibiotics according to susceptibility testing results to effectively control urelhral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and raise the clinical recovery rate.%目的 了解医院导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药特征,为临床医师合理使用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 严格按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,采集患者的尿液进行细菌培养与鉴定;采用CLSI推荐的K- B法进行药敏试验.结果 159株尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌为主,占38.4%,铜绿假单胞菌第2位,占13.2%,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌第3位,占12.6%;所有病原菌对常用抗菌药物均产生了不同的耐药性.结论 临床医师应重视病原学监测,按照药敏试验结果规范用药,才能有效控制导尿管相关性尿路感染,提高临床治愈率.

  9. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  10. 糖尿病足感染的病原菌及耐药性分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Foot Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艳丽; 杨永歆

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To study pathogenic bacteria distribution and antimicrobial resistance in diabetic foot infection patients ,and provid information for choosing effective antibacterials during treatment .Methods :50 diabetic foot patients were enrolled from May 2011 to July 2013 in our hospital .Pathogenic spectrum and antimicrobial resistance were con-ducted on the infection secretion from the groups .Results:63 secretion specimens were isolated from 50 patients .56 strains of pathogens were isolated ,positive rate was up to 88 .9% .Gram positive bacteria were thirty four strains (60.7% ,34/56) ,gram negative bacteria were seventeen strains (30 .4% ,17/56) and fungi were five strains(8 .9% ,5/56) .The major pathogens in the secretion were staphylococcus aureus ,saphylococcus epidermidis and proteus mirabi-lis .43 of 50 patients (86% ) were classified as Wagner’s grade two and three .The sensitive rate of gram positive bac-teria (staphylococcus) to vancocin ,furadantin was higher ,and the resistance rate of staphylococcus to benzylpenicillin , oxacillin was higher .The sensitive rate of gram-negative bacteria to imipenem ,meropenem ,the third and fourth genera-tion cephalosporins was higher ,and the resistance rates of gram-negative bacteria to ticarcillin ,generation of cephalo-sporins and the second generation cephalosporins was higher .During the course of treatment ,bacterial species and the sensitivity of the same species of bacteria changed .Conclusion:The major patients were the superficial infection group . The major pathogens of diabetic foot infection patients in our group were staphylococcus aureus ,staphylococcus epi-dermidis and proteus mirabilis . Regular microbial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary for choosing effective medication during treatment ,so the drug resistant pathogens will decrease .%目的:了解糖尿病足感染患者的病原菌分布特点及耐药性,为临床合理选择抗菌药物

  11. 胆道感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of Pathogenic bacteria in patients with biliary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培; 马春华; 罗华

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the microbiologed distribution of biliary tract infection in patients with resistant strains so as to guide rational drug use. METHODS There were 275 cases with submission sample. The isolation and culture of bacteria and drug susceptibility test were executed according to'National Clinical Laboratory Operating Procedures' (third edition) standards using automated microbial (VITEK-32, France) analyzer. KB method was used for drug susceptibility testing and the results were judged by Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI) standards. RESULTS A total of 183 strains were detected from 275 samples, with the detection rate of 66. 55%. They included 95 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounting for 51. 91%, 63 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounting for 34. 43% and 12 strains of fungi accounting for 6. 56%. The resistance rates of the major bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to imipenem/cilastatin was 0, and the resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococci feces, Staphylococcus aureus to quinolones was low. CONCLUSION The biliary system is widely distributed with microbial infections, and some strains may cause multidrug resistance. We suggest clinicians emphasize the monitoring of the dynamic distribution of pathogenic bacteria and changes in drug susceptibility to guide rational antibiotics use.%目的 了解胆道感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药性特点,指导合理用药.方法 送检标本275例,菌种分离培养和药物敏感试验执行《全国临床检验操作规程》(第3版)标准;分析仪器采用全自动微生物(VITEK-32法国)分析仪鉴定,用K-B法进行药物敏感试验,操作规程执行《全国临床检验操作规程》,结果判断执行美国临床实验室标准化研究所(CLSI)标准.结果 送检标本275份,检出病原菌183株,检出率为66.55%;其中革兰阴性菌95株,占51.91%,革兰阳性菌63株,占34.43%,真菌12株,占6.56%;大肠埃希菌、肺炎克

  12. Study on Infections Path of Pathogenic Bacteria of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and its Nursing Interventions%根据呼吸机相关感染的菌谱探讨感染路径的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志菲; 谭晓骏; 谷金玲; 王萍; 王振华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the species of pathogenic bacteria of ventilator-associated Pneumonia in department of thoracic surgery and to explore its infections path, so as to investigate the prevention measures and nursing interventions of reducing ventilator-associated Pneumonia. Methods: The clinical data of 98 cases patients with mechanical ventilation respiratory secretions bacteria spectrum were retrospectively analyzed. The infection path were analyzed on the base of clinical characteristics. Results: Average onset time of VAP is for 4.2 d after mechanical ventilation. A total of 268 strain of pathogens were separated, including 194 Gram-negative bacilli (72.37%), 59 Gram-positive bacilli (22%), 15 Fungi (5.63%). Conclusion: The major pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia are Gram-negative bacilli. The major causes of lower respiratory tract infection on mechanical patients are Gastrointestinal engraftment bacteria retrograding and oropharyngeal secretions inhaling. The key to prevent and control VAP is to enhance the disinfection of the breathing apparatus and oral care, to clean air stranded things around promptly, and to avoid retentate leakage and Gastrointestinal engraftment bacteria retrogradation.%目的:分析我院胸外科呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)的病原菌种类,寻找其感染路径,探讨预防和减少呼吸机相关性肺炎的有效护理措施.方法:回顾分析98例机械通气患者的呼吸道分泌物细菌谱情况,再依据临床特征分析感染路径.结果:VAP平均发病时间为机械通气后4.2 d,共分离出病原菌268株,其中,革兰阴性菌194株(占72.37%),革兰阳性菌59株(占22%),真菌15株(占5.63%).结论:呼吸机相关性肺炎的主要病原菌为革兰阴性杆菌,胃肠道定植菌逆行、口咽部的分泌物吸入是导致机械患者下呼吸道感染的主要原因.加强口腔护理、及时引流气囊周围滞留物、避免滞留物渗漏,避免胃肠道定植菌逆行吸入,加强

  13. 泌尿外科患者医院感染病原菌调查分析%Distribution of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in patients of urology department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明果; 林芝; 李成山; 李皇

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in the patients of urology department so as to provide a solid basis for the therapeutic treatment.METHODS A total of 166 patients in department of urology were analyzed.The indexes of blood,urine,sputum specimen collection,and corresponding bacterial culture were performed for the patients diagnosed as nosocomial infections,then the results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS Totally 42 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial infections in 1066 patients in the department of urology,among which there were 37 cases of urethral catheterization infections and 5 cases of surgical site infections,the incidence rate of nosocomial infections was 3.9%.Totally 140 copies of specimens were detected in 42 patients with nosocomial infections in department of urology,and 90 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated with the isolation rate of 64.3%,among which there were 62 strains of gram-negative bacilli (68.9 %),22 strains of gram-positive bacilli (24.4%),and 6 strains of fungi (6.7%).The Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus haemol yticus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Proteus mirabilis,and Staphylococcus epidermidis ranked the top five species of pathogens,accounting for 32.2%,11.1%,11.1%,11.1%,and 7.8%,respectively.The gram-positive bacteria were highly resistant to gentamicin,erythromycin,clindamycin,levofloxacin,and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim,the gram-negative bacteria were more resistant to gentamicin,sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim,ampicillin,ceftazidime,and cefpiramide oxime,and the fungi were highly sensitive amphotericin B,voriconazole,fluconazole,cytosine,and itraconazole.CONCLUSION The principles of the use of antibiotics should be strictly abided in patients hospitalized,and the management of antibiotics should be standardized.The medication of patients with drug resistance should be adjusted according to the test results,it is also helpful

  14. Human Management of a Wild Plant Modulates the Evolutionary Dynamics of a Gene Determining Recessive Resistance to Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound effects on the

  15. Epigenetic modulation, stress and plasticity in susceptibility of the snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matty; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-06-01

    Blood flukes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis - a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. During the past decade, a concerted effort has been made to control the spread of schistosomiasis, using a drug intervention program aimed at curtailing transmission. These efforts notwithstanding, schistosomiasis has re-emerged in southern Europe, raising concerns that global warming could contribute to the spread of this disease to higher latitude countries where transmission presently does not take place. Vaccines against schistosomiasis are not currently available and reducing transmission by drug intervention programs alone does not prevent reinfection in treated populations. These challenges have spurred awareness that new interventions to control schistosomiasis are needed, especially since the World Health Organization hopes to eradicate the disease by 2025. For one of the major species of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as the obligate intermediate host of this parasite. To determine mechanisms that underlie parasitism by S. mansoni of Biomphalaria glabrata, which might be manipulated to block the development of intramolluscan larval stages of the parasite, we focused effort on the impact of schistosome infection on the epigenome of the snail. Results to date reveal a complex relationship, manifested by the ability of the schistosome to manipulate the snail genome, including the expression of specific genes. Notably, the parasite subverts the stress response of the host to ensure productive parasitism. Indeed, in isolates of B. glabrata native to central and South America, susceptible to infection with S. mansoni, the heat shock protein 70 (Bg-HSP70) gene of this snail is rapidly relocated in the nucleus and transcribed to express HSP70

  16. Human Management of a Wild Plant Modulates the Evolutionary Dynamics of a Gene Determining Recessive Resistance to Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound effects on the

  17. Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria in 575 Cases of Bloodstream Infection%血流感染575例病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文利; 吴诗品; 陈洪涛; 吴劲松

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with bloodstream infection(BSI).Methods Five hundred and seventy-five BSI patients hospitalized from Jan.2004 to Nov.2008 were enrolled to perform a retrospective analysis on bacterial identification and drug sensitive test results.Results A total of 645 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,including 338 gram-negative (52.4%),267 gram-positive(41.4%),40 fungi(6.2%).Mixed infection was found in 52 patients.The isolated pathogenic bacteria were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci(27.6%),Escherichia coli(21.7%),klebsiella pneumoniae(12.6%),glucose non-fermentative bacteria(9.9%),enterococcus(3.9%).The detection rates of Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae producing superspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)were 46.4%,19.7%,respectively;those of methicillin resistant S.aureus(MRSA) and meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS) were 54.8%,89.3%,respectively.Glucose non-fermentative bacteria,acinetobacter baumannii,pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cepacia were highly resistant to most antimicrobials;gram-positive cocci resistant to vancomycin were not found.Conclusion The pathogenic bacteria inducing BSI are mainly gram-negative,and the multiple drug resistance of BSI pathogenic bacteria,especially glucose non-fermentative,is increasing.Monitoring drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria is of importance in guiding clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs and reducing drug resistance bacteria.%目的 探讨近年来血流感染的病原菌分布及其对抗菌药物的耐药状况.方法 选择2004年1月-2008年11月在我院住院的575例血流感染患者,对患者的细菌鉴定及药敏试验结果进行回顾性分析.结果 从575例血流感染患者中共分离出645株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌338株(占52.4%)、革兰阳性菌267株(占41.4%)、真菌40株(占6.2%),52例患者发生混合感染.分离的病原菌中,主要

  18. Faecal culturable microbiota, growth and clinical parameters of calves supplemented with lactic acid bacteria and lactose prior and during experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin DSPV 595T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Soto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic inoculum + lactose effect on weight, intestinal culturable microbiota, morbidity and mortality of young calves challenged with Salmonella Dublin DSPV 595T. Twenty eight calves were used, divided in control group (CG and probiotic group (PG. The PG was provided with 100 g lactose.calf-1.d-1 and 10(10 CFU.calf-1.d-1 of each strain of a probiotic inoculum composed of Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T, Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 315T and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T throughout the experiment. The pathogen was administered on day 11 of the experiment, at an oral dose of 10(9 CFU.calf-1. Lactobacillus and yeast populations were modified in PG because of inoculum + lactose administration. Severity of diarrhea was lower in PG. No differences were found on the rest of clinical sings, live weight and mortality between the two groups analysed. The periodic administration of a probiotic inoculum of bovine origin and lactose, favoured the establishment of a more stable and balanced intestinal culturable microbiota, even during an infection with Salmonella. The generated model of acute infection gave opportunity to the probiotic to exert its beneficial effect on severity of diarrhea. However, the use of lower doses of S. Dublin DSPV 595T are recommended for future studies, to generate less severe model in order to evaluate if the inoculum is able to exert a differential response in the clinical symptoms of young calves.

  19. Investigation and analysis of bacteria acute infection in severe burn wounds%严重烧伤急性感染期创面菌种调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓锋; 陶仁清

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解严重烧伤患者、急性感染期,创面感染菌群分布,为防治创面浸润性感染提供实验室依据。方法选择住院的、总面积(TBSA)>31%、以深二度和三度为主的患者163例,性别年龄不居。在伤后13~15 d急性感染期,进行一次性创面分泌物普通培养,用VITEK2全自动细菌鉴定仪,进行细菌鉴定;药敏实验采用纸片扩散法程序进行操作,按美国临床实验室国家标准化委员会(NCCLS)标准进行结果判断。结果共得菌种24种、163株,阳性率为100%,其中假单孢菌属占首位(33.1%),次为球菌属(22.7%)。伤后10 d左右,预防性应用亚胺培南或头孢吡圬、万古霉素或呋喃妥因3 d;163例治疗期间均未发生伤面脓毒症,并顺利治愈。结论重度烧伤伤后13~15 d,应用亚胺培南或头孢吡圬、万古霉素或呋喃妥因,能预防创面脓毒症的发生和提高临床治愈率。%Objective To understand the bacteria distribution in wound infection during acute infection period in severely burned pa-tients and provide laboratory basis for preventing and treating the invasive infection.Methods One hundred and sixty-three patients with TB-SA more than 3 1% and deep Пdegree and Ш degree of injury were investigated.The wound secretion was cultured and identified using VITEK2 automatic bacteria device in 13 to 15 d of acute infection period.Drug sensitive experiment was implemented and analysed according to the NCCLS.Results Twenty-four kinds of bacteria(163 strains)were harvested,and the positive rate was 100%,including false single spore fungus(33.1%)and staphylococcus aureus(22.7%).The imipenem,cefepime engine-grease,vancomycin and nitrofurantoin were used for 3 d.The wound sepsis in 163 patients was not found,and all patients were successfully cured.Conclusion The application of imipenem, cefepime engine-grease vancomycin and nitrofurantoincan can prevent the

  20. Species and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile diabetics%老年糖尿病患者尿路感染的病原菌种类及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文清; 谢志强

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To approach species and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing the urinary tract infections in senile patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) so as to offer evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics. METHODS The bacterial culture of midstream urine was performed for 267 cases of diabetics with urinary tract infections. According to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, the bacterial culture and the identification were performed by the routine methods. The drug susceptibility testings were performed by K-B methods recommended by CLSI. The testing results were assessed. RESULTS Among 267 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (61. 0%) rated the top one, K. peneumoniae (10. 1% )rated the second, and Enterococcus faecalis (9. 4%) ranked the third. The total detection rate of ESBLs-producing strains was 47. 4%, the detection rate of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) was 41.4%. All the grarm-negative bacilli were 100. 0% sensitive to the carbapenems antibiotics, and all the gram-positive cocci were 100. 0% sensitive to the glycopeptide antibiotics; the different species of bacteria varied in the drug resistance to other commonly used antibiotics. CONCLUSION The different species of the pathogens causing the urinary tract infections in senile diabetics vary in the drug resistance. It is recommended that the clinician should choose the susceptible drugs for anti-infection therapy based on the etiological detection and drug susceptibility testing results.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病(DM)患者尿路感染病原菌的种类和耐药性,为临床医师进行抗感染治疗提供合理用药的参考依据.方法 对医院267例糖尿病合并尿路感染患者进行中段尿细菌培养、病原菌鉴定和药物敏感试验,病原菌培养与鉴定按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,采用常规方法进行;药敏试验采用CLSI规定的K-B法进行操作和判断结果.结果 267株尿路感染病原菌构成比为

  1. 细菌和病毒混合感染对儿童社区获得性肺炎的影响%Mixed infection of bacteria and viruses in community-acquired pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈红; 曹小彩; 宋文涛; 李真珍

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨细菌和病毒混合感染对儿童社区获得性肺炎(CAP)的影响。方法对204例CAP患儿行痰细菌、病毒、非典型病原体检测,有支气管镜检指征的患儿行支气管镜下肺泡灌洗(BALF),并进行定量培养和胞内菌检测。所有患儿给予抗菌药物序贯疗法治疗。结果204例患儿中122例检出病原菌,检出率59.80%,检出病原菌153株,其中30例细菌和病毒混合感染。70例BALF菌培养,阳性8例,BALF标本可诱导共刺激分子(ICOS)阳性5例,以BALF定量培养作为对照, ICOS在CAP诊断中的灵敏度为37.50%,特异度为96.77%。30例细菌和病毒混合感染患儿中,10 d的比例高于非混合感染组,更容易发生胸腔积液,更易出现肺大片状阴影,白细胞水平、C反应蛋白、BALF中性粒细胞比例更高,中性粒细胞比值则较低,平均住院时间高于非混合感染组,差异均有统计学意义(P均 0.05). Average hospitalization time in children with mixed infection (13.5+1.5) d was higher than that with non-mixed infection (8.6+1.1) d (P < 0.05). Conclusions Childhood CAP with mixed bacteria and virus infection can prolong the duration of fever and the length of hospital stay, and increased risk of complications. In addition, the imaging manifestations and laboratory features showed differences from the group of mixed infection, while clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis were not signiifcantly different from the group with non-mixed infection.

  2. Medicinal Plants Used by a Mbyá-Guarani Tribe Against Infections: Activity on KPC-Producing Isolates and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Barth, Afonso Luís; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2015-11-01

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for treatment of infectious diseases by an indigenous Mbyá-Guarani tribe from South Brazil was assessed by evaluating the antibiotic and antibiofilm activities against relevant bacterial pathogens. Aqueous extracts from 10 medicinal plants were prepared according to indigenous Mbyá-Guarani traditional uses. To evaluate antibiotic (OD600) and antibiofilm (crystal violet method) activities, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 and seven multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacterial clinical isolates were challenged with the extracts. Furthermore, the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing bacteria and the ability of these isolates to form biofilm were evaluated. The plants Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Maytenus ilicifolia, Bidens pilosa and Verbena sp. showed the best activity against bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The majority of KPC-producing isolates, which showed strong ability to form biofilm and a multidrug resistance profile, was inhibited by more than 50% by some extracts. The Enterobacter cloacae (KPC 05) clinical isolate was the only one resistant to all extracts. This study confirms the importance of indigenous traditional medicinal knowledge and describes for the first time the ability of these plants to inhibit biofilm formation and/or bacterial growth of multi-drug resistant KPC-producing isolates. PMID:26749812

  3. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  4. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  5. 淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌分析及护理对策%Pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy and nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小艳

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution of the pathogens causing nosocomial infections in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy so as to guide the clinical nursing. METHODS A total of 120 patients with nosocomial infections were chosen as the study objects during the chemotherapy of lymphoma, The oral cavity, sputum, urine,and blood were sampled for the bacterial cultured and drug susceptibility testing. RESULTS The nosocomial infections frequently occurred in 7 to 14 days after the chemotherapy. Of all the patients investigated, there were 89(74. 17%) patients with pulmonary infections, 19 (15. 83%) patients with urinary tract infections, and 12 (10. 00%) patients with other infections. A total of 196 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,among which Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were the predominant species and were highly sensitive to imipenem, the drug resistance rates were 0 and 1. 39%, respectively, while the two species were not sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, axtreonam, ciprofloxacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefepime and meropenem. Totally 34 patients were tested with the fungal infections, and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus, and Mucoraceae were the most prevalent pathogens. CONCLUSION It is necessary to strengthen the nursing interventions in the patients undergoing lymphoma chemotherapy so as to prevent the nosocomial infections. It is of great significance in guiding the clinical treatment to perform the bacterial culture and drug susceptibility testing.%目的 观察淋巴瘤化疗患者医院感染病原菌的分布特点,为临床护理工作提供指导.方法 选取120例淋巴瘤化疗期间并发医院感染的患者,留取口腔、痰、尿、血液等进行细菌培养及药敏试验.结果 医院感染多发生于化疗的7~14 d;本组患者肺部感染89例,占74.17%,泌尿系感染19例,占15.83%,其他感染12例,占10.00%;培养共检出病原菌196

  6. Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS.

  7. 慢性伤口感染病原菌分布与银离子抗菌敷料应用的研究%Distribution of pathogenic bacteria in chronic wound infections and application of silver ion antimicrobial dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小芬; 林白浪; 符小玲; 李燕霞; 符小玉

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究慢性伤口感染常见病原菌分布,并观察银离子抗菌敷料的治疗效果,为临床诊疗提供参考依据.方法 选择2013年4月-2015年8月就诊的2890例慢性伤口感染患者为研究对象,伤口包括:手术切口、外伤、糖尿病足溃疡、静脉性溃疡、压疮等常见伤口;运用BACTEC MGI 960系统进行菌种鉴定,分析病原菌种类及其耐药率,观察银离子抗菌敷料3周内的治疗效果.结果 从2890份标本中分离出病原菌1846株,检出阳性率为63.88%,革兰阴性杆菌943株占51.08%,革兰阳性球菌835株占45.23%,真菌68株占3.69%;在治疗3周后,慢性伤口愈合1480例愈合率为80.17%,随访期8周,慢性伤口愈合1611例愈合率87.27%,愈合时间(6.1±2.5)周;与治疗前对比,治疗后的伤口面积、疼痛评分均明显降低(P<0.05),且随着治疗时间的延长,两者均显著改善(P<0.05).结论 慢性伤口感染率较高,以大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌感染为主,经银离子抗菌敷料治疗后疗效明显.%OBJECTIVE To study the distribution of common pathogenic bacteria in chronic wound infections and observe the intervention effect of silver ion antimicrobial dressing on the infections ,so as to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment .METHODS A total of 2890 patients with chronic wound infections from Apr . 2013 to Aug .2015 were selected as the research subjects .The infection involved wounds such as surgical incision , trauma ,diabetic foot ulcer ,venous ulcer and pressure sores .The BACTEC MGI 960 system was used to identify the strains and analyze the species of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance ,and the intervention effect of silver ion antimicrobial dressings for 3 weeks was observed .RESULTS Totally 1846 (63 .88% ) strains of common path-ogenic bacteria were isolated from 2890 samples .In the 1846 strains of common pathogenic bacteria ,there were 943 (51 .08% ) strains of gram negative bacilli

  8. 精神病院医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections and drug resistance in a psychiatric hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢桂华; 郭萍; 王世锴; 宋国华; 顾沈红; 钱敏才

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of the pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections from Jul to Sep 2011 so as to provide basis for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS A total of 1684 clinically submitted specimens were cultured for the pathogenic bacteria, the distribution of the pathogens and the drug resistance were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 768 strains of pathogens were detected and the positive rate was 45. 6%. The positive rates of samples from general departments and the geriatric departments were 55. 9% and 48. 4% , respectively , and the positive rate of sputum was 83. 5%. The results suggested that the gram-negative bacteria accounted for 55. 9% , the detection rates of ESBLs-producing strains and the carbopenem-resistant strains were high, and some of the strains remained sensitive to aminoglycosides and β-lactamase inhibitors. The gram-positive bacteria were highly resistant to the commonly used antibiotics, but sensitive to vancomycin. CONCLUSION The measures of prevention and control of the nosocomial infections need to be reinforced, and the predisposing factors should be get rid of. The clinical staff should pay attention to the sample collection and the isolation and culture of the strains and use antibiotics reasonably.%目的 探讨2011年7-9月医院感染病原菌的分布及其耐药性,为临床合理应用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 对临床送检的1684份标本进行分离,对病原菌构成及其耐药性进行分析.结果 1684份送检标本中共检出768份阳性,阳性率为45.6%,综合病区和老年病区的送检阳性率较高,分别为55.9%和48.4%;痰液送检阳性率为83.5%,检出病原菌中革兰阴性菌为55.9%,且产ESBLs及耐碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的菌株检出率较高,但部分仍对氨基糖苷类、碳青霉烯类、β-内酰胺酶抑制剂敏感;革兰阳性菌对常用抗菌药耐药率高,对万古霉素敏感.结论 应加强对医院

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Common Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammaddoost Chakoosari ( Msc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics are living microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the health of digestive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial ability of acidic and neutral supernatants (culture supernatant of lactic acid bacteria against common bacterial pathogens. Methods: Four species of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC1745, Lactobacillus PTCC1608, Lactobacillus Saki PTCC1712 and Lactobacillus Lactis PTCC1336 were obtained from the microbial collection of Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology in Lyophilized form. The antimicrobial activity of neutral and acidic supernatants against bacterial pathogens was investigated using the Disk and Well Diffusion Agar methods. Results: Lactic acid bacteria showed good antimicrobial ability against six pathogenic bacteria with the highest inhibitory effect observed in Lactococcus lactis against E. coli PTCC1399 through well method with an average diameter of 14 mm inhibition zone. In this study, the well diffusion method was far more sensitive compared to the disk method and acidic supernatants showed higher antimicrobial efficiency compared to neutral types. Conclusion: the Metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria are able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that can be an important and practical solution for the prevention and treatment of infections and ultimately improve human health. Keywords: Lactobacillus; Lactococcus; Probiotic; Antibacterial

  10. 高度稀释的顺势疗法药物对噬菌体感染的细菌基因水平的作用%Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santu Kumar Saha; SreemantiDas; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨具有抗病毒作用的高度稀释的顺势疗法药物对噬菌体感染的大肠杆菌在基因水平调节噬菌体ΦX174 DNA的作用.方法:本研究之所以选用噬菌体ΦX174是因为其对大肠杆菌的宿主特异性及其在宿主内进行溶菌素基因E的组成性表达.采用顶层琼脂法,计数琼脂板上的斑块数量以衡量不同的顺势疗法药物对噬菌体感染的大肠杆菌的保护作用.被噬菌体感染的大肠杆菌接受不同顺势疗法药物的干预,以高度稀释的乙醇做为安慰剂对照,并加设空白对照组.琼脂板上的斑块数量表明菌群被噬菌体ΦX174感染并溶解的数量.反之,我们在用顺势疗法药物干预前将噬菌体ΦX174混入药物中,再与细菌作用,以确定药物本身对感染细菌的噬菌体ΦX174没有作用.结果:每一种顺势疗法药物干预后的细菌琼脂板上的斑块数量均较安慰剂对照组和空白对照组有显著下降;而混入药物的噬菌体ΦX174感染细菌后,琼脂板上的斑块数量并无明显下降.因为噬菌体ΦX174在细菌内开始其溶菌过程,斑块数量的下降可能是因为溶菌素基因E被抑制或者整个噬菌体ΦX174的DNA被大肠杆菌内的基因产物(抑制酶)所破坏.结论:本研究的结果证实了高度稀释的顺势疗法药物对噬菌体感染的大肠杆菌在基因水平有调节作用.%OBJECTIVE:To explore if some ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies claimed to have antiviral effects can demonstrate any discernible action in the bacteria Escherichia coli through modulating infectivity potentials of the bacteriophage ΦX174 DNA.METHODS:ΦX174 was selected because of its known host specificity to E.coli and its constitutive expression of lytic gene E when inside the bacterial host.We deployed the “bacteriophage assay system” by “top layer agar plating” method of plaque-counting for evaluation of efficacy of the homeopathic remedies in rendering the bacteria

  11. Discovery of functional toxin/antitoxin systems in bacteria by shotgun cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sberro, Hila; Leavitt, Azita; Kiro, Ruth; Koh, Eugene; Peleg, Yoav; Qimron, Udi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, composed of a toxic protein and a counteracting antitoxin, play important roles in bacterial physiology. We examined the experimental insertion of 1.5 million genes from 388 microbial genomes into an Escherichia coli host using over 8.5 million random clones. This revealed hundreds of genes (toxins) that could only be cloned when the neighboring gene (antitoxin) was present on the same clone. Clustering of these genes revealed TA families widespread in bacterial genomes, some of which deviate from the classical characteristics previously described for such modules. Introduction of these genes into E. coli validated that the toxin toxicity is mitigated by the antitoxin. Infection experiments with T7 phage showed that two of the new modules can provide resistance against phage. Moreover, our experiments revealed an 'anti-defense' protein in phage T7 that neutralizes phage resistance. Our results expose active fronts in the arms race between bacteria and phage.

  12. Study on effect of infection control of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in general hospital%综合医院多药耐药菌医院感染控制效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李六亿; 贾会学; 贾建侠; 赵秀莉; 赵艳春; 任军红; 要慧; 林金兰

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To know the infection control efficacy of hospital-onset multi-drug resistant organisms infections (MDROs-HOI) through carrying out bundle measures in a general tertiary hospital. METHODS We investigated the characteristics of MDROs infections on the patients with positive cultures of MDROs to analyze the efficacy of bundle control measures in a general tertiary hospital from Jan 2005 to Dec 2010. We conducted a prospective investigation for the patients from Jul 2008 and carried bundle measures for patients with MDROs infection or colonization, such as hand hygiene, isolation, wearing gloves and isolation gowns, et al. For the patients from Jan 2005 to Jun 2008, a retrospective investigation was developed with the same criteria as the prospective investigation. RESULTS From Jan 2005 to Dec 2010, there were totally 2 279 episodes of MDROs infection including 1025(44. 98%) hospital-onset infection (HOD and 1 254(55. 02%) community-onset infection (COD in 243744 patients and 3 084 182 patient days. The multiple linear regression analysis showed implementing control measures could decrease the MDROs-HOI incidence rate effectively especially in the surgical departments after the exclusion of the MDROs-COI incidence rate. CONCLUSION Implementing bundle control measures is critical for preventing the spread of MDROs in hospital.%摘要:目的 了解某综合医院多药耐药菌(MDROs)医院感染的控制效果.方法对2005年1月-2010年12月某院所临床培养出MDROs的住院患者进行调查;2008年7月-2010年12月采取前瞻性调查方法,并对感染及定植患者采取组合式(Bundle)控制措施,包括手卫生、隔离、戴手套、穿隔离衣等;2005年1月-2008年7月采取回顾性调查方法,但其调查内容与调查表、诊断标准等与前瞻性调查方法相同,分析综合控制措施的效果.结果2005年1月-2010年12月共收治243 744例患者,3 084 182患者住院日,发生2279例次MDROs感染,

  13. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinarv tract infection in children%儿童尿路感染常见病原菌的分布及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光成; 史莉

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children and provide reference for clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS The strains isolated from midstream urine specimen from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010 were included in this study . The positive results of urine culture were analyzed statistically. Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, the strains were cultured and identified. Susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. The drug susceptibility results were assessed according to CLSI 2009 - 2010 breakpoints. RESULTS Among the 223 isolates, the majority were Escherichia coli which accounted for 38. 1%, followed by Enterococci, accounting for 18. 8%. Except for 100. 0% sensitivity rate of carbapenems to gram-negative bacilli and of glycopeptides to grampositive cocci, the pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children were resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics of varying degrees. CONCLUSION The clinical abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is closely related to the increasing drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children. We should intervene by taking effective measures.%目的 探讨儿童尿路感染常见病原菌的种类分布及耐药性,为临床医师选择抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 对2009年1月-2010年12月中段尿标本分离的病原菌进行统计分析,细菌培养和菌株鉴定严格按《全国临床检验操作规程》进行;药敏试验采用纸片扩散法,药敏结果按照CLSI 2009-2010年标准进行分析判断.结果 223株儿童尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌为主,占38.1%,其次是肠球菌属,占18.8%,除碳青霉烯类抗菌药物对革兰阴性杆菌、糖肽类抗菌药物对革兰阳性球菌保持了100.0%的抗菌活性以外,尿路感染病原菌对常用抗菌药物均显示了不同程度的耐药性.结论 儿童尿路感染

  14. ANALYSIS OF INNER HOSPITAL INFECTION-BACTERIA-SPECTRUM DISTRIBUTION AND DRUG RESISTANT SITUATION IN TIANJIN BINHAI%天津市滨海新区两年院内感染流行菌株及耐药情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张贺平; 王静; 刘兰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate prevailing strains and drug-resistances of nosocomial infections, so as to provide future clinical prevention and treatment. [Methods] 356 strains of pathogenic bacteria and the result of susceptibility test were collected in Tianjin 5th center hospital from 2008 to 2009. All the results were analyzed based on divisions, samples, strain and drug resistance. [Results] Strains of pathogenic bacteria mainly distributed in department of respiraloy, nephrology, neo-plastic hematologic disorder and cerebropathia. Gram-negative bacteria was main bacteria during past two years, accounted for 49.7%. Among all isolated bacteria, mainly including escherichia coll, kiebsiella pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acinetobacter baumannii was increasing quickly. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 22.5% of all abruptioed bacteria, and was mainly staphylococcus aureus. The main bacteria were came from sputum, urine and blood, and was gram-negative The main bacteria came from section was gram-positive. The positive rates of MRSA accounted for 25.0% and 31.3%, respectively. The positive rate of MRCNS accounted for 66.7% and 85.0%, respectively. The positive rates of eco producing ESBLs accounted for 31.7% and 55.9%, respectively. The positive rates of kpn producing ESBLs accounted for 19.4% and 22.2%, respectively. [Conclusion] We should strengthen hospital management, especially the key sections, strengthen the education, training and supervision of medical staff for the rational use of antibiotics, and control and standardize the indications of antibiotics. We should establish and improve the system of management at different levels of antibiotics to prevent and correct the unreasonable application of antibacterial drugs.%[目的]了解天津滨海新区院内感染的流行菌株及菌株酎药情况,为临床防治院内感染提供依据.[方法]收集天津滨海新区2008年和2009年所有院内感染的致病菌356株及其药敏

  15. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of 502 strains pathogens bacteria from urinary tract infection%泌尿系感染病原菌502株的分布及其耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖纯兴; 李玉珍

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究泌尿系感染病原菌的分布情况及耐药现状,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 用常规方法时2007年1月至2011年12月河源市人民医院门诊/住院泌尿系感染患者的中段尿标本进行细菌培养,全自动微生物鉴定药敏仪Walkaway 40对细菌进行鉴定和药敏试验,应用Whonet 5.4软件进行数据统计.结果 分离出502株病原菌中革兰氏阴性菌358株(71.3%),革兰氏阳性球菌116株(23.1%),真菌28株(5.6%).革兰氏阴性菌中以大肠埃希菌为主,占49.4%,产超广谱β-内酰胺酶的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌检出率分别为35.5%和37.5%;革兰氏阳性球菌主要是粪肠球菌和凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌,分别占11.2%和8.0%,高浓度氨基糖苷类耐药粪肠球菌和耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌检出率分别为46.4%和67.5%;真菌主要是白色念珠菌,占3.2%.亚胺培南对革兰氏阴性杆菌耐药率均<20.0%;呋喃妥因、利奈唑胺、万古霉素对革兰氏阳性球菌耐药率均为0.结论 引起泌尿系感染主要病原菌是大肠埃希菌,其次为粪肠球菌.亚胺培南对革兰氏阴性杆菌有较好的体外抗菌活性,利奈唑胺、呋喃妥因、万古霉素对革兰氏阳性球菌有较好的体外抗菌活性.%[Objective] To provide basis for clinical reasonable using medication by investigating pathogens distribution of urinary tract infection and conditions of the drug resistance.[Methods] The midstream urine spceimens were cultured in the cases of urinary tract infection out-patients and hospital patients from January 2007 to December 2011.The identification of bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility test were carried out automatic microbiological system by Walkaway-40,statistical analysis was performed by Whonet 5.4.[Results] Among the 502 pathogenic bacteria isolated,Gram-negative bacteria,Grampositive cocci and Fungus accounted for 71.3%,23.1% and 5.6% respectively

  16. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  19. ICU深静脉导管感染的病原菌分布和耐药性分析%Investigation of distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing deep venous catheter related infection in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 周利霞; 范秋生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing deep venous catheter related infection in ICU.Methods From January 2006 to August 2010,the culture and drug sensitivity test results of 342 deep venous catheter tip from ICU were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among the results of 342 catheter tip cultures,101 strains( 29. 5% )of pathogenic bacteria were detected. The proportion of G+ bacteria,enterobacteria ceae,non-fermentation G- bacteria and fungi was 29 strains( 28.7% ),25 strains( 24. 8% ),33 strains( 32. 6% )and 14 strains ( 13.9% )respectively. The six most common pathogenic bacteria were pseudomonas aeruginosa 20 strains( 19.8% ), Klebsiella pneumonia 12 strains( 11.9% ),Staphylococcus aureus 10 strains( 9. 9% ), Staphylococcus epidermis 8 strains( 7. 9% ),En-terococcus faecium 7 strains( 6. 9% ) and Saccharomyces albicans 7 strains( 6. 9% ). 8 strains( 80. 0% )of Staphylococcus aureus were MRSA,7 strains( 63. 6% )of coagulase negative Staphylococci were MRCNS and 14 strains( 56. 0% )of Enterobacte-riaceae were ESBLs. Most isolated strains were multiple drug resistant. Conclusion The most common pathogens cultured from the deep venous catheter tip in ICU were highly resistant to antibiotics. The clinical micro-organisms laboratory should report the results of bacterial culture and drug susceptibility quickly and accurately for reasonable use of antibiotic drugs in clinical treatment.%目的 探讨ICU深静脉导管感染的病原菌分布和细菌耐药性特征.方法 对2006年1月-2010年8月ICU送检的342例次深静脉导管标本的细菌培养和药敏试验结果进行分析.结果 342份标本中共检出病原菌101株(29.5%):革兰阳性球菌、肠杆菌科、非发酵革兰阴性杆菌和真菌分别为29株(28.7%)、25株(24.8%)、33株(32.6%)和14株(13.9%).病原菌分离率前6位依次为铜绿假单胞菌20株(19.8%)、肺炎克雷伯菌12株(11.9%)

  20. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing skin and mucosa infection%皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的种类分布及耐药性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺; 王永涛; 贾征夫

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的种类构成比及耐药性,为临床医师诊治皮肤黏膜感染选择敏感的抗菌药物提供实验室参考依据。方法2011年1月-2013年6月医院皮肤黏膜感染患者的脓液或创面分泌物培养得到366株病原菌,病原菌培养与种型鉴定严格按照原卫生部临检中心规定的临床微生物检验规范进行试验操作;采用CLSI指定的K‐B法和折点进行敏感、中介、耐药的判读确认;采用WHONET 5.5进行数据分析。结果共检出革兰阳性菌198株占54.1%,革兰阴性菌136株占37.2%,真菌32株占8.7%;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌分离率达到34.1%,产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌分离率达到46.2%,耐亚胺培南的铜绿假单胞菌分离率达到11.5%,未发现耐糖肽类抗菌药物革兰阳性菌,链球菌属对常用抗菌药物敏感性较高。结论皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的耐药性也十分严重,为提高临床治疗效果,临床医师应加强病原学培养的观念,依据病原菌药敏试验结果,针对性的选择敏感性强、经济合理的抗菌药物来治疗皮肤黏膜感染。%OBJECTIVE To investigate constituent ratio and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing skin and mucosa infection to provide the scientific evidence for clinically reasonable use of antibiotics .METHODS Totally 366 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from purulent secretion and wound drainage fluid of patients with skin and mucosa infection .Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures ,bacterial culture and i‐dentification were performed .The drug susceptibility testing for sensitivity ,intermediacy ,and resistance was per‐formed by KB method and break point recommended by CLSI .The susceptibility testing results were assessed with the software WHONET 5 .5 .RESULTS The isolating rate of gram‐positive bacteria (198 strains

  1. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from adults with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections in France: the nationwide French PREMIUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, C; Desroches, M; Emirian, A; Coutureau, C; Anais, L; Fihman, V; Soussy, C J; Decousser, J W

    2015-10-01

    The empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) must be based on updated bacterial distribution and susceptibility data. A nationwide study consecutively collected 1288 isolates from CAP (n=467) and cSSTIs (n=821) from 18 French hospitals between 2012 and 2013. The MIC values of commonly used antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined. Bacterial distribution featured Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus for CAPs and S. aureus, β-hemolytic streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae for cSSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated i) the sustained third-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin activity against pneumococci and H. influenzae, ii) no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emergence among respiratory pathogens, iii) the high in vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from cSSTIs (98.7% susceptibility), and iv) the worrisome decreasing fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae. This laboratory-based survey depicts a contrasting situation and supports the scoring of patients for the resistant pathogen risk before empirical therapy. PMID:26166208

  2. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ertapenem for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Bacteria in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common and important clinical problem in childhood, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- (ESBL- producing organisms are the leading cause of healthcare-related UTIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ertapenem therapy in children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Methods. Seventy-seven children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included in this retrospective study, and all had been treated with ertapenem between January 2013 and June 2014. Results. Sixty-one (79% females and sixteen (21% males with a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 76.6±52 months (range 3–204, median 72 months were enrolled in this study. Escherichia coli (E. coli (n=67; 87% was the most common bacterial cause of the UTIs followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (n=9; 11.7% and Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae (n=1; 1.3%. The mean duration of the ertapenem therapy was 8.9±1.6 days (range 4–11. No serious drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse effects were observed, and the ertapenem therapy was found to be safe and well tolerated in the children in our study. Conclusion. Ertapenem is a newer carbapenem with the advantage of once-daily dosing and is highly effective for treating UTIs caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms.

  3. Sublingual administration of bacteria-expressed influenza virus hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) induces protection against infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Choi, Jung-Ah; Song, Ho-Hyun; Park, Sung-Moo; Cheon, In Su; Jang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sun Je; Cho, Chung Hwan; Song, Min-Suk; Kim, Hyemi; Song, Kyung Joo; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Suhng Wook; Song, Dae Sub; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Nguyen, Huan Huu; Kim, Dong Wook; Bahk, Young Yil; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Song, Man Ki

    2013-02-01

    Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that continue to pose a significantly high risk of morbidity and mortality of humans worldwide. Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for minimizing damages by influenza outbreaks. In addition, rapid development and production of efficient vaccine with convenient administration is required in case of influenza pandemic. In this study, we generated recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin protein 1 (sHA1) of 2009 pandemic influenza virus as a vaccine candidate using a well-established bacterial expression system and administered it into mice via sublingual (s.l.) route. We found that s.l. immunization with the recombinant sHA1 plus cholera toxin (CT) induced mucosal antibodies as well as systemic antibodies including neutralizing Abs and provided complete protection against infection with pandemic influenza virus A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) in mice. Indeed, the protection efficacy was comparable with that induced by intramuscular (i.m.) immunization route utilized as general administration route of influenza vaccine. These results suggest that s.l. vaccination with the recombinant non-glycosylated HA1 protein offers an alternative strategy to control influenza outbreaks including pandemics. PMID:23456722

  4. 骨科感染创面病原菌分布调查及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in Osteopathic wound infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永苗; 叶承锋; 潘金波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenic bacteria distribution and their drug resistance in the department of Osteopathics in Tonglu TCM Hospital, and provide etiological evidence for using antibiotics reasonably. Methods The clinical data of pathogenic bacteria distribution and their drug risistance from January 2009 to December 2011 in the department of orthopedics were analyzed retrospectively. Results 694 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The isolation rate of Gram-negative bacilli was 53. 6%. The highest isolation rate (16.9%) was of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Escherichia coli (15. 6%). The isolation rate of Gram-positive cocci was 45. 8%. The highest isolation rate (25. 6%) was of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion The main pathogens in the department of Osteopathies are Gram-negative bacilli and they present multi-drug resistances. It is required to strengthen tge monitoring on the resistant strains in Osteopathies department to prevent the outbreak and prevalence of nosocomial infection.%目的 调查浙江省桐庐县中医院骨科感染创面病原菌的分布及耐药性情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供必要的病原学依据.方法 对骨科病房2009年1月至2011年12月期间感染创面所分离病原菌的菌群分布及其耐药情况进行回顾性分析.结果 共分离出病原菌694株,以革兰阴性杆菌为主,占53.6%,其中比例最高的为铜绿假单胞菌(16.9%),其次为大肠埃希菌(15.6%).革兰阳性球菌占45.8%,比例最高为金黄色葡萄球菌(25.6%).结论 革兰阴性杆菌为骨科感染创面主要病原菌,且呈现多重耐药趋势,需要加强骨科院内感染的检测和耐药菌监控,预防院内感染暴发流行.

  5. Drug resistance and pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patients with hyperplasia of prostate%前列腺增生症患者尿路感染的病原菌与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡跃世; 李鹏; 曹志华; 刘磊; 王阳

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺增生症患者尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床治疗提供依据。方法选择2013年8月-2015年8月医院收治的前列腺增生症患者250例,收集患者中段尿液,采用VIT EK‐2 Comtact法国生物梅里埃公司全自动微生物鉴定及药敏分析系统进行菌种鉴定,用K‐B纸片法进行药敏试验。结果250例前列腺增生症患者中,发生尿路感染106例,感染率为42.40%,共分离出病原菌120株,其中革兰阴性菌86株占71.67%,革兰阳性菌34株占28.33%,前3位病原菌分别为大肠埃希菌、屎肠球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,分别占35.83%、15.83%、13.30%;大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌及奇异变形菌对庆大霉素、甲氧苄啶的耐药率均>50.00%,而对亚胺培南耐药率最低,为0;粪肠球菌、屎肠球菌对左氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、环丙沙星、青霉素以及氨苄西林的耐药率均>50.00%,对万古霉素耐药率最低,为0。结论前列腺增生症患者尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌最常见,该感染多数病原菌均具有较高耐药性,临床可选择万古霉素与亚胺培南联合治疗。%OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract in‐fections in patients with hyperplasia of prostate ,so as to provide the basis for clinical treatment .METHODS A to‐tal of 250 patients with hyperplasia of prostate in our hospital from Aug .2013 to Aug .2015 were selected ,whose urine specimen were collected to have a strain identification by VIT EK‐2 Comtact a automotive bioassay and sensi‐tivity test system from French Biomerieux company ,and K‐B was used for drug resistance test .RESULTS A total of 106 patients occurred urinary tract infection among the 250 patients with hyperplasia of prostate ,and the infec‐tion rate was 42 .4% .Totally 120 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected

  6. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in tumor patients%肿瘤患者医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 余清源; 刘华; 瞿秀

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand clinical characteristics ,distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogen-ic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in tumor patients in the mountain hospital and offer a reference for clinical anti-infective treatment .METHODS The clinical records were reviewed for 226 tumor patients with nosocomial infections .Infective specimens were collected for bacterial culture and identification by the routine microbiological methods .The susceptibility test was performed by K-B method recommended by CLSI .Measurement of diameter of inhibitor zones and classification of susceptibility ,intermediate and resistance were done according to the newest breakpoints of CLSI .The WHONET 5 .5 software was used to process the data .RESULTS The main sites of nos-ocomial infections were lower respiratory tract and urinary tract .Totally 261 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 226 infective specimens .Pathogenic bacteria mainly included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 .6% ) ,K lebsiella pneumoniae (16 .5% ) , Staphylococcus aureus (13 .4% ) , E . coli (10 .7% ) and Acinetobacter baumannii (9 .6% ) .Susceptibility testing indicated that the above pathogens were multi-resistant to commonly used antibiot-ics .Imipenem-resistant P . aeruginosa and A . baumannii accounted for 16 .9% and 20 .0% , respectively . CONCLUSION It was critical to interfere and control nosocomial infections to treat tumor patients successfully .It was suggested that the clinician should reduce invasive medical procedures and apply the antibiotics reasonably in order to change the adverse tendency of the rapid growth of bacterial resistance and increase the clinical cure rate .%目的:了解山区医院肿瘤患者继发医院感染的临床特点、病原菌分布及耐药性,为有效治疗医院感染提供合理用药的实验室参考依据。方法调查2009年1月-2012年12月发生医院感染的226例肿瘤患者临床资料;标本留取、病原菌培养与鉴定均严格

  7. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  8. Viable Legionella pneumophila bacteria in natural soil and rainwater puddles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Lodder, W. J.; Bouwknegt, M.; Docters van Leeuwen, A. E.; Bruin, J. P.; Euser, S. M.; den Boer, J. W.; Schalk, J. A C

    2014-01-01

    Aims: For the majority of sporadic Legionnaires' disease cases the source of infection remains unknown. Infection may possible result from exposure to Legionella bacteria in sources that are not yet considered in outbreak investigations. Therefore, potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria

  9. 艾滋病患者肺部感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from AIDS patients with pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春明; 郑利先; 李启欣; 刘银辉; 李燕华; 谢仁岐; 李翠芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解艾滋病(AIDS)患者发生肺部感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性,为临床治疗AIDS发生肺部感染患者使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法收集2010年1月-2014年8月在医院就诊的197例AIDS发生肺部感染患者的痰标本,对其进行痰培养及药物敏感试验,按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,将送检的痰标本采用常规方法进行标本接种及病原菌分离,药敏结果参照CLSI推荐的最新标准判定。结果送检痰标本中培养出病原菌112株,其中革兰阴性菌60株占53.5%、革兰阳性菌5株占4.5%、真菌47株占42.0%;同时混合≥2种病原菌感染的有13例,占11.6%;鲍氏不动杆菌对β‐内酰胺类耐药率为38.1%~90.5%,铜绿假单胞菌耐药率为7.1%~85.7%,大肠埃希菌对喹诺酮类耐药率为41.7%~50.0%,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨基糖苷类耐药率为42.9%~57.1%。结论 AIDS患者肺部感染常同时存在多种病原菌,且以革兰阴性菌与真菌为主,呈现混合感染、多药耐药现象,应根据药敏试验结果正确选择抗菌药物。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in sputum of pul‐monary infected patients with AIDS in the city of Foshan ,so as to provide references for clinical treatments . METHODS From Jan .2010 to Aug .2014 ,197 cases with pulmonary infection in the patients with AIDS in the Hospital were investigated .Their sputum was cultured and drug sensitivity test was conducted in accordance with National Clinical Laboratory Procedures .The sputum samples were inoculated and isolated according to routine methods .Drug sensitivity results were analyzed by the newest standard recommended by CLSI .RESULTS A total of 112 positive strains were isolated ,of which gram‐negative bacteria accounted for 60 cases (53 .5% ) ,gram‐posi‐tive for 5 cases (4 .5% ) ,while fungi 47 cases (42

  10. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients infected by either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria%革兰阳性与阴性菌感染血清降钙素原水平比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾敏; 包正军; 曾欣荣; 蒋最明; 金今; 彭俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨患者血清降钙素原( procalcitonin,PCT)水平对区分常见革兰阳性(G+)菌和革兰阴性(G-)菌所致感染的价值.方法 通过对血、痰、尿等133份标本细菌培养及患者血清PCT水平测定,分析G+菌及G-菌感染后,患者体内PCT分布水平是否存在差异.结果 当血液中能培养出细菌时,G-菌感染组血清PCT水平[(38.45±60.30) ng/mL]明显高于G+菌感染组[(4.64±7.81) ng/mL],差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);根据受试者工作特征曲线(ROC),血清PCT界值设定为5.61 ng/mL时,其灵敏度为73.70%,特异性为81.80%.痰液及其他标本培养出细菌时,感染者血清PCT水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).血培养阳性组血清PCT水平明显高于其他组(P<0.001).结论 血清PCT水平测定有助于迅速区分G+菌及G-菌所致的血流感染,但对于肺部及其他局灶感染,其鉴别价值有待进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels for differentiating grarn-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Methods 133 samples of blood, sputum, urine, or the others were performed bacterial culture, and serum PCT levels were measured and analyzed to find whether there was difference in PCT levels between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria infected patients. Results When bacteria were isolated from blood culture, serum PCT levels in patients with gram-nagetive bacterial infection were obviously higher than that of gram-positive group ([38. 45 ±60. 30])ng/Ml vs [4. 64± 7. 8l])ng/Ml, P0. 05). PCT level in positive blood culture group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (Pdiscriminate lung and the other local infection need to be further studied.

  11. Analysis of Drug Resistance and Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Respiratory Tract Infection in NICU%NICU患儿呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉葵; 邓秋连; 钟华敏; 谢永强; 刘旻; 周珍文

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of common pathogenic bacterium and drug resistance of respiratory tract infections in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and provide references for rational use of antibiotics in clinic. Methods: Distribution and drug susceptibility of the pathogenic bacteria from respiratory tract specimens were statistically analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010 in NICU. Results: There were 367 strains of pathogens, of which the first 6 isolation rate of pathogenic bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae (46%), Escherichia coli (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (8.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), fungi (4.9%). Analysis of drug resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance in severe cases, ESBLs production rate 54.4%, the resistance rate of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone is respectively 91.7%, 90.5%, the resistance rate of cefepime, Cefoperazone/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, gentamicin is respectively 68.6%, 66.9%, 66.9%, 47.3%, 44.4%, low resistance rate of ciprofloxacin and Amikacin, respectively 7.7% and 16.6 %. Escherichia coli high rates of resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, sensitive or more sensitive to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, ESBLs generation rate 51%. Imipenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae bacteria of which the first 6 found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in addition to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime resistance rate is higher, more sensitive or highly sensitive to other antibiotics. Drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin is higher, respectively 95.2%, 71.4%, low resistance rate of clindamycin, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, respectively 23.8%, 23.8%, 14.3%, 4.7%, MARSA is detected in 3 strains (14.3%), vancomycin resistant strains not found; Streptococcus pneumoniae among 4 strains resistant to all erythromycin, resistance to β-lactam drugs is not serious. Conclusions: Klebsiella pneumoniae was

  12. Constituent ratio of species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile patients%老年患者泌尿道感染病原菌种类及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德明; 张前进; 谢志强; 邹义春

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the constituent ratio of species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile patients and offer evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics for anti-infective treatment . METHODS Sample collection , bacterial culture and identification were performed according to standard microbiological procedures . The susceptibility testing was carried out by K-B methods recommended by WHO and results were evaluated in accordance with CLSI 2011 -2012 . The indoor quality control was performed before analysis , after analysis and during analysis . RESULTS Among 244 strains of pathogenic bacteria , Escherichia coli (129 isolates ,52 .9% ) rated the top one .Different species of pathogenic bacteria were resistant to different antibiotics in varying degrees . The resistance rate of gram-negative bacilli against sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was the highest (> 60% ) . The antibiotics with a resistant rate of>40 .0% included cefotaxime , ciprofloxacin , levofloxacin , gentamicin . Both gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive coccus showed 100 .0% sensitivity to carbapenems and glycopeptides respectively .The detection rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was 44 .4% (71 isolates) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci 41 .7%(10 isolates) .CONCLUSIONS Drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile varies from bacterial species to species .It is recommended that the clinician should choose the suitable drug with high sensitivity and few adverse reactions for anti-infective therapy based on etiological detection and drug susceptibility data so as to increase clinical curative rate .%目的:探讨老年患者泌尿道感染病原菌种类及耐药性,为临床医师控制泌尿道感染提供选择药物的参考依据。方法标本取材、细菌培养与鉴定按照临床微生物学检验操作技术进行,药敏试验采用W HO规定的K-B法进行

  13. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser; Avaliacao da reducao bacteriana em conduto radicular infectado e irradiado com laser de diodo. Estudo in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-07-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10{sup 8} CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 {mu}m optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm{sup 2}. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at

  14. Distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in patients with biliary tract infections%胆道感染患者病原菌分布与临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡轶伦; 刘玉国; 张磊; 张炀; 何花

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in biliary tract infections , and to provide objective evidence for development of clinical prevention and control program . METHODS Totally 150 patients had bile culture from Jan .2013 to Jan .2014 were selected as the research sub‐jects .The distribution of pathogenic bacteria in bile and the clinical characteristics of the patients were observed and analyzed .RESULTS A total of 113 cases of patients'bile culture were positive ,the positive rate was 75 .3% . A total of 131 strains of pathogens were isolated ,among them ,gram negative bacterial dominated ,accounting for 67 .2% .According to logistic multivariate regression analysis ,biliary operation history ,complication of gallstone , complication of pancreatic cancer were independent risk factors of biliary tract infections ( P < 0 .05 ) . CONCLUSION The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in patients with biliary tract in‐fections has certain characteristics ,which the clinicians should pay high attention to and employ effective preven‐tion and treatment measures to improve the therapeutic effects and prognosis of patients .%目的:分析胆道感染的病原菌分布和临床特征,为制定临床预防控制方案提供参考依据。方法选取2013年1月-2014年1月胆道感染的患者150例作为研究对象,对其胆汁中的病原菌分布和临床特征进行观察和分析。结果共有113例患者的胆汁培养结果呈阳性,阳性率为75.3%,共分离出131株病原菌,以革兰阴性菌为主,共88占67.2%;logistic多元回归分析结果显示,胆道手术史、合并胆结石、合并胰腺癌为发生胆道感染的独立危险因素(P<0.05)。结论胆道感染患者的病原菌分布和临床特征均具有一定的特性,临床医师应给予高度关注,采用有效的预防和治疗措施,达到提高治疗效果和改善患者预后的目的。

  15. Distribution of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing infections in patients of department of respiratory medicine and analysis of related factors%呼吸科患者多药耐药菌感染的类型及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕少敏; 王玲玲; 俞万钧

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing infections in department of respiratory medicine and put forward targeted prevention measures so as to reduce the incidence of infections . METHODS The clinical data of 60 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria infections who were treated in the re-spiratory department from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 were retrospectively analyzed ,then the species of the drug-resist-ant bacteria and the influencing factors were analyzed ,the specific intervention measures were formulated ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of WHONET 5 .3 software .RESULTS A total of 118 strains of mul-tidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated , including 47 (39 .8% ) strains of gram-positive bacteria and 71 (60 .2% ) strains of gram-negative bacteria ;the Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant species of gram-posi-tive bacteria ,accounting for 37 .3% ;the Acinetobacter baumannii ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,and Escherichia coli were dominant among the gram-negative bacteria ,accounting for 23 .7% ,17 .8% ,and 12 .7% ,respectively .The influencing factors for the infections caused by the multidrug-resistant bacteria included the broad use of antibiot-ics ,complication of underlying diseases ,invasive operation ,decreased immunity ,without strict implementation of isolation measures ,and poor environment for hospital stay .CONCLUSION The gram-negative bacteria are the pre-dominant multidrug-resistant bacteria causing the infections in department of respiratory medicine ;there are a vari-ety of influencing factors .It is necessary for the hospital to strengthen the surveillance of pathogens and develop targeted intervention measures so as to reduce the incidence of infections .%目的:探讨呼吸科感染多药耐药菌的类型及相关因素,并制定针对性预防措施,以降低感染的发生。方法对呼吸科2011年1月-2013年1月60例多药耐药菌感染患者的临床资料进

  16. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  17. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  18. 131例住院肺炎患儿细菌感染现况及耐药谱分析%Current Status of Bacteria Infection in 131 Hospitalized Children with Pneumonia and Analysis of Relative Antibiotic Resistance Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娜尔; 李奇凤; 张斌; 姚彤; 韩艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution and resistance of pathogens in hospitalized children with pneumonia.Methods:From June 2009 to May 2010, 791 hospitalized children with pneumonia were taken sputum specimens of lower respiratory tract for bacterial culture and sensitivity test.Results: 16.56% (131/791) of them were with definite pathogens.The infection rate of Gram-negative bacteria was 75.57% (99/131), Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae were more common.The infection rate of Gram-positive bacteria was 21.37%(28/131), Streptococcus pneumonia was more common.And the infection rate of fungi was 6.87%(9/131),all of them were white Candida.The rate of patients infected with two or more pathogens was 9.92% (13/131).Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacte should be showed serious against Cephalosporins in antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance tests.Part of Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were ESBL, All of Staphylococcus was penicillin G-resistant, the drug resistant rates of clindamycin, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole to Enterococcus was 100%, of erythromycin to Streptococcus pneumonia was 100%.As for fungi, the drug resistant rate was 0.Conclusion: The infection rate of bacterial pneumonia in hospitalized children was 16.56%.The main pathogen of bacterial pneumonia was gram-negative bacteria, and most of them were drug-resistant.According to results of susceptibility tests, reasonable treatment could reduce the bacterial resistance.%目的:分析住院肺炎患儿的病原菌分布及其耐药性.方法:选择2009年6月至2010年5月,新疆维吾尔自治区人民医院儿科住院的791例肺炎患儿,采取下呼吸道痰液标本,进行细菌培养及药敏试验.结果:16.56%(131/791)患儿被确诊为细菌性肺炎并且有明确的病原,其中,革兰阴性菌感染为75.57%(99/131),且以肺炎克雷伯氏菌、大肠埃希菌、阴沟肠杆菌多见;革兰阳性菌感染为21.37%(28/131),

  19. 我院2008-2010年ICU院内感染菌株分布及耐药性分析%Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Hospital Infection in ICU and Drug Resistance Analysis in Our Hospital during 2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑虹; 安文洪; 陈微微; 黄波

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria of hospital infection in ICU and drug resistance of common antibiotics. METHODS: All the separation identification and drug sensitivity test of pathogens isolated from inpatients with hospital infection from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: 856 pathogenic bacteria were isolated in hospital infection cases of ICU. The main pathogen of nosocomial infection was 617 strains of gram-negative bacteria (72.1% ), 164 strains of gram-positive bacteria (19.2%) and 75 strains of fungi (8.8%) . Drug resistant rate of gram-negative bacteria to 3/4-gen-eration cephalosporins was high, while gram-negative bacteria was sensitive to imipenem, piperacillin/sulbactam sodium and amika-cin. Drug resistance rate of gram-negative bacteria to imipenem was the lowest. Drug resistant rate of gram-positive bacteria to van-comycin was 0%. CONCLUSION: Isolated pathogenic bacteria are mainly gram-negative bacteria. The proportion of gram-negative bacteria is rising year by year, and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics is rising on the whole. Drug resistance of bacteria is constantly changing.%目的:了解ICU院内感染病例菌株分布及常用抗菌药物的耐药情况.方法:对我院2008-2010年ICU住院患者各类送检标本细菌培养、分离鉴定和药敏试验结果进行回顾性分析.结果:院内感染病例中共分离出病原菌856株,其中革兰阴性杆菌617株,占72.1%;革兰阳性球菌164株,占19.2%;真菌75株,占8.8%.革兰阴性杆菌对第3、4代头孢菌素耐药率较高,对亚胺培南、哌拉西林/舒巴坦、阿米卡星敏感性较好,亚胺培南总耐药率最低.革兰阳性球菌对万古霉素的耐药率为0%.结论:分离的病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,所占比例有逐年升高趋势,对抗菌药物的耐药率总体上有上升趋势,且耐药性不断发生变化.

  20. 20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌及耐药性分析%Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution in 20 Cases with Infective Endocarditis and their Drug Sensitivity Test Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祝嘉; 岳志刚; 李小瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对20例感染性心内膜炎患者的培养结果进行回顾性研究,为临床合理使用抗生素提供依据.方法 回顾性分析煤炭总医院2010年20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌的分布及其对抗生素的敏感性.结果 革兰阳性球菌19株,占到95%,其中链球菌9株(占45%),主要为化脓性链球菌;葡萄球菌7株(占35%),主要为金黄色葡萄球菌;肠球菌3株(占15%),均为屎肠球菌.此外大肠埃希菌检出1株(占5%).不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药较严重,所有阳性菌对万古霉素敏感.结论 感染性心内膜炎病原菌以链球菌为主.不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,对感染性心内膜炎患者应及早进行细菌培养和耐药检测,以指导临床正确用药,防止耐药株的出现.%Objective To detect the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in 20 cases with infective endocarditis and their resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and to provide the reference for selecting antimicrobial drugs rationally in clinical treatment. Methods To analysis the pathogenic bacteria distribution and their sensitivity to antibiotics from 20 cases with infective endocarditis conformed by bacterial culture. Results The proportion of Gram-positive cocco bacterium was 95% (Streptococcus account for 45% ,the most was Streptococcus pyogenes; Staphylococcus account for 35% ,the most was Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococ-cus account for 15% ,all was Enterococcus faecium) ;the proportion of Gram-necgative bacillus was 5% ( Escherichia coli). Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and the drug resistance of staphylococcus aureus was serious. The Gram-positive cocco bacterium were found to be all sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion Streptococcus is still the primary pathogen among patients with Infective Endocarditis. Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and we should carry out cultivation

  1. [Microbial endocrinology: impact of interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones on infection--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuzhou; Wu, Cun; Lin, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Microbial endocrinology is a crossdisciplinary field representing the intersection of microbiology with mammalian endocrinology and neurophysiology. In this review, effects of catecholamine on bacteria were used as an example to demonstrate the interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones. Catecholamine modulates bacterial infectivity by stimulation of bacteria growth and augmentation of host tissue attachment and invasion. Moreover, the bacterial adrenergic receptors recognized by catecholamine and its relationship with quorum sensing signals were also addressed. This review will be helpful for understanding the interactions between microorganism and host as well as health breeding and food safety in animal industries.

  2. Bacterial modulation of the lung response to coal mine dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, R.T.; Slight, J.; MacLaren, W.M. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    A study is reported which examined, in an animal model, the effects of bacteria (Corynebacterium parvum) and a bacterial product, lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), on the pulmonary response to instilled coal mine dust. Dust from the air of a British mine producing a low rank coal was instilled into the lungs of SPF male Wistar rats. The study concluded that infection, both in the lung and at remote sites, could modulate the activity of the alveolar macrophage, a key cell in dust pathogenesis because of its ability to imitate and regulate inflammation and fibrogenesis. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Immune modulators with parasite infections

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiangsheng

    2014-01-01

    SNPs in immune-related genes (IL-2 and IL-2R alpha) may used for future prospective studies examining disease susceptibility or may better elucidate various physiological responses. Distinctive immune response profiles could provide a better understanding of the immune response during disease progression or regression and improve the monitoring of alveolar echinococcosis patients.

  4. Characteristics and Drug Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria Infections in Mass Burns Patients of Chemical Industries%化工企业成批烧伤患者感染病原菌特点及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传吉; 金少华; 张龙; 邓兴旺; 齐旭辉; 张丽香; 黄涛; 梁根秀

    2015-01-01

    重耐药性。结论成批烧伤患者的感染发生率较非成批烧伤患者明显增加,且金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌和铜绿假单胞菌等常见致病菌对常用抗生素的耐药性均增加,并呈多重耐药性。%Objective To retrospectively study the epidemiology of the distribution characteristics and drug re⁃sistance of hospital pathogenic bacteria infections in mass burns patients and individual burns patients admitted into our de⁃partment in recent years. Methods The medical records of 316 mass burns patients and 361 individual burns patients ad⁃mitted into our department between January 2008 and December 2014 were compared to analyze the main pathogenic bacteri⁃al strains, their distribution characteristics and drug resistance changes in collected specimens of wound secretion, blood, sputum, tracheal tube and deep venous catheter in each year. Results Infections of Gram⁃positive cocci and Gram⁃negative bacilli were detected in 176 patients (55. 70%) of the group of mass burns, of which the incidence was significantly higher than that of the group of individual burns, wherein infections of Gram⁃positive cocci and Gram⁃negative bacilli were detected in 135 patients (37. 40%). 253 strains (52. 93%) of main pathogenic bacteria were detected in mass burns group, inclu⁃ding 139 strains (54. 94%) of Gram⁃positive cocci (91 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 48 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis), 105 strains (41. 50%) of Gram⁃negative bacilli (63 strains of E coli and 42 strains of pseudomonas aerugi⁃nosa) and 9 strains of fungi (3. 56%), while totally 225 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected in individual burns group (40. 00%), of which 127 strains (56. 44%) were Gram⁃positive cocci (101 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 26 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis ) , 90 strains ( 43. 56%) were Gram⁃negative bacilli ( 51 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and 39 strains of E

  5. Resistant bacteria in stem cell transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Marcio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections account for most infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. While early mortality reduced dramatically with the introduction of the concept of empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic patients, no effect of prophylaxis on the mortality was observed in many studies. On the other hand, antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of resistance among bacteria. In addition, the choice of the antibiotic regimen for empirical therapy and the practices of antibiotic therapy during neutropenia may result in a significant shift in the pattern of bacterial infections. The use of quinolones and vancomycin as prophylaxis, and of carbapenems and vancomycin in the empirical antibiotic therapy, are associated with the appearance of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, hematologists must be aware of the impact of these practices on the emergence of infections due to multi-resistant pathogens, since these infections may be associated with increased mortality.

  6. Retrospective observational study to assess the clinical management and outcomes of hospitalised patients with complicated urinary tract infection in countries with high prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (RESCUING)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn; Addy, Ibironke; Stoddart, Margaret; Vank, Christiane; Grier, Sally; Wiegand, Irith; Leibovici, Leonard; Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen; MacGowan, Alasdair; Carratalà, Jordi; Pujol, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including carbapenemase-producing strains, has become a major therapeutic challenge. These MDR isolates are often involved in complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The study has been designed to gain insight into the epidemiology, clinical management, outcome and healthcare cost of patients with cUTI, especially in countries with high prevalence of MDR GNB. Methods and analysis This multinational and multicentre observational, retrospective study will identify cases from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014 in order to collect data on patients with cUTI as a cause of hospital admission, and patients who develop cUTI during their hospital stay. The primary end point will be treatment failure defined as the presence of any of the following criteria: (1) signs or symptoms of cUTI present at diagnosis that have not improved by days 5–7 with appropriate antibiotic therapy, (2) new cUTI-related symptoms that have developed within 30 days of diagnosis, (3) urine culture taken within 30 days of diagnosis, either during or after completion of therapy, that grows ≥104 colony-forming unit/mL of the original pathogen and (4) death irrespective of cause within 30 days of the cUTI diagnosis. Sample size 1000 patients afford a power of 0.83 (α=0.05) to detect an absolute difference of 10% in the treatment failure rate between MDR bacteria and other pathogens. This should allow for the introduction of about 20 independent risk factors (or their interaction) in a logistic regression model looking at risk factors for failure. Ethics and dissemination Approval will be sought from all relevant Research Ethics Committees. Publication of this study will be considered as a joint publication by the participating investigator leads, and will follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Trial

  7. Distribution and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in elderly diabetics patients%老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广斌; 申建维; 余晓凤; 谢志兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌的种类及耐药性,为临床医师治疗尿路感染用药提供参考依据。方法采集2010年1月-2012年12月住院患者清洁中段尿或导尿标本进行细菌定量培养、菌株鉴定和药敏试验,病原菌培养、鉴定按照《全国临床检验操作规程》中的方法进行;药敏试验采用CLSI规定的K-B法,试验全过程实施质量控制。结果387例患者尿液中培养出病原菌257株,阳性率为66.4%,其中大肠埃希菌检出最多173株,占67.3%;检出产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌71株,检出率为41.3%;检出耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌11株,检出率为40.7%;革兰阴性杆菌对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率最高,为63.6%~65.5%;对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物100.0%敏感,革兰阳性球菌对糖肽类抗菌药物100.0%敏感。结论老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌的耐药现状已日趋严重,建议实施《抗菌药物临床应用管理办法》,根据药敏结果,选择性价比高的抗菌药物治疗尿路感染。%OBJECTIVE To approach the species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM ) ,so as to evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics for anti-infective treatment .METHODS The clearing urine or catheterized urine samples from inpatients in the hospital between Jan .2010 to Dec .2012 were collected to perform the bacterial quantitation culturation ,identification and susceptibility testing .Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures ,pathogenic culturation and identification were carried out .The susceptibility testings were performed by K-B methods recommended by CLSI . The quality control was carried out throughout the testing .RESULTS Of 387 urine samples ,257 pathogenic bacteria were isolated .The positive detection rate was 66 .4% .Escherichia coli (173

  8. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  9. Lyn Delivers Bacteria to Lysosomes for Eradication through TLR2-Initiated Autophagy Related Phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have been reported to induce autophagy; however, the role and machinery of infection-induced autophagy remain elusive. We show that the pleiotropic Src kinase Lyn mediates phagocytosis and autophagosome maturation in alveolar macrophages (AM, which facilitates eventual bacterial eradication. We report that Lyn is required for bacterial infection-induced recruitment of autophagic components to pathogen-containing phagosomes. When we blocked autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA or by depleting Lyn, we observed less phagocytosis and subsequent bacterial clearance by AM. Both morphological and biological evidence demonstrated that Lyn delivered bacteria to lysosomes through xenophagy. TLR2 initiated the phagocytic process and activated Lyn following infection. Cytoskeletal trafficking proteins, such as Rab5 and Rab7, critically facilitated early phagosome formation, autophagosome maturation, and eventual autophagy-mediated bacterial degradation. These findings reveal that Lyn, TLR2 and Rab modulate autophagy related phagocytosis and augment bactericidal activity, which may offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies to control lung infection.

  10. Immunobiotic Bifidobacteria Strains Modulate Rotavirus Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epitheliocytes via Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ayako; Soma, Junichi; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Nochi, Tomonori; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aimed to characterize the antiviral response of an originally established porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (PIE cells) by evaluating the molecular innate immune response to rotavirus (RVs). In addition, we aimed to select immunomodulatory bacteria with antiviral capabilities. PIE cells were inoculated with RVs isolated from different host species and the infective titers and the molecular innate immune response were evaluated. In addition, the protection against RVs infection and the modulation of immune response by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains was studied. The RVs strains OSU (porcine) and UK (bovine) effectively infected PIE cells. Our results also showed that RVs infection in PIE cells triggered TLR3-, RIG-I- and MDA-5-mediated immune responses with activation of IRF3 and NF-κB, induction of IFN-β and up-regulation of the interferon stimulated genes MxA and RNase L. Among the LAB strains tested, Bifidobacterium infantis MCC12 and B. breve MCC1274 significantly reduced RVs titers in infected PIE cells. The beneficial effects of both bifidobacteria were associated with reduction of A20 expression, and improvements of IRF-3 activation, IFN-β production, and MxA and RNase L expressions. These results indicate the value of PIE cells for studying RVs molecular innate immune response in pigs and for the selection of beneficial bacteria with antiviral capabilities. PMID:27023883

  11. Bacteria in goat meat: Biological danger

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Pavlović I.; Žujović M.; Tomić Z.; Memiši N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world, especially in China, India, Pаkistаn and Nigeria goat meat represents an important foodstuff in nutrition of people. Goat meat is being increasingly consumed in Serbia owing to its distinctive taste and desirable chemical composition. As many other types of meat, goat meat can be the source of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can find their way into meat of healthy goats or goats with no clinical symptoms premortally (infection) or postmortally (...

  12. 经皮肾镜取石术后感染的病原菌及药敏分析%INFECTION FOLLOWING PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY: PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND DRUG SENSITIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方明; 张桂铭; 官丰菊; 孙立江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and their drug resistance following percutaneous nephrolithotomy CPNL) ; so as to provide evidence for post-PNL application of antibiotics. Methods Clinical data of 461 patients who underwent PNL, between September 2006 and December 2011, in our department were analyzed retrospectively. For patients with body temperature higher than 38. 0 "C after PNL, both blood and urine culture were done; for those with temperature between 37, 3 -38 ℃ and lasted for more than three days, which was considered as postoperative infection, urine culture only was carried out. The positive-culture result was then identified for pathogen and drug resistance. Results There were 64 patients with their temperature higher than 38. 0℃ after PNL.78 strains of 18 species of pathogen were cultured. Blood culture indicated: Escherichia coli accounted for 31. 8%, pseudomonas aeruginosa for 22. 73%, Klebsiella 13. 64% and staphylococcus 31. 82% ; For patients with temperature ranged 37. 5 - 38. 0℃ were recorde in 51, urine culture was done and 29 strains of 29 species were recorded, of which, the above bacteria accounted for 20. 69%, 24. 14%,6. 90% and 27. 59%, respectively. The results of drug-sentitivi-ty tests were as follows: gram negative bacilli were sensitive to imipenem, meropenem, panipenem /betamipron, cefoperazone and sulbactam /piperacillin sodium; and gram positive coccus were sensitive to tigecycline, linezolid, nitrofurantoin. teicoplanin, compound sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin. Conclusion The main pathogen of infection after PNL is gram negative bacteria, mostly escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus was the main type of gram positive bacteria. The differences of resistance to different antibiotics are great.%目的 了解经皮肾镜取石术(PNL)后感染的病原菌分布及其耐药情况,从而为PNL术后的抗生素应用提供临床依据.方法 回顾性分析2006年9月-2011

  13. Isolamento e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias em infecções uterinas de éguas Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria in uterine infections in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 206 "swabs" cervicais e uterinos de éguas de várias raças, de diversas regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais, durante o período de 1986 a 1996. Cerca de 164 "swabs" foram positivos para a presença de microrganismos causadores de endometrites. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25,7% e Escherichia coli (15,1% foram os principais agentes infecciosos isolados. Outros microrganismos presentes foram: Staphylococcus aureus (9,2%, Streptococcus alfa-hemolítico (9,2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3,9%, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (6,3%, Bacillus spp. (1,9%, Rhodococcus equi (3,4% e Proteus mirabilis (1,5%. As provas de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos revelaram que amicacina e gentamicina (70,2%, ampicilina (59,5% e cloranfenicol (59,5% foram os antibióticos de maior ação in vitro contra os microrganismos isolados.This study examined 206 cervical and uterine swabs collected from infected mares from herds in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1986 to 1996. Amongst 164 successful isolations, 25.7% were identified as Streptococcus equi, subsp. zooepidemicus, and 15.1% as Escherichia coli, both considered the most important isolates. Other bacteria found included Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%, Streptococcus alpha-hemolytic (9.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (6.3%, Bacillus spp. (1.9%, Rhodococcus equi (3.4% and Proteus mirabilis (1.5%. The antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed amikacin and gentamicin (70.2%, ampicillin and chloramphenicol (59.5% as the most effective in vitro antibiotics against these microorganisms.

  14. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  15. The pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with urinary tract infections%探讨泌尿系统感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究泌尿系统感染患者病原菌的分布和耐药情况,为患者临床治疗中抗生素的合理应用提供依据.方法:选取2012-04/2013-04于我院进行治疗的285例门诊和住院泌尿系统感染患者,并对其病原菌和耐药性进行总结.结果:研究发现,大肠埃希菌是泌尿系统感染的主要病原菌(占31.93%),然后是肠球菌(占12.28%),最后是念珠菌(占9.12%).亚胺培南对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为99.5%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为96.8%,阿米卡星对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为95.9%.亚胺培南对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为92.8%,阿米卡星对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为82.7%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为74.3%.阿米卡星对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为97.1%,亚胺培南对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为94.8%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为93.6%.利奈唑胺对肠球菌敏感率为99.9%,万古霉素对肠球菌敏感率为95.2%.大部分抗生素对白色念珠菌的敏感率高于90%,除了伊曲康唑为77.5%.伊曲康唑和氟康唑对光滑念珠菌的敏感率分别为14.9%和24.0%.结论:只有在充分认识泌尿系统感染病原菌分布和耐药情况的基础上合理使用抗生素,才能有效减少耐药菌产生,提高泌尿系统感染患者的临床疗效.%AIM:In order to provide the data for reasonable ap-plication of antibiotics in clinical,we analyzed the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with urinary tract infections.METHODS:Choosing 285 cases outpatient and inpatient in our hospital from April 2012 to April 2012,analying pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in urinary sys-tem of them.RESULTS:The primary infectious pathogenic bac-teria in the urinary system were Escherichia coli (3 1

  16. L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: may oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-05-01

    compounds, and suggest important interactions between neutrophills and carnosine related compounds in the host response to viruses and bacteria. Carnosine and anserine were also found to reduce apoptosis of human neutrophils. In this way these histidine-containing compounds can modulate the Influenza virus release from neutrophills and reduce virus dissemination through the body of the organism. This review points the ability of therapeutic control of Influenza viral infections associated with modulation by oral nonhydrolized forms of carnosine and related histidine-containg compounds of PMN apoptosis which may be involved at least in part in the pathophysiology of the disease in animals and humans. The data presented in this article, overall, may have implications for global influenza surveillance and planning for pandemic influenza therapeutic prevention with oral forms of non-hydrolized natural L-carnosine as a suitable alternative to the conventional vaccination for various flu ailments. PMID:23441838

  17. Pathogenic bacteria distrtibution and drug resistance of 259 cases of urinary system infection%259株泌尿系感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茂锐; 黄基伟; 刘桂治; 李明友; 方晓琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in the patients with urinary system infection in our hospital so as to provide the basis for prevention and treatment of urinary system infection .Methods 259 strains of pathogenic bacteria cultured and isolated from the midstream urine were performed the bacteriologic identification and the drug susceptibility testing ,Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were performed the extend‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBLs) producing testing . Results Among 259 strains of bacteria ,187 strains 72 .2% (187/259) were Gram negative stains ,43 strains 16 .6% (43/259) were Gram positive stains and 29 strains 11 .20% (29/259) were fungi .Gram negative stains were dominated by Escherichia coli (139 strains) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 strains) .The detection rates of ESBLs‐producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella pneumoni‐ae were 55 .4% (77/139) and 45 .4% (10/22) .The drug susceptibility testing results showed that Gram negative stains were sus‐ceptible to both imipenem and meropenem (100% ) and Gram positive stains were susceptible to vancomycin ,teicoplanin and linezol‐id (100% ) .Conclusion Gram negative bacilli are the main infectious pathogens in urinary tract infection and Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen .No vancomycin‐resistant Gram positive cocci is found .Rationally selecting antibacterial drugs according to the drug susceptibility testing results has great significance in the therapy of urinary tract infection and the control of drug‐resistant bacterial strains .%目的:分析本院泌尿系感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床泌尿系统感染的预防和治疗提供实验依据。方法对中段尿培养分离的259株细菌进行菌株鉴定和药敏试验,大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌进行产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶(ESBLs)检测。结果259株病原菌中革兰阴性杆菌187株,占72.2%(187/259),革兰阳性菌43

  18. Increased susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice due to Mycobacterium bovis co-infection which modulates production of Th2 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, A M; Vicentini, M A; Dias, A T; Alves, L L; Alves, C C S; Brandi, J S; De Paula, M L; Fernandes, A; Barsante, M M; Souza, M A; Teixeira, H C; Negrão-Corrêa, D; Ferreira, A P

    2009-09-01

    An estimated quarter of the world's population possesses an infection caused by gastrointestinal nematodes, which induce a Th2 type immune response. Concomitant infection of nematodes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which induces a predominantly Th1 type response, is very frequent in tropical and subtropical regions. This study examined immune responses of BALB/c mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and then co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The number of worms in the intestine, eggs in feces, cytokine production in lungs and intestine and the expression of CD80, CD86, CTLA-4 and CD28 cell markers on pulmonary cells were analysed. Our results indicate that co-infected mice had an increased parasite burden, which correlates with elevated IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine production and decreased IL-4 and IL-13. Moreover, decreased expression of CD80 and increased expression of CTLA-4 were observed in co-infected mice. Our data point out that susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is increased by Mycobacterium bovis co-infection, resulting in higher parasite survival. PMID:19660155

  19. Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN...

  20. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    +, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero...

  1. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture...

  2. 糖尿病足合并感染患者754株病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of 754 pathogenic bacteria in diabetic foot infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秋燕; 林迪妮; 朱虹; 葛胜洁; 吴文俊; 潘晓燕; 顾雪疆; 谷雪梅; 沈飞霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of organisms isolated from diabetic foot ulcers so as to provide selection rationales of antibiotics.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibilities in 754 strains of pathogens isolated from 519 patients with diabetic foot ulcers at our hospital from January 2010 to August 2013.The inter-group data were compared by Chi-square test.Results There were 322 (62.0%)males and 197 (38.0%) females.Their mean age was (67.7 ± 12.3) (30-93) years,duration of diabetes 10 (0-40) years,duration of lower-limb lesion 1.0 (0.0-72.0) months and HbA1c (9.09% ± 2.28%).Among 444 (85.5%) cases,a total of 754 strains of pathogens were isolated.Gram-positive aerobes were the most frequently isolated (47.3%,357 strains) and followed by gram-negative aerobes and fungus (40.3% vs 12.3%,304 vs 93 strains respectively).With rising Wagner's grades,bacterial floras transformed from Gram-positive cocci to Gram-negative rods while fungus and composite infections increased.And 122 strains were of multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO).Among 357 strains of Gram-positive bacteria,Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were dominating floras.Staphylococcus was highly resistant to penicillin G,erythromycin,and oxacillin while vancomycin and linezolid were the most effective agents against gram-positive bacteria.Among 304 strains of gram-negative bacteria,enterobacteria were the most prevalent,including 48 strains of Escherichia coli,34 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 31 strains of Proteus vulgaris.And there were 29 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Enterobacteria were highly resistant to ampicillin,followed by bactrim and furadantin while meropenem,imipenem,piperacillin/sulbactam,sulperazone and cefepime were the most effective agents.The predominant fungus was Blastomyces albicans.Conclusions In

  3. Analysis of the distribution and drug-resistance of Pathogenic bacteria from aged diabetic nephropathy associated with urinary infection%老年糖尿病肾病合并泌尿系感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美华

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug - resistance of Pathogenic bacteria from aged diabetic nephropathy associated with urinary infection. Methods; Specimens were colleted from inpatients and outpatients from January 2008 to June 2010. Pathogenic bacteria detection, identification and antibiotics sensitivity test were conducted. Results: There were 381 patients with urinary tract infection among 2740 patients with diabetic nephropathy, and 126 strains of bacteria were isolated, the main becteria were the Cram negative bacillus. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to all the test antibiotics except meropenem and imipenem, while Staphylococcus and Enterococcus were resistant to all the test antibiotics except vancomycin. Conclusion: The drug resistance of the bacteria isolated from diabetic nephropathy associated with urinary tract infection is serious.%目的:探讨老年糖尿病肾病合并泌尿系感染患者病原菌菌种的临床分布及耐药性.方法:收集2008年1月-2010年6月我院老年糖尿病肾病合并泌尿系感染者的尿液标本做病原学检测和药敏试验.结果:2740例糖尿病肾病患者中合并尿路感染381例;分离出病原菌126株,以革兰阴性杆菌为主.其中大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌除美洛培南和亚胺培南外,葡萄球菌属和肠球菌属除万古霉素外,对其他测试的抗生素均耐药.结论:糖尿病肾病合并泌尿系感染的细菌耐药性严重.

  4. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Resistance in the Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Urethral Catheterization%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 周云; 陶云珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum of the CAtlTI and the Bnti-microbial resistance of commonly used antimicrobial agents,and to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods 427 cases of detaining ure-thral catheter children from July 2009 to July 2011 in Children' s Hospital of Soochow University were collected, urine culture was done in the day before drawing tube,bacteriological culture was performed among any positive,drug sensitive test was conducted to the separated pathogen by Kir-Bauer AGAR diffusion method. Results Among 427 cases of detaining urethra) catheter urine samples of children,53 slrains( 12.4% ) of pathogenic bacteria were separated ,with gram-positive bacteria 31 cases,gram-negative bacteria 20 cases, candida albicans in 2 cases. Gram-positive cocci were highly resistant to rifampin( >77.8% ) ,and had a certain resistance to aminoglycosides, but were sensitive to the linezolid and vancomycin. Enterocoecus faecalis' s resistance to penicillin and levofloxacin were significantly lower than Enterococcus faecium.but almost all of them were resistant to dalfopris-lin. All of the Enterococcus faecium were resistant to penicillin,also had a very high resistance to levofloxacin( >87.5% ). Cram-negative bacteria had a high drug-resistant rate to 1 -3 generations and penicillins (about 75% ) ,were lowly resistant to imipen-em,amikaein, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin( <30%). Conclusion Gram-positive enterocoecua and escherichia coli were primarily in urinary catheter related urinary tract infections,and showed multiple resistance;to different pathogens,sensitive drugs were quite different. Drug resistance should be tested before treatment.%目的 了解留置尿管相关性尿路感染(CAUTIU)的细菌谱及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考.方法 收集苏州大学附属儿童医院小儿泌尿外科2009年7月-2011年7月住

  5. Infection Feature and Drug Resistance of Bacteria of Inferior Respiratory Tract in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Guiyang of China%贵阳地区慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期下呼吸道细菌感染特征和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠; 王燕; 蔡翠; 龙海; 张娟; 查小芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infective bacteria of inferior respiratory tract by analyzing sputum and secretion from inferior respiratory tract in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ) in Guiyang of China, and to provide evidence for clinical therapy. Methods Sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract of 254 patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from 1 April 2009 to 30 April 2010 in Guiyang were cultured and drug sensitivity tests were conducted, with one or more strains of bacteria being cultured. Results Positive sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract culture were found in 215 ( 84. 65% ) patients with AECOPD, and 516 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured. Among these bacteria, the six main pathogenic bacteria were 305 (59. 11% ) strains of moraxella catarrhalis, 108 ( 20. 93% ) strains of streptococus viridans, 22 ( 4. 26% ) strains escherichia coli, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of enteroaerogen, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of klebsie pneumoniae and 11 ( 2. 13% ) strains of hafnia alvei. There were single infective bacteria in 154 patients with AECOPD and mixing infective bacteria in 61 patients with AECOPD. Single infective bacteria were the mainly influence factors for the severity of AECOPD. Single infective bacteria and mixing infective bacteria both showed linear regression correlation with the severity of AECOPD. The same bacterial isolates were founded many times in sputum cultures, but the drug resistances of these outcomes were not the same in 60 patients with AECOPD. Six main types of pathogenic bacteria had more drug resistance ( moraxella catarrhalis et al ) to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Most of the gram-negative bacillus had low drug resistance to cephalosporins. The positive sputum germiculture was positively correlated with the severity of heart function of corpulmonale. Conclusion The moraxella catarrhalis and treptococus

  6. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  7. Pathogenic bacteria distributions and drug resistance surveillances of 603 bacterial strains for wound infection of ortho-pedic patients%603株骨科患者伤口感染病原菌分布及耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏群志; 陈森雄; 陈敏; 唐荣德

    2015-01-01

    enterobacter(6 .3% ) and the E .coli pin(3 .5% ) in the order .The methicillin‐resistants aureus bacteria and the coagulase negative staphy‐lococcus aureus is 24 .0% and 38 .7% respectively .The incidence rate of E coli pin to produce super broad spectrumβ‐lactamase (ESBLs) is 60 .0% .Conclusion The gram positive bacteria are main bacteria in the pathogenic bacteria of the orthopedic wound infection .The endogenous normal flora or the conditioned pathogen from the surrounding environment has become the main pathogenic bacteria of the orthopedic wound infection .The vancomycin and imipen‐em still keep higher antimicrobial activity .

  8. Modulation of the cellular immune response by a carbohydrate rich fraction from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in infected or immunized Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematteis, S; Pirotto, F; Marqués, J; Nieto, A; Orn, A; Baz, A

    2001-01-01

    Infection of Balb/c mice with Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces constitutes the model for secondary hydatid infection. The immune response of Balb/c mice infected with E. granulosus is characterized by secretion of antibodies specific for carbohydrate epitopes and production of type-2 cytokines. A role for glycoconjugates in the induction of type-2 responses has been suggested in other host--parasite systems. Although glycoconjugates are immunogenic in E. granulosus infection, the role of these molecules in the establishment of the type-2 response has never been analysed. In this study, a carbohydrate rich fraction (E4+) from E. granulosus protoscoleces was obtained using the monoclonal antibody E492/G1 specific for the moiety Galalpha(1,4)Gal which is widely represented in protoscoleces and other E. granulosus antigenic preparations. The results showed that E4+ was immunogenic in Balb/c mice evoking an antibody response mainly directed against carbohydrate epitopes. In addition, splenocytes from E4+-immunized mice showed suppressed proliferative responses to Con A and E4+ induced IL-10 secretion by E4+-primed and naive splenocytes. The fraction E4+ also was immunogenic in infected mice during early infection. In this case also, splenocytes from infected mice as well as peritoneal cells from infected or naive mice, when stimulated in vitro with E4+, secreted IL-10. Collectively, these results suggest that E4+ may be involved in immunosuppression phenomena and, by stimulating IL-10 secretion, may contribute to the induction and sustaining of the type-2 cytokine response established in early experimental infection.

  9. 社区和医院获得性血流感染的病原菌分布及感染途径调查%Investigation on the distribution of pathogenic bacteria from community and hospital acquired blood current infection and their routes of infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊燕; 张虹; 陈炎添; 容永璋

    2014-01-01

    .Their positive rates were 6.5% and 1 3.1 %.Both of them were mainly Gram-negative bacilli.The strains resistant to carbapenem were not found.Gram-positive cocci was sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid.The pathogenic bacterium distribution from hospital acquired blood current infection and the multi-drug resistance rate were wider and higher than those from community acquired blood current infection.The detection rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs ) of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (37.9% and 25.0%)from hospital acquired group were higher than those from community acquired group (1 8.5% and 21 .4%).The methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS)and Staphylococcus aureus detection rates (77.8% and 45.5%)were higher than those from community acquired group (46.2% and 33.3%). The principal infection routes were intravascular catheter and urethra in hospital acquired group.The principal infection routes in community acquired group were respiratory tract and biliary tract.The pathogenic bacteria from respiratory tract,biliary tract,urethra,peritoneum and intestinal tract as the routes of infection were given priority to Gram-negative bacilli.The routes of infection through skin wound,intravascular catheter and unknown pathway mostly were Gram-positive cocci.Conclusions Generally,the resistance rate of hospital acquired group is higher than that of community acquired group.Based on the routes of infection,carbapenem,vancomycin or linezolid could be chosen,until drug susceptibility tests report.

  10. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  12. 血清降钙素原对522例不同细菌类型和感染部位的全身性炎症反应患者的早期诊断差异分析%The Analysis of the Diagnosis Differellce of PCT early Diagnosing 522 lases Patients with SIRS which Infected by Different type Bacteria and in Infection site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远程; 刘欣

    2015-01-01

    of serum procalcitonin ( PCT) expression and the types of bacteria, infection site in patients with bacterial infection , evaluation of differences Value of PCT in patients with systemic inflammation diagnostic ,with bacterial in-fection type and the site of infection, promoted clinical and reliably for PCT in the accurate application of early diagnosis of bacterial infection and provide clinical observation data. Method 6728 cases of patients with infection from pathogens in 522 cases confirmed by systemic inflammatory response of patients, identify the site of infection and pathogenic bacteria types, combined with PCT clinical diagnosis standard, analysised that pathogens at early stage of infection, pathogen infection sites and different type bacterias affecting on PCT. Results By according to the type of bacterial infection, 81 cases of G +, 441 Cases of bacteria G-strain;analysis accord-ing to the site of infection, 95 cases of sterile site ( blood, pleural and ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, bile duct, peritoneal fluid) and bacteria (part of 427 cases respiratory secretions, urine, wound secretion and other). In accordance with the standard PCT, the positive predictive value PCT≥0. 1 diagnosed that 522 patients with systemic inflammation rate was 55. 94% (292/522), aseptic part 15. 79% infection was cut off (15/95), bacteria parts of 49. 64% (212/427), 57. 05% G-strains (251/440) detected PCT positive, 48. 78% (strain G + positive PCT 40/82). Analysis of site of infection and bacterial types considered, PCT positive rate is respectively:blood ( G-95. 24%, G +57. 14%) and drainage fluid ( G-89. 66%, G +40. 0%) , urine ( G-52. 84%, G +50%) , respiratory secretions ( G-41. 67%, G +58. 33%) , wound secretion and other ( G-41. 03%, G +26. 67%) . Analysis of the influence of diagnostic efficacy of bacterial type and infection sites on PCT, the site of bacterial infections affect the detection efficien-cy of PCT, bacterial infection type for the PCT

  13. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.