WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacteria modulates infections

  1. Modulation of Stat-1 in Human Macrophages Infected with Different Species of Intracellular Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Sabrina; Rinaldi, Laura; Cangiano, Alfonsina Mariarosaria; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The infection of human macrophages by pathogenic bacteria induces different signaling pathways depending on the type of cellular receptors involved in the microorganism entry and on their mechanism(s) of survival and replication in the host cell. It was reported that Stat proteins play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the changes in Stat-1 activation (phosphorylation in p-tyr701) after uptake of two Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Legionella pneumophila) characterized by their varying abilities to enter, survive, and replicate in human macrophages. Comparing the results obtained with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Stat-1 activation in macrophages does not seem to be related to LPS content. The p-tyr701Stat-1 expression levels were found to be independent of the internalized bacterial number and IFN-γ release. On the contrary, Jak/Stat-1 pathway activation only occurs when an active infection has been established in the host macrophage, and it is plausible that the differences in the expression levels of p-tyr701Stat-1 could be due to different survival mechanisms or to differences in bacteria life cycles within macrophages. PMID:27437406

  2. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  3. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day o...

  4. A Teleost Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein Kills Gram-Negative Bacteria, Modulates Innate Immune Response, and Enhances Resistance against Bacterial and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is an important factor of innate immunity that in mammals is known to take part in the clearance of invading Gram-negative bacteria. In teleost, the function of BPI is unknown. In the present work, we studied the function of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) BPI, CsBPI. We found that CsBPI was produced extracellularly by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Recombinant CsBPI (rCsBPI) was able to bind to a number of Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive bacteria. Binding to bacteria led to bacterial death through membrane permeabilization and structural destruction, and the bound bacteria were more readily taken up by PBL. In vivo, rCsBPI augmented the expression of a wide arrange of genes involved in antibacterial and antiviral immunity. Furthermore, rCsBPI enhanced the resistance of tongue sole against bacterial as well as viral infection. These results indicate for the first time that a teleost BPI possesses immunoregulatory effect and plays a significant role in antibacterial and antiviral defense. PMID:27105425

  5. Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Marketon, Melanie M.; DePaolo, R. William; DeBord, Kristin L.; Jabri, Bana; Schneewind, Olaf

    2005-01-01

    The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop β-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune cells for injection. In vivo, dendritic cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were injected most frequently, whe...

  6. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1); 2) one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2), and 3) one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR). The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA). Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows. PMID:25919010

  7. Modulating immune responses with probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, T; Chin, J

    2000-02-01

    For many years, probiotic bacteria have been known to confer health benefits to the consumer. One possible mechanism for this may be the ability of probiotic bacteria to modulate immune responses. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been found to enhance innate immunity by stimulating the activity of splenic NK cells. Oral feeding with killed LcS was able to stimulate the production of Th1 cytokines, resulting in repressed production of IgE antibodies against Ovalbumin in experimental mice. The ability to switch mucosal immune responses towards Th1 with probiotic bacteria provides a strategy for treatment of allergic disorders. Growth of Meth A tumour cells in the lungs was also inhibited by intrapleural injection of LcS. Oral administration of other probiotic bacteria, such as Streptococcus thermophilus (St), Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf) and yeast (Y), elicited different immune responses. Mice that were prefed yeast or Lf followed by feeding with ovalbumin (OVA) responded better to vaccination with OVA than mice not given either probiotic or OVA or mice that had been prefed only OVA. However, antibody responses were significantly suppressed in response to vaccination with OVA in mice that had been prefed yeast followed by yeast and OVA as well as mice prefed Lf followed by Lf and OVA. Prefeeding St followed by OVA feeding enhanced cellular immune responses against ovalbumin. In contrast, mice prefed St followed by St + OVA were hyporesponsive against OVA. While antigen feeding alone appears to prime for an immune response, cofeeding antigen with probiotic bacteria can suppress both antibody and cellular immune responses and may provide an efficacious protocol to attenuate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, by jointly dosing with myelin basic protein and probiotic bacteria. PMID:10651931

  8. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA

  9. Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Microbially-mediated metal reduction plays a significant role controlling contaminant mobility in aqueous, soil, and sedimentary environments. From among environmentally relevant microorganisms mediating metal reduction, Geobacter spp. have been identified as predominant metal-reducing bacteria under acetate- oxidizing conditions. Due to the significance of these bacteria in environmental systems, it is necessary to understand factors influencing their metabolic physiology. Examination of the annotated finished genome sequence of G. sulfurreducens PCA, G. uraniumreducens Rf4, G. metallireduceans GS-15 as well as a draft genome sequence of Geobacter sp. FRC-32 have identified gene sequences of putative bacteriophage origin. Presence of these sequences indicates that these bacteria are susceptible to phage infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets designed tested for the presence of 12 of 25 annotated phage-like sequences in G. sulfurreducens PCA and 9 of 17 phage-like sequences in FRC- 32. The following genes were successfully amplified in G. sulfurreducens PCA: prophage type transcription regulator, phage-induced endonuclease, phage tail sheath, 2 phage tail proteins, phage protein D, phage base plate protein, phage-related DNA polymerase, integrase, phage transcriptional regulator, and Cro-like transcription regulator. Nine of the following sequences were present in FRC-32: 4 separate phage- related proteins, phage-related tail component, viron core protein, phage Mu protein, phage base plate, and phage tail sheath. In addition to the bioinformatics evidence, incubation of G. sulfurreducens PCA with 1 μg mL-1 mytomycin C (mutagen stimulating prophage induction) during mid-log phase resulted in significant cell lysis relative to cultures that remained unamended. Cell lysis was concurrent with an increase in viral like particles enumerated using epifluorescent microscopy. In addition, samples collected following this lytic event (~44hours) were

  10. The interplay between Entamoeba and enteropathogenic bacteria modulates epithelial cell damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui

    : The in vitro system presented here provides evidence that the Entamoeba/enteropathogenic bacteria interplay modulates epithelial cell responses to the pathogens. In mixed intestinal infections, where such interactions are possible, they could influence the outcome of disease. The results offer insights to continue research on this phenomenon.

  11. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  12. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  13. Use of genetically modified bacteria to modulate adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2009-06-01

    Infectious diseases caused by virulent bacteria are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. However, attenuated strains derived from pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, are highly immunogenic and can be used as vaccines to promote immunity against parental pathogenic bacteria strains. Further, they can be genetically manipulated to either express foreign antigens or deliver exogenous DNA, in order to induce immunity against other pathogens or antigens. Contrarily, specific structural modifications in attenuated Salmonella have allowed the generation of strains that can be well tolerated by the immune system and reduce inflammatory responses. It is thought that those strains could be considered as vectors to promote specific immune tolerance for certain auto-antigens or allergens and reduce unwanted or self-reactive immune responses. In addition, some structural features of Salmonella can contribute to defining the nature and type of polarization of the adaptive immune response induced after immunization, which can be considered as a tool to modulate antigen-specific immunity. In this article we discuss recent advances in the understanding of immune system modulation by molecular components of bacteria and their exploitation for the rational induction of pathogen immunity or antigen-specific tolerance. PMID:19519362

  14. Secular Trends in Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections : Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Increase the Total Burden of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Harbarth, S.; Buiting, A. G. M.; Crook, D. W.; Fitzpatrick, F.; Hanberger, H.; Herwaldt, L. A.; van Keulen, P. H. J.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Kola, A.; Kuchenbecker, R. S.; Lingaas, E.; Meessen, N.; Morris-Downes, M. M.; Pottinger, J. M.; Rohner, P.; dos Santos, R. P.; Seifert, H.; Wisplinghoff, H.; Ziesing, S.; Walker, A. S.; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether rising incidence rates of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) replace antibiotic-susceptible bacteria (ASB), leaving the total BSI rate unaffected. Methods. We investigated temporal trends in annual incidence densit

  15. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  16. Modulation of host responses by oral commensal bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A. Devine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory commensal bacteria are proposed to be essential for maintaining healthy tissues, having multiple roles including priming immune responses to ensure rapid and efficient defences against pathogens. The default state of oral tissues, like the gut, is one of inflammation which may be balanced by regulatory mechanisms and the activities of anti-inflammatory resident bacteria that modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling or NF-κB activation, or influence the development and activities of immune cells. However, the widespread ability of normal resident organisms to suppress inflammation could impose an unsustainable burden on the immune system and compromise responses to pathogens. Immunosuppressive resident bacteria have been isolated from the mouth and, for example, may constitute 30% of the resident streptococci in plaque or on the tongue. Their roles in oral health and dysbiosis remain to be determined. A wide range of bacterial components and/or products can mediate immunomodulatory activity, raising the possibility of development of alternative strategies for therapy and health promotion using probiotics, prebiotics, or commensal-derived immunomodulatory molecules.

  17. Potential of lactic acid bacteria at regulating Escherichia coli infection and inflammation of bovine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genís, Sandra; Bach, Àlex; Fàbregas, Francesc; Arís, Anna

    2016-03-01

    About 40% of dairy cattle develop uterine disease during postpartum period, causing infertility. Some studies indicate that uterine infection, predominantly by Escherichia coli in the first week postpartum, is associated with metritis, an uterus inflammation in which the cow fails to completely clear bacterial contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus sakei) to modulate the E coli infection and inflammation in endometrial cells. Primary endometrial epithelial cells were isolated from fresh endometrium of a healthy cow and cultured in vitro to evaluate the effects of LAB at three different doses. Cell extracts were obtained to analyze the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and to quantify E coli infection on MacConkey agar plates. L sakei and L reuteri showed a positive effect preventing E coli infection (87% and 78%, respectively, P < 0.001); however, they were also associated to a dose-variable effect on tissular inflammation that could further exacerbate the proinflammatory status. Infection of E coli was clearly reduced (P < 0.001) up to an 83% with P acidilactici, whereas, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β dropped significantly (P < 0.001) up to 85.11 and 5.24 folds, respectively, in the presence of L rhamnosus. In conclusion, these results demonstrate a clear potential of some LAB in the modulation of endometrial infection and inflammation in cattle. PMID:26549120

  18. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  19. Anti-infective potential of hot-spring bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Pednekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram′s nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974. The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with

  20. Reactive oxygen species modulate Anopheles gambiae immunity against bacteria and Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; DeJong, Randall J; Charles, Bradley; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev; Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Giovanna; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mosquito immunity against bacteria and Plasmodium was investigated in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Strains of An. gambiae with higher systemic levels of ROS survive a bacterial challenge better, whereas reduction of ROS by dietary administration of antioxidants significantly decreases survival, indicating that ROS are required to mount effective antibacterial responses. Expression of several ROS detoxification enzymes increases in the midgut and fat body after a blood meal. Furthermore, expression of several of these enzymes increases to even higher levels when mosquitoes are fed a Plasmodium berghei-infected meal, indicating that the oxidative stress after a blood meal is exacerbated by Plasmodium infection. Paradoxically, a complete lack of induction of catalase mRNA and lower catalase activity were observed in P. berghei-infected midguts. This suppression of midgut catalase expression is a specific response to ookinete midgut invasion and is expected to lead to higher local levels of hydrogen peroxide. Further reduction of catalase expression by double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing promoted parasite clearance by a lytic mechanism and reduced infection significantly. High mosquito mortality is often observed after P. berghei infection. Death appears to result in part from excess production of ROS, as mortality can be decreased by oral administration of uric acid, a strong antioxidant. We conclude that ROS modulate An. gambiae immunity and that the mosquito response to P. berghei involves a local reduction of detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in the midgut that contributes to limit Plasmodium infection through a lytic mechanism. PMID:18065421

  1. Value of inflammatory biomarkers in early diagnosis of bacteriemia patients infected with gramnegative bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of inflammatory biomarkers such as procalcitonin(PCT),C-reactive protein(CRP),and endotoxin in early diagnosis of bacterie-mia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria.Methods A cohort of 79 bacteriemia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria admitted from February 2011 to May 2013 were enrolled for retrospective study.Collect-

  2. STUDY ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ESBL PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections have been a major problem, because of the emergence of drug resistant bacteria, in particular B - lactamase producing bacteria. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative organisms pose a great challenge in treatment o f SSI present study is aimed at determining multiple drug resistance in gram negative bacteria & to find out ESBL producers, in correlation with treatment outcome. A total of 120 wound infected cases were studied. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bact erium - 20.Among gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas species is predominant (14 followed by Escherichia coli (13 , Klebsiella species (12 , Proteus (9 Citrobacter (4 Providencia (2 & Acinetobacter species (2 . Out of 56 gramnegative bacteria isolated, 20 were i dentified as ESBL producers, which was statistically significant. Delay in wound healing correlated with infection by ESBL producers, which alarms the need of abstinence from antibiotic abuse

  3. A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.

  4. Sunlight modulates the relative importance of heterotrophic bacteria and picophytoplankton in DMSP-sulphur uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-González, Clara; Simó, Rafel; Vila-Costa, Maria; Sommaruga, Rubén; Gasol, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence supporting a major role of heterotrophic bacteria in dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) utilisation as a source of reduced sulphur. However, a role for phototrophic microorganisms has been only recently described and little is known about their contribution to DMSP consumption and the potential modulating effects of sunlight. In an attempt to ascertain the relative quantitative roles of heterotrophic bacteria and picophytoplankton in the osmoheterotrophic upt...

  5. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulate mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata L S Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS that modulate redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1, is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. CONCLUSION: We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection.

  6. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  8. The role of beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria in mixed infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Itzhak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB can play an important role in polymicrobial infections. They can have a direct pathogenic impact in causing the infection as well as an indirect effect through their ability to produce the enzyme beta-lactamase. BLPB may not only survive penicillin therapy but can also, as was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies, protect other penicillin-susceptible bacteria from penicillin by releasing the free enzyme into their environment. This phenomenon occurs in upper respiratory tract, skin, soft tissue, surgical and other infections. The clinical, in vitro, and in vivo evidence supporting the role of these organisms in the increased failure rate of penicillin in eradication of these infections and the implication of that increased rate on the management of infections is discussed.

  9. Platelets and Infections – Complex Interactions with Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Damien, Pauline; Chabert, Adrien; Pozzetto, Bruno; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Platelets can be considered sentinels of vascular system due to their high number in the circulation and to the range of functional immunoreceptors they express. Platelets express a wide range of potential bacterial receptors, including complement receptors, FcγRII, Toll-like receptors but also integrins conventionally described in the hemostatic response, such as GPIIb–IIIa or GPIb. Bacteria bind these receptors either directly, or indirectly via fibrinogen, fibronectin, the first complement...

  10. Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliziotis Ioannis A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to all available antibiotics, including polymyxins. Methods We present a case series of patients with infections due to pathogens resistant to all antimicrobial agents tested, including polymyxins. An isolate was defined as pandrug-resistant (PDR if it exhibited resistance to all 7 anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents, i.e. antipseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins. Results Clinical cure of the infection due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in 4 out of 6 patients with combination of colistin and beta lactam antibiotics. Conclusion Colistin, in combination with beta lactam antibiotics, may be a useful agent for the management of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The re-use of polymyxins, an old class of antibiotics, should be done with caution in an attempt to delay the rate of development of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

  11. An epidemiologically successful Escherichia coli sequence type modulates Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchioffo, Majoline T; Abate, Luc; Boissière, Anne; Nsango, Sandrine E; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Berry, Antoine; Oswald, Eric; Dubois, Damien; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Malaria transmission relies on the successful development of Plasmodium parasites in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Within the mosquito midgut, malaria parasites encounter a resident bacterial flora and parasite-bacteria interactions modulate Plasmodium development. The mechanisms by which the bacteria interact with malaria parasites are still unknown. The intestinal microbiota could regulate immune signaling pathways or produce bacterial compounds that block Plasmodium development. In this study, we characterized Escherichia coli strains previously isolated from the Anopheles mosquito midgut and investigated the putative role of two E. coli clones, 444ST95 and 351ST73, on parasite development. Sporogonic development was significantly impacted by exposure to clone 444ST95 whereas prevalence and intensity of infection were not different in mosquitoes challenged with 351ST73 as compared to control mosquitoes. This result indicates midgut bacteria exhibit intra-specific variation in their ability to inhibit Plasmodium development. Expression patterns of immune genes differed between mosquitoes challenged with 444ST95 and 351ST73 and examination of the luminal midgut surface by transmission electron microscopy revealed distinct effects of bacterial exposure on midgut epithelial cells. The 444ST95 clone strongly affected mosquito survival and parasite development and this could be associated to the Hemolysin F or other toxins released by the bacteria. Further studies will be needed to decipher the virulence factors and to determine their contribution to the observed phenotype of the 444ST95E. coli strain that belongs to the epidemiological ST95 clonal group responsible for extra intestinal infections in human and other animals. PMID:27154329

  12. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial [3H]diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli [3H]diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing [3H]benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligand spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed

  13. Immune Modulation Capability of Exopolysaccharides Synthesised by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; López, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Suárez, Ana; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    During recent years, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by some strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have attracted the attention of researchers, mainly due to their potential technological applications. However, more recently, it has been observed that some of these EPS present immunomodulatory properties, which suggest a potential effect on human health. Whereas EPS from lactic acid bacteria have been studied in some detail, those of bifidobacteria largely remain uncharacterized in spite of the ubiquity of EPS genes in Bifidobacterium genomes. In this review, we have analysed the data collected in the literature about the potential immune-modulating capability of EPS produced by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. From this data analysis, as well as from results obtained in our group, a hypothesis relating the physicochemical characteristics of EPS with their immune modulation capability was highlighted. We propose that EPS having negative charge and/or small size (molecular weight) are able to act as mild stimulators of immune cells, whereas those polymers non-charged and with a large size present a suppressive profile. PMID:26782182

  14. Isolation and life-cycle characterization of lytic viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Chan, Amy; Bertelsen, Sif Koldborg

    2010-01-01

    , and discusses the applications and limitations of different isolation procedures. Most work on phage isolation has been carried out with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria, culturable both on agar plates and in enriched liquid cultures. The procedures presented here are limited to lytic viruses......Basic knowledge on viruses infecting heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria is key to future progress in understanding the role of viruses in aquatic systems and the influence of virus–host interactions on microbial mortality, biogeochemical cycles, and genetic exchange. Such studies require...... infecting such hosts. In addition to the isolation procedures, methods for life cycle characterization (one-step growth experiments) of bacteriophages and cyanophages are described. Finally, limitations and drawbacks of the proposed methods are assessed and discussed...

  15. Dispersal network structure and infection mechanism shape diversity in a coevolutionary bacteria-phage system

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber, Michael; Robb, Matthew; Forde, Samantha E; Gudelj, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Resource availability, dispersal and infection genetics all have the potential to fundamentally alter the coevolutionary dynamics of bacteria–bacteriophage interactions. However, it remains unclear how these factors synergise to shape diversity within bacterial populations. We used a combination of laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling to test how the structure of a dispersal network affects host phenotypic diversity in a coevolving bacteria-phage system in communities of different...

  16. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N; Belden, Lisa K; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-04-22

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics. PMID:25788591

  17. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. OBJEC...

  18. Treatment of hemorrhagic shock with hypertonic saline solution modulates the inflammatory response to live bacteria in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Shock and resuscitation render patients more susceptible to acute lung injury due to an exacerbated immune response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli. To study the role of innate immunity in this situation, we investigated acute lung injury in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R followed by an early challenge with live bacteria. Conscious rats (N = 8 in each group were submitted to controlled hemorrhage and resuscitated with isotonic saline (SS, 0.9% NaCl or hypertonic saline (HS, 7.5% NaCl solution, followed by intratracheal or intraperitoneal inoculation of Escherichia coli. After infection, toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 mRNA expression was monitored by RT-PCR in infected tissues. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins 6 and 10 were determined by ELISA. All animals showed similar hemodynamic variables, with mean arterial pressure decreasing to nearly 40 mmHg after bleeding. HS or SS used as resuscitation fluid yielded equal hemodynamic results. Intratracheal E. coli inoculation per se induced a marked neutrophil infiltration in septa and inside the alveoli, while intraperitoneal inoculation-associated neutrophils and edema were restricted to the interseptal space. Previous I-R enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration upon bacterial challenge when SS was used as reperfusion fluid, whereas neutrophil influx was unchanged in HS-treated animals. No difference in TLR expression or cytokine secretion was detected between groups receiving HS or SS. We conclude that HS is effective in reducing the early inflammatory response to infection after I-R, and that this phenomenon is achieved by modulation of factors other than expression of innate immunity components.

  19. A prebiotic role of Ecklonia cava improves the mortality of Edwardsiella tarda-infected zebrafish models via regulating the growth of lactic acid bacteria and pathogen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Kil-Nam; Ahn, Ginnae; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the beneficial prebiotic roles of Ecklonia cava (E. cava, EC) were evaluated on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pathogen bacteria and the mortality of pathogen-bacteria infected zebrafish model. The result showed that the original E. cava (EC) led to the highest growth effects on three LABs (Lactobacillus brevis, L. brevis; Lactobacillus pentosus, L. pentosus; Lactobacillus plantarum; L. plantarum) and it was dose-dependent manners. Also, EC, its Celluclast enzymatic (ECC) and 100% ethanol extracts (ECE) showed the anti-bacterial activities on the fish pathogenic bacteria such as (Edwardsiella tarda; E. tarda, Streptococcus iniae; S. iniae, and Vibrio harveyi; V. harveyi). Interestingly, EC induced the higher production of the secondary metabolites from L. plantarum in MRS medium. The secondary metabolites produced by EC significantly inhibited the growth of pathogen bacteria. In further in vivo study, the co-treatment of EC and L. plantarum improved the growth and mortality of E. tarda-infected zebrafish as regulating the expression of inflammatory molecules such as iNOS and COX2. Taken together, our present study suggests that the EC plays an important role as a potential prebiotic and has a protective effect against the infection caused by E. tarda injection in zebrafish. Also, our conclusion from this evidence is that EC can be used and applied as a useful prebiotic. PMID:27192145

  20. Gut Microbiota-Induced Immunoglobulin G Controls Systemic Infection by Symbiotic Bacteria and Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Melody Y; Cisalpino, Daniel; Varadarajan, Saranyaraajan; Hellman, Judith; Warren, H Shaw; Cascalho, Marilia; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-03-15

    The gut microbiota is compartmentalized in the intestinal lumen and induces local immune responses, but it remains unknown whether the gut microbiota can induce systemic response and contribute to systemic immunity. We report that selective gut symbiotic gram-negative bacteria were able to disseminate systemically to induce immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, which primarily targeted gram-negative bacterial antigens and conferred protection against systemic infections by E. coli and Salmonella by directly coating bacteria to promote killing by phagocytes. T cells and Toll-like receptor 4 on B cells were important in the generation of microbiota-specific IgG. We identified murein lipoprotein (MLP), a highly conserved gram-negative outer membrane protein, as a major antigen that induced systemic IgG homeostatically in both mice and humans. Administration of anti-MLP IgG conferred crucial protection against systemic Salmonella infection. Thus, our findings reveal an important function for the gut microbiota in combating systemic infection through the induction of protective IgG. PMID:26944199

  1. Biotherapy for and protection against gastrointestinal pathogenic infections via action of probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongkol Thirabunyanon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota in the human intestine play an important function in human health and disease. Gastrointestinal infections by foodborne pathogens are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Such infections can be caused by contaminated foods or other sources which come in contact with human intestinal epithelial cells. In recent years, probiotics have been recommended as alternative biotherapeutic agents against intestinal pathogenic infections. Two genera of probiotics, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, are commercially valuable applications, several forms of which are available as capsules or in functional food products such as yogurt, fermented juices and sausages. Probiotics protect against gastrointestinal pathogenic infection via several mechanisms. These include production of antimicrobial substances, competition for nutrient substrates, competitive exclusion, enhancement of intestinal barrier function, and immunomodulation. Probiotic bacteria have been documented as being effective in biotherapeutic applications against gastrointestinal pathogens, e.g. Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and rotaviruses. This alternative therapeutic application of probiotics to protect against gastrointestinal pathogenic infections may be of great importance for future medicinal use.

  2. Molecular identification of multi drug resistant bacteria from urinary tract infected urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M S; Das, A P

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are of great concern in both developing and developed countries all over the world. Even though the infections are more common in women and children, they are at a considerable rate in men and of all ages. The uropathogens causing the infections are spread through various routes. The treatment generally recommended by the physicians is antibiotic usage. But, most of the uropathogens have evolved antibiotic resistance mechanisms. This makes the present situation hectic in control and prevention of UTIs. The present study aims to illustrate the multidrug resistance patterns among isolated bacterial strains from infected urine samples in Odisha state, India. Four bacterial strains were isolated and identified as Proteus sp. SK3, Pseudomonas sp. ADMK77, Proteus sp. BLKB2 and Enterobacter hormaechei strain CW-3 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetc analysis indicated the strains belong to three various genera namely, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. The evolutionary timeline of the bacteria was studied by constructing phylogenetic trees by Neighborhood Joining method. The presence of ESBL gene and biofilm forming capability were studied for the four strains. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were studied toward the commonly recommended antibiotics. Both the Proteus strains were found commonly susceptible to aminoglycoside and sulphonamide groups. Pseudomonas strain was found to be susceptible to cephems, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Enterobacter sp was found to be resistant to almost all antibiotic groups and susceptible to only sulphonamides group. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the bacteria help in choosing the empirical antibiotic treatment for UTI. PMID:27354209

  3. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  4. Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, B S; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20 nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified. PMID:24060281

  5. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  6. Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słodka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  7. Prevalence and susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing respiratory tract infections in North Waziristan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Said Nasir; Ullah, Bait; Basit, Abdul; Begum, Asia; Tabassum, Anum; Zafar, Shaista; Saleha, Shamim

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious diseases in humans and are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. These infections are the leading causes of consultations in primary care in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining bacterial pathogens of respiratory tract infections and the susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to antibiotics. The study was conducted between February, 2013 and March, 2014 in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. Sputum specimens were collected aseptically from 227 patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and their antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined by standard methods. Out of 227, various species of bacteria were isolated from 152 (75%) specimens. The prevalence of bacteria species isolated were as follows Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheria (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%), Proteus vulgaris (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.6%) and Bacillus species (2.6%). The susceptibility patterns varied among bacterial species depending on the antibiotics. For the susceptibility test 11 commercially available antibiotics against bacterial isolates were used. The results revealed that generally the bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (80.9%), meropenem (75 %), ceftazidime (62.5%), cefotaxime (57.9%) and ceftriazone (57.9%) and resistant to penicillin (84.9%) and doxycycline (78.9%). The antibiotics gentamicin (100%) meropenem (100%), ceftriaxone (58.5%), ciprofloxacin (60%) trimethoprim (60%), ceftazidime (66.2%) and cefotaxime (64.6%) were observed effective against the P. aeruginosa isolates. The findings of our study provide significant information for empiric therapy of patients with RTIs in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. PMID:27113300

  8. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Chawes, B. L.; Bønnelykke, K.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to...... characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  9. The calcification of staphylococcus aureus bacteria by the mineralization by inhibitor exclusion mechanism : a potential defense mechanism against bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Linh Y.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a worldwide concern. Our goal was to develop a new strategy to treat antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. We investigated whether bacteria are killed by the Mineralization by Inhibitor Exclusion (MIE) mechanism. This mechanism exploits the size exclusion characteristics of the bacterial cell wall, and therefore has no impact on mammalian cells. Our studies demonstrate that live Staphylococcus aureus are calcified by the MIE mecha...

  10. Primed Immune Responses Triggered by Ingested Bacteria Lead to Systemic Infection Tolerance in Silkworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined whether microorganisms collaterally ingested by insects with their food activate the innate immune system to confer systemic resistance against subsequent bacterial invasion. Silkworms orally administered heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells showed resistance against intra-hemolymph infection by P. aeruginosa. Oral administration of peptidoglycans, cell wall components of P. aeruginosa, conferred protective effects against P. aeruginosa infection, whereas oral administration of lipopolysaccharides, bacterial surface components, did not. In silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells, P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited in the hemolymph, and mRNA amounts of the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A and moricin were increased in the hemocytes and fat body. Furthermore, the amount of paralytic peptide, an insect cytokine that activates innate immune reactions, was increased in the hemolymph of silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells. These findings suggest that insects sense bacteria present in their food by peptidoglycan recognition, which activates systemic immune reactions to defend the insects against a second round of infection.

  11. Virus-helminth co-infection reveals a microbiota-independent mechanism of immuno-modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Nice, Timothy J.; Sutherland, Tara E.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Tran, Sara V.; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey G.; Laughlin, Alice L.; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Wherry, E. John; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immuno-modulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth co-infection. Helminth co-infection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in...

  12. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: a review of the global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Neil; Livermore, David M

    2009-09-01

    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria represent a major public health burden, not just in terms of morbidity and mortality, but also in terms of increased expenditure on patient management and implementation of infection control measures. Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. are established pathogens in the hospital environment, and their frequent multidrug resistance complicates therapy. The archetypal hospital "superbug", methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), regularly attracts mass-media interest and, in many countries, there is political pressure to reduce MRSA infection rates, with some progress now being made in the United Kingdom and the United States. To compound these established problems, we have witnessed the emergence and spread of virulent clones of MRSA in the community, and of Clostridium difficile in hospitals. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clones are major community pathogens in many parts of the world, but are now being challenged by new conjugate vaccines. Using combinations of molecular epidemiological tools, which characterize the resistant isolates and their resistance determinants, scientists can track highly successful bacterial strains at local, national, and international levels. These methods have provided new insights into the evolution of key pathogens, and this information may aid the design of control strategies and vaccines. In addition, the development of new antimicrobials including oxazolidinones, lipopeptides, glycylcyclines, ketolides, and new generations of fluoroquinolones, antistaphylococcal b-lactams, and glycopeptides must remain a high priority for the continued effective treatment of infections caused by resistant strains. So far, resistance to these newer agents is identified rarely in surveillance programs, but occasional reports of resistance causing therapeutic failure (e.g., with linezolid, daptomycin, telithromycin, or newer fluoroquinolones) give cause for concern

  13. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of RSV infection on the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to human epithelial cells was determined. RSV-infected Hep-2 cell cultures at different stages of expression of surface viral antigens and bacteria labeled with 3H-thymidine were employed to examine the kinetics of bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells. RSV infection did not alter the magnitude of adherence of HI or SA to HEp-2 cells. However, adherence of SP to HEp-2 cells was significantly (P 0C. Heat-inactivation of SP did not alter adherence characteristics. These data suggest that RSV infection increases adherence of SP to the surface of epithelial cells in vitro. Since attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces is the first step in many infections, it is suggested that viral infections of epithelial cells render them more susceptible to bacterial adherence. Thus, RSV infection in vivo may predispose children to SP infections, such as in otitis media, by increasing colonization with SP

  14. Hyperspectral image acquisition and analysis of cultured bacteria for the discrimination of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Giovanni; Conti, Nicola; Signoroni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Because of their widespread diffusion and impact on human health, early identification of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI) is one of the main challenges of clinical microbiology. Currently, bacteria culturing on Chromogenic plates is widely adopted for UTI detection for its readily interpretable visual outcomes. However, the search of alternate solutions can be highly attractive, especially in the rapidly developing context of bacteriology laboratory automation and digitization, as long as they can improve cost-effectiveness or allow early discrimination. In this work, we consider and develop hyperspectral image acquisition and analysis solutions to verify the feasibility of a "virtual chromogenic agar" approach, based on the acquisition of spectral signatures from bacterial colonies growing on blood agar plates, and their interpretation by means of machine learning solutions. We implemented and tested two classification approaches (PCA+SVM and RSIMCA) that evidenced good capability to discriminate among five selected UTI bacteria. For its better performance, robustness and attitude to work with an expanding set of pathogens, we conclude that the RSIMCA-based approach is worth to be further investigated in a clinical usage perspective. PMID:26736373

  15. Virulence Changes to Harveyi Clade Bacteria Infected with Bacteriophage from Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico-Salcedo, Nancy; Owens, Leigh

    2013-09-01

    Vibrio owensii is one of the most virulent vibrios known being able to kill crustacean larvae at 10(2) CFU ml(-1). This study describes virulence changes to naïve strains of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio campbellii when infected with the bacteriophage VOB from a closely related species V. owensii 47666-1. The bacteriophage from V. owensii was induced into lytic phase by using mitomycin C at 100 ng ml(-1). One strain of V. harveyi and two strains of V. campbellii from 29 tested containing no prophage were susceptible to lysogenic conversion with VOB. Virulence changes induced in Harveyi clade bacteria included the up-regulation of protein secretion, statistically significant increased haemolysin and chitinase production and increased mortality to nauplii of Penaeus monodon. No change in siderophore production was observed. Bacteriophage VOB is likely to be responsible for some of the virulence factors expressed by V. owensii. As this bacteriophage is able to infect strains of V. harveyi and V. campbellii this phage may contribute to increased virulence of other vibrios in aquaculture and in the natural environment. PMID:24426274

  16. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa REIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014. All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy.

  17. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  18. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess;

    2013-01-01

    the presence of low virulent anaerobic microorganisms, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes, in 7-53 % of patients. At the time of a herniation these low virulent anaerobic bacteria may enter the disc and give rise to an insidious infection. Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary...

  19. Modulation of host-cell MAPkinase signaling during fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Osherov

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections contribute substantially to human suffering and mortality. The interaction between fungal pathogens and their host involves the invasion and penetration of the surface epithelium, activation of cells of the innate immune system and the generation of an effective response to block infection. Numerous host-cell signaling pathways are activated during fungal infection. This review will focus on the main fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus n...

  20. Dengue virus life cycle : viral and host factors modulating infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2010-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV 1-4) represents a major emerging arthropod-borne pathogen. All four DENV serotypes are prevalent in the (sub) tropical regions of the world and infect 50-100 million individuals annually. Whereas the majority of DENV infections proceed asymptomatically or result in self-limited de

  1. Binding of 99mTc-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin to bacteria as a mechanism for scintigraphic detection of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 99mTc-labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG) binds to bacteria in vitro as well as in vivo. In vitro, the binding of 99mTc-HIG to various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was determined. In vivo, mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (protein A rich) or S. aureus EMS (protein A deficient) in a tigh muscle and then 99mTc-HIG or 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) was administered; scintigrams were made 1, 4 and 18 h later. In vitro binding of 99mTc-HIG to bacteria was higher for gram-positive than for gram-negative forms. A positive correlation was found between the protein A content and the degree of binding to S. aureus. This was also found in vivo. The accumulation of 99mTc-HIG at the site of infection was significantly (P99mTc-HSA, for both strains of S. aureus. It is concluded that vascular permeability cannot fully explain the accumulation of 99mTc-HIG at the site of infection and that binding of 99mTc-HIG to bacteria plays a role in this respect. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x108 CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 μm optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm2. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at the periapical

  3. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Pedro L Oliveira; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses ...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in the patients of urinary tract infection reporting at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Laboratory based study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 440 culture positive bacterial isolates from 1110 urine samples; submitted over a period of one year were included in this study. Identification of bacterial isolates was done by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibility of culture positive bacterial isolates was performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI). Results: Out of the 440 culture positive urine samples, 152 (34.6%) were from indoor patients whereas 288 (65.4%) from outdoor patients. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 414 (94%) of the total isolates while rest of the 26 (6%) were Gram positive bacteria. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Escherichia (E.) coli 270 (61.3%) followed by Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa 52 (12%) and Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae 42 (9.5%). The susceptibility pattern of E. coli showed that 96.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 85.1% to amikacin, 80.7% to piperacillin/tazobactam and 72.6% to nitrofurantoin. In case of P. aeruginsosa, 73% bacterial isolates were sensitive to tazobactam/piperacillin, 69.2% to sulbactam/cefoperazone and 65.38% to imipenem. The antibiogram of K. pneumoniae has revealed that 76.1% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 52.3% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Nitrofurantoin and imipenem were the most effective antimicrobials amongst the Enterococcus spp. as 92.3% showed susceptibility to this bacterial isolate. Conclusion: Majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam while susceptibility to most of the commonly used oral

  5.  Mycolic acids – potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kowalski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20�0to 40�0of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae.

  6. Relevance of biofilm bacteria in modulating the larval metamorphosis of Balanus amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A; Raghukumar, S.

    that the water borne and the surface associated cues from the bacteria function differentially in mediating larval metamorphosis. Understanding the complexities involved in such interactions and identification of the factors governing them would be a step ahead....

  7. Peptide IDR-1018: modulating the immune system and targeting bacterial biofilms to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sarah C; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-05-01

    Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides, produced by all complex organisms, typically contain an abundance of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues. A small synthetic peptide termed innate defense regulator (IDR-)1018 was derived by substantial modification of the bovine neutrophil host defense peptide bactenecin. Here, we review its intriguing properties that include anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and anti-biofilm activities. It was initially developed as an immune modulator with an ability to selectively enhance chemokine production and polarize cellular differentiation while suppressing/balancing the pro-inflammatory response. In this regard, it has demonstrated in vivo activity in murine models including enhancement of wound healing and an ability to protect against Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus, and inflammatory disorders, including cerebral malaria and neuronal damage in a pre-term birth model. More recently, IDR-1018 was shown, in a broad-spectrum fashion, to selectively target bacterial biofilms, which are adaptively resistant to many antibiotics and represent the most common growth state of bacteria in human infections. Furthermore, IDR-1018 demonstrated synergy with conventional antibiotics to both prevent biofilm formation and treat pre-existing biofilms. These data are consistent with a strong potential as an adjunctive therapy against antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25358509

  8. Immune Modulation Capability of Exopolysaccharides Synthesised by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; López, Patricia; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel; González de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Suárez, Ana; Margolles Barros, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During recent years, the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by some strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have attracted the attention of researchers, mainly due to their potential technological applications. However, more recently, it has been observed that some of these EPS present immunomodulatory properties, which suggest a potential effect on human health. Whereas EPS from lactic acid bacteria have been studied in some detail, those of bifidobacteria largely remain uncharacte...

  9. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria from foot infections in the patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II in the district of Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Iyanar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The present study has given the data of various bacteria encountered in the diabetic foot ulcer in the district of Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. The results clearly reveal that there is no definite aetiology in diabetic foot infections. Many patients presented the infection with the involvement of many bacteria. Further it is evident that many bacteria are multi drug resistant and thus complicating the management of diabetic foot infections. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 457-461

  10. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in treatment of urinary tract infection due to gram-negative bacteria resistant to penicillin.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, R; A.A. Lopes; Oliveira, M.M.; Rocha, H

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two adult patients with urinary tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant bacteria completed treatment with amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Of the 13 patients treated with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, the absence of bacteriuria within 7 days of therapy was observed in 85%, as compared with only 25% of the 8 patients receiving amoxicillin only. There were no significant side effects nor any clinical, biochemic...

  11. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini; Rodrigo Lucarini; Maria Gorete Mendes de Souza; Regina Helena Pires; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive ...

  12. Influence of Modified Natural or Synthetic Surfactant Preparations on Growth of Bacteria Causing Infections in the Neonatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Rauprich, Petra; Möller, Oliver; Walter, Gabriele; Herting, Egbert; Robertson, Bengt

    2000-01-01

    Connatal bacterial pneumonia is common in neonates. Animal studies and initial clinical reports indicate that surfactant dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of severe neonatal pneumonia. Since respiratory distress syndrome and connatal pneumonia may be difficult to differentiate in the first hours of life, neonates with respiratory failure due to bacterial infections might receive surfactant. Under such conditions surfactant components might be catabolized by bacteria and promote b...

  13. HLA-B27 modulates intracellular growth of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 mutants and production of cytokines in infected monocytic U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 KS8822/88 replicates rapidly in HLA-B27-transfected human monocytic U937 cells. In this process, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2 genes play a crucial role. Our previous study indicated that 118 Salmonella genes, including 8 SPI-2 genes were affected by HLA-B27 antigen during Salmonella infection of U937 cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further investigate Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive U937 monocytic cells, two SPI-2 genes, ssaS and sscA up-regulated most during Salmonella infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells, were mutated by using one-step gene disruption method. Intracellular survival and replication of the mutants in the U937 cells was compared to that of the wild type strain. Surprisingly, the two mutated strains replicated significantly more than the wild type bacteria in HLA-B27-transfected cells. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 10 (IL-10 was significantly induced during the infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells with the mutants. The results indicated that the certain SPI-2 genes in wild type bacteria suppress Salmonella intracellular growth and production of cytokines in infected HLA-B27-transfected cells. HLA-B27-associated modulation of Salmonella SPI-2 genes and cytokine production may have importance in the persistent infection of the bacteria and the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that certain virulence factors of pathogens can reduce the intracellular growth in the host cells. We suggest that the limiting intracellular growth might be a strategy for persistence of bacteria in host cells, keeping a balance between pathogenic growth and pathogenesis.

  14. Emerging clinical role of pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infection in the context of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Simon; Reed, Lee C; Koerner, Roland J

    2014-02-01

    The continuing spread of resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a therapeutic challenge and prudent use of antimicrobials is therefore essential. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), usually due to Gram-negative bacteria, are among the most common infections seen in the community. Moreover, bacterial strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that are resistant not only to cephalosporins and penicillins, but also to fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim, are becoming more prevalent in the community. This means that oral antibiotic options to treat these infections are limited. The discovery of new drugs to tackle these problems has been difficult and slow paced; it is therefore timely to 'rediscover' the current antibiotics we have available in our clinical formulary, to determine how best they can be used. Pivmecillinam is an oral antibiotic with excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs. It has been used extensively in Nordic countries with few problems, but, despite this, it is not widely used in other countries. There is emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence of its activity against ESBL-producing organisms and its synergistic potential with β-lactamase inhibitors. Pivmecillinam is well tolerated with a low side-effect profile. Pivmecillinam also has a minimal effect on the intestinal and vaginal flora of the host; thus, there is a lower rate of selection of resistant bacteria, vaginal candidiasis and, of note, Clostridium difficile. PMID:24068280

  15. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-07-01

    Host age is one of the most striking differences among hosts within most populations, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of both the host and the parasite. Here, we examined the influence of host age (juveniles, young and old adults) at parasite exposure on host susceptibility, fecundity and survival as well as parasite transmission, using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Younger D. magna were more susceptible to infection than older ones, regardless of host or parasite clone. Also, younger-infected D. magna became castrated faster than older hosts, but host and parasite clone effects contributed to this trait as well. Furthermore, the early-infected D. magna produced considerably more parasite transmission stages than late-infected ones, while host age at exposure did not affect virulence as it is defined in models (host mortality). When virulence is defined more broadly as the negative effects of infection on host fitness, by integrating the parasitic effects on host fecundity and mortality, then host age at exposure seems to slide along a negative relationship between host and parasite fitness. Thus, the virulence-transmission trade-off differs strongly among age classes, which in turn affects predictions of optimal virulence. Age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. Our results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters. PMID:25661269

  16. Atorvastatin and metformin administration modulates experimental Trichinella spiralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmad A; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Ashour, Dalia S; Saied, Eman M; Zineldeen, Doaa H; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2016-04-01

    The host-parasite interaction can be altered by the changes in the host environment that may be or may not be in favor of successful invasion by the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis. Metformin and atorvastatin are applied on a wide scale, to the degree that they could be considered as part of the host biochemical environment that can affect the parasite. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of alteration of the host's biochemical environment by these commonly used drugs upon the course of T. spiralis infection. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) received atorvastatin, (2) received metformin, and (3) untreated, then after one week, animals were infected with T. spiralis. The treatment continued until the end of the experiment. From each group, small intestines and muscles were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses as well as total muscle larval counts. We found that the oxidative stress and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the muscles were significantly reduced in both drug-receiving groups, while the total larval counts in muscles were only significantly reduced in atorvastatin-receiving group as compared to the infected control group. Moreover, marked reduction in the inflammatory cellular infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and oxidative stress was noted in the small intestines of the treated groups as compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, this study provides many insights into the different biochemical changes in the host that the parasite has to face. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects should be taken into consideration when treating infections in patients on therapy with atorvastatin or metformin. PMID:26546571

  17. Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

  18. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  19. Microglia and Memory: Modulation by Early-life Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Lauren L.; Sholar, Paige W.; Mistry, Rishi S.; Smith, Susan H.; Staci D. Bilbo

    2011-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is critical for normal hippocampus (HP)-dependent cognition, whereas high levels can disrupt memory and are implicated in neurodegeneration. However, the cellular source of IL-1β during learning has not been shown, and little is known about the risk factors leading to cytokine dysregulation within the HP. We have reported that neonatal bacterial infection in rats leads to marked HP-dependent memory deficits in adulthood. However, deficits are ...

  20. Modulation of viral infection in plants by exogenous guanosine

    OpenAIRE

    Panattoni, Alessandra; Rinaldelli, Enrico; Materazzi, Alberto; Luvisi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of purines in antiviral treatments in plants, ribavirin (RB) and tiazofurin (TZ) were applied in combination with guanosine (GS) or adenosine (AS) in in vitro grapevine or tobacco explants infected by Grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), respectively. Using a microelectrochemical (trans-plasma membrane electron transport, t-PMET) technique, in vivo assay of free reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was also carried o...

  1. A gastrointestinal rotavirus infection mouse model for immune modulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Amerongen Geert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess whether colostrum containing rotavirus-specific antibodies (Gastrogard-R® could protect against rotavirus infection. In addition, this illness model was used to study modulatory effects of intervention on several immune parameters after re-infection. Methods BALB/c mice were treated by gavage once daily with Gastrogard-R® from the age of 4 to 10 days, and were inoculated with rhesus rotavirus (RRV at 7 days of age. A secondary inoculation with epizootic-diarrhea infant-mouse (EDIM virus was administered at 17 days of age. Disease symptoms were scored daily and viral shedding was measured in fecal samples during the post-inoculation periods. Rotavirus-specific IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses in serum, T cell proliferation and rotavirus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses were also measured. Results Primary inoculation with RRV induced a mild but consistent level of diarrhea during 3-4 days post-inoculation. All mice receiving Gastrogard-R® were 100% protected against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Mice receiving both RRV and EDIM inoculation had a lower faecal-viral load following EDIM inoculation then mice receiving EDIM alone or Gastrogard-R®. Mice receiving Gastrogard-R® however displayed an enhanced rotavirus-specific T-cell proliferation whereas rotavirus-specific antibody subtypes were not affected. Conclusions Preventing RRV-induced diarrhea by Gastrogard-R® early in life showed a diminished protection against EDIM re-infection, but a rotavirus-specific immune response was developed including both B cell and T cell responses. In general, this intervention model can be used for studying clinical symptoms as well as the immune responses required for protection against viral re-infection.

  2. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  3. HISTOMORPHOLOGIC STUDY OF EXPERI MENTAL FUNGAL INFECTION WITH IMMUNE MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree J Ingin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To study the histomorphological changes in various organs of mice receiving C.albicans inoculation with and without prior corticosteroid injections. Method: The study consisted of 5 groups. Group I animals received C.albicans intraperitoneally. Group II received corticosteroids prior to intraperitoneal C.albicans inoculation. Group III animals received intravenous injections of C.albicans. Group IV animals received corticosteroids prior to intravenous C.albicans injection. Group V, the control group received normal saline. Results: Group I animals showed microabscesses on liver, spleen and in omentum. Healing of lesions occurred spontaneously. Group II animals noted increased mortality with more widespread lesions. Involvement of lung and kidney was also noted. In Group III, mortality occurred in all animals within 72hrs. Lesions were also noted in kidneys, heart, and brain. Conclusion: Corticosteroid administration induces immunos upression resulting in disseminated infections

  4. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew H Becker; Walke, Jenifer B.; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E.; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; Harris, Reid N.; Lisa K Belden; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd...

  5. Multi-bacteria multi-antibiotic testing using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kastanos, Evdokia; Pitris, Costas

    2013-06-01

    The inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance, which is a major health care problem. The current method for determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics requires overnight cultures. However most of the infections cannot wait for the results to receive treatment, so physicians administer general spectrum antibiotics. This results in ineffective treatments and aggravates the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. In this work, a rapid method for diagnosis and antibiogram for a bacterial infection was developed using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles. The advantages of this novel method include its rapidness and efficiency which will potentially allow doctors to prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic for an infection. SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp. were obtained after 0 and 4 hour exposure to the seven different antibiotics. Bacterial strains were diluted in order to reach the concentration of (2x105 cfu/ml), cells/ml which is equivalent to the minimum concentration found in urine samples from UTIs. Even though the concentration of bacteria was low, species classification was achieved with 94% accuracy using spectra obtained at 0 hours. Sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics was predicted with 81%-100% accuracy from spectra obtained after 4 hours of exposure to the different antibiotics. This technique can be applied directly to urine samples, and with the enhancement provided by SERS, this method has the potential to be developed into a rapid method for same day UTI diagnosis and antibiogram.

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae filamentous phage NgoΦ6 is capable of infecting a variety of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Kłyż, Aneta; Majchrzak, Michał; Szczêsna, Ewa; Piechucki, Marcin; Kwiatek, Agnieszka; Maugel, Timothy K; Stein, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a phagemid consisting of the whole genome of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteriophage NgoΦ6 cloned into a pBluescript plasmid derivative lacking the f1 origin of replication (named pBS::Φ6). Escherichia coli cells harboring pBS::Φ6 were able to produce a biologically active phagemid, NgoΦ6fm, capable of infecting, integrating its DNA into the chromosome of, and producing progeny phagemids in, a variety of taxonomically distant Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria sicca, Pseudomonas sp., and Paracoccus methylutens. A derivative of pBS::Φ6 lacking the phage orf7 gene, a positional homolog of filamentous phage proteins that mediate the interaction between the phage and the bacterial pilus, was capable of producing phagemid particles that were able to infect E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, N. sicca, Pseudomonas sp., and Paracoccus methylutens, indicating that NgoΦ6 infects cells of these species using a mechanism that does not involve the Orf7 gene product and that NgoΦ6 initiates infection through a novel process in these species. We further demonstrate that the establishment of the lysogenic state does not require an active phage integrase. Since phagemid particles were capable of infecting diverse hosts, this indicates that NgoΦ6 is the first broad-host-range filamentous bacteriophage described. PMID:24198404

  7. Pathogenic bacteria profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ear infection at Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Derese; Mekonnen, Daniel; Derbie, Awoke; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2016-01-01

    Ear infection linked with frequent antibiotic prescription, hearing impairment, severe disability and death is a public health threat in developing countries. However, there is scarcity of documented data in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed at determining bacterial etiologic agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients of all age groups referred to Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center. Retrospective data recorded on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility profile were retrieved for analysis. Pus swabs from discharging ears collected and processed for aerobic bacteria culture and susceptibility testing. Of the total 368 pus swab samples processed, 296 (80.4 %) were culture positive. Of which, 289 (97.6 %) were bacteria and 7 (2.4 %) were yeast cells. The proportion of ear infection was higher in males (92.7 %) than females (65 %) (P = 0.014). The frequency of ear infection below 21 years of age was 65.2 %. The predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.7 %) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (26.3 %) and Proteus spp. (21.9 %). High level of antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin and penicillin whereas ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin and amikacin were found effective against the isolated bacteria. Aerobic bacterial otitis media linked with high levels of resistance against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin is major health problem in the study area. Moreover, considerable level of oxacillin resistant S. aureus suggests the diffusion of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community. Therefore, treatment of otitis media in the study area needs to be guided by antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates. PMID:27119070

  8. Chronic Schistosome Infection Leads to Modulation of Granuloma Formation and Systemic Immune Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Lundy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

  9. Assessment of the Ozone-Mediated Killing of Bacteria in Infected Dentine Associated with Non-Cavitated Occlusal Carious Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Baysan, A.; Beighton, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ozone to kill micro-organisms associated with non-cavitated occlusal caries was investigated. The occlusal surfaces were treated with ozone (n = 53) or air (n = 49) for 40 s, and the underlying infected dentine was exposed. There was no significant difference between the number of bacteria recovered from the ozone-treated and the control sites (p > 0.1). Treatment of the exposed dentine with ozone resulted in a just significant (p = 0.044) reduction in bacterial counts. Ozone t...

  10. Modulation of innate antigen-presenting cell function by pre-patent schistosome infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Ferragine

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are intravascular helminths that infect over 200 million people worldwide. Deposition of eggs by adult schistosomes stimulates Th2 responses to egg antigens and induces granulomatous pathology that is a hallmark of schistosome infection. Paradoxically, schistosomes require host immune function for their development and reproduction and for egress of parasite eggs from the host. To identify potential mechanisms by which immune cells might influence parasite development prior to the onset of egg production, we assessed immune function in mice infected with developing schistosomes. We found that pre-patent schistosome infection is associated with a loss of T cell responsiveness to other antigens and is due to a diminution in the ability of innate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate T cells. Diminution of stimulatory capacity by schistosome worms specifically affected CD11b(+ cells and did not require concomitant adaptive responses. We could not find evidence for production of a diffusible inhibitor of T cells by innate cells from infected mice. Rather, inhibition of T cell responsiveness by accessory cells required cell contact and only occurred when cells from infected mice outnumbered competent APCs by more than 3∶1. Finally, we show that loss of T cell stimulatory capacity may in part be due to suppression of IL-12 expression during pre-patent schistosome infection. Modulation of CD4(+ T cell and APC function may be an aspect of host immune exploitation by schistosomes, as both cell types influence parasite development during pre-patent schistosome infection.

  11. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect. PMID:21413423

  12. Association of bacteria in diabetic and non-diabetic foot infection - An investigation in patients from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaker, Mousumi; Sanyal, Santonu K; Sultana, Munawar; Hossain, M A

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community on a host relies on its immune status and pathophysiological condition. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with a 25% increased risk of developing foot infection. The pathophysiological differences between diabetic foot infection (DFI) and non-DFI patients may alter the microbial composition in infections. The present study aims to comparatively analyze the microbes colonized in DFI and non-DFI patients in Bangladesh. Pus specimens were collected from 67 DFI and 12 non-DFI patients to investigate the bacteria associated with foot infection. For this investigation, an array of microbiological, molecular biological and immunological approaches were performed. Common bacteria detected in both DFI/non-DFI samples were Pseudomonas spp. (22/29%), Bacillus spp. (12/3%), Enterobacter spp. (22/7%), Staphylococcus spp. (13/13%) and Acinetobacter spp. (10/10%). Enterococcus spp. (9%) and Klebsiella spp. (8%) occurred only in DFI patients, whereas Citrobacter spp. (29%) was only detected in non-DFI samples. The rate of occurrence of three organisms, namely, Enterococcus spp. |Z|=2.2125, Klebsiella spp. |Z|=1.732, Bacillus spp. |Z|=1.9034, were also statistically significant. Most of the isolates from DFI patients were commonly resistant to the cephalosporin (Ceftazidime, Ceftriazone, Cefurozime) and monobactam (Aztreonam) groups of antibiotics. DFI patients had comparatively higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-DFI patients, and a positive correlation was observed between multi-antibiotic resistance and CRP levels (one of the markers of chronic subclinical inflammation). The present investigation implicated a complex association of the bacterial population in DFI compared with non-DFI with different antimicrobial resistance properties, which was linked with CRP levels. PMID:26617249

  13. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of bacteria-infected watermelon seeds using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is needed to minimize the economic loss by sorting infected seeds from healthy seeds before seeding. However, current methods of detecting infection seeds such as seedling grow-out, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time polymerase chain reaction...

  15. Interactions Between Bacteria and the Gut Mucosa: Do Enteric Neurotransmitters Acting on the Mucosal Epithelium Influence Intestinal Colonization or Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Brown, David R

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include enteric neurons, whose activity is influenced by bacterial pathogens, and their secreted products. Neurotransmitters appear to influence epithelial associations with bacteria in the intestinal lumen. For example, internalization of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the Peyer's patch mucosa of the small intestine is altered after the inhibition of neural activity with saxitoxin, a neuronal sodium channel blocker. Catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, also alter bacterial internalization in Peyer's patches. In the large intestine, norepinephrine increases the mucosal adherence of E. coli. These neurotransmitter actions are mediated by well-defined catecholamine receptors situated on the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells rather than through direct interactions with luminal bacteria. Investigations of the involvement of neuroepithelial communication in the regulation of interactions between the intestinal mucosa and luminal bacteria will provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying bacterial colonization and pathogenesis at mucosal surfaces. PMID:26589216

  16. Plasma needle treatment of bacteria known to cause infections of the soft tissue of the oral region and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Dejan; Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Miletic, Maja P.; Pavlica, Dusan B.; Jovanovic, Milena Z.; Milenkovic, Pavle

    2009-10-01

    Plasma needle can be used for non-contact disinfection of dental cavities and wounds, minimum-destructive precise treatment, as well as the removal of damaged tissue. The effect of bacterial deactivation is probably caused by reactive oxygen species while nitric oxide provided by plasma plays major role in many processes in the organism. Mass spectrometry was done to provide better insight into plasma-cell interactions. Our measurements were performed on a plasma needle that we originally used for the treatment of plant cells.Our research was done on species that are known to cause primary and secondary infections of the soft tissue of the oral region, as well as bones. The bacteria cultures used are bacterial reference culture species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We investigated the effect of the plasma needle discharge on different concentration of bacteria using several exposure times and power transmitted to the plasma. It was found that excellent removal of this and other bacteria may be achieved by the plasma needle treatment.

  17. Alendronate augments interleukin-1β release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1β, but not TNFα, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1β production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1β production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1β induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1β release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs

  18. A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Seung Min; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeong, Joon Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic. PMID:26921543

  19. Epigenetic modulations in activated cells early after HIV-1 infection and their possible functional consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana T Maricato

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications refer to a number of biological processes which alter the structure of chromatin and its transcriptional activity such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational processing. Studies have tried to elucidate how the viral genome and its products are affected by epigenetic modifications imposed by cell machinery and how it affects the ability of the virus to either, replicate and produce a viable progeny or be driven to latency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate epigenetic modifications in PBMCs and CD4+ cells after HIV-1 infection analyzing three approaches: (i global DNA- methylation; (ii qPCR array and (iii western blot. HIV-1 infection led to methylation increases in the cellular DNA regardless the activation status of PBMCs. The analysis of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 suggested a trend towards transcriptional repression in activated cells after HIV-1 infection. Using a qPCR array, we detected genes related to epigenetic processes highly modulated in activated HIV-1 infected cells. SETDB2 and RSK2 transcripts showed highest up-regulation levels. SETDB2 signaling is related to transcriptional silencing while RSK2 is related to either silencing or activation of gene expression depending on the signaling pathway triggered down-stream. In addition, activated cells infected by HIV-1 showed lower CD69 expression and a decrease of IL-2, IFN-γ and metabolism-related factors transcripts indicating a possible functional consequence towards global transcriptional repression found in HIV-1 infected cells. Conversely, based on epigenetic markers studied here, non-stimulated cells infected by HIV-1, showed signs of global transcriptional activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 infection exerts epigenetic modulations in activated cells that may lead these cells to transcriptional repression with important functional consequences. Moreover, non-stimulated cells seem to increase gene transcription after HIV-1 infection

  20. Relevance of Dietary Lipids as Modulators of Immune Functions in Cells Infected with Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Puertollano, María A.; de Pablo, Manuel A.; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional status may have significant importance for the immune system, and particularly, unsaturated fatty acids may serve as modulators of immune functions. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that fatty acids are involved in the reduction of the inflammatory processes that occur in diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system. At the same time, an increase in susceptibility to infection has also been reported. The importance of immune system modulat...

  1. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

    OpenAIRE

    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de; Pereira Angela de Meirelles Santos; Silva Márcio Cataldo Gomes da; Gonçalves Verônica Dias; Brum Paulo Roberto; Castro Almeida Ribeiro de; Pereira Alexandre Adler; Esteves Francisco de Assis; Pereira José Augusto Adler

    2002-01-01

    In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc.), the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteri...

  2. HIV-1 Nef Inhibits Ruffles, Induces Filopodia, and Modulates Migration of Infected Lymphocytes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Cinzia; Rudnicka, Dominika; Hasan, Milena; Aulner, Nathalie; Porrot, Françoise; Machu, Christophe; Renaud, Olivier; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Hivroz, Claire; Schwartz, Olivier; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV-1 Nef protein is a pathogenic factor modulating the behavior of infected cells. Nef induces actin cytoskeleton changes and impairs cell migration toward chemokines. We further characterized the morphology, cytoskeleton dynamics, and motility of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. By using scanning electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and ImageStream technology, which combines flow cytometry and automated imaging, we report that HIV-1 induces a characteristic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In infected lymphocytes, ruffle formation is inhibited, whereas long, thin filopodium-like protrusions are induced. Cells infected with HIV with nef deleted display a normal phenotype, and Nef expression alone, in the absence of other viral proteins, induces morphological changes. We also used an innovative imaging system to immobilize and visualize living individual cells in suspension. When combined with confocal “axial tomography,” this technique greatly enhances three-dimensional optical resolution. With this technique, we confirmed the induction of long filopodium-like structures in unfixed Nef-expressing lymphocytes. The cytoskeleton reorganization induced by Nef is associated with an important impairment of cell movements. The adhesion and spreading of infected cells to fibronectin, their spontaneous motility, and their migration toward chemokines (CXCL12, CCL3, and CCL19) were all significantly decreased. Therefore, Nef induces complex effects on the lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton and cellular morphology, which likely impacts the capacity of infected cells to circulate and to encounter and communicate with bystander cells. PMID:20015995

  3. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host’s defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNFα and IFNγ, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNFα. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria.

  4. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  5. History of infection with different male-killing bacteria in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata revealed through mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    v d Schulenburg, J Hinrich G; Hurst, Gregory D. D.; Tetzlaff, Dagmar; Booth, Gwendolen E; Zakharov, Ilia A; Majerus, Michael E. N.

    2002-01-01

    The two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is host to four different intracellular maternally inherited bacteria that kill male hosts during embryogenesis: one each of the genus Rickettsia (alpha-Proteobacteria) and Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) and two distinct strains of Wolbachia (alpha-Proteobacteria). The history of infection with these male-killers was explored using host mitochondrial DNA, which is linked with the bacteria due to joint maternal inheritance. T...

  6. Tuberculosis and the risk of infection with other intracellular bacteria: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, M A; Fiske, C T; Jones, T F; Warkentin, J; Shepherd, B E; Ingram, L A; Maruri, F; Sterling, T R

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Persons who develop tuberculosis (TB) may have subtle immune defects that could predispose to other intracellular bacterial infections (ICBIs). We obtained data on TB and five ICBIs (Chlamydia trachomatis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria monocytogenes) reported to the Tennessee Department of Health, USA, 2000-2011. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing ICBIs in persons who developed TB and ICBIs in the Tennessee population, adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity were estimated. IRRs were not significantly elevated for all ICBIs combined [IRR 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.06]. C. trachomatis rate was lowest in the year post-TB diagnosis (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.70). More Salmonella infections occurred in extrapulmonary TB compared to pulmonary TB patients (IRR 14.3, 95% CI 1.67-122); however, this appeared to be related to HIV co-infection. TB was not associated with an increased risk of other ICBIs. In fact, fewer C. trachomatis infections occurred after recent TB diagnosis. Reasons for this association, including reduced exposure, protection conferred by anti-TB drugs or macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection warrant further investigation. PMID:25148655

  7. Translocation of phospholipase A2α to apoplasts is modulated by developmental stages and bacterial infection in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye eJung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2 position to yield lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Of the four paralogs expressed in Arabidopsis, the cellular functions of PLA2α in planta are poorly understood. The present study shows that PLA2α possesses unique characteristics in terms of spatiotemporal subcellular localization, as compared with the other paralogs that remain in the ER and/or Golgi apparatus during secretory processes. Only PLA2α is secreted out to extracellular spaces, and its secretion to apoplasts is modulated according to the developmental stages of plant tissues. Observation of PLA2α-RFP transgenic plants suggests that PLA2α localizes mostly at the Golgi bodies in actively growing leaf tissues, but is gradually trans-located to apoplasts as the leaves become mature. When Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying the avirulent factor avrRpm1 infects the apoplasts of host plants, PLA2α rapidly trans-locates to the apoplasts where bacteria attempt to become established. PLA2α promoter::GUS assays show that PLA2α gene expression is controlled in a developmental stage- and tissue-specific manner. It would be interesting to investigate if PLA2α functions in plant defense responses at apoplasts where secreted PLA2α confronts with invading pathogens.

  8. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and pmoA genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity by 6-fold during a 19 day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly inhibited in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like type Ia MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be suppressed by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. Strikingly, type Ib MOB did not respond to methane nor to urea. Increase in 13C-assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, in

  9. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-06-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity 6-fold during a 19-day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly suppressed in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be partially inhibited by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to an equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related type Ia MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. An increase in 13C assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition partially inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, as well as growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These

  10. Infection by chikungunya virus modulates the expression of several proteins in Aedes aegypti salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchankouo-Nguetcheu Stephane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. Methods We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI with chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling. Conclusion Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.

  11. Epidemiology of Ocular Infection Due to Bacteria and Fungus – A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Verma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 400 cases of eye infection were studied. Among them, 250 were conjunctivitis (59.2%,120were keratitis (53.34% 15 were endophthalmitis (26.67% and 15 were suffering from other infections(40%. The corneal scrapping, conjunctival swab and biopsy material ( endophthalmitis cases was collectedasceptically. The material was examined using 10% Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining and Giemsastaining. The specimens were cultured on sheeps’ blood agar, chocolate agar and sabourauds’ dextroseagar. In the bacterial cause of eye infection Staphylococcus aureus (19.13% was the most commonlyisolated organism and other pathogens isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.93%, Streptococcuspyogens (0.55%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.92%, Klebsiella species(2.74%, Escherichia colli (1.10%and Proteus mirabilis (0.55%. Among the opportunistic pathogens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, (19.13%were the most common isolate followed by Acinetobacter species(2.74%. Alkaligenes faecalis (1.10%,Staphylococcus saprophyticus (0.55%, Staphylococcus cohnii (0.55%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus(0.55%. In the endopthalmitis patients only Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20% and Staphylococcusepidermidis (6.67% were isolated. In the fungal keratitis, the total fungal isolates were 32.50%. Amongthem Aspergillus species (56.42% was the most common fungus isolated followed by Curvurlaria (17.95%,Cladosporium (7.70%, Candida species (5.13%, Fusarium (5.13%, Alternaria (5.13%, Penicillium(2.57%. Fungal infection is a life threatening condition, which needs early diagnosis and treatment tosave the patients’ eye. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are still the most commonisolates among the known and opportunistic pathogens in ocular infection. Pseudomonas is the mostcommon cause of endophthalmitis. Aspergillus remains most common cause for fungal keratitis.

  12. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...

  13. Lactic acid bacteria activating innate immunity improve survival in bacterial infection model of silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Satoshi; Ono, Yasuo; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thought to be helpful for human heath in the gut as probiotics. It recently was noted that activity of LAB stimulating immune systems is important. Innate immune systems are conserved in mammals and insects. Silkworm has innate immunity in response to microbes. Microbe-associated molecular pattern (ex. peptidoglycan and β-glucan) induces a muscle contraction of silkworm larva. In this study, we established an efficient method to isolate lactic acid bacteria derived from natural products. We selected a highly active LAB to activate the innate immunity in silkworm by using the silkworm muscle contraction assay, as well. The assay revealed that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 was highly active on the stimulation of the innate immunity in silkworm. L. lactis 11/19-B1 solely fermented milk with casamino acid and glucose. This strain would be a starter strain to make yogurt. Compared to commercially available yogurt LAB, L. lactis 11/19-B1 has higher activity on silkworm contraction. Silkworm normally ingested an artificial diet mixed with L. lactis 11/19-B1 or a yogurt fermented with L. lactis 11/19-B1. Interestingly, silkworms that ingested the LAB showed tolerance against the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These data suggest that Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 would be expected to be useful for making yogurt and probiotics to activate innate immunity. PMID:26971556

  14. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the biodiversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacterial and algal communities in soils is important for obtaining a mechanistic view of terrestrial carbon sinks operating at global scales. "Red" acidic soils (Orthic Acrisols) cover large geographic areas and are subject to a range of management practices, which may alter the balance between carbon dioxide production and assimilation through changes in microbial CO(2)-assimilating populations. Here, we determined the abundance and diversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacteria and algae in acidic soils using quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the cbbL gene, which encodes the key CO(2) assimilation enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the Calvin cycle. Within the framework of a long-term experiment (Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem, subtropical China), paddy rice fields were converted in 1995 to four alternative land management regimes: natural forest (NF), paddy rice (PR), maize crops (CL), and tea plantations (TP). In 2012 (17 years after land use transformation), we collected and analyzed the soils from fields under the original and converted land management regimes. Our results indicated that fields under the PR soil management system harbored the greatest abundance of cbbL copies (4.33 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil). More than a decade after converting PR soils to natural, rotation, and perennial management systems, a decline in both the diversity and abundance of cbbL-harboring bacteria and algae was recorded. The lowest abundance of bacteria (0.98 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil) and algae (0.23 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil) was observed for TP soils. When converting PR soil management to alternative management systems (i.e., NF, CL, and TP), soil edaphic factors (soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were the major determinants of bacterial autotrophic cbbL gene diversity. In contrast, soil phosphorus concentration was the major regulator

  15. Using In Vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Selection of Probiotics against Salmonella Infection in Broiler Chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchang Feng

    Full Text Available Poultry is known to be a major reservoir of Salmonella. The use of lactic acid bacteria has become one of successful strategies to control Salmonella in poultry. The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria strains by their in vitro immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics against Salmonella infection in broiler chicks. Among 101 isolated lactic acid bacteria strains, 13 strains effectively survived under acidic (pH 2.5 and bile salt (ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% conditions, effectively inhibited growth of 6 pathogens, and adhered to Caco-2 cells. However, their in vitro immunomodulatory activities differed significantly. Finally, three strains with higher in vitro immunomodulatory properties (Lactobacillus plantarum PZ01, Lactobacillus salivarius JM32 and Pediococcus acidilactici JH231 and three strains with lower in vitro immunomodulatory activities (Enterococcus faecium JS11, Lactobacillus salivarius JK22 and Lactobacillus salivarius JM2A1 were compared for their inhibitory effects on Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro and their antimicrobial effects in vivo. The former three strains inhibited Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro, reduced the number of Salmonella in intestinal content, spleen and liver, reduced the levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 in serum and increased the level of IL-10 in serum during a challenge study in vivo more efficiently than the latter three strains. These results suggest that in vitro immunomodulatory activities could be used as additional parameters to select more effective probiotics as feed supplements for poultry.

  16. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25073519

  17. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Depletion of Butyrogenic Bacteria in Clostridium difficile Infection and Nosocomial Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Antharam, Vijay C.; Li, Eric C.; Ishmael, Arif; Sharma, Anuj; Mai, Volker; Rand, Kenneth H.; Wang, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nearly half a million cases of diarrhea and colitis in the United States each year. Although the importance of the gut microbiota in C. difficile pathogenesis is well recognized, components of the human gut flora critical for colonization resistance are not known. Culture-independent high-density Roche 454 pyrosequencing was used to survey the distal gut microbiota for 39 individuals with CDI, 36 subjects with C. difficile-negative nosocomial diarr...

  18. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoads Daniel D; Cox Stephen B; Rees Eric J; Sun Yan; Wolcott Randall D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in m...

  19. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

  20. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  1. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria from foot infections in the patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II in the district of Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan Iyanar; Premavathy R. K.; Sambandam Cecilia; Jayalakshmi M.; Sruthi Priyadarsini S.; Shantha S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality among persons with diabetes mellitus. The reported prevalence rates in India range from 0.9 and ndash;8.3%. Diabetes foot lesions are the leading cause of non-traumatic amputations worldwide. A study has been conducted to isolate and find the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacteria from diabetic foot infections from the patients of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Sixty patients ...

  2. Electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy of radical pairs in photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is widely used to study the radical pairs created during the primary steps of photosynthesis. In this thesis the analysis of ESEEM spectra is improved, and some new applications and variations of this experiment suggested. Experimental spectra from species such as P+QA-, the secondary radical pair formed in the reaction centre of the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, give information about the exchange and dipolar couplings between the radicals. The model used to analyse the data affects the results; this thesis suggests two improvements. First, the effect of anisotropic hyperfine couplings in the radicals is considered by the addition of a single spin-1/2 nucleus to the model. This approach suggests that previous models neglecting the effect of nuclei may have been slightly in error. Secondly, several model fittings are performed in the time domain. This approach avoids the Fourier transformation to the frequency domain so that experimental dead-time does not corrupt the data. An excellent fit to experimental data is found with a model containing one spin-1/2 nucleus on each radical. The hyperfine coupling parameters resulting from the fit are consistent with independent experimental results. Use is made of the method of Cramer-Rao lower bounds to assess the precision to which experimental parameters are determined from a time domain curve fitting. It is shown that the lower bounds may also be used to determine the optimum sampling strategy for the experiment. An example is given of the novel use of ESEEM to determine the distance between the radicals in the strongly coupled, uncorrelated radical pair QA-QB-. ESEEM has not yet been used for this purpose, and the simulated spectra produced here indicate that the experiment could be used to evaluate the dipolar coupling and hence the inter-radical distance. This thesis considers the possibility of performing ESEEM at higher frequencies than are usually

  3. Bryostatin modulates latent HIV-1 infection via PKC and AMPK signaling but inhibits acute infection in a receptor independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Mehla

    Full Text Available HIV's ability to establish long-lived latent infection is mainly due to transcriptional silencing in resting memory T lymphocytes and other non dividing cells including monocytes. Despite an undetectable viral load in patients treated with potent antiretrovirals, current therapy is unable to purge the virus from these latent reservoirs. In order to broaden the inhibitory range and effectiveness of current antiretrovirals, the potential of bryostatin was investigated as an HIV inhibitor and latent activator. Bryostatin revealed antiviral activity against R5- and X4-tropic viruses in receptor independent and partly via transient decrease in CD4/CXCR4 expression. Further, bryostatin at low nanomolar concentrations robustly reactivated latent viral infection in monocytic and lymphocytic cells via activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC -alpha and -delta, because PKC inhibitors rottlerin and GF109203X abrogated the bryostatin effect. Bryostatin specifically modulated novel PKC (nPKC involving stress induced AMP Kinase (AMPK inasmuch as an inhibitor of AMPK, compound C partially ablated the viral reactivation effect. Above all, bryostatin was non-toxic in vitro and was unable to provoke T-cell activation. The dual role of bryostatin on HIV life cycle may be a beneficial adjunct to the treatment of HIV especially by purging latent virus from different cellular reservoirs such as brain and lymphoid organs.

  4. A host basal transcription factor is a key component for infection of rice by TALE-carrying bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Ke, Yinggen; Huang, Renyan; Ma, Ling; Yang, Zeyu; Chu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins found in a range of plant pathogenic bacteria, where they play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. However, it has been unclear how TALEs, after they have been injected into the host cells, activate transcription of host genes required for infection success. Here, we show that the basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit TFIIAγ5 from rice is a key component for infection by the TALE-carrying bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent for bacterial blight. Direct interaction of several TALEs with TFIIAγ5 is required for activation of disease susceptibility genes. Conversely, reduced expression of the TFIIAγ5 host gene limits the induction of susceptibility genes and thus decreases bacterial blight symptoms. Suppression or mutation of TFIIAγ5 can also reduce bacterial streak, another devastating disease of rice caused by TALE-carrying X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. These results have important implications for formulating a widely applicable strategy with which to improve resistance of plants to TALE-carrying pathogens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19605.001 PMID:27472897

  5. Poly I:C enhances susceptibility to secondary pulmonary infections by gram-positive bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tian

    Full Text Available Secondary bacterial pneumonias are a frequent complication of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, but the mechanisms underlying viral-induced susceptibility to bacterial infections are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether the host's response against the viral infection, independent of the injury caused by the virus, results in impairment of antibacterial host defense. Here, we sought to determine whether the induction of an "antiviral" immune state using various viral recognition receptor ligands was sufficient to result in decreased ability to combat common bacterial pathogens of the lung. Using a mouse model, animals were administered polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C or Toll-like 7 ligand (imiquimod or gardiquimod intranasally, followed by intratracheal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae. We found that animals pre-exposed to poly I:C displayed impaired bacterial clearance and increased mortality. Poly I:C-exposed animals also had decreased ability to clear methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, we showed that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and Retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG-I/Cardif pathways, which recognize viral nucleic acids in the form of dsRNA, both contribute to poly I:C mediated impairment of bacterial clearance. Finally, we determined that poly I:C administration resulted in significant induction of type I interferons (IFNs, whereas the elimination of type I IFN signaling improved clearance and survival following secondary bacterial pneumonia. Collectively, these results indicate that in the lung, poly I:C administration is sufficient to impair pulmonary host defense against clinically important gram-positive bacterial pathogens, which appears to be mediated by type I IFNs.

  6. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  7. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  8. Surface properties of catheters, stents and bacteria associated with urinary tract infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Sunaina; Mittelman, Marc W.; McIntyre, Stewart

    Applications of surface and physico-chemical techniques to the clinical setting, in particular related to the urogenital tract, have been sporadic, often concentrating on aspects of biocompatibility and interactions of blood cells with materials. In an era where billions of such devices are implanted annually, it is important to utilize such techniques to improve our understanding of material-host interactions. In an effort to encourage further such interactive investigations, this review will illustrate some practical biomedical examples where utilization of sophisticated surface-science techniques has provided valuable insight into interfacial events between host components, micro-organisms and material surfaces. Techniques to reduce bacterial infection and encrustations will be discussed, and suggestions given for future lines of enquiry.

  9. A Possible Link between Infection with Burkholderia Bacteria and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Epitope Mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that purified polyclonal and monoclonal anti-dsDNA antibodies bind a 15-mer peptide ASPVTARVLWKASHV in ELISA and Dot blot. This 15-mer peptide partial sequence ARVLWKASH shares similarity with burkholderia bacterial cytochrome B 561 partial sequence ARVLWRATH. In this study, we show that purified anti-dsDNA antibodies react with burkholderia fungorum bacterial cell lysates in Western blot. We used anti-dsDNA antibodies to make an anti-dsDNA antibodies affinity column and used this column to purify the burkholderia fungorum bacterial protein. Purified anti-dsDNA antibodies bind specifically to purified bacterial antigen and purified bacterial antigen blocked the anti-dsDNA antibodies binding to dsDNA antigen. Sera with anti-dsDNA antibodies bind specifically to purified bacterial antigen. We obtained protein partial sequence of RAGTDEGFG which is shared with burkholderia bacterial transcription regulator protein sequence. Sera with anti-dsDNA antibodies bind to RAGTDEGFG peptide better than control groups. These data support our hypothesis that the origin of anti-dsDNA antibodies in SLE may be associated with burkholderia bacterial infection.

  10. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  11. Modulation of inflammation and pathology during dengue virus infection by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yilong; Yip, Andy; Seah, Peck Gee; Blasco, Francesca; Shi, Pei-Yong; Hervé, Maxime

    2014-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection could lead to dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The disease outcome is controlled by both viral and host factors. Inflammation mediators from DENV-infected cells could contribute to increased vascular permeability, leading to severe DHF/DSS. Therefore, suppression of inflammation could be a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of dengue patients. In this context, p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) is a key enzyme that modulates the initiation of stress and inflammatory responses. Here we show that SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, suppressed the over production of DENV-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-8, and RANTES from human PBMCs, monocytic THP-1, and granulocyte KU812 cell lines. Oral administration of SB203580 in DENV-infected AG129 mice prevented hematocrit rise and lymphopenia, limited the development of inflammation and pathology (including intestine leakage), and significantly improved survival. These results, for the first time, have provided experimental evidence to imply that a short term inhibition of p38 MAPK may be beneficial to reduce disease symptoms in dengue patients. PMID:25131378

  12. [Three Cases of Bacteremia due to Helicobacter cinaedi Infection and the Usefulness of Gene Analysis of Isolated Bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Yosuke; Noguchi, Shingo; Orihashi, Takeshi; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is typically isolated from immunocompromised patients. Some reports of infection caused by H.cinaedi have been found in recent years. We experienced three cases of H.cinaedi bacteremia in one year and ten months in our hospital, although the detection of H.cinaedi in blood cultures is extremely rare. In case 1, a 77-year-old female had been treated with a steroid and immunosuppressive agent for interstitial pneumonia. In cases 2 and 3, two 71-year-old men had been treated with chemotherapy for lung cancer. Although the identification of the bacteria could not be performed by the culture method in the three cases, H.cinaedi bacteremia was diagnosed by a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis in case 1, and by nested PCR in cases 2 and 3. H.cinaedi bacteremia often tends to recur and also requires prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We believe that gene analysis is useful in the identification of H.cinaedi. PMID:26667196

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  14. Urease-positive bacteria in the stomach induce a false-positive reaction in a urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takako; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of urease-positive non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the results of a urea breath test (UBT) to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a UBT using film-coated [(13)C]urea tablets. The UBT was performed in 102 patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. Urease-producing bacteria other than H. pylori were isolated and identified from the oral cavity and stomach. In 4/102 patients, the UBT gave false-positive results. These false-positive results were found to be caused by the presence of urease-positive bacteria in the oral cavity and stomach. Five bacterial species with urease activity (Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus) were subsequently isolated from the oral cavity and/or stomach. As there was no correlation between the in vitro urease activity of urease-positive non-H. pylori bacteria and the UBT value, and all of the patients with a false-positive UBT result were suffering from atrophic gastritis, it is possible that the false-positive results in the UBT were a result of colonization of urease-positive bacteria and gastric hypochlorhydric conditions. Thus, for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection using a UBT, the influence of stomach bacteria must be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:18566138

  15. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  16. The Comparison of Antagonistic Effects of Normal Vaginal Lactobacilli and Some Commonly used Antibiotics on Isolated Bacteria of Uterine Infections in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Dini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine infections are one of the major reproductive complications during postpartum. The antibiotics and antiseptic agents used in the treatment of postpartum infections have residues in food, induce bacterial resistance, increase the financial costs and cause failure in defense mechanism of host. On the other hand, nowadays the administration of probiotics is considered as an alternative method for the prevention and treatment of infections. Therefore, preventive treatment with probiotic product could decrease the usage of antibiotic and bring advantages in dairy farm systems. The objective of this study was screening of the antagonistic properties of isolated vaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB against the most prevalent bacteria in uterine infections in order to investigate their probiotic potentials as an alternative approach for prevention of uterine infections. LAB were isolated from sampling of cranial part of vagina during estrus phase and luteal phase of Holstein dairy cattle and pathogens bacteria were isolated from merits and endometritis specimens which referred to our veterinary laboratory. The antagonistic activity of isolated LAB against uterine pathogens was tested by Agar spot test. Antibiotic susceptibilities of pathogenic strains to commonly used antibiotics were investigated by using disc diffusion method. Inhibition zones around both the probiotic spots and the antibiotic discs were classified to weak, moderate and strong categories and their antagonistic efficacies were compared. Isolated LAB had antagonistic effects against all the pathogenic strains including both gram negative and gram positive, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were the most sensitive bacteria (with 12.60 and 14 mm an average inhibition zone, respectively. LAB had the least antagonistic effects on Clostridium perfringens (3.6 mm of an average inhibition zone. Comparing the antagonistic efficacies, the percentages of overall

  17. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Inês

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Results From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1% were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5% and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%. Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased. Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR isolates (17%. Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age. Conclusions The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended

  18. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal) was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis Laboratory Avelab during the period 2000–2009 were analysed. Samples with more than 105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive and, for these samples, the bacteria were identified and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. Results From the 155597 samples analysed, 18797 (12.1%) were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in women (78.5%) and its incidence varied with age, affecting more the elderly patients (38.6%). Although E. coli was, as usual, the most common pathogen implicated in UTI, it were observed differences related to the other bacteria more implicated in UTI relatively to previous studies. The bacteria implicated in the UTI varied with the sex of the patient, being P. aeruginosa a more important cause of infection in men than in women. The incidence of the main bacteria changed over the study period (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp and Providencia spp increased and Enterobacter spp decreased). Although E. coli was responsible for more than an half of UTI, its resistance to antibiotics was low when compared with other pathogens implicated in UTI, showing also the lowest percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates (17%). Bacteria isolated from females were less resistant than those isolated from males and this difference increased with the patient age. Conclusions The differences in sex and age must be taken into account at the moment of empirical prescription of antimicrobials. From the recommended antimicrobials by the European

  19. A new approach for the discovery of antibiotics by targeting non-multiplying bacteria: a novel topical antibiotic for staphylococcal infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.

  20. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sreevatsan Srinand; An Ruisheng; Grewal Parwinder S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. The mutualistic bacteria living in the intestines of the nematode infective juveniles are pathogenic to the insect upon release by the nematodes into the insect hemolymph. Such a switch needs activation of genes that promote bacterial virulence. We studied in vivo gene expression in Ph...

  1. Correlation between uropathogenic properties of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections and the antibody-coated bacteria test and comparison with faecal strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, H. J.; Benseman, B. A.; Peck, J.; Bettelheim, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli isolated from adult females with symptomatic urinary tract infection were found to possess the following properties significantly more frequently than faecal strains: (i) high K-antigen titre: (ii) haemolysin; (iii) type 1 pili; (iv) mannose-resistant haemagglutination; (v) fermentation of dulcitol and salicin; (vi) O serotype 2, 6 and 75; (vii) H serotype 1. E. coli isolated form urine specimens containing significant numbers of antibody-coated bacteria were riche...

  2. Pathogenesis of experimental Leptospira interrogans serotype icterohaemorrhagiae infection in the guinea pigs: possible role of endotoxin of intestinal bacteria in the development of lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, R; Descôteaux, J P; Degré, R

    1980-01-01

    Germ-free guinea pigs were infected with a virulent strain of Leptospira interrogans serotype icterohaemorrhagiae to evaluate the possible role of endotoxin of intestinal bacteria in the development of hemorrhages and hepatic and renal failure. Clinical manifestations, necropsy findings and histological lesions were similar to those seen in control animals. In the second part of the experiment, endotoxin was not detected by the Limulus test in the blood of ten guinea pigs during the five day ...

  3. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Linhares Inês; Raposo Teresa; Rodrigues António; Almeida Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of the empirical therapy, the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTI in the community (in Aveiro, Portugal) was evaluated throughout a ten-year period. Methods In this retrospective study, all urine samples from patients of the District of Aveiro, in ambulatory regime, collected at the Clinical Analysis ...

  4. Lactic-acid bacteria increase the survival of marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection with Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the survival, post-larvae quality, and the population of bacteria in Litopenaeus vannamei after the addition of two strains of lactic-acid bacteria (2 and B6 experimentally infected by Vibrio harveyi. Fifteen hundred nauplii were distributed in 20 L capacity tanks with four replicates. The survival of control animals was lower (21% than that of animals fed with the strains B6 (50% and 2 (44%. Total bacterial population in the water and larvae, as well as of the Vibrio ssp. in water was not different among the treatments. No difference was observed in the population of Vibrio ssp. between the control larvae (5.5±0.5 log UFC/mL and that fed with strain 2 (5.4±0.1 log UFC/mL. Shrimp from control and fed with strain 2 showed significantly higher bacterial population than those fed with strain B6 (1.2±0.2 log UFC/mL. It was detected the lower load of Vibrio ssp. bacteria with potential of pathogenicity after feeding with strain B6.Moreover, these larvae showed more active behavior and low number of necrosis in relation to the control group and to that fed with strain 2.Este trabalho avaliou a adição de duas cepas de bactérias lácticas (2 e B6 na sobrevivência, qualidade de pós-larva e na população de bactérias na larvicultura de Litopenaeus vannamei experimentalmente infectado por Vibrio harveyi. Mil e quinhentos náuplios foram distribuídos em tanques de 20 L com quatro repetições. A sobrevivência dos animais controle foi menor (21% do que a dos alimentados com as cepas B6 (50% e 2 (44%. Sobrevivência de misis após desafio com V. harveyi foi maior em B6 do que nos outros tratamentos. A população total de bactérias na água e nas larvas, bem como de Vibrio ssp. na água não foi diferente entre os tratamentos. Não houve diferença, também, entre a população de Vibrio ssp. em larvas do grupo controle (5,5±0,5 log UFC/mL e larvas alimentadas com a cepa 2 (5,4±0,1 log UFC/mL. Camarões do grupo controle e

  5. Detection of bacteria bearing resistant biofilm forms, by using the universal and specific PCR is still unhelpful in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections(PJI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StylianosChatzipanagiotou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative conventional bacteriological cultures were compared with different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods in patients with total joint arthroplasties. The isolated bacteria were investigated for biofilm formation, and the biofilm forming strains, in their planktonic and biofilm forms, were further tested for their antimicrobial resistance against several clinically important antimicrobials. Forty four bone and joint samples were included and classified as infected or non-infected according to standard criteria for periprosthetic hip and knee infections. For the bacteriological diagnosis, conventional culture, two types of universal PCR and species specific PCR for three selected pathogens (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa were applied. Biofilm formation determination was performed by the tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the planktonic bacteria was performed by the minimal inhibitory concentration determination and, of the biofilm forms, by the minimal inhibitory concentration for bacterial regrowth from the biofilm. Twenty samples were culture positive, with S. epidermidis, S. aureus or P. aeruginosa. All PCR methods were very ineffective in detecting only one pathogen. All isolates were biofilm positive and their biofilm forms, were highly resistant. In this study, compared to PCR, culture remains the “gold standard”. The biofilm formation by the causative bacteria and the concomitant manifold increased antimicrobial resistance may explain the clinical failure of treatment in some cases and should be considered in the future for therapeutic planning.

  6. 急诊科多药耐药菌感染与定植的趋势分析%Multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization in emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聚源; 蔡虻; 王旭涛; 董凡; 张献文; 邵文博; 胡云建; 刘安雷; 张新超

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To conduct long-term and continuous intervention to the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization in emergency department through hand hygiene promotion activity and understand the epidemiological trend of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization through daily monitoring so as to verify the intervention effect .METHODS The targeted monitoring was conducted for the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization from Jan 2012 to Mar 2012 ,the controlled intervention study was carried out by using epidemiologic cross-sectional study ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed by using the IBM SPSS 21 .0 .RESULTS The multidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated from 297 patients who were hospitalized from the emergency department from Jan 2012 to Mar 2014 ;the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ,multidrug-resistant or pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ,and carbapenem-resistant Escherich-ia coli ranked the top three species of the multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated .The rate of the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization decreased from 42 .5% to 19 .8% (P<0 .05) .The hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers of the emergency department increased from 20 .2% to 49 .3% (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION It is an effective way to take interventions to the multidrug-resistant bacteria infections so as to reduce the rate of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization and block the spread of the multidrug-resistant bacteria .%目的:通过采取手卫生促进活动,长期、持续地对急诊科多药耐药菌感染与定植进行干预,并通过日常监测了解多药耐药菌感染与定植流行趋势以验证干预效果。方法2012年1-3月医院开展多药耐药菌感染与定植目标性监测;采取流行病学横断面研究的方法进行自身前后对照干预研究;应用 IBM SPSS 21.0对数据进行

  7. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  8. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreevatsan Srinand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. The mutualistic bacteria living in the intestines of the nematode infective juveniles are pathogenic to the insect upon release by the nematodes into the insect hemolymph. Such a switch needs activation of genes that promote bacterial virulence. We studied in vivo gene expression in Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the white grub Rhizotrogus majalis using selective capture of transcribed sequences technique. Results A total of 40 genes in P. temperata and 39 in X. koppenhoeferi were found to be upregulated in R. majalis hemolymph at 24 h post infection. Genomic presence or upregulation of these genes specific in either one of the bacterium was confirmed by the assay of comparative hybridization, and the changes of randomly selected genes were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The identified genes could be broadly divided into seven functional groups including cell surface structure, regulation, virulence and secretion, stress response, intracellular metabolism, nutrient scavenging, and unknown. The two bacteria shared more genes in stress response category than any other functional group. More than 60% of the identified genes were uniquely induced in either bacterium suggesting vastly different molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity to the same insect host. In P. temperata lysR gene encoding transcriptional activator was induced, while genes yijC and rseA encoding transcriptional repressors were induced in X. koppenhoeferi. Lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene lpsE was induced in X. koppenhoeferi but not in P. temperata. Except tcaC and hemolysin related genes, other virulence genes were different between the two bacteria. Genes involved in TCA cycle were induced in P. temperata whereas

  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFNα modulates Th17 differentiation during early Bordetella pertussis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Smith, A A; You, H; Nguyen, T A; Ferguson, R; Taylor, M; Park, J E; Llontop, P; Youngman, K R; Abramson, T

    2016-05-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis). T helper 17 (Th17) cells have a central role in the resolution of the infection. Emerging studies document that type I interferons (IFNs) suppress Th17 differentiation and interleukin (IL)-17 responses in models of infection and chronic inflammation. As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I IFNs, we hypothesize that during B. pertussis infection in mice, pDC-derived IFNα inhibits a rapid increase in Th17 cells. We found that IFNα-secreting pDCs appear in the lungs during the early stages of infection, while a robust rise of Th17 cells in the lungs is detected at 15 days post-infection or later. The presence of IFNα led to reduced Th17 differentiation and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo blocking of IFNα produced by pDCs during infection with B. pertussis infection resulted in early increase of Th17 frequency, inflammation, and reduced bacterial loads in the airways of infected mice. Taken together, the experiments reported here describe an inhibitory role for pDCs and pDC-derived IFNα in modulating Th17 responses during the early stages of B. pertussis infection, which may explain the prolonged nature of whooping cough. PMID:26462419

  10. Antibacterial Surface Design of Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Enhanced Bacteria-Killing and Cell-Assisting Functions Against Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Qian, Shi; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the formidable and recalcitrant complications after orthopedic surgery, and inhibiting biofilm formation on the implant surface is considered crucial to prophylaxis of PJI. However, it has recently been demonstrated that free-floating biofilm-like aggregates in the local body fluid and bacterial colonization on the implant and peri-implant tissues can coexist and are involved in the pathogenesis of PJI. An effective surface with both contact-killing and release-killing antimicrobial capabilities can potentially abate these concerns and minimize PJI caused by adherent/planktonic bacteria. Herein, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in titania (TiO2) nanotubes by anodic oxidation and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to form a contact-killing surface. Vancomycin is then incorporated into the nanotubes by vacuum extraction and lyophilization to produce the release-killing effect. A novel clinical PJI model system involving both in vitro and in vivo use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 is established to systematically evaluate the antibacterial properties of the hybrid surface against planktonic and sessile bacteria. The vancomycin-loaded and Ag-implanted TiO2 nanotubular surface exhibits excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against planktonic/adherent bacteria without appreciable silver ion release. The fibroblasts/bacteria cocultures reveal that the surface can help fibroblasts to combat bacteria. We first utilize the nanoarchitecture of implant surface as a bridge between the inorganic bactericide (Ag NPs) and organic antibacterial agent (vancomycin) to achieve total victory in the battle of PJI. The combination of contact-killing and release-killing together with cell-assisting function also provides a novel and effective strategy to mitigate bacterial infection and biofilm formation on biomaterials and has large potential in orthopedic applications. PMID:27054673

  11. In vitro volatile organic compound profiling using GC×GC-TOFMS to differentiate bacteria associated with lung infections: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizio, K D; Perrault, K A; Troobnikoff, A N; Ueland, M; Shoma, S; Iredell, J R; Middleton, P G; Forbes, S L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infections are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the polymicrobial nature of these infections, the identification of the particular bacterial species responsible is an essential step in diagnosis and treatment. Current diagnostic procedures are time-consuming, and can also be expensive, invasive and unpleasant in the absence of spontaneously expectorated sputum. The development of a rapid, non-invasive methodology capable of diagnosing and monitoring early bacterial infection is desired. Future visions of real-time, in situ diagnosis via exhaled breath testing rely on the differentiation of bacteria based on their volatile metabolites. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to investigate whether a range of CF-associated bacterial species (i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus milleri) could be differentiated based on their in vitro volatile metabolomic profiles. Headspace samples were collected using solid phase microextraction (SPME), analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the multivariate structure of the data. Although it was not possible to effectively differentiate all six bacteria using this method, the results revealed that the presence of a particular pattern of VOCs (rather than a single VOC biomarker) is necessary for bacterial species identification. The particular pattern of VOCs was found to be dependent upon the bacterial growth phase (e.g. logarithmic versus stationary) and sample storage conditions (e.g. short-term versus long-term storage at  -18 °C). Future studies of CF-associated bacteria and exhaled breath condensate will benefit from the approaches presented in this study and further

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  13. In vivo effects of urease-producing bacteria involved with the pathogenesis of infection-induced urolithiasis on renal urokinase and sialidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, P J; van Aswegen, C H; Nel, J A; Steyn, P L; Ligthelm, A J; du Plessis, D J

    1995-01-01

    Many hypotheses have been proposed for renal stone formation. It has been argued that with infection-induced renal stones the hydrolysis of urea by bacterial urease increases urinary pH, with consequent stone formation. Unfortunately, this theory is not applicable to the micro-organisms that do not produce urease (e.g. Escherichia coli). It has been recently reported that E. coli reduces the urinary urokinase activity of male rats, but does not influence the urinary sialidase activity. This study has now been expanded to the urease-producing bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus luteus. Subcutaneous injections with these bacteria were found to significantly (P urease-producing mammalian skin bacterium, M. luteus, was, however, the exception (P = 0.1079). In contrast to S. epidermidis, P. aeruginosa and M. luteus (P mirabilis and S. aureus had no effect on renal sialidase activity (P Proteus species are predominant in infection-induced renal stones. According to the urokinase-sialidase hypothesis, a decrease in urinary urokinase activity should increase the uromucoid levels, whilst no effect on the urinary sialidase activity should favour conversion of urinary uromucoid to mineralizable matrix. These conditions may lead to renal stone formation. An increase in urinary pH resulting from urease-producing micro-organisms will increase salt precipitation on the uromucoid. It is thus concluded that urease-producing bacteria may play a double role in renal stone formation. PMID:8839391

  14. Modulation of cytokine release by differentiated CACO-2 cells in a compartmentalized coculture model with mononuclear leucocytes and nonpathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Haller, D.; Brinz, S.;

    2004-01-01

    To further investigate the interaction between human mononuclear leucocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and enterocytes, the effect of a confluent layer of differentiated CACO-2 cells on cytokine kinetics during challenge with bacteria in a compartmentalized coculture model was in...

  15. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil modulates the host cellular and inflammatory responses to Trypanosoma congolense infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiby Kuriakose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular and intravascular blood parasites that cause debilitating acute or chronic disease in cattle and other domestic animals. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for trypanosomiasis in livestock since 1955. As in livestock, treatment of infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice with Berenil leads to rapid control of parasitemia and survival from an otherwise lethal infection. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action of Berenil are still not very well defined and its effect on the host immune system has remained relatively unstudied. Here, we investigated whether Berenil has, in addition to its trypanolytic effect, a modulatory effect on the host immune response to Trypanosoma congolense. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with T. congolense, treated with Berenil and the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 on splenic cells was assessed directly ex vivo. In addition, serum levels and spontaneous and LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by splenic and hepatic CD11b⁺ cells were determined by ELISA. Berenil treatment significantly reduced the percentages of CD25⁺ cells, a concomitant reduction in the percentage of regulatory (CD4⁺Foxp3⁺ T cells and a striking reduction in serum levels of disease exacerbating pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, TNF and IFN-γ. Furthermore, Berenil treatment significantly suppressed spontaneous and LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by splenic and liver macrophages and significantly ameliorated LPS-induced septic shock and the associated cytokine storm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results provide evidence that in addition to its direct trypanolytic effect, Berenil also modulates the host immune response to the parasite in a manner that dampen excessive immune activation and production of pathology

  16. Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have utilized 'lysis from without' mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique described has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 370C, with a >103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the use of antibiotics to eliminate extracellular bacteria and is potentially widely applicable in studies of the interactions between pathogenic bacteria and host phagocytic cells as well as other target tissues. (Auth.)

  17. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce infections of ESBL- and AmpC-producing, gram-negative bacteria at a University Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Dahl Knudsen

    Full Text Available In response to a considerable increase in the infections caused by ESBL/AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in 2008, a multidisciplinary intervention, with a main focus on antimicrobial stewardship, was carried out at one university hospital. Four other hospitals were used as controls. Stringent guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL/AmpC-producing and other resistant bacteria, in addition to their use in severe sepsis/septic shock. Piperacillin-tazobactam ± gentamicin was recommended for empiric treatments of most febrile conditions. The intervention also included education and guidance on infection control, as well as various other surveillances. Two year follow-up data on the incidence rates of patients with selected bacterial infections, outcomes, and antibiotic consumption were assessed, employing before-and-after analysis and segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series, using the other hospitals as controls. The intervention led to a sustained change in antimicrobial consumption, and the incidence of patients infected with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae decreased significantly (p<0.001. The incidences of other hospital-associated infections also declined (p's<0.02, but piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium infections increased (p's<0.033. In wards with high antimicrobial consumption, the patient gut carrier rate of ESBL-producing bacteria significantly decreased (p = 0.023. The unadjusted, all-cause 30-day mortality rates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were unchanged over the four-year period, with similar results in all five hospitals. Although not statistically significant, the 30-day mortality rate of patients

  18. The free-living amoeba Willaertia magna, is particularly resistant to infection by the pathogenic bacteria Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Rafik; Cavalié, Laurent; Vernet, Christine; Bodennec, Jacques; Pernin, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease, is well characterized as a bacteria surviving and developing, almost exclusively, as intracellular parasite within freshwater protozoa. Several species of protozoa and ciliae have been shown to support the growth of the pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we report for the first time the behaviour of the protozoan Willaertia magna towards L. pneumophila and compared it with Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella v...

  19. Subclinical porcine circovirus type 2 infection does not modulate the immune response to an Aujeszky's disease virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ivan; Cortey, Martí; Darwich, Laila; Sibila, Marina; Mateu, Enric; Segalés, Joaquim

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) negatively modulates the immune response in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate if PCV2 interferes with the development of the immune response to Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) vaccine, using an in vivo experimental subclinical model. Pigs were divided into four groups: (group CC) not infected with PCV2 and not vaccinated against ADV; (group IC) infected with PCV2 but not vaccinated against ADV; (group CV) not infected with PCV2 but vaccinated against ADV, and (group IV) infected with PCV2 and vaccinated against ADV. Pigs in groups IC and IV were inoculated intranasally with PCV2 and 14 days later, pigs in the CV and IV groups were vaccinated IM with a gE(-)tk(-) attenuated ADV vaccine. Clinical signs and weight gains were recorded from days 0 to 35 post-PCV2 inoculation (PI), at which point the pigs were euthanased and examined post-mortem. Throughout the experiment the PCV2 load was quantified in serum, antibodies to PCV2 and ADV were determined and antigen-specific cellular responses against both viruses were measured using an interferon-γ ELISPOT. PCV2 inoculated animals developed subclinical infection and had lower weight gain relative to non-infected controls. No differences were observed between the CV and IV groups in terms of the humoral or cellular immune responses to vaccination against Aujeszky's disease, suggesting that subclinical infection with PCV2 does not alter the response to this vaccine. PMID:22464756

  20. Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Kamphorst, Alice O; Wieland, Andreas; Araki, Koichi; Iyer, Smita S; West, Erin E.; O’Mara, Leigh; Yang, Shu; Konieczny, Bogumila T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Freeman, Gordon J; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10–100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific C...

  1. Modulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by the Attaching and Effacing Bacterial Pathogen Citrobacter rodentium in Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Bruce A.; Deng, Wanyin; De Grado, Myriam; Chan, Crystal; Jacobson, Kevan; Finlay, B. Brett

    2002-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium belongs to the attaching and effacing family of enteric bacterial pathogens that includes both enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. These bacteria infect their hosts by colonizing the intestinal mucosal surface and intimately attaching to underlying epithelial cells. The abilities of these pathogens to exploit the cytoskeleton and signaling pathways of host cells are well documented, but their interactions with the host's antimicrobial defenses, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), are poorly understood. To address this issue, we infected mice with C. rodentium and found that iNOS mRNA expression in the colon significantly increased during infection. Immunostaining identified epithelial cells as the major source for immunoreactive iNOS. Finding that nitric oxide (NO) donors were bacteriostatic for C. rodentium in vitro, we examined whether iNOS expression contributed to host defense by infecting iNOS-deficient mice. Loss of iNOS expression caused a small but significant delay in bacterial clearance without affecting tissue pathology. Finally, immunofluorescence staining was used to determine if iNOS expression was localized to infected cells by staining for the C. rodentium virulence factor, translocated intimin receptor (Tir), as well as iNOS. Interestingly, while more than 85% of uninfected epithelial cells expressed iNOS, fewer than 15% of infected (Tir-positive) cells expressed detectable iNOS. These results demonstrate that both iNOS and intestinal epithelial cells play an active role in host defense during C. rodentium infection. However, the selective expression of iNOS by uninfected but not infected cells suggests that this pathogen has developed mechanisms to locally limit its exposure to host-derived NO. PMID:12379723

  2. 肺部感染常见病原菌与感染正相关因素分析%Analysis of Positive-related Factors between Pathogenic bacteria and Infection in Pulmonary Infection Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 邵瑞芳; 赵天海

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解肺部感染常见的病原菌,探讨其感染相关因素及致病菌构成比,为防治和治疗提供指导。方法:对诊断为肺部感染的316例患者进行痰菌培养及药敏试验,并对感染相关因素进行分析。结果:痰菌培养阳性率41.77%。病原菌中革兰氏阴性菌占49.24%;真菌40.91%;革兰氏阳性菌9.84%。与肺部感染关系密切的相关因素中,使用广谱抗生素94例,占71.21%;侵入性操作史者34例,占25.75%;腹部或胸部手术史者24例,占18.18%;使用激素和免疫抑制剂13例,占9.84%。结论:肺部感染的致病菌主要为革兰氏阴性菌,其次为真菌和革兰氏阳性菌。致病菌中占比例较高的主要有铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、大肠埃希菌、白色念珠菌和金黄色葡萄球菌等。不合理使用广谱抗生素和免疫抑制剂;侵入性操作;原有基础疾病所引起的抵抗力下降;胸腹部手术等是引起或加重肺部感染的主要因素。%Objective:To explore the common pathogenic bacteria of lung infection,the infection related factors and percentage so as to provide direction of prevention and therapy.Method:The sputum samples of 316 patients with pulmonary infection were cultured and given drug sensitivity test,along with analyzing infection-related factors.Result:The positive proportion of sputum culture were 41.77%,including Gram-negative bacteria(49.24%),fungi(40.91%)and gram-positive bacteria(9.84%). In the factors of close-related with pulmonary infection,using broad-spectrum antibiotic were 94(71.21%)cases,invasive operation were 34(25.75%)cases,abdomen and thoracic surgical operation were 24(18.18%) cases,using glucocorticoid and immunosuppressants were 13(9.84%)cases.Conclusion:The main pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection are gram-negative bacteria,followed by fungi and gram-positive bacteria. The below are the high percentage of pathogenic bacteria,such as Pseudomonas

  3. Modulation of the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 infected patients by drugs of abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Reynolds; Supriya D Mahajan; Aalinkeel, Ravikunar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E; Agosto-Mujica, Arnadri; Hsiao, Chiu Bin; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2009-01-01

    We used proteomic analyses to assess how drug abuse modulates immunologic responses to infections with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Two dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis was utilized to determine changes in the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from HIV-1 positive donors that occurred after treatment with cocaine or methamphetamine. Both drugs differentially regulated the expression of several functional classes of proteins. We fu...

  4. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Zouache

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commensal and symbiotic microbes have a considerable impact on the behavior of many arthropod hosts, including hematophagous species that transmit pathogens causing infectious diseases to human and animals. Little is known about the bacteria associated with mosquitoes other than the vectorized pathogens. This study investigated Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria that persist through generations in Ae. albopictus organs known to host transmitted arboviruses, such as dengue and chikungunya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used culturing, diagnostic and quantitative PCR, as well as in situ hybridization, to detect and locate bacteria in whole individual mosquitoes and in dissected tissues. Wolbachia, cultivable bacteria of the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Delftia and Pseudomonas co-occurred and persisted in the bodies of both males and females of Ae. albopictus initially collected in La Réunion during the chikungunya outbreak, and maintained as colonies in insectaries. In dissected tissues, Wolbachia and the cultivable Acinetobacter can be detected in the salivary glands. The other bacteria are commonly found in the gut. Quantitative PCR estimates suggest that Wolbachia densities are highest in ovaries, lower than those of Acinetobacter in the gut, and approximately equal to those of Acinetobacter in the salivary glands. Hybridization using specific fluorescent probes successfully localized Wolbachia in all germ cells, including the oocytes, and in the salivary glands, whereas the Acinetobacter hybridizing signal was mostly located in the foregut and in the anterior midgut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that Proteobacteria are distributed in the somatic and reproductive tissues of mosquito where transmissible pathogens reside and replicate. This location may portend the coexistence of symbionts and pathogens, and thus the possibility that competition or cooperation phenomena may occur in the mosquito vector Ae

  5. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Function by Interleukin 19 and Interleukin 24 During Filarial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections. PMID:26486636

  6. Critical Role of Airway Macrophages in Modulating Disease Severity during Influenza Virus Infection of Mice ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, M.D.; Pickett, D L; Rooijen, van, J.; Brooks, A G; Reading, P C

    2010-01-01

    Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus str...

  7. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  8. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered.

  9. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage-Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host-virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  10. Interactions between bacteria and the intestinal mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on epithelium cells influence mucosal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms governing the ability of bacteria to adhere to and colonize human and animal hosts in health and disease are still incompletely understood. Throughout the extensive mucosal surfaces of the body that are in contact with the external environment, epithelial cells represent the first po...

  11. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk. PMID:24171573

  12. Normocaloric low cholesterol diet modulates Th17/Treg balance in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maggio

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, including immunological disorders. Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC is often characterized by cholesterol and lipid metabolism alterations, leading to hepatic steatosis. Cholesterol metabolism, in fact, is crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent works described that a higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with the progression of HCV-related liver disease. CHC patients have increased levels of T helper 17 (Th17-cells, a lymphocytic population involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation and autoimmune hepatitis. The balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells is crucial for chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17-cell differentiation is deeply influenced by the activation LXRs, nuclear receptors modulating cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, HCV may affect these nuclear receptors, and cholesterol metabolism, through both direct and indirect mechanisms. On these bases, we hypothesized that modulation of cholesterol levels through Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet (NLCD may represent an innovative strategy to reduce the progression of HCV infection, through the modulation of peripheral Th17/Treg balance. To this end, we performed a pilot study to investigate whether a Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet may be able to modulate Th17/Treg balance in patients affected by chronic HCV infection. After 30 days of NLCD CHC patients showed a significant reduction in Th17 cells frequency, which correlated with strong reduction of IL-17 and IL-22 serum levels. At the same time, we appreciated an increase in the percentage of Treg cells, thus improving Treg/Th17 balance. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of LXRs and their target genes: SREBP-1c and ABCA-1. In conclusion, NLCD finely regulates Th17/Treg balance, improving immune system response in CHC patients. This study could pave the way for new treatments of CHC patients, suggesting that

  13. Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet Modulates Th17/Treg Balance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Roberta; Viscomi, Carmela; Andreozzi, Paola; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Barbaro, Barbara; Gori, Manuele; Vullo, Vincenzo; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, including immunological disorders. Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is often characterized by cholesterol and lipid metabolism alterations, leading to hepatic steatosis. Cholesterol metabolism, in fact, is crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent works described that a higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with the progression of HCV-related liver disease. CHC patients have increased levels of T helper 17 (Th17)-cells, a lymphocytic population involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation and autoimmune hepatitis. The balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17-cell differentiation is deeply influenced by the activation LXRs, nuclear receptors modulating cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, HCV may affect these nuclear receptors, and cholesterol metabolism, through both direct and indirect mechanisms. On these bases, we hypothesized that modulation of cholesterol levels through Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet (NLCD) may represent an innovative strategy to reduce the progression of HCV infection, through the modulation of peripheral Th17/Treg balance. To this end, we performed a pilot study to investigate whether a Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet may be able to modulate Th17/Treg balance in patients affected by chronic HCV infection. After 30 days of NLCD CHC patients showed a significant reduction in Th17 cells frequency, which correlated with strong reduction of IL-17 and IL-22 serum levels. At the same time, we appreciated an increase in the percentage of Treg cells, thus improving Treg/Th17balance. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of LXRs and their target genes: SREBP-1c and ABCA-1. In conclusion, NLCD finely regulates Th17/Treg balance, improving immune system response in CHC patients. This study could pave the way for new treatments of CHC patients, suggesting that change in

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Neonatal Infections%新生儿临床标本抗生素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余加林; 吴仕孝

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索新生儿感染病原菌分布及常见抗菌药物敏感性,为经验性治疗提供依据。方法:按《全国临床检验操作规程》鉴定细菌,纸片扩散法做药敏试验。结果:1987~1998年内分离出病原菌2 244株。院外感染前三位是表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌及大肠埃希菌,院内感染前三位是大肠埃希菌、克雷白菌及绿脓杆菌。院内外感染菌株对青霉素、氨苄西林等15种抗生素的耐药率差异显著。阿米卡星的总敏感率86.2%,与青霉素联用敏感率增至89.0%。结论:院外感染致病菌以革兰阳性菌为主,而院内感染致病菌以革兰阴性菌为主,后者对许多抗菌药物更易产生耐药性,阿米卡星联合青霉素作为第一线抗菌药物值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of bacteria and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and to establish a basis for empirical treatment of the neonatal infections.  Methods:Identification of bacteria were performed according to the National Standard of Clinical Microbiological Test. Disk diffusion were used for antimicrobial susceptibility test. Results: A total of 2,244 strains were isolated from the samples collected in our neonatal ward from Jan. 1987 to Dec. 1998. The predominant species ranked the first three were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli in the group I (infections acquired outside of hospital). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa ranked the first three in the group Ⅱ(nosocomial infections). The resistance rates of bacterial isolates from group Ⅱ to antimicrobial agents including penicillin and ampicillin were significantly higher than that from group I (P<0.05). The sensitivity rate was 82.2% by using amikacin only, but raised to 89% when combined with penicillin.  Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens of nosocomial infections

  15. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density

  16. Preliminary studies on the isolation of bacteria from sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infecting farmed salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Duane E; Braden, Laura M; Coombs, Maria P; Boyce, Brad

    2009-10-01

    Using standard OIE bacteriological screening protocols, we sampled the external carapace and internal stomach contents of motile stages (preadult and adult) of Lepeophtheirus salmonis collected from farmed Atlantic salmon from May 2007 to April 2008 in British Columbia, Canada. Three potentially pathogenic bacteria (Tenacibaculum maritimum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio spp.) were isolated from external (58-100%) and internal (12.5-100%) samples of sea lice. The prevalence of bacteria was higher from lice collected during the months with higher water temperatures and among adult lice. These preliminary results have led to a comprehensive, multi-year study where we plan to examine the possible role of sea lice as a vector for disease. PMID:19565269

  17. pH-regulated activation and release of a bacteria-associated phospholipase C during intracellular infection by Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marquis, Hélène; Hager, Elizabeth J.

    2000-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes grows in the cytosol of mammalian cells and spreads from cell to cell without exiting the intracellular milieu. During cell–cell spread, bacteria become transiently entrapped in double-membrane vacuoles. Escape from these vacuoles is mediated in part by a bacterial phospholipase C (PC-PLC), whose activation requires cleavage of an N-terminal peptide. PC-PLC activation occurs i...

  18. Surveillance of multidrug resistant suppurative infection causing bacteria in hospitalized patients in an Indian tertiary care hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh K Lenka; Rabindra N Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine antibiograms of a cohort of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs from hospitalized patients of all economic groups of a typicalIndian teaching hospital. Methods:In surveillance, antibiotic resistance patterns of10 species of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs over a period of24 months were recorded.Those were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test, using16 prescribed antibiotics of5 different groups(3 aminoglycosides, 4 beta-lactams,3 cephalosporins,4 fluoroquinolones, and2 stand-alone) in each6-month interval of the study period.Results:Of1156 samples collected,819 samples yielded pathogenic bacteria, of which,Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus),Streptococcus pyogenes(S. pyogenes), Escherichia coli(E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa),Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis), Klebsiella pneumoniae(K. pneumoniae),Acinetobacter baumannii(A. baumannii),Enterobacter aerogenes(E. aerogenes),Proteus mirabilis(P. mirabilis) andProteus vulgaris(P. vulgaris) were isolated in the order of predominance.Isolated bacterial strains were floridly multidrug resistant.Strains ofE. faecalis andS. aureus were found resistant to vancomycin, one of the newly introduced antibiotics.Conclusions:Of theseS. aureus, particularly the methicillin resistant strain predominates, followed by strains ofS. pyogenes andP. aeruginosa that were in the higher proportions of multidrug resistance.

  19. Acute human herpesvirus-6A infection of human mesothelial cells modulates HLA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Elisabetta; Campioni, Diana; Cavazzini, Francesco; Gentili, Valentina; Bortolotti, Daria; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Luca, Dario; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-09-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) causes ubiquitous infections and has been associated with several diseases in immunosuppressed and immune dysregulated individuals. Although considered a lymphotropic virus, HHV-6A has the potential to infect many cell types, inducing important alterations in the infected cell. In our search for additional potential targets for HHV-6A infection, we analyzed the susceptibility of human mesothelial cells to viral infection. HHV-6A infection was performed and analyzed on primary human mesothelial cells isolated from serous cavity fluid, infected in vitro with a cell-free HHV-6A inoculum. The results demonstrated that mesothelial cells are susceptible to in vitro HHV-6A infection, and more importantly, that the virus induces an alteration of HLA expression on the cell surface, inducing HLA class II and HLA-G de novo expression. Since mesothelial cells play a pivotal role in many processes, including inflammation and antigen presentation, we speculate that, in vivo, this virus-induced perturbation might be correlated to alterations in mesothelium functions. PMID:26085284

  20. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with Increased respiratory morbiditses and susceptibility to Infections Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet Its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known ‘the greater Mexico City area was the pri...

  1. Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis redirects the mucosal immune system from a Th1 to a protective Th2 response with a reduction in the severity of trinitrobenzesulfonic acid-induced colonic damage. T. spiralis infection induced IL-10 production in a dose-dependent manner in oxazolone (OXZ)-...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 interaction: Pathogenesis and disease modulation in dual infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mayanja-Kizza

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the clinical and immunological impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-1 infection and disease. We show that, unlike other HIV related opportunistic infections, successful treatment of MTB disease may in some patients be associated with some degree of decrease in

  3. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  4. Interleukin-10 plays a key role in the modulation of neutrophils recruitment and lung inflammation during infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Hernán F; Nieto, Pamela A; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Torres, Javiera; Parga, María J; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major aetiological agent of pneumonia worldwide, as well as otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis and sepsis. Recent reports have suggested that inflammation of lungs due to S. pneumoniae infection promotes bacterial dissemination and severe disease. However, the contribution of anti-inflammatory molecules to the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae remains unknown. To elucidate whether the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is beneficial or detrimental for the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, we performed S. pneumoniae infections in mice lacking IL-10 (IL-10(-/-) mice). The IL-10(-/-) mice showed increased mortality, higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an exacerbated recruitment of neutrophils into the lungs after S. pneumoniae infection. However, IL-10(-/-) mice showed significantly lower bacterial loads in lungs, spleen, brain and blood, when compared with mice that produced this cytokine. Our results support the notion that production of IL-10 during S. pneumoniae infection modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs. This feature of IL-10 is important to avoid excessive inflammation of tissues and to improve host survival, even though bacterial dissemination is less efficient in the absence of this cytokine. PMID:26032199

  5. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity. PMID:9849628

  6. Prevalence of Device-associated Nosocomial Infections Caused By Gram-negative Bacteria in a Trauma Intensive Care Unit in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Zorgani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Device-associated nosocomial infections (DANIs have a major impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to determine the distribution rate of DANIs and causative agents and patterns of antibiotic resistance in the trauma-surgical intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: Our study was conducted at Abusalim Trauma Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. All devices associated with nosocomial infections, including central venous catheters (CVC, endotracheal tubes (ETT, Foley’s urinary catheters, chest tubes, nasogastric tubes (NGT, and tracheostomy tubes, were removed aseptically and examined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB. Results: During a one-year study period, 363 patients were hospitalized; the overall mortality rate was 29%. A total of 79 DANIs were identified, the most common site of infection was ETT (39.2%, followed by urinary catheters (19%, NGTs (18%, tracheostomy tubes (11%, CVCs (10%, and chest tubes (3%. The most frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%, 20%, and 14%, respectively. Extremely high resistance rates were observed among GNB to ampicillin (99%, cefuroxime (95%, amoxicillin-clavulante (92%, and nitrofurantoin (91%. Lower levels of resistance were exhibited to amikacin (38%, imipenem (38%, and colistin (29%. About 39% of the isolates were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR. Overall, extended spectrum β-lactmase producers were expressed in 39% of isolates mainly among K. pneumonia (88%. A. baumannii isolates exhibited extremely high levels of resistance to all antibiotics except colistin (100% sensitive. In addition, 56.3% of A. baumannii isolates were found to be MDR. P. aeruginosa isolates showed 46%–55% effectiveness to anti-pseudomonas antibiotics. Conclusion: High rates of DANI’s and the emergence of MDR organisms poses a serious threat to patients. There is a need to strengthen infection control within the ICU environment

  7. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting.Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012.Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4% bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g and Enterobacter (19.2%, Klebsiella (12.3%, and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1% were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%, cefixime (85.7% and cephalexin (77.3%, and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%. Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%, ampicillin (92.85%, and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%.A high ratio (> 92.85% of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  8. The hypocholesterolemic and hormone modulation effects of isoflavones alone or co-fermented with probiotic bacteria in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Al-Tamimi, Hosam J; Brewer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of isoflavones alone or probiotics-co-fermented isoflavones on serum and hepatic lipid profile, serum steroid (SHs) and thyroid hormones (THs) of hypercholesterolemic rats (N = 48). Animals were fed for 8 weeks with probiotics-co-fermented isoflavones or isoflavones alone, beside high-fat-high-cholesterol diet. Serum was analyzed for cholesterols, triglycerides (TG), SHs and THs. Results demonstrated that the given treatments significantly decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL/HDL ratio, and increased TG, compared to controls. The probiotics-co-fermented isoflavones decreased TC, LDL-C and LDL/HDL ratio more effectively than isoflavones alone. Also, both isoflavones treatments induced a hyperthyroidism state, as the levels of T-T4, T-T3 and fT3 significantly increased. In addition, these treatments decreased testosterone and increased cortisol levels. Thus, isoflavones-containing-treatments, particularly probiotics-co-fermented isoflavones, could reduce CVD incidence by controlling lipid profile; and this control could in part be due to modulation of SHs and THs. PMID:25853701

  9. L-Arginine and L-Glutamine as Immunonutrients and Modulating Agents for Erysipelothrix rusiopathiae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine and L-glutamine were not only building blocks of proteins and polypeptides but also important regulators of key metabolic pathways that were necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction and immunity in organisms. These compelling findings convinced us that L-arginine and L-glutamine play a vital role in virus and bacterium infection. However, scientific literature about its role on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae infection was unavailable. Thus, this study was conduct to research the effect of dietary L-arginine and L-glutamine supplementation on E. rhusiopathiae infection. According to the exciting results, researchers concluded that dietary L-arginine and L-glutamine supplementation ameliorated the cytokines profile and blood parameters and delayed the development process of E. rhusiopathiae infection in mouse model.

  10. Exposure to Ozone Modulates Human Airway Protease/Antiprotease Balance Contributing to Increased Influenza A Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kesic, Matthew J.; Megan Meyer; Rebecca Bauer; Ilona Jaspers

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA) is essential for influenza ...

  11. A critical role of IL-17 in modulating the B-cell response during H5N1 influenza virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chan, Chris CS; Yang, Min; Deng, Jun; Poon, Vincent KM; Leung, Virtual HC; Ko, King-Hung; Zhou, Jie; Yung Yuen, Kwok; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Liwei

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays a crucial role in mediating the immune response against extracellular bacteria and fungi in the lung. Although there is increasing evidence that IL-17 is involved in protective immunity against H1 and H3 influenza virus infections, little is known about the role of IL-17 in the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection. In this study, we show that H5N1-infected IL-17 knockout (KO) mice exhibit markedly increased weigh...

  12. The attribution of human infections with antimicrobial resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2007-01-01

    table eggs (37.6%). A large proportion (19%) of cases were travel related, while 18% could not be associated with any source. Imported food products accounted for 9.5% of all cases; the most important source being imported chicken. Multidrug and quinolone resistance was rarely found in cases acquired...... from Danish food, but was common in cases related to imported products (49.7% and 35.6% of attributable cases) and travelling (26.5% and 38.3% of attributable cases). For most serovars, the quinolone-resistant isolates were found to be associated with relatively more human infections than that of...... resistant isolates, which in turn was higher than that of susceptible isolates. This may be due to quinolone-resistant isolates having a higher ability to survive food processing and/or cause disease. This study showed domestic food to be the most important source of Salmonella infections in Denmark, but...

  13. The application of High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) for rapid detection of bacteria responsible for bloodstream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbak, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The diagnosis of bloodstream infection is a significant challenge for healthcare providers and is often associated with severe illness (sepsis) and poor outcomes. Rapid detection and identification of pathogens followed by characterisation of antibiotic resistance could help direct early treatment and improve patient care. Standard blood culture methods, which usually take 2-5 days to complete, can confirm if there is a bacteraemia or not in suspected patients. However, ...

  14. Bacteria, Phages and Septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidelytė, Aušra; Vaara, Martti; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2007-01-01

    The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such ph...

  15. Development of aptamers for use as radiopharmaceuticals in the bacterial infection identification; Desenvolvimento de aptameros especificos para aplicacao como radiofarmacos na identificacao de bacterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ieda Mendes

    2013-08-01

    The difficulty in early detection of specific foci caused by bacteria in the bacterial infection has raised the need to search for new techniques for this purpose, since these foci require prolonged treatment with antibiotics and in some cases even drainage or, if applicable, removal of prostheses or grafts. Detection of bacterial infections by scintigraphy had the advantage that a whole body image could be obtained, since specific tracers were available. This study aims to obtain aptamers specific for bacteria identification for future use as radiopharmaceutical. The SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) methodology can generate oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are able to bind with high affinity and specificity to a specific target, from small molecules to complex proteins, by using rounds of enrichment and amplification. Aptamers can be labeled with different radionucleotides such as {sup 99}mTc, {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P. In this study, aptamers anti-peptidoglycan, the main component of the bacterial outer cell wall, were obtained through SELEX. Whole cells of Staphylococcus aureus were also used to perform the SELEX to cells (cell-SELEX). The selection of aptamers was performed by two different procedures (A and B). The A process has been accomplished by 15 SELEX rounds in which the separation of the oligonucleotides bound to the peptidoglycan of unbound ones was performed by filtration. In the B process 15 SELEX rounds were performed using the centrifugation for this separation, followed by 5 rounds cell-SELEX. The SELEX started with a pool of ssDNA (single stranded DNA). For A process, initially a library of ssDNA was incubated with peptidoglycan and the amplification of oligonucleotides that were able to bind to peptidoglycan was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reation). The amplified oligonucleotides were again incubated with peptidoglycan, amplified and purified. At the end of 15 selection rounds the selected oligonucleotides

  16. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzo, Laureano S; Zbrun, María V; Soto, Lorena P; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J; Marti, Luis E; Signorini, Marcelo L; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 10(9) CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 10(10) CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  17. Comparative study of CXC chemokines modulation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) following infection with a bacterial or viral pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Zahran, Eman; Taylor, Nick G H; Feist, Stephen W; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Chemokine modulation in response to pathogens still needs to be fully characterised in fish, in view of the recently described novel chemokines present. This paper reports the first comparative study of CXC chemokine genes transcription in salmonids (brown trout), with a particular focus on the fish specific CXC chemokines (CXCL_F). Adopting new primer sets, optimised to specifically target mRNA, a RT-qPCR gene screening was carried out. Constitutive gene expression was assessed first in six tissues from SPF brown trout. Transcription modulation was next investigated in kidney and spleen during septicaemic infection induced by a RNA virus (Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus, genotype Ia) or by a Gram negative bacterium (Yersinia ruckeri, ser. O1/biot. 2). From each target organ specific pathogen burden, measured detecting VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA, and IFN-γ gene expression were analysed for their correlation to chemokine transcription. Both pathogens modulated CXC chemokine gene transcript levels, with marked up-regulation seen in some cases, and with both temporal and tissue specific effects apparent. For example, Y. ruckeri strongly induced chemokine transcription in spleen within 24h, whilst VHS generally induced the largest increases at 3d.p.i. in both tissues. This study gives clues to the role of the novel CXC chemokines, in comparison to the other known CXC chemokines in salmonids. PMID:26866873

  18. Eimeria bovis infection modulates endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism for successful replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny H; Hirzmann, Joerg; Kerner, Katharina; Gimpl, Gerald; Lochnit, Guenter; Hermosilla, Carlos R; Taubert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    During first merogony Eimeria bovis forms large macromeronts in endothelial host cells containing >120 000 merozoites I. During multiplication, large amounts of cholesterol are indispensable for the enormous offspring membrane production. Cholesterol auxotrophy was proven for other apicomplexan parasites. Consequently they scavenge cholesterol from their host cell apparently in a parasite-specific manner. We here analyzed the influence of E. bovis infection on endothelial host cell cholesterol metabolism and found considerable differences to other coccidian parasites. Overall, free cholesterol significantly accumulated in E. bovis infected host cells. Furthermore, a striking increase of lipid droplet formation was observed within immature macromeronts. Artificial host cell lipid droplet enrichment significantly improved E. bovis merozoite I production confirming the key role of lipid droplet contents for optimal parasite proliferation. The transcription of several genes being involved in both, cholesterol de novo biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein-(LDL) mediated uptake, was significantly up-regulated at a time in infected cells suggesting a simultaneous exploitation of these two cholesterol acquisition pathways. E. bovis scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol apparently through significantly increased levels of surface LDL receptor abundance and LDL binding to infected cells. Consequently, LDL supplementation significantly improved parasite replication. The up-regulation of the oxidized LDL receptor 1 furthermore identified this scavenger receptor as a key molecule in parasite-triggered LDL uptake. Moreover, cellular cholesterol processing was altered in infected cells as indicated by up-regulation of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase and sterol O-acyltransferase. Overall, these results show that E. bovis considerably exploits the host cell cholesterol metabolism to guarantee its massive intracellular growth and replication. PMID:26395984

  19. Intravascular catheter related infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of bacterial colonisation and catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI together with the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital. CRBSI was detected with semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. The antimicrobial susceptible patterns of the isolated organisms were performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The rate of catheter colonisation and CRBSI were 42.1% and 14% (16.1/1000 catheter days respectively. The most common causative pathogens were Pseudomonas sp. (23.7%, Acinetobacter sp. (18.4%, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2% and Enterobacteriaceae (10.5%. The rate of isolation of methicillin resistance S. aureus, imipenem resistant Pseudomonas sp. and extended spectrum β lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae were 60%, 44.0% and 100%. The result of this study would be useful for control and treatment of CRBSI.

  20. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  1. HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Tachedjian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proline repeat motif (PxxP of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell.

  2. HIV-1 infection of T cells and macrophages are differentially modulated by virion-associated Hck: a Nef-dependent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Alyssa; Mak, Johnson; Greenway, Alison; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2013-09-01

    The proline repeat motif (PxxP) of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell. PMID:24051604

  3. HLA-B27 Expression Does Not Modulate Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J. L.; Smith, L; Matyszak, M. K.; Gaston, J S H

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. Infection of susceptible individuals with this bacterium can trigger the development of reactive arthritis, an acute inflammation that is associated with the expression of the class I major histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B27. Other facultative intracellular pathogens, such as Yersinia and Salmonella spp., are also known triggers of reactive arthritis. Previous studies report conflicting results concerning whether the presence of HL...

  4. Kupffer cells modulate hepatic fatty acid oxidation during infection with PR8 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N; Singh, Larry N; Chatterji-Len, Milani; Zerfas, Patricia M; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; McGuire, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    In response to infection, patients with inborn errors of metabolism may develop a functional deterioration termed metabolic decompensation. The biochemical hallmarks of this disruption of metabolic homeostasis are disease specific and may include acidosis, hyperammonemia or hypoglycemia. In a model system previously published by our group, we noted that during influenza infection, mice displayed a depression in hepatic mitochondrial enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that this normal adaptation may extend to other metabolic pathways, and as such, may impact various inborn errors of metabolism. Since the liver is a critical organ in inborn errors of metabolism, we carried out untargeted metabolomic profiling of livers using mass spectrometry in C57Bl/6 mice infected with influenza to characterize metabolic adaptation. Pathway analysis of metabolomic data revealed reductions in CoA synthesis, and long chain fatty acyl CoA and carnitine species. These metabolic adaptations coincided with a depression in hepatic long chain β-oxidation mRNA and protein. To our surprise, the metabolic changes observed occurred in conjunction with a hepatic innate immune response, as demonstrated by transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry. By employing an immunomodulation strategy to deplete Kupffer cells, we were able to improve the expression of multiple genes involved in β-oxidation. Based on these findings, we are the first to suggest that the role of the liver as an immunologic organ is central in the pathophysiology of hepatic metabolic decompensation in inborn errors of metabolism due to respiratory viral infection. PMID:26319418

  5. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Puri Raj K; Bhattacharya Bhaskar; Sharma Anuj; Maheshwari Radha K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated...

  6. Host Cell Autophagy Modulates Early Stages of Adenovirus Infections in Airway Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xuehuo; Carlin, Cathleen R

    2013-01-01

    Human adenoviruses typically cause mild infections in the upper or lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or ocular epithelium. However, adenoviruses may be life-threatening in patients with impaired immunity and some serotypes cause epidemic outbreaks. Attachment to host cell receptors activates cell signaling and virus uptake by endocytosis. At present, it is unclear how vital cellular homeostatic mechanisms affect these early steps in the adenovirus life cycle. Autophagy is a lys...

  7. Innate immune response during Yersinia infection: critical modulation of cell death mechanisms through phagocyte activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsbaken, Tessa; Cookson, Brad T.

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is one of the most deadly pathogens on our planet. This organism shares important attributes with its ancestral progenitor, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, including a 70-kb virulence plasmid, lymphotropism during growth in the mammalian host, and killing of host macrophages. Infections with both organisms are biphasic, where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation, followed by phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine produ...

  8. Viral infection controlled by a calcium-dependent lipid-binding module in ALIX

    OpenAIRE

    Bissig, Christin; Lenoir, Marc; Velluz, Marie-Claire; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael; Gruenberg, Jean

    2013-01-01

    ALIX plays a role in nucleocapsid release during viral infection, as does lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that LBPA is recognized within an exposed site in ALIX Bro1 domain predicted by MODA, an algorithm for discovering membrane-docking areas in proteins. LBPA interactions revealed a strict requirement for a structural calcium tightly bound near the lipid interaction site. Unlike other calcium– and phospholipid-binding proteins, the all...

  9. Viral infection controlled by a calcium-dependent lipid-binding module in ALIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Christin; Lenoir, Marc; Velluz, Marie-Claire; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael; Gruenberg, Jean

    2013-05-28

    ALIX plays a role in nucleocapsid release during viral infection, as does lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that LBPA is recognized within an exposed site in ALIX Bro1 domain predicted by MODA, an algorithm for discovering membrane-docking areas in proteins. LBPA interactions revealed a strict requirement for a structural calcium tightly bound near the lipid interaction site. Unlike other calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins, the all-helical triangle-shaped fold of the Bro1 domain confers selectivity for LBPA via a pair of hydrophobic residues in a flexible loop, which undergoes a conformational change upon membrane association. Both LBPA and calcium binding are necessary for endosome association and virus infection, as are ALIX ESCRT binding and dimerization capacity. We conclude that LBPA recruits ALIX onto late endosomes via the calcium-bound Bro1 domain, triggering a conformational change in ALIX to mediate the delivery of viral nucleocapsids to the cytosol during infection. PMID:23664863

  10. Modulation of macrophage cytokine profiles during solid tumor progression: susceptibility to Candida albicans infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturini James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to attain a better understanding of the interactions between opportunist fungi and their hosts, we investigated the cytokine profile associated with the inflammatory response to Candida albicans infection in mice with solid Ehrlich tumors of different degrees. Methods Groups of eight animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 × 106 C. albicans 7, 14 or 21 days after tumor implantation. After 24 or 72 hours, the animals were euthanized and intraperitoneal lavage fluid was collected. Peritoneal macrophages were cultivated and the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10 and IL-4 released into the supernatants were measured by ELISA. Kidney, liver and spleen samples were evaluated for fungal dissemination. Tumor-free animals and animals that had only been subjected to C. albicans infection were used as control groups. Results Our results demonstrated that the mice produced more IFN-γ and TNF-α and less IL-10, and also exhibited fungal clearance, at the beginning of tumor evolution. With the tumor progression, this picture changed: IL-10 production increased and IFN-γ and TNF-α release decreased; furthermore, there was extensive fungal dissemination. Conclusion Our results indicate that solid tumors can affect the production of macrophage cytokines and, in consequence, affect host resistance to opportunistic infections.

  11. Antibiotic Pattern of Some Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Animal and It’s Relation to Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alhababi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done on 186 isolates obtained from both animals (107 isolates and patients (79 isolates. The study aimed at comparing the antimicrobial patterns of pathogens isolated from animal and human cases (nosocomial infections. The isolates were identified and the antibiograms were reported. The results pointed out that E. coli was the most common isolate followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human samples, while in animal samples the most common Gram negative isolates recovered were Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Proteus spp. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common Gram positive isolate in animal and human samples. Conclude that, both animal and human isolates were markedly resistant to different types of antibacterial agents. However, animal isolates compared with human isolates showed more resistance to most of the used antibacterial agents. This can be attributed to the fact that in our country, animals are generally exposed to several antibacterial agents either as therapeutic, prophylactic or as growth promoter agents.

  12. Clinical analysis on 355 cases of gram-negative bacteria blood infection%革兰阴性杆菌血流感染355例临床及病原学特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝咏云; 单斌; 段勇

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective In order to offer guides for experimental medication,we analyzed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with gram-negative bacteria blood infection in the People’s Hospital of Chuxiongl.Methods Microbiological and clinical data of 355 patients with gram-negative bacteria blood infection were retrospectively collected and evaluated.Results Compared with other patients,the patients with diabetes and urinary tract disease were more easily attacked by gram-negative bacteria blood infection.The patients using mechanical ventilation and patients with the urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infection source were more likely attacked by gram-negative bacteria blood infection.The patients with the skin infection source,the catheter infection source,and the central nervous infection source were liable to cause non gram-negative bacteria blood infection.Septic shock was more likely to occur in patients of gram-negative bacteria blood infection.Gram-negative bacteria species in the hospital were still highly susceptible to Carbapenems.Conclusion Analysis of route of pathogen invasion,basic diseases, laboratory indicators and bacterial drug resistance could help forecast for gram-negative bacteria blood infection and guide the early experience administration.%目的:分析革兰阴性杆菌血流感染病例的临床及病原学特点,为临床诊治提供帮助。方法收集确诊355例革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患者的临床资料及病原学结果,进行回顾性分析研究。结果糖尿病和泌尿系疾病的患者、接受机械通气的患者及有胃肠道感染的患者易发生革兰阴性杆菌血流感染;使用静脉导管、有皮肤黏膜和中枢神经感染的患者易发生非革兰阴性杆菌血流感染。革兰阴性杆菌血流感染患者更易引发脓毒性休克。革兰阴性杆菌血流感染组的降钙素原(PCT)和白细胞介素6(IL-6)水平高于非革兰阴性杆菌血流感染

  13. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria collected from urinary tract infections in the ASL3 in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fedele

    2010-06-01

    epidemiological study will be necessary to monitor the evolution toward resistance to antibiotics of the strains collected from urinary tract infections.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Yang Qiwen; Xiao Meng; Chen Minjun; Robert E.Badal; Xu Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    Background The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide.Methods In 2011,1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected.All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents,and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs,Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated,followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%),and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%).Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates.Among the antimicrobial agents tested,ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae,with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%,followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%).Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,ceftazidime,and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%,38.3%,61.1%,and 50.8%,respectively.The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%).The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E.coli,K.pneumoniae,Klebsiella oxytoca,and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%,38.1%,41.2%,and 57.7%,respectively.Conclusions Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs,and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem,imipenem,and amikacin.Including the carbapenems,most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  15. 黄酒淋饭酒母染菌后对发酵的影响研究%The influence study of bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast on the fermentation of yellow rice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2011-01-01

    The harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast will have bad effects on the fermentation of yellow rice wine.Some abnormal forms of harmful bacteria are detected in the microorganism of rice-sprinkling mother yeast.The fermentation with the bacterial-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast and that of the normal mother yeast were compared.The final result proved the negative impacts of harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast in the fermentation of yellow rice wine,such as the slow increase in alcohol content,the possible emergence of rancidity.Therefore,the harmful bacteria-infected rice-sprinkling mother yeast can not be adopted in the fermentation.The possible measures to prevent contamination of harmful bacteria include:the control of the fermentation process conditions,the choice of normal yeast and rice-sprinkling mother yeast and etc.%为了研究传统黄酒淋饭酒母被少量有害菌污染后对发酵的影响,对淋饭酒母中微生物进行了检测,发现有少量异常形态的细菌——有害菌,通过用含有有害菌的淋饭酒母和正常淋饭酒母分别酿制加饭酒,结果表明:用含有有害菌的淋饭酒母单独酿制加饭酒,对发酵有影响,酒精度上升慢,易出现酸败,不能作酒母使用。采取的措施有:控制工艺条件,选择正常的酒药和淋饭酒母等。

  16. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  17. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  18. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  19. Immune Modulation of Recombinant OmpA against Brucella abortus 544 Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Wongi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-03-28

    Brucellosis affects a wide range of host species, including humans and many livestock animals. Chronic infections of the disease make antibiotic treatment costly, and the current vaccine used in livestock has not been approved for human use. This study investigated the possible use of the Brucella abortus outer membrane protein A (OmpA) as a candidate subunit vaccine in an infected mouse model. The ompA gene was cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant OmpA (rOmpA) protein fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) was purified in Escherichia coli. Immunogenicity was verified through western blotting, and mice were immunized and challenged to evaluate its protective effect. Mice treated with rOmpA exhibited induced humoral and host cell-mediated responses, with a significant increase in immunoglobulin G (IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels, especially TNF-α and IL-12, compared with the control groups treated with either MBP or PBS. In conclusion, rOmpA should be highly considered as a future subunit vaccine for brucellosis, and further studies regarding rOmpA and its protective ability are suggested. PMID:26699748

  20. Modulation of monocyte/macrophage-derived cytokine and chemokine profile by persistent Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection leads to chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Mavromara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection presents a major public health problem, with more than 170 million people infected worldwide. Chronicity and persistence of infection constitute the hallmark of the disease. Although HCV is a hepatotropic virus, subsets of immune cells have been found to be permissive to infection and viral replication. Peripheral blood monocytes, attracted to the site of infection and differentiated into macrophages, and resident hepatic macrophages, known as Kupffer cells, are important mediators of innate immunity, through production of several chemokines and cytokines in addition to their phagocytic activity. HCV proteins have been shown to modulate the cytokine and chemokine production profile of monocytes/macrophages, as it is suggested by both in vitro and clinical studies. This modified expression profile appears crucial for the establishment of aberrant inflammation that leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Sortilin is associated with the chlamydial inclusion and is modulated during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Xuan; Kerr, Markus Charles; Huston, Wilhelmina May; Teasdale, Rohan David

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a major impact on human health. The pathogen replicates within an intracellular niche called an inclusion and is thought to rely heavily on host-derived proteins and lipids, including ceramide. Sortilin is a transmembrane receptor implicated in the trafficking of acid sphingomyelinase, which is responsible for catalysing the breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. In this study, we examined the role of sortilin in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 development. Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that endogenous sortilin is not only associated with the inclusion, but that protein levels increase in infected cells. RNAi-mediated depletion of sortilin, however, had no detectable impact on ceramide delivery to the inclusion or the production of infectious progeny. This study demonstrates that whilst Chlamydia redirects sortilin trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion, RNAi knockdown of sortilin expression is insufficient to determine if this pathway is requisite for the development of the pathogen. PMID:26962046

  2. Study of pathogenic bacteria characteristics and prevention strategies of nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury after operation%颅脑损伤患者术后医院感染病原菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涓; 梁耕田; 黄文霞; 刘莉; 汪斌如; 段冰玉

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the pathogenic bacteria characteristics and prevention strategies of nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury after operation ,so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of the infections .METHODS The clinical data of 201 cases of craniocerebral injury patients in our hospi‐tal from Mar .2009 to Mar .2013 were collected .The incidence of nosocomial infections and infection sites were recorded .The types of pathogenic bacteria and their drug resistance were analyzed .All data were statistically ana‐lyzed by SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS Totally 38 cases in the all 201 patients appeared hospital infections and the infection rate was 18 .91% .Respiratory system was prone to be infected and 13 cases suffered from respiratory system infections ,accounting for 34 .21% .And a total of 59 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated ,inclu‐ding 36 strains of gram‐negative bacteria ,which accounted for 61 .20% .Gram‐negative bacteria were found to be highly resistant to common antibiotics ,especially cefoperazone ,cefazolin and gentamicin with the drug resistance rate of more than 60 .0% .CONCLUSION Gram‐negative bacteria were the main pathogenic bacteria which caused nosocomial infections in patients with craniocerebral injury .Antibiotics should be carefully chosen according to drug sensitive test so as to prevent and cure the postoperative infections .%目的:探讨颅脑损伤患者术后医院感染病原菌特点、耐药性,为其为预防、治疗其感染提供参考依据。方法收集2009年3月-2013年3月201例颅脑损伤患者临床资料,记录患者医院感染发生率及发生部位,并分析病原菌种类和耐药性,采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计分析。结果201例患者中共有38例发生医院感染,感染率为18.91%;感染部位以呼吸系统为主,共13例占34.21%;共分离出59株病原菌,以革兰阴性菌为主,共36株占61.02%

  3. The clinical value of PCT levels in bacteria identification in ICU patients with bloodstream infection%血清降钙素原对ICU血流感染患者菌种鉴别中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 庄国华; 牛野; 李宏; 夏建萍

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清降钙素原(PCT)水平测定在ICU血流感染患者菌种鉴别中的应用价值.方法 对本院ICU 2007年12月至2013年12月收治的540例血流感染患者的PCT水平进行检测并对患者标本分离的菌种进行鉴别,分析PCT水平在鉴别血流感染菌种的有效性.结果 540例血流感染患者中,G+菌感染患者比例最高(49.63%),G-菌感染患者比例次之(38.52%),真菌感染患者比例最低(11.85%),三者间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).G-菌感染组PCT水平及阳性率均显著高于G+菌感染组和真菌感染组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),G+菌和真菌感染组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).PCT界定为2.04 ng/ml时,血清PCT水平区分G-和G+的灵敏度和特异度分别为82.18%和76.09%;PCT界定为3.16 ng,/ml时,血清PCT水平鉴别血流感染G-菌与真菌种的灵敏度和特异度分别为59.42%和65.73%.结论 应用血清PCT水平鉴别G-菌与G+菌、真菌所致血流感染具有较高的临床价值,PCT水平≥2.04 ng/ml时,发生G-菌感染几率较大,PCT水平对G+菌与真菌的鉴别准确度较差.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in bacteria identification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with bloodstream infection.Methods There were 540 cases of patients with bloodstream infection in our ICU between December 2007 and December 2013.The PCT levels and bacteria were identified.The application effectiveness of PCT levels in the bacteria identification was studied.Results The G+ bacteria infection rate was 49.63% (268/540),G-bacteria infection rate was 38.52% (208/540),and the fungal infection rate was 11.85% (64/540).The patients of G-bacteria had significant difference with G + bacteria and fungal infection (P < 0.05).The PCT average and positive rate of G-bacteria were significantly higher than G + bacteria and fungi group (P < 0.05),respectively.G+ bacteria and fungi infection did not

  4. 口腔正畸治疗感染患者病原菌分布及耐药性分析%The distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria for infection patients of orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚岭; 王岩莉; 舒明芳

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria for infection patients of orthodontic treatment ,so as to control the occurrence of infections .METHODS A total of 765 cases of patients with orthodontic treatment from Jan .2011 to Jun .2013 were chosen ,and pathogenic bacteria were isolated and cultured ,with the drug sensitivity tests were conducted by K-B test .RESULTS A total of 85 cases with infections after orthodontic treatment and the occurrence rate was 11 .11% .A total of 91 strains of bacteria were isolated , including 25 strains of the respiratory tract accounting for 27 .47% ,19 strains of urinary tract accounting for 20 .88% ,14 strains of the gastrointestinal tract accounting for 15 .38% , 11 strains of skin accounting for 12 .09% ,7 strains from blood accounting for 7 .69% ,15 strains of other accounting for 16 .48% .There were 38 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounted for 41 .76% .53 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounted for 58 . 24% .gram-positive bacteria had no resistance on acetazolamide and linezolid .gram-negative bacteria had no re-sistance on meropenem and imipenem .CONCLUSION The infection occurrence rate for orthodontic treatment pa-tients is high ,especially more by drug-resistance bacteria .Therefore measures should be taken to control infec-tions .Pathogenic bacteria should be isolated and tested .The antibacterial with low resistance should be used for treating infections once infections occurred .%目的:研究口腔正畸治疗感染患者病原菌的分布及其耐药性,控制口腔正畸治疗感染的发生。方法选取2011年1月-2013年6月医院口腔正畸治疗765例,对其发生感染患者分离培养出的病原菌,采用K-B琼脂法进行药敏试验。结果经口腔正畸治疗后发生感染的患者共85例,感染率为11.11%;分离出病原菌91株,感染部位呼吸道25株占27.47%,泌尿道19株占20.88%,胃肠道14株占15.38

  5. 泌尿外科医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性研究%STUDY ON THE DRUG TOLERANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN URINARY SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景华; 庄晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the drug tolerance and distribution of pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial infection in urinary surgery in order to provide the reference of rational use of drug. Methods Retrospective survey and drug susceptibility test were used to study and analyze the clinic data of patients that discharged from hospital of urinary surgery of our hospital in 2009. Results Among 2 786 patients of urinary surgery that discharged from this hospital in 2009, 62 person/times of nosocomial infection happened which accounted for 2.2%. Of the infected patients, urinary tract infections accounted for 42.1%, and 41.9% infections happened after urinary tract intubation. Respiratory tract infections accounted for 32.3% and operative incision infections or infections of other places accounted for 12.9%. There were 278 strains of bacteria isolated from specimens of infected patients, and the most common bacteria were Escherichia coli ( 18.35% ) and Enterococcus faecium ( 14.39% ). The two kinds of bacteria were resistant to most of antibiotics that rational used in clinic and some of the drug tolerance rates were over 70%. Conclusion The urinary tract infection is the most common infection in urinary surgery of our hospital and the second is respiratory tract infection. The most common bacteria of infections is intestinal flora which is resistant to most of antibiotics.%目的 了解泌尿外科患者医院感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性,为合理选用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 采用回顾性调查和药敏试验方法,对本医院泌尿外科2009年度出院患者临床资料进行了调查和分析.结果 该医院2009年度泌尿外科共出院患者2 786例,发生医院感染62人次,感染率发病率为2.2%.在感染病人中,泌尿道感染占42.11%,有41.9%的感染发生在泌尿道术后插管.呼吸道感染占32.3%,手术切口感染占12.9%.从62例感染病人标本中共分离出感染细菌278株,以大肠埃希菌(占18

  6. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Uzunović; Branka Bedenić; Ana Budimir; Amir Ibrahimagić; Farah Kamberović; Zlatko Fiolić; Michelle I. A. Rijnders; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum (ESBL), and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic charact...

  7. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Follows, George A.; Martin E. Munik

    1992-01-01

    Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  8. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/betaT cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  9. HuR interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase, and modulates reverse transcription in infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennifar Eric

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription of the genetic material of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is a critical step in the replication cycle of this virus. This process, catalyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT, is well characterized at the biochemical level. However, in infected cells, reverse transcription occurs in a multiprotein complex – the reverse transcription complex (RTC – consisting of viral genomic RNA associated with viral proteins (including RT and, presumably, as yet uncharacterized cellular proteins. Very little is known about the cellular proteins interacting with the RTC, and with reverse transcriptase in particular. We report here that HIV-1 reverse transcription is affected by the levels of a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein – the RNA-binding protein HuR. A direct protein-protein interaction between RT and HuR was observed in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed in vitro by homogenous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF. We mapped the domain interacting with HuR to the RNAse H domain of RT, and the binding domain for RT to the C-terminus of HuR, partially overlapping the third RRM RNA-binding domain of HuR. HuR silencing with specific siRNAs greatly impaired early and late steps of reverse transcription, significantly inhibiting HIV-1 infection. Moreover, by mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation studies, we could not detect the binding of HuR to the viral RNA. These results suggest that HuR may be involved in and may modulate the reverse transcription reaction of HIV-1, by an as yet unknown mechanism involving a protein-protein interaction with HIV-1 RT.

  10. Bacteria modulate the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire of host cytosol-exposed proteins to manipulate the host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Maman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The translocated proteins are often essential for the bacterium survival. Once injected, these proteins can be degraded and presented on MHC-I molecules to CD8+ T-cells. The CD8+ T-cells, in turn, can induce cell death and destroy the bacteria's habitat. In viruses, escape mutations arise to avoid this detection. The accumulation of escape mutations in bacteria has never been systematically studied. We show for the first time that such mutations are systematically present in most bacteria tested. We combine multiple bioinformatic algorithms to compute CD8+ T-cell epitope libraries of bacteria with secretion systems that translocate proteins to the host cytosol. In all bacteria tested, proteins not translocated to the cytosol show no escape mutations in their CD8+ T-cell epitopes. However, proteins translocated to the cytosol show clear escape mutations and have low epitope densities for most tested HLA alleles. The low epitope densities suggest that bacteria, like viruses, are evolutionarily selected to ensure their survival in the presence of CD8+ T-cells. In contrast with most other translocated proteins examined, Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ExoU, which ultimately induces host cell death, was found to have high epitope density. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the manipulation of CD8+ T-cells by pathogens. The ExoU effector may have evolved to maintain high epitope density enabling it to efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell mediated cell death. These results were tested using multiple epitope prediction algorithms, and were found to be consistent for most proteins tested.

  11. Modulation of α-enolase post-translational modifications by dengue virus: increased secretion of the basic isoforms in infected hepatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza M Higa

    Full Text Available Hepatic cells are major sites of dengue virus (DENV replication and liver injury constitutes a characteristic of severe forms of dengue. The role of hepatic cells in dengue pathogenesis is not well established, but since hepatocytes are the major source of plasma proteins, changes in protein secretion by these cells during infection might contribute to disease progression. Previously, we showed that DENV infection alters the secretion pattern of hepatic HepG2 cells, with α-enolase appearing as one of the major proteins secreted in higher levels by infected cells. ELISA analysis demonstrated that DENV infection modulates α-enolase secretion in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but has no effect on its gene expression and on the intracellular content of the protein as assessed by PCR and western blot analyses, respectively. Two-dimensional western blots showed that both intracellular and secreted forms of α-enolase appear as five spots, revealing α-enolase isoforms with similar molecular weights but distinct isoeletric points. Remarkably, quantification of each spot content revealed that DENV infection shifts the isoform distribution pattern of secreted α-enolase towards the basic isoforms, whereas the intracellular protein remains unaltered, suggesting that post-translational modifications might be involved in α-enolase secretion by infected cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying α-enolase secretion by hepatic cells and its relationship with the role of liver in dengue pathogenesis. In addition, preliminary results obtained with plasma samples from DENV-infected patients suggest an association between plasma levels of α-enolase and disease severity. Since α-enolase binds plasminogen and modulates its activation, it is plausible to speculate the association of the increase in α-enolase secretion by infected hepatic cells with the haemostatic dysfunction observed in dengue patients including the

  12. Conserved Residues in Lassa Fever Virus Z Protein Modulate Viral Infectivity at the Level of the Ribonucleoprotein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capul, Althea A.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  13. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  14. 许昌地区新型甲型H1N1流感合并细菌感染分析%Analyze on Novel A/H1N1 influenza infected by bacteria in Xuchang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽娟; 艾根伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究新型甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染情况.方法 收集咽拭子标本800份,检测其甲型H1N1流感病毒RNA,同时做咽拭子的细菌培养,根据结果 分析甲型H1N1流感患者合并细菌感染及致病菌的药敏情况.结果 800份样本中423例H1N1 RNA阳性;其中73例合并不同的细菌感染,占甲流患者的17%,多数细菌的耐药性较强.结论 许昌地区2009年的甲流疫情中,甲流患者合并细菌感染的情况值得关注,治疗中要注意细菌培养并合理用药.%Objective To research the patients with Novel A/H1N1 who had infected by bacteria.Methods To collect 800 examples of fauces swabs and incubat the swabs and detect the novel A( H1N1 ) influenza virus RNA,on the basis of the results,we could analyze whether the novel A/H1N1 influenza patients infected by bacteria.Results There were 423 patients who had infected by novel A/H1N1 influenza and 73( 17% ) of them had co-infected by bacteria,most of the bacteria were drug fast.Conclusions During the epidemic disease of novel A/H1N1 influenza in Xuchang area in 2009, the co-infected by bacteria and A/H1N1 should be payed more attention, furthermore, we should gave our attention to germicultue and prescribe medicines in reason.

  15. Rapid Quantification of Bacteria in Infected Root Canals Using Fluorescence Reagents and a Membrane Filter: A Pilot Study on Its Clinical Application to the Evaluation of the Outcomes of Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuichi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The bacterial examination has been performed during the course of the root canal treatment. In the present pilot study, the new developed method, using fluorescence reagents and a membrane filter, was applied to the detection and quantification of bacteria in infected root canals, in order to evaluate the outcomes of the treatment. Methods. Six infected root canals with periapical lesions from 5 subjects were included. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 23–79 years. Samples from infected root canals were collected at the beginning of the treatment (termed #25 First, the end of the first day of treatment (termed #55 First, and the next appointment day (termed #55 Second. Then, the bacterial count (CFU was measured using fluorescence reagents (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide and the polycarbonate membrane filter by Bioplorer. Results. The mean ± SD of CFU in the sample of “#25 First” was (1.0±1.4×105. As the root canal treatment progressed, the CFU decreased as 7.9×103 (#55 First and 4.3×102 (#55 Second. Conclusion. In the present pilot study, rapid detection and quantification of bacteria in infected root canals were found to be successfully performed using fluorescence reagents and a membrane filter (Bioplorer analysis.

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  17. Chicken-Specific Kinome Array Reveals that Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Modulates Host Immune Signaling Pathways in the Cecum to Establish a Persistence Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Michael H.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Byrd, James Allen; Selvaraj, Ramesh; Arsenault, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4–14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-γ1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-κB signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-γ mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market. PMID:27472318

  18. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...

  19. 骨外科老年感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药监测研究%The Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance Monitoring of Senile Patients with Infection in Bone Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析骨外科老年感染患者主要病原菌的分布情况及耐药率,为临床抗菌药用药提供参考。方法随机选取该院300例骨科老年患者,从患者的伤口中采集分泌物标本,并对标本进行细菌培养及细菌鉴定,并进行药敏试验。结果在300例患者中,共检出298株细菌,142株格兰阴性菌(47.7%),150株格兰阳性菌(50.3%),6株真菌(2%)。结论医院感染病原菌的耐药性较复杂,构成变化快,应严格按照病原菌耐药性检测及鉴定结果,选择合适的抗生素药物为骨科老年患者进行治疗,降低患者感染率。%Objective To analyze the distribution of main pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of senile patients with infection in bone surgery so as to provide a reference for clinical use of antibiotic drugs. Methods 300 cases of senile orthopedic patients admitted in our hospital from April, 2011 to April, 2013 were randomly selected. Secretion samples were collected from the wound of the patients for bacteria culture and bacteria identification, and drug sensitive test was conducted. Results Of the 300 cases of patients, a total of 298 strains of bacteria were detected, including 142 strains of gram negative bacteria (47.7%), 150 strains of gram positive bacteria (50.3%), 6 strains of fungi (2%). Conclusion The drug resistance of nosocomial infection pathogens is relatively complex, which changes quickly, so appropriate antibiotic drugs for the treatment of senile orthopedic patients, should be chosen in accordance with the pathogen resistance test and the result of appraisal strictly in order to reduce the infection rate of the patients.

  20. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of opportunistic infection pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病机会感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福会; 柴茂凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus, and to provide reliable and scientific basis for clinical treatment.Methods:Collected from our hospital inpatient treatment of elderly diabetic patients with opportunistic infections in patients with totally (January2010-December2011),248specimens,125patho gens were isolated ,using the France bio-Merieux ATB-new production of bacterial identification and susceptibility analysis system and supporting the identification and susceptibility andpanels on the separation of bacteria identification and susceptibility testing. Results: Totally 248 specimens, 125 pathogens were isolated,and the positive rate is 50.4%,The gram negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%, gram positive bacteria accounted for 21.6%, fungi accounted for 8.8%. The detection rate of major pathogens in descending order: Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pneumonia grams Klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, and Acinetobacter.Conclusions:Opportunistic infections in elderly patients with opportunistic infections are gram negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the main infection bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and fungal infection rate increased gradually. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring of pathogenic bacteria in elderly patients with diabetes, rational use of antimicrobial agents, control the incidence of opportunistic infections, and reduce the occurrence of drug resistant strains.%目的:探讨老年糖尿病机会感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性,为临床提供可靠而科学的治疗依据。方法:收集我院2010年1月至2011年12月住院治疗的老年糖尿病合并机会感染患者的送检标本,248份标本中,共分离出125株病原菌,采用法国生物-梅里埃公司生产的ATB-new细菌鉴定及药敏分析系统

  1. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  2. 感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance in Patients with Endocarditis Infected Blood Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宗利

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性,为临床提供参考。方法:通过对52例2003年9月-2013年9月本院收治的感染性心内膜炎患者进行血培养实验和病原菌耐药性实验,分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性。结果:52例患者共筛选出32株病原菌,感染率为61.54%,其中革兰阳性菌株28株,占87.50%,主要为金黄色葡萄球菌、草绿色链球菌、粪肠球菌、牛链球菌、口腔链球菌和表皮葡萄球菌,革兰阳性菌对环丙沙星和庆大霉素耐药性较强,对万古霉素耐药性较差;革兰阴性菌4株,占12.50%,主要为铜绿假单胞、产气肠杆菌和大肠埃希菌,革兰阴性菌对庆大霉素耐药性较强,对头孢哌酮和环丙沙星耐药性较差。结论:金黄色葡萄球菌和草绿色链球菌是感染性心内膜炎的主要致病菌,而这两株菌对万古霉素的耐药性均较差,所以临床上可以用万古霉素作为预防和治疗感染性心内膜炎的主要抗生素,这对临床治疗感染性心内膜炎有重要的指导意义。%Objective:To analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in blood of patients with infective endocarditis,and to provide reference for clinical.Method:52 cases of patients with infective endocarditis were obtained from 2003 September to 2013 September in our hospital,which were used to do pathogen resistance experiment and blood culture experiment,and the endocarditis culture and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed.Result:32 strains of pathogenic bacteria were screened from 52 patients,the infection rate was 61.54%,of which 28 strains were gram positive strains,accounting for 87.50%,mainly included Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus viridans,Enterococcus faecalis,Streptococcus bovis,oral Streptococcus and Staphylococcus epidermidis,the resistance of gram positive bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was strong,but the

  3. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  4. 骨与关节化脓性感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性分析%The pathogenic bacteria distribution of bone and joint purulent infection and its drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继学

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenic bacteria distribution of bone and joint purulent infection and its drug resistance for providing the basis of antimicrobial treatment. Methods:The pathogenic bacteria from 418 samples of patients with bone and joint purulent infection were isolated and identified, and the antibiotics sensitivity tests were examined. Results:Two hundred and twelve strains gram-positive bacteria and 176 gram-negative bacteria were isolated form 418 samples. The detection rates of Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomon asaeruginosa,Escherichia coli,Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were 38. 28%,11. 48%,8. 13%, 5. 26% and 4. 78%,respectively. Conclusions:The drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the mainly pathogenic bacteria of bone and joint purulent infection. The antibiotics treatment should be taken according to the results of antibiotics sensitivity tests which can induce the resistance to antibiotics.%目的:评估骨与关节化脓性感染的主要病原菌分布及其抗菌谱变化情况,为临床抗菌药物治疗提供参考依据。方法:分析骨与关节化脓性感染患者的418份各类标本中分离出的病原菌,进行菌种鉴定和药敏试验。结果:418份送检标本中共分离出388株病原菌,其中G+球菌212株,G-杆菌176株。金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌、大肠埃希菌、奇异变形菌和表皮葡萄球菌的检出率最高,分别为38.28%、11.48%、8.13%、5.26%和4.78%。结论:耐药的金黄色葡萄球菌是骨与关节化脓性感染的主要致病菌,治疗应依据药敏试验结果实施个体化的抗生素治疗方案,降低细菌耐药性的发生。

  5. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL- and plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase -producing Gram-negative bacteria associated with skin and soft tissue infections in hospital and community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Uzunović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the characteristics of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, extended-spectrum (ESBL, and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs in hospital and outpatient settings of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc-diffusion and broth microdillution methods according to CLSI guidelines. MecA gene was detected by PCR, and genetic characterization of MRSA was performed using spa-typing and the algorithm based upon repeat patterns (BURP. Double-disk-synergy test was used to screen for ESBLs. PCR was used to detect blaESBL alleles. Genetic relatedness of the strains was tested by PFGE. Results Seventeen in-patients with MRSA, 13 with ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria and three patients co-infected with both, were detected. Five MRSA and 16 ESBL-producing Gramnegative bacteria were found in outpatient samples. Klebsiella spp. was isolated in 11 in- and seven outpatients. MLST CC152 was the most prevalent MRSA. Seven (38.9% Klebsiella spp. yielded amplicons with primers specific for SHV, TEM-1 and CTXM group 1 β-lactamases. Eight K. pneumonia (44.4% and 16 (64% MRSA (including the in- and outpatient strains were clonally related. Conclusion The presence of MRSA and ESBL-producing organisms causing SSTIs in the community poses a substantial concern, due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with possible consequent hospital infections.

  6. Middle ear infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  7. Minocycline fails to modulate cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection or immune activation in chronic untreated HIV-1 infection: results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Dietmar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been shown to attenuate central nervous system (CNS lentivirus infection, immune activation, and brain injury in model systems. To initiate assessment of minocycline as an adjuvant therapy in human CNS HIV infection, we conducted an open-labelled pilot study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood biomarkers of infection and immune responses in 7 viremic subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy. Results There were no discernable effects of minocycline on CSF or blood HIV-1 RNA, or biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation including: CSF and blood neopterin, CSF CCL2, CSF white blood cell count, and expression of cell-surface activation markers on CSF and blood T lymphocytes and monocytes. Conclusions This pilot study of biological responses to minocycline suggests little potential for its use as adjunctive antiviral or immunomodulating therapy in chronic untreated HIV infection.

  8. Enrichment of bacteria samples by centrifugation improves the diagnosis of orthopaedics-related infections via real-time PCR amplification of the bacterial methicillin-resistance gene

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuru, Arisa; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; Kawabata, Naoya; Hirotsu, Masataka; Yamamoto, Takuya; NAGANO, Satoshi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Kakoi, Hironori; Kawamura, Hideki; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; Tanimoto, Akihide; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background To effectively treat orthopaedic infections by methicillin-resistant strains, an early diagnosis is necessary. Bacterial cultures and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used to define methicillin-resistant staphylococci. However, even when patients display clinical signs of infections, bacterial culture and real-time PCR often cannot confirm infection. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the utility of real-time PCR for the mecA gene detection follow...

  9. Oral administration of a probiotic Lactobacillus modulates cytokine production and TLR expression improving the immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdigón Gabriela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches. Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing

  10. Chemokine Binding Protein M3 of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Modulates the Host Response to Infection in a Natural Host

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Hughes; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H.; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A.; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F; Sample, Jeffery T.; Stewart, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Infection of inbred strains of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) with the rodent γ-herpesvirus MHV-68 continues to be developed as an attractive experimental model of γ-herpesvirus infection. In this regard, the MHV-68 protein M3 has been shown to selectively bind and inhibit chemokines involved in the antiviral immune response, a property expected to contribute significantly to virus infection and host colonization. However, inactivation of the M3 gene has no discernable conseque...

  11. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility and by...... actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria, the...

  12. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  13. Study on pathogenic bacteria causing surgical incision infections in patients with anorectal disease%肛肠疾病手术切口感染病原菌的临床调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锡元; 郭景泉; 蒋清平; 邹武军; 程涛; 卢吉英

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析肛肠疾病手术切口感染(SSI)的病原菌特点,并分析了其相关的危险因素,以期为肛肠疾病SSI的预防治疗提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析医院2010年7月-2012年6月因肛肠疾病手术的患者临床资料287例,统计分析肛肠疾病患者SSI的危险因素.结果 287例肛肠疾病手术患者共有59例发生SSI,感染率为20.6%,其中痔疮感染38例感染率为20.4%、肛瘘12例感染率为20.7%、肛裂9例感染率为20.9%,3组之间差异无统计学意义;59例SSI患者中共分离培养出病原菌38株,阳性率为64.4%,其中革兰阴性菌占了81.5%,革兰阳性菌占了13.2%,真菌占了5.3%;革兰阴性菌主要以大肠埃希菌、变形菌属、克雷伯菌属和肠杆菌属为主,分别占了42.1%、15.8%、10.5%和7.9%,革兰阳性菌以肠球菌属和表皮葡萄球菌为主,分别占了7.9和5.3%;单因素x2检验显示,年龄>40岁、手术时间>100min,体重指数(BMI)≥25的患者具有较高的SSI发生率(P<0.05).结论 肛肠疾病术后具有高的SSI发生率,感染的病原菌主要是革兰阴性菌,患者的年龄、手术时间和BMI是其SSI发生的高危因素,积极采取相应的预防措施有利于降低肛肠疾病SSI的发生.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristics of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical incision infections in the patients with anorectal disease and to explore the related risk factors so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention of surgical incision infections. METHODS The clinical data of 287 patients with anorectal diseases who underwent surgery from Jul 2010 to Jun 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and the risk factors of surgical incision infections in the patients were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Of totally 287 cases of patients investigated, the surgical incision infections occurred in 59 cases with the infection rate of 20. 6% , among which there were 37 (20. 4%)cases with hemorrhoids

  14. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglet...

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Monali P.; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's di...

  16. 临终期肿瘤患者120例肺部感染病原菌分析%Clinical study and analysis of pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection in patients with terminal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾斌; 景建军; 尹挺立; 张云江; 李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze of pathogenic bacteria of pulmonary infection in patients with terminal cancer.Methods The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed including the general cultivation of pathogenic bac-teria in sputum and the results of drug sensitivity of hospitalization of patients with lung cancer from July 2013 to May 2014.Results 132 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured from120 cases of patients with pulmonary infection, including gram-negative bacilli accounted for the vast majority of 27.3%,accounted for 59.8% of Gram-positive coc-ci,Ranked in the top 5 pathogenic bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus,Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae,there arevarying degrees of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in bacteria.Conclusion Selecting and using the antimicrobial agents according to the results of pathogen detection in patients,could improve the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and reduce bacterial resistance.%目的:对临终期肿瘤患者肺部感染行病原学分析。方法对川北医学院附属三台县人民医院2013年7月至2014年5月间住院肺癌患者药物敏感性试验结果进行统计分析,并对其防治作初步探讨。结果120例患者合并肺部感染患者共培养致病菌132株,其中革兰阴性菌占27.3%;革兰阳性菌占59.8%;排在前5位的致病菌分别是链球菌、肺炎双球菌、葡萄球菌、白色念球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,检出的细菌中对常用的抗生素存在不同程度的耐药性。结论根据患者的病原学检测结果指导抗菌药物的选择和使用,提高抗菌药物的治疗有效性,减少细菌耐药性。

  17. 医院感染常见革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药性分析%Analysis Clinical Distrbution and Drug Resistance of Gram-negative Bacteria in Nosoconmial Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文祥; 彭吉军; 蒋华; 周旭

    2014-01-01

    目的:以了解医院感染革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药特点,为临床抗菌药物的应用提供依据。方法对2010年~2012年我院常见的医院感染革兰阴性菌的临床分布及耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果在医院感染细菌前5位的革兰阴性菌为大肠埃氏菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、铜绿假单胞菌、鲍氏不动杆菌、奇异变形杆菌、其次是产气肠杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌、食麦芽假单胞菌。细菌均呈现多耐药趋势,临床常用的第一、二、三代头孢菌素类、单环内酰胺类、头霉素类、部分β-内酰胺酶抑制剂由于细菌产ESBLs及AmpC而发生耐药,第四代头孢吡肟耐药率也达50%~60%,耐碳青霉烯类鲍氏不动杆菌由于碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的使用强度增加而显著增加,我院美罗培南、亚胺培南耐药率逐年明显上升已接近60%。而氨基糖苷类中的阿米卡星除鲍曼氏不动杆菌外由于近期少用使敏感性有所提高。结论分析医院感染常见感染细菌分布及耐药性,对指导临床合理应用抗菌药物及预防和控制耐药菌在医院内传播有着重要意义。%Objective To investigate the clinical distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections and to proved the reference for reasonable use of the antibiotics.Methods The clinical distribution and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections from 2010 to 2012 were analysis by the means of retrospective survey.Results The top ifve were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Proteus mirabilis. The behind three were Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterbacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The gram-negative bacteria in nosoconmial infections were multidrug resistance to antibiotics. The 1, 2, 3 generation of cephalosporin, single ring lactam, Cephamycins antibiotics and part β-lactamase inhibitor were resistance to

  18. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-κB nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5 hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNFα plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-κB translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1

  19. Gammaherpesvirus infection modulates the temporal and spatial expression of SCGB1A1 (CCSP) and BPIFA1 (SPLUNC1) in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Gail H; Kipar, Anja; Hughes, David J; Bingle, Lynne; Bennett, Elaine; Moyo, Nathifa A; Tripp, Ralph A; Bigley, Alison L; Bingle, Colin D; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2015-06-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an established model of γ-herpesvirus infection. We have previously developed an alternative system using a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and shown that the MHV-68 M3 chemokine-binding protein contributes significantly to MHV-68 pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate in A. sylvaticus using high-density micro-arrays that M3 influences the expression of genes involved in the host response including Scgb1a1 and Bpifa1 that encode potential innate defense proteins secreted into the respiratory tract. Further analysis of MHV-68-infected animals showed that the levels of both protein and RNA for SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 were decreased at day 7 post infection (p.i.) but increased at day 14 p.i. as compared with M3-deficient and mock-infected animals. The modulation of expression was most pronounced in bronchioles but was also present in the bronchi and trachea. Double staining using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistology demonstrated that much of the BPIFA1 expression occurs in club cells along with SCGB1A1 and that BPIFA1 is stored within granules in these cells. The increase in SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 expression at day 14 p.i. was associated with the differentiation of club cells into mucus-secreting cells. Our data highlight the role of club cells and the potential of SCGB1A1 and BPIFA1 as innate defense mediators during respiratory virus infection. PMID:25531566

  20. Bacteria- and IMD pathway-independent immune defenses against Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Blumberg

    Full Text Available The mosquito Anopheles gambiae uses its innate immune system to control bacterial and Plasmodium infection of its midgut tissue. The activation of potent IMD pathway-mediated anti-Plasmodium falciparum defenses is dependent on the presence of the midgut microbiota, which activate this defense system upon parasite infection through a peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRPLC. We employed transcriptomic and reverse genetic analyses to compare the P. falciparum infection-responsive transcriptomes of septic and aseptic mosquitoes and to determine whether bacteria-independent anti-Plasmodium defenses exist. Antibiotic treated aseptic mosquitoes mounted molecular immune responses representing a variety of immune functions upon P. falciparum infection. Among other immune factors, our analysis uncovered a serine protease inhibitor (SRPN7 and Clip-domain serine protease (CLIPC2 that were transcriptionally induced in the midgut upon P. falciparum infection, independent of bacteria. We also showed that SRPN7 negatively and CLIPC2 positively regulate the anti-Plasmodium defense, independently of the midgut-associated bacteria. Co-silencing assays suggested that these two genes may function together in a signaling cascade. Neither gene was regulated, nor modulated, by infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, suggesting that SRPN7 and CLIPC2 are components of a defense system with preferential activity towards P. falciparum. Further analysis using RNA interference determined that these genes do not regulate the anti-Plasmodium defense mediated by the IMD pathway, and both factors act as agonists of the endogenous midgut microbiota, further demonstrating the lack of functional relatedness between these genes and the bacteria-dependent activation of the IMD pathway. This is the first study confirming the existence of a bacteria-independent, anti-P. falciparum defense. Further exploration of this anti-Plasmodium defense will help clarify

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  2. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Carpio, Yamila; Secombes, Christopher J; Taylor, Nick G H; Lugo, Juana María; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) are structurally similar peptides encoded in the same transcripts. Their transcription has been detected not only in the brain but also in a wide range of peripheral tissues, even including organs of the immune system. PACAP exerts pleiotropic activities through G-protein coupled membrane receptors: the PACAP-specific PAC-1 and the VPAC-1 and VPAC-2 receptors that exhibit similar affinities for the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and PACAP. Recent findings added PACAP and its receptors to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in fish. In this study the expression of genes encoding for PACAP and PRP, as well as VIP/PACAP receptors was studied in laboratory-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) after septicaemic infections. Respectively Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV-Ia) or the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri (ser. O1 - biot. 2) were used in infection challenges. Kidney and spleen, the teleost main lymphopoietic organs, were sampled during the first two weeks post-infection. RT-qPCR analysis assessed specific pathogens burden and gene expression levels. PACAP and PRP transcription in each organ was positively correlated to the respective pathogen burden, assessed targeting the VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA. Results showed as the transcription of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors is modulated in these organs during an acute viral and bacterial septicaemic infections in brown trout. These gene expression results provide clues as to how the PACAP system is modulated in fish, confirming an involvement during active immune responses elicited by both viral and bacterial aetiological agents. However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. PMID:26481517

  3. The α-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Reverses Age-Associated Susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Modulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Elsa N. Bou; Clark, Stacie; Du, Xiaogang; Wu, Dayong; Camilli, Andrew; Leong, John M.; Meydani, Simin N.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. Uncontrolled neutrophil-driven pulmonary inflammation exacerbates this disease. To test whether the α-tocopherol (α-Toc) form of vitamin E, a regulator of immunity, can modulate neutrophil responses as a preventive strategy to mitigate the age-associated decline in resistance to S. pneumoniae, young (4 mo) and old (22–24 mo) C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 30-PPM (control) or 500-PPM (supplemented) α-Toc for 4 wk and intratracheally infected with S. pneumoniae. Aged mice fed a control diet were exquisitely more susceptible to S. pneumoniae than young mice. At 2 d postinfection, aged mice suffered 1000-fold higher pulmonary bacterial burden, 2.2-fold higher levels of neutrophil recruitment to the lung, and a 2.25-fold higher rate of lethal septicemia. Strikingly, α-Toc supplementation of aged mice resulted in a 1000-fold lower bacterial lung burden and full control of infection. This α-Toc–induced resistance to pneumococcal challenge was associated with a 2-fold fewer pulmonary neutrophils, a level comparable to S. pneumoniae–challenged, conventionally fed young mice. α-Toc directly inhibited neutrophil egress across epithelial cell monolayers in vitro in response to pneumococci or hepoxilin-A3, an eicosanoid required for pneumococcus-elicited neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. α-Toc altered expression of multiple epithelial and neutrophil adhesion molecules involved in migration, including CD55, CD47, CD18/CD11b, and ICAM-1. These findings suggest that α-Toc enhances resistance of aged mice to bacterial pneumonia by modulating the innate immune response, a finding that has potential clinical significance in combating infection in aged individuals through nutritional intervention. PMID:25512603

  4. Investigation of pathogenic bacteria causing burn wound infection and analysis of drug-resistance%烧伤创面感染病原菌调查及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红升

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and drug resistance of bacteria causing burn wound infection. Methods Results of culture and drug susceptibility of bacteria causing burn wound infection were retrospectively analyzed. Results The isolation rates of Gram negative bacilli,Gram positive coccus and fungi were 82. 3%,17. 7% and 0. 0%. In pathogenic Staphylococcus au reus,the isolation rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 80. 0%. Isolation rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Esche richia Coli and Proteus mirabilis were 33. 1% ,15. 3% and 11. 3%. No imipenem resistant Enterobacter was found. No vancomycin and linezolid resistant Staphylococcus was found. Conclusion Gram negative bacilli might be the main pathogenic bacteria causing burn wound infection, folio wed by Gram positive coccus. Drug resistance might be raising. Imipenem could be the first chosen anti biotic to treat Gram negative bacilli inifection. Vancomycin and linezolid could be the first chosen antibiotic to treat Gram positive coccus infection.%目的 探讨烧伤创面感染菌分布及耐药性情况,为临床用药提供参考.方法 对烧伤创面细菌培养及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 革兰阴性杆菌占82.3%,革兰阳性球菌占17.7%,未检出真菌.铜绿假单胞菌占33.1%,大肠埃希菌占15.3%,奇异变形杆菌占11.3%;金黄色葡萄球菌占8.1%.其中大肠埃希菌ESBLs分离率为57.9%,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的分离率为80.0%,亚胺硫霉素对肠杆菌无一例耐药,万古霉素、利奈唑胺对葡萄球菌无一例耐药.结论 该院烧伤病房感染菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,革兰阳性球菌次之.耐药率增加的问题不容忽视.亚胺硫霉素应作为抗革兰阴性杆菌和革兰阳性球菌的首选药物,万古霉素和利奈唑胺作为抗革兰阳性球菌首选药物.

  5. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in ICU in 2010-2011%2010-2011年ICU下呼吸道医院感染病原菌分布及耐药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伏喜; 李学文; 赵水娣; 高天明; 张扬; 冯旰珠

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重症医学科下呼吸道医院感染病原菌的分布及其耐药性,为指导临床科室尤其是重症医学科下呼吸道医院感染控制提供依据.方法 回顾性分析ICU住院患者痰标本细菌培养及药敏结果,对采集的合格痰标本采用VTTEK-2 Compact全自动细菌分析仪进行细菌鉴定,采用K-B纸片法进行药敏试验,按CLSI 2010年的标准判断.结果 共555株病原菌中革兰阴性菌、革兰阳性菌、真菌分别占67.6%、18.7%、13.7%;革兰阴性菌中以铜绿假单胞菌、鲍氏不动杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、褪色沙雷菌多见,分别占17.3%、11.9%、10.3%、6.1%;革兰阳性菌以金黄色葡萄球菌为主,占8.6%;真菌以白色假丝酵母菌为主,占10.5%;主要革兰阴性菌呈多药耐药或泛耐药,主要革兰阳性菌多为MRSA或MRSCN;革兰阳性球菌对万古霉素、喹奴普汀/达福普汀、替考拉宁及夫西地酸耐药率较低.结论 ICU住院患者下呼吸道医院感染的病原菌以非发酵菌、肠杆菌科细菌、MRSA及MRSCN多见,且菌株耐药现象严重,应加强对ICU患者下呼吸道医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性的监测.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in intensive care unit ( ICU) , and provide evidence for the control of lower respiratory tract infections in the clinical departments,especially the ICU. METHODS The results of the bacterial culture of sputum specimens and the drug susceptibility testing were analyzed retrospectively VTTEK-2 Compacl automatic bacteria analyzer was employed to identify the bacteria isolated from the qualified sputum specimens, and the dray susceptibility tesing was performed by K-B methoclg, the result was judged according to CLSI 2010. RESULTS A total of 555 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, including the gram-negative bacteria (67. 6%) , gram-positive bacteria(18

  6. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce infections of ESBL- and AmpC-producing, gram-negative bacteria at a University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2014-01-01

    guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL...

  7. 不同致病菌所致脓毒症患者低磷血症的临床研究%A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 曲彦; 黄建波

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较脓毒症组与非脓毒症组患者,并将脓毒症组进行亚组分析,探讨低磷血症的影响因素.方法 按年份分层随机抽取脓毒症组患者312例与非脓毒症组患者300例,脓毒症组患者中革兰阴性菌(G-菌)感染170例,革兰阳性菌(G+菌)感染142例,均包括4种不同细菌的感染.收集、整理各组患者的血磷值,比较各组间的低血磷发生率、平均血磷浓度和相对危险度(RR).结果 脓毒症组与非脓毒症组比较,低血磷发生率差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),RR> 1.2; G-菌感染组与G+菌感染组比较、4种G+菌感染组间比较,低血磷发生率和平均血磷水平均差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),RR> 1.2;4种G-菌感染组间比较,低血磷发生率和平均血磷水平均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),RR<1.2.结论 脓毒症是发生低磷血症的危险因素,尤其是本研究中的4种G-菌以及G+菌中的金黄色葡萄球菌和肠球菌感染,在临床工作中我们应警惕脓毒症患者血磷水平的变化,预防发生严重并发症.%Objective The aim of this study was to compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between within the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.The data were statistically processed to compare the incidence rates of hypophosphatemia,mean serum phosphorus levels and relative risk among groups.Results There was a statistical difference between the sepsis cases and the non-sepsis cases in incidence rate of hypophosphatemia (P < 0.05,and RR > 1.2).There were statistical differences between the cases infected by gram-negative bacteria and the cases

  8. 外科住院患者医院感染病原菌种类与耐药性分析%Species and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in surgical inpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔双红; 彭玉华; 黄丽燕; 郑菊红

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析外科住院患者医院感染病原菌种类及耐药性,为医师高效预防控制医院感染、合理应用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 调查2012年1月-2014年12月2793例外科住院患者临床资料,筛选出发生医院感染的患者,统计其感染部位等资料;感染病原菌分离与鉴定按细菌检验规范操作,药敏试验采用纸片扩散法,以CLSI每年更新折点确认抗菌药物敏感、中介或耐药,采取WHONET 5.6统计软件进行药敏率分析.结果 3年外科住院患者发生医院感染共268例、331例次,感染率9.6%、例次感染率11.9%;主要感染部位为手术切口、皮肤黏膜、呼吸系统、泌尿系统等;检测出348株病原菌中革兰阴性菌占65.5%、革兰阳性菌占23.8%、真菌占10.7%;除肠杆菌科细菌对碳青霉烯类、革兰阳性菌对糖肽类抗菌药物保持100.0%敏感性外,其他病原菌对抗菌药物表现出多药耐药性,以鲍氏不动杆菌最为突出;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌检出率为46.8%,产ESBLs菌检出率为47.9%.结论 外科住院患者感染病原菌以革兰阴性菌为首,表现出多药耐药性,外科医师应强化感染与规范用药意识,护士应指派专人负责科内流行感染菌的跟踪监控,以保障手术成功率.%OBJECTIVE To analyze species distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pathogenic bacteria , to provide basis for effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections and accurate medication .METHODS RESULTS Medical records of 2793 hospitalized surgical patients from Jan .2012 to Dec .2014 were reviewed . Those inpatients with nosocomial infections were screened .Information including infection sites was statistically summarized .Isolation and identification of infectious bacteria were performed in accordance with standard operat-ing protocol .Drug sensitivity tests were carried out by KB method using updated CLSI breakpoints to determine antibiotic sensitivity ,intermedia or

  9. 地震伤患儿感染创面病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from infected wounds of children after Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉迎春; 敖晓晓; 刘岚; 符宜龙; 庹慧; 许峰

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨地震伤患儿创面感染病原菌的分布和耐药情况.方法 2008年5月13日至6月12日,我院收治汶川地震伤患儿98例,对其临床诊断为创面感染的50例进行了创面分泌物分离培养,并就病原菌和耐药情况进行回顾性分析.结果 在50例临床诊断为创面感染的患儿中,有31例创而分离培养出病原菌,阳性率62.0%;其中21例为混合感染,占67.7%.共分离培养出病原菌99株,革兰阳性菌16株(16.16%),革兰阴性菌81株(81.82%),真菌2株(2.02%).革兰阳性菌以金黄色葡萄球菌5株(5.05%)、粪肠球菌3株(3.03%)、屎肠球菌2株(2.02%)为主,革兰阴性菌中以鲍曼不动杆菌27株(27.27%)、阴沟肠杆菌18株(18.18%)、铜绿假单胞菌13株(13.13%)为主.鲍曼不动杆菌居检出病菌的首位,患儿的被困时间和并发症情况与感染该菌有明显相关性.药敏结果显示病原菌对常用抗生素耐药较为严重.1株鲍曼复合醋酸钙不动杆菌和6株鲍曼不动杆菌对包括泰能在内的所有常用抗生素耐药.革兰阳性菌对万古霉素仍敏感.结论 地震伤患儿创面感染病原菌有所变化,以往分离率低的鲍曼不动杆菌反而成为主要的感染菌,产酶菌株多,细菌耐药率高,治疗困难.了解患儿创面感染病原菌的分布和耐药性情况,可指导临床合理用药,提高抢救成功率.%Objective To investigate the distribution and the drug resistance pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from pediatric cases suffering from wounds infection following the Wenchuan earthquake. Methods Of the ninety-eight injured children, 50 had wound infection diagnosed by clinical examination. Specimens for culture were collected from the fifty injured children and the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic resistance were retrospectively reviewed. Results In the fifty injured children with wound infection, microbial growth was detected in 31 (62.0%) and 21 children suffered from mixed

  10. Bacteria Experiment May Point Way to Slow Zika's Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158661.html Bacteria Experiment May Point Way to Slow Zika's Spread Infecting ... 4, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Experiments in mosquitoes suggest that bacteria may help curb ...

  11. In vitro activity of cefmetazole, cefotetan, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria from endometrial cultures of women with pelvic infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm-Smith, M J; Sweet, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The MICs of the new antimicrobial agents cefmetazole, cefotetan, and amoxicillin-clauvulanic acid were compared with the MICs of other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria from endometrial cultures from women with pelvic inflammatory disease or endometritis. The activity of cefmetazole was similar to that of cefoxitin and generally greater than that of cefotetan. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was generally more active than all cephamycins tested.

  12. Modulation of host ROS metabolism is essential for viral infection of a bloom-forming coccolithophore in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Uri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Porat, Ziv; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-07-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga responsible for vast blooms in the ocean. These blooms have immense impact on large biogeochemical cycles and are terminated by a specific large double-stranded DNA E. huxleyi virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae). EhV infection is accompanied by induction of hallmarks of programmed cell death and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we characterized alterations in ROS metabolism and explored its role during infection. Transcriptomic analysis of ROS-related genes predicted an increase in glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 production during infection. In accordance, using biochemical assays and specific fluorescent probes we demonstrated the overproduction of GSH during lytic infection. We also showed that H2O2 production, rather than superoxide, is the predominant ROS during the onset of the lytic phase of infection. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, we showed that the profound co-production of H2O2 and GSH occurred in the same subpopulation of cells but at different subcellular localization. Positively stained cells for GSH and H2O2 were highly infected compared with negatively stained cells. Inhibition of ROS production by application of a peroxidase inhibitor or an H2O2 scavenger inhibited host cell death and reduced viral production. We conclude that viral infection induced remodeling of the host antioxidant network that is essential for a successful viral replication cycle. This study provides insight into viral replication strategy and suggests the use of specific cellular markers to identify and quantify the extent of active viral infection during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean. PMID:26784355

  13. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hughes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus. Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology.

  14. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F; Sample, Jeffery T; Stewart, James P

    2011-03-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology. PMID:21445235

  15. 尿路感染病原菌的分布及药物敏感分析%Distribution on etiological bacteria and drug sensitivity analysis in urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖观清; 孔耀中; 李导; 陈斌鸿; 叶佩仪; 邵咏红; 陈统清

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of etiological bacteria for urinary tract infection in the region and analyse drug sensitivity, and to provide a scientific basis for the correct and rational using antimicrobial drugs in clinical. METHODS Accordance with procedures of national clinical laboratory, we used the French company bioMerieux VITEK-32 identified strains of bacteria identification instrument to identify 966 of urinary tract infection pathogens which isolated from clinical urine samples. RESULTS 49 species were in the separation of 966 pathogens, and 675 gram-negative bacteria accounted for 69.9%; 183 gram-positive bacteria accounted for 18.9%; 108 fungi accounted far 11.2%; Escherichia coli bacteria was the main in the gram-negative bacteria; Gram-positive bacteria mainly belonged to Enterococcus faecalis! Candida albicans bacteria was the main in the fungi; Separation of the first seven bacteria were Escherichia coli (49.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.6%), Kleb-siella pneumoniae (7.0%), Candida albicans (6.8%), Proteus mirabilis (3.9%), Pseudomonas aerugiaosa (3.3%), Staphy-lococcus epidermidis (3.0%). The detection rate of ESBLs producing by Escherichia cob' was 47.3%, and 33.8% by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The detection rate of oxacillin-resistant coagulase -negative staphylococci was 37.5%, and the detection rate of MRSA was 50.0%. The sensitivity of escherichia coli on cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem was good (70.6%-100%). CONCLUSION The pathogens of causing urinary tract infection are widely distributed, and escherichia coli are the major pathogens of urinary tract infection in the region. Clinicians should pay attention to bacteriological culture, combined with the drug susceptibility testing and drug-resistant strains of the special report, rational use of antibiotics to reduce drug—resistant strains and an outbreak of hospital infection.%目的 了解泌尿系感染的病原菌分布及药物敏感性,为

  16. 口腔颌面部间隙感染患者病原菌分布及药物敏感性分析%DISTRIBUTION OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF PATIENTS WITH ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL INFECTIONS AND DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡圳; 朱德全

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria of patients with oral and max-illofacial infections and drug susceptibility for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics .Methods The distribu-tion of pathogenic bacteria of patients with oral and maxillofacial infections in our hospital from January , 2010 to October ,2013 was retrospectively analyzed .The identification of bacteria and the antibiotic sus-ceptibility detection were performed by VITEK2 analyzor .Results 65 strains of pathogenic bacteria were i-solated from 107 specimens ,including 38 strains of gram-positive bacteria(58 .5% ) and 27 strains of gram-negative bacteria (41 .5% ) . The most common pathogenic bacteria strains were staphylococci aureus , streptococcus pneumoniae and streptococcus ,escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis were all found suscepti-ble to vancomycin ,and klebsiella pneumoniae ,proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli were all susceptible to imipenem .Conclusion Staphylococci aureus ,streptococcus pneumoniae ,klebsiella pneumoniae ,streptococ-cus ,proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli are the predominant species of pathogents ,and it is necessary to rationally use antibiotics based on the drug susceptibility .%目的:探讨口腔颌面部间隙感染中病原菌的分布及药物敏感性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法回顾分析我院2010年1月~2013年10月口腔颌面部间隙感染患者脓液分离菌分布情况,采用VITEK2compact全自动细菌鉴定分析仪配套试剂进行细菌鉴定及药敏试验。结果107例患者送检标本中共检测出病原菌65例,其中革兰阳性菌38例,占58.5%;革兰阴性菌27例,占41.5%。革兰阳性菌中金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎链球菌、草绿色链球菌等均对万古霉素100%敏感。革兰阴性菌中肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形菌和大肠埃希菌均对亚胺培南100%敏感。结论口腔颌面部间隙感染脓液中菌种分布以金黄

  17. Campylobacter jejuni infection increases anxiety-like behavior in the holeboard: possible anatomical substrates for viscerosensory modulation of exploratory behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Goehler, Lisa E.; Park, Su Mi; Opitz, Noel; Lyte, Mark; Gaykema, Ronald P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of certain bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract influences behavior and brain function. For example, challenge with live Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a common food-born pathogen, reduces exploration of open arms of the plus maze, consistent with anxiety-like behavior, and activates brain regions associated with autonomic function, likely via a vagal pathway. As yet, however, little is known regarding the interface of immune sensory signals with brain substrates that mediat...

  18. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Sensitivity Test Analysis of Children with Urinary Tract Infection%小儿尿路感染的病原微生物分布及其药物敏感性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug sensitivity of common antibiotics in children with urinary tract infection. Methods 132 cases of children with urinary tract infection were selected,the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, and the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity test were discussed. Results 141 strains were cultured in 132 cases of patients with urinary tract infection. In all strains of gram negative bacteria,the gram negative bacteria accounted for the highest propor-tion of 85. 11%,in the gram negative bacteria,the top 3 strains were Escherichia coli,Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae,the proportions were 68. 79%,6. 38% and 4. 96%;gram positive bacteria were 19 strains,accounting for 13. 48%,the top two strains were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium ,the proportions were 7. 09% and 4. 26%;while in the bacterial culture of urine , 2 strains of fungi were cultured,accounting for 1. 42%;the preferred Cefoperazone + Sulbactam for treatment of gram negative bacteria infection,for the more serious illness in children,which should make application of imipenem for treatment as soon as possible;the pre-ferred Amoxicillin + Potassium Clavulanate for treatment of gram positive infections,Meropenem and Vancomycin were only used in children with critical illness infection. Conclusion Escherichia coli is the main pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to the occur-rence of urinary tract infection in children,and the observation of drug sensitivity test can be an instruction to clinical drug choice.%目的:探讨小儿尿路感染的病原微生物分布及常见抗菌药物的药物敏感性(简称药敏)试验。方法回顾性分析医院儿科收治的132例尿路感染患儿的临床资料,探讨其病原微生物分布情况及抗菌药物药敏试验情况。结果132例患儿尿液共培养出141株菌株,其中,革兰阴性菌占比最高(85.11%),排前3位的

  19. A novel functional T cell hybridoma recognizes macrophage cell death induced by bacteria: a possible role for innate lymphocytes in bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Koichi

    2006-06-15

    We have established a novel TCRalphabeta (TCRVbeta6)(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cell hybridoma designated B6HO3. When the B6HO3 cells were cocultured with bacterial-infected J774 macrophage-like cells, IFN-gamma production by B6HO3 cells was triggered through direct cell-cell contact with dying J774 cells infected with Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Shigella flexneri, or Salmonella typhimurium that expressed the type III secretion system, but not with intact J774 cells infected with heat-killed LM, nonhemolytic lysteriolysin O-deficient (Hly(-)) LM, plasmid-cured Shigella, or stationary-phase Salmonella. However, the triggering of B6HO3 cells for IFN-gamma production involved neither dying hepatoma cells infected with LM nor dying J774 cells caused by gliotoxin treatment or freeze thawing. Cycloheximide and Abs to H-2K(d), H-2D(d), Ia(d), CD1d, TCRVbeta6, and IL-12 did not inhibit the contact-dependent IFN-gamma response, indicating that this IFN-gamma response did not require de novo protein synthesis in bacterial-infected J774 cells and was TCR and IL-12 independent. Thus, in an as yet undefined way, B6HO3 hybridoma recognizes a specialized form of macrophage cell death resulting from bacterial infection and consequently produces IFN-gamma. Moreover, contact-dependent interaction of minor subsets of splenic alphabeta T cells, including NKT cells with dying LM-infected J774 and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells, proved to provide an IFN-gamma-productive stimulus for these minor T cell populations, to which the parental T cell of the B6HO3 hybridoma appeared to belong. Unexpectedly, subsets of gammadelta T and NK cells similarly responded to dying LM-infected macrophage cells. These results propose that innate lymphocytes may possess a recognition system sensing macrophage cell "danger" resulting from bacterial infection. PMID:16751404

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of CranMax® on reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of CranMax® and...... in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract is a beneficial physiological effect. One human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...... related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The Panel considers that the food, CranMax®, which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised...

  1. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  2. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance observation of early wound infection in burn patients%烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌分布与耐药性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance of early wound infection in burn patients. Methods:300 patients with burn wound infection were selected from July 2009 to July 2014.The infection test results of the patients were analyzed.The athogenic bacteria drug resistance was analyzed.Results:There detected 171 strains of gram negative bacteria,141 strains of gram positive bacteria,6 strains of fungi.The antibacterial drug resistance situation of pseudomonas aeruginosa:the drug resistance rates of imipenem,amikacin,ceftazidime and aztreonam were lower,the drug resistance rates were 10%,27.7%,33.7%,35.4%;the drug resistance rates of ampicillin,ceftriaxone,gentamicin,cefoperazone were higher,the drug resistance rates were 100%,79.2%,69.3%,65.3%.The drug resistance rate for majority antibacterial agents of acinetobacter were high,the drug resistance rates of imipenem,amikacin,netilmicin were lower,they were 0,46.9%,50%.Conclusion:Early burn wound infection gives priority to with pseudomonas aeruginosa,acinetobacter,staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis. Through drug sensitivity test to select the appropriate effective antimicrobial contribute to the prevention and treatment of early burn wound infection.%目的:探讨烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌分布情况与耐药性情况。方法:2009年7月-2014年7月收治烧伤创面感染患者300例,分析患者的感染检测结果;对病原菌耐药性进行分析。结果:检测到革兰阴性菌171株,革兰阳性菌141株,真菌6株。铜绿假单胞菌对抗菌药耐药情况:对亚胺培南、阿米卡星、头孢他啶和氨曲南耐药率较低,耐药率分别为10.0%、27.7%、33.7%、35.4%;对氨苄西林、头孢曲松、庆大霉素、头孢哌酮耐药率较高,分别为100%、79.2%、69.3%、65.3%。不动杆菌属对多数抗菌药物耐药率均高,对亚胺培南、阿米卡星、奈替米星耐药率较低,分别为0、46

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  4. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Carla; Alff, Emily; Johnson, Cameron; Ramos, Cassandra; Donofrio, Nicole; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Bais, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of ...

  5. Role of Leukotrienes on Protozoan and Helminth Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerio, Alexandre P.; Anibal, Fernanda F.

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase-(5-LO-) catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid, are lipid mediators that have potent proinflammatory activities. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of 5-LO biosynthesis in animals is associated with increased mortality and impaired clearance of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. LTs play a role in the control of helminth and protozoan infections by modulating the immune system and/or through direct cytotoxicity to parasites; however, LTs may als...

  6. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Strong

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 10(2.55TCID50/ml, group B 10(5.25TCID50/ml and group C 10(6.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D was inoculated with a medium dose (10(5.25TCID50/ml and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds.

  7. 579株泌尿道感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 579 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with a urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蓬波; 杨广民; 侯晓杰; 荣爱红; 孙大勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods Five hundred and seventy-nine strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from u-rine were identified by VITEK 32 from January 2008 to December 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed via a disk diffusion test, and the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria was analyzed with WHONET 5.4, Results Among 579 strains of pathogenic bacteria, the most common was Gram-negative bacilli, the predominant strain of which was Escherichia coli (45.94 %). The predominant strains of Gram-positive bacteria were En-. terococcus faecalis (12.6%) and Enterococcus faecium (15.0%). The rate of ESBL-producing E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia , and Proteus mirabilis was 53. 00% , 36. 00% , and 36. 59%. The antimicrobial resistance of these pathogenic bacteria differed. Resistance to most antibiotics was greater than 50%, although resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam, pip-eracillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin was relatively low. Conclusion The predominant bacteria from UTIs were Gram-negative bacteria, the most common of which was E. coli. Antibiotics should be used based on results of susceptibility testing.%目的 了解泌尿道感染的病原菌分布及其耐药情况.方法 采用VITEK32细菌鉴定系统对2008年1月~2010年12月尿培养分离的579株病原菌进行鉴定,纸片扩散法做药敏试验.结果 579株病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主(404株),优势菌为大肠埃希菌(266株),占45.94%,其次为肺炎克雷伯菌(50株)和奇异变形杆菌(41株);革兰阳性菌(175株)的优势菌为屎肠球菌(87株)和粪肠球菌(73株).产ESBL的大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和奇异变形杆菌的检出率分别为53.00%、36.00%和36.59%.病原菌对各抗生素的耐药率不同,对多数抗生素的耐药率高于50%,

  8. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in nosocomial infections in patients with gynecological malignant tumor%妇科恶性肿瘤患者医院感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明阳; 陈敏; 向加林; 林振江; 刘颂

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨妇科恶性肿瘤患者术后医院感染的发生,并对病原菌分布及耐药性进行分析。方法选取2011年1月-2015年7月在医院接受手术治疗的妇科恶性肿瘤患者452例,病原菌的定量培养基菌种的鉴定均根据《全国临床检验操作规程》中与临床微生物学检验相关的规则,应用常规操作方法进行;M IC法进行药敏试验。结果452例患者发生医院感染42例,感染率9.29%;医院感染的主要类型为切口和尿路感染,分别占47.62%和28.57%;检出病原菌118株,其中革兰阴性菌占72.04%,以大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌及鲍氏不动杆菌为主,革兰阳性菌占25.42%,以金黄色葡萄菌为主,真菌占2.54%;铜绿假单胞菌及鲍氏不动杆菌对≥3种抗菌药物的耐药率达50.00%;金黄色葡萄菌与表皮葡萄球菌对青霉素的耐药率均达到100.00%,对利福平及万古霉素的耐药率均为0。结论妇科恶性肿瘤患者术后医院感染的主要类型为切口和尿路感染居多,病原菌主要以革兰阴性菌为主,具有较高的耐药性,在治疗时应根据药敏试验结果合理使用抗菌药物。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the nosocomial infections in patients with gynecologic malignant tumor ,and to analyze the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria .METHODS Totally 452 cases of gynecologic malignancy who underwent surgical treatment during Jan .2011 to Jul .2015 were enrolled .Identi-fication of pathogenic strains in quantitative culture medium was conducted using routine methods according to the national clinical laboratory procedures .The MIC method was used for drug sensitivity test .RESULTS Totally 42 patients among the 452 patients had nosocomial infections ,the infection rate was 9 .29% .The main types of noso-comial infections were wound infections and urinary tract infections accounting for 47 .62% and 28

  9. 急性脑血管病患者医院感染病原菌耐药性研究%Antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玉华; 黄宏耀; 肖小鸿; 姜华; 张莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究急性脑血管病住院患者医院感染的易感部位、病原菌分布及耐药性,为预防控制医院感染提供参考依据。方法选取2012年1月-2014年12月医院收治的2988例急性脑血管病患者临床资料,统计其感染部位、病原菌分布及对抗菌药物的耐药率;药敏检测采用 K-B法,检测数据采用WHONET 5.6软件处理。结果2988例急性脑血管病患者发生医院感染285例、336例次,感染率9.5%、例次感染率11.2%;感染部位以呼吸系统和泌尿系统为主,分别占54.2%和23.2%;送检标本培养出388株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌占64.2%,革兰阳性菌占25.0%,真菌占10.8%;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌检出率为54.2%,耐碳青霉烯类铜绿假单胞菌和鲍氏不动杆菌检出率分别为21.7%和32.6%,产ESBLs菌检出率为51.9%;革兰阴性菌对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率最高,均>65.0%。结论急性脑血管病患者易诱发医院感染,且感染菌耐药性日益加剧,医院应将预防控制感染暴发和阻断耐药菌传播途径作为第一要务,以提高疾病治愈率。%OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing noso-comial infections in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease and provide reference for prevention and control of the infections .METHODS The retrospective review was performed on the clinical data of 2 988 cases of hospitalized patients with acute cerebrovascular disease from Jan .2012 to Dec .2014 .Infected sites ,bacterial distribution and resistance rates were analyzed statistically .Susceptibility testing was carried out by K-B methods .The WHONET 5 .6 software was used to process the data .RESULTS Totally 285 cases (336 case-times) of nosocomial infections were found among 2988 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease .The infection rate was 9 .5% and the case

  10. TLR2-Modulating Lipoproteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Enhance the HIV Infectivity of CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Skerry

    Full Text Available Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins, which are absent in M. smegmatis. M. tuberculosis production of mature lipoproteins and TLR2 stimulation is dependent on cleavage by lipoprotein signal peptidase A (LspA. In order to determine the role of potential TLR2-stimulating lipoproteins on mycobacterial-mediated HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells, we generated M. smegmatis recombinant strains overexpressing genes encoding various M. bovis BCG lipoproteins, as well as a Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain deficient in LspA (ΔlspA. Exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to M. smegmatis strains overexpressing the BCG lipoproteins, LprF (p<0.01, LprH (p<0.05, LprI (p<0.05, LprP (p<0.001, LprQ (p<0.005, MPT83 (p<0.005, or PhoS1 (p<0.05, resulted in increased HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells isolated from these PBMC. Conversely, infection of PBMC with ΔlspA reduced HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells by 40% relative to BCG-infected cells (p<0.05. These results may have important implications for TB vaccination programs in areas with high mother-to-child HIV transmission.

  11. Liver accumulation of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected red blood cells and modulation of regulatory T cell and dendritic cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M Medeiros

    Full Text Available It is postulated that accumulation of malaria-infected Red Blood Cells (iRBCs in the liver could be a parasitic escape mechanism against full destruction by the host immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the in vivo mechanism of this accumulation and its potential immunological consequences. A massive liver accumulation of P. c. chabaudi AS-iRBCs (Pc-iRBCs was observed by intravital microscopy along with an over expression of ICAM-1 on day 7 of the infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Phenotypic changes were also observed in regulatory T cells (Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs that were isolated from infected livers, which indicate a functional role for Tregs in the regulation of the liver inflammatory immune response. In fact, the suppressive function of liver-Tregs was in vitro tested, which demonstrated the capacity of these cells to suppress naive T cell activation to the same extent as that observed for spleen-Tregs. On the other hand, it is already known that CD4+ T cells isolated from spleens of protozoan parasite-infected mice are refractory to proliferate in vivo. In our experiments, we observed a similar lack of in vitro proliferative capacity in liver CD4+ T cells that were isolated on day 7 of infection. It is also known that nitric oxide and IL-10 are partially involved in acute phase immunosuppression; we found high expression levels of IL-10 and iNOS mRNA in day 7-infected livers, which indicates a possible role for these molecules in the observed immune suppression. Taken together, these results indicate that malaria parasite accumulation within the liver could be an escape mechanism to avoid sterile immunity sponsored by a tolerogenic environment.

  12. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  13. Common duckweed (Lemna minor is a versatile high-throughput infection model for the Burkholderia cepacia complex and other pathogenic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan L S Thomson

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc have emerged in recent decades as problematic pulmonary pathogens of cystic fibrosis (CF patients, with severe infections progressing to acute necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis. This study presents evidence that Lemna minor (Common duckweed is useful as a plant model for the Bcc infectious process, and has potential as a model system for bacterial pathogenesis in general. To investigate the relationship between Bcc virulence in duckweed and Galleria mellonella (Greater wax moth larvae, a previously established Bcc infection model, a duckweed survival assay was developed and used to determine LD50 values. A strong correlation (R(2 = 0.81 was found between the strains' virulence ranks in the two infection models, suggesting conserved pathways in these vastly different hosts. To broaden the application of the duckweed model, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and five isogenic mutants with previously established LD50 values in the larval model were tested against duckweed, and a strong correlation (R(2 = 0.93 was found between their raw LD50 values. Potential virulence factors in B. cenocepacia K56-2 were identified using a high-throughput screen against single duckweed plants. In addition to the previously characterized antifungal compound (AFC cluster genes, several uncharacterized genes were discovered including a novel lysR regulator, a histidine biosynthesis gene hisG, and a gene located near the gene encoding the recently characterized virulence factor SuhB(Bc. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of this model in therapeutic applications, duckweed was rescued from Bcc infection by treating with bacteriophage at 6-h intervals. It was observed that phage application became ineffective at a timepoint that coincided with a sharp increase in bacterial invasion of plant tissue. These results indicate that common duckweed can serve as an effective infection model for the investigation of bacterial

  14. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in young children, developing most often during hot, humid summers and usually appearing on the face around the nose, mouth, and ears. It can be caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. (More often, it is caused by a ...

  15. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.

    2009-01-01

    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  16. Modulation of the cellular immune response during Plasmodium falciparum infections in sickle cell trait individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Theander, T G; Abdulhadi, N H;

    1992-01-01

    Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from P. falciparum-infected individuals with and without the sickle cell trait at diagnosis and 7 days after treatment. HbAA and HbAS patients were compared for levels of plasma soluble IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) and the in vitro...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of 207 strains of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical nosocomiai infections and intervention measures%外科207株医院感染病原菌的耐药性与干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓燕; 张建菊; 陈慧; 周谦

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To 'study the constituent rate and antimicrobial resistance status of pathogenic bacteria causing surgical nosocomial infections and adopted the intervention measurement to prevent nosocomial infection. METHODS The statistical data were investigated. Based on Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, bacterial culturation and drug sensitivity testing were performed for the secretion from infected wounds. RESULTS Among 207 pathogens causing surgical infection, the isolating rates were as follows: Pseudo-monas aeruginosa (26. 6‰, Slaphylococcus aureus (22.7%), Escherichia coli (16.4%) and Klebsiella pneu-moniae (14. 5%). The drug sensitivity testing results indicated that except for 92. 7% -100. 0% of sensitivity rate of carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative bacilli and 100. 0% of sensitivity rate of glycopeptide antibiotics against S. Aureus, pathogenic bacteria had more serious antimicrobial resistance. CONCLUSION The effective intervention measures should be taken to restrain the increasing tendency of antimicrobial resistance.%目的 了解山区医院外科感染病原菌的构成比及耐药现状,采取干预措施预防医院感染.方法调查外科感染患者病历资料,外科感染性分泌物细菌培养和药敏试验严格按照《全国临床检验操作规程》进行.结果207株外科感染病原菌中,分离率依次为铜绿假单胞菌26.6%、金黄色葡萄球菌22.7%、大肠埃希菌16.4%、肺炎克雷伯菌14.5%;药敏结果显示,除革兰阴性杆菌对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物敏感率为92.7%~100.0%、金黄色葡萄球菌对糖肽类抗菌药物敏感率为100.0%以外,病原菌均产生了较为严重的耐药性.结论 医院应采取切实有效的干预措施,遏制细菌耐药性快速增长的不良趋势.

  18. Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with lower respiratory tract in-fection in ICU%ICU患者下呼吸道感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚旭明; 王盛华; 鞠瑛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in hospital ICU patients with lower respiratory tract infection , and provide scientific reference for clinical rational drug use . Methods The strains were identified by VITEK -32 automatic bacterial identification instrument , the bacterial sensitivity was determined by K -B disk diffusion method , and the statistical analysis was performed by WHONET 5.4 software.Results The total isolated pathogenic bacteria of lower respiratory tract infection in ICU patients was 453 strains.332 strains of gram negative bacteria accounted for 73.3%,and the former three ones were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (115 strains,accounted for 25.4%),Klebsiella pneumonia (90 strains,accounted for 19.8%),Acineto-bacter baumannii (38 strains,accounted for 8.4%).102 strains of gram positive bacteria accounted for 22.5%,and the top three were Staphylococcus aureus (31 strains,accounted for 6.8%),coagulase negative Staphylococcus (22 strains,accounted for 4.9%),Enterococcus (18 strains,accounted for 4%).Meropenem,imipenem (Stenotroph-omonas maltophilia was excepted ) ,Cefoperazone /sulbactam and Amikacin were most sensitive against gram negative bacteria;Teicoplanin and vancomycin were highly sensitive against gram positive bacteria .Conclusion The main pathogenic bacteria of respiratory tract infection in ICU patients was gram negative bacilli ,which were seriously resist-ant to commonly used antimicrobial drugs .So strengthening the infection management of ICU and the control for risk factors,and rationally using of antimicrobial drugs has great significance in reducing the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria rate .%目的:了解ICU患者下呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及其耐药性,为临床合理用药提供科学参考依据。方法采用VITEK-32全自动细菌鉴定仪进行菌种鉴定,用K-B药敏纸片扩散法测定细菌敏感性,使用WHONET 5.4软件

  19. The relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and lower respiratory tract infection%牙周可疑致病菌与下呼吸道感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽思; 潘亚萍

    2011-01-01

    The biofilm of dental plaque is the initiation factor of periodontitis.It is known to all that there are relationships between periodontitis and many multi-organ or systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, alimentary tract and respiratory tract disease.Recently, people pay close attention to the relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and the respiratory tract disease, and this review will summarize the path and the role of the putative periodontopathic bacteria infecting the lower respiratory tract.%牙菌斑生物膜是牙周炎的始动因子.研究发现,牙周炎与全身多器官或系统的感染性疾病有关,如心脑血管疾病、糖尿病、消化道和呼吸道疾病.近年来,牙周炎与呼吸道疾病之间的关系备受关注,本文将近期对牙周可疑致病菌感染下呼吸道的途径及其作用研究做简要综述.

  20. Sodium hypochlorite decontamination of split-thickness cadaveric skin infected with bacteria and yeast with subsequent isolation and growth of basal cells to confluency in tissue culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Fader, R C; Maurer, A.; Stein, M D; Abston, S; Herndon, D N

    1983-01-01

    The ability of sodium hypochlorite to decontaminate skin while leaving sufficient epidermal cell viability for growth in tissue culture was investigated with an in vitro system. Split-thickness cadaveric skin was infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans and subsequently treated with various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for various time intervals. Exposure to a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite for 6 min effectively decontaminated the skin w...

  1. A STUDY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS DUE TO MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA IN CRITICAL CARE UNIT OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh; Sahadalal; Roy; Dasgupta; Saha Dalal

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine antibiotic resistance pattern against commonly used drugs for urinary tract infections in patients of the ICU of the KPC Medical College and Hospital from November 2011 to May 2015 . Commonly isolated organisms were, Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 39.02%), Escherichia coli ( 8.10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 17.07% ), A c inetobacterbaumannii (30.08%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (5.60%). Susceptibility...

  2. Primary cultures of female swine genital epithelial cells in vitro: a new approach for the study of hormonal modulation of Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Natalia V; Knight, Stephen T; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2003-08-01

    several weeks can, after thawing, reform characteristic polarized monolayers in 3 to 5 days. Thus, primary swine genital epithelia cultured ex vivo appear to be an excellent cell model for dissecting the hormonal modulation of several aspects of chlamydial pathogenesis and infection. PMID:12874351

  3. HIV-1 infected lymphoid organs upregulate expression and release of the cleaved form of uPAR that modulates chemotaxis and virus expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Nebuloni

    Full Text Available Cell-associated receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR is released as both full-length soluble uPAR (suPAR and cleaved (c-suPAR form that maintain ability to bind to integrins and other receptors, thus triggering and modulating cell signaling responses. Concerning HIV-1 infection, plasma levels of suPAR have been correlated with the severity of disease, levels of immune activation and ineffective immune recovery also in individuals receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. However, it is unknown whether and which suPAR forms might contribute to HIV-1 induced pathogenesis and to the related state of immune activation. In this regard, lymphoid organs represent an import site of chronic immune activation and virus persistence even in individuals receiving cART. Lymphoid organs of HIV-1(+ individuals showed an enhanced number of follicular dendritic cells, macrophages and endothelial cells expressing the cell-associated uPAR in comparison to those of uninfected individuals. In order to investigate the potential role of suPAR forms in HIV-1 infection of secondary lymphoid organs, tonsil histocultures were established from HIV-1 seronegative individuals and infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. The levels of suPAR and c-suPAR were significantly increased in HIV-infected tonsil histocultures supernatants in comparison to autologous uninfected histocultures. Supernatants from infected and uninfected cultures before and after immunodepletion of suPAR forms were incubated with the chronically infected promonocytic U1 cell line characterized by a state of proviral latency in unstimulated conditions. In the contest of HIV-conditioned supernatants we established that c-suPAR, but not suPAR, inhibited chemotaxis and induced virus expression in U1 cells. In conclusion, lymphoid organs are an important site of production and release of both suPAR and c-suPAR, this latter form being endowed with the capacity of

  4. 导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程光敏; 姜玲; 尧兴水

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the constituent ratio and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urethral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and offer reference for clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, bacterial culture and identification were performed. The susceptibility testing was performed by K-B method as recommended by CLSI. RESULTS Among 159 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (38. 4%) ranked the top one, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13. 2%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (12. 6%). All of the pathogenic bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics to varying degrees. CONCLUSION Clinicians should attach importance to pathogenic surveillance and reasonably use the antibiotics according to susceptibility testing results to effectively control urelhral catheter-associated urinary tract infection and raise the clinical recovery rate.%目的 了解医院导尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药特征,为临床医师合理使用抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 严格按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,采集患者的尿液进行细菌培养与鉴定;采用CLSI推荐的K- B法进行药敏试验.结果 159株尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌为主,占38.4%,铜绿假单胞菌第2位,占13.2%,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌第3位,占12.6%;所有病原菌对常用抗菌药物均产生了不同的耐药性.结论 临床医师应重视病原学监测,按照药敏试验结果规范用药,才能有效控制导尿管相关性尿路感染,提高临床治愈率.

  5. Qualitative Immune Modulation by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Adjuvant Therapy in Immunological Non Responder HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sabbatini; Alessandra Bandera; Giulio Ferrario; Daria Trabattoni; Giulia Marchetti; Fabio Franzetti; Mario Clerici; Andrea Gori

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV-infected patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces significant increases in CD4 T cell counts; however an associated qualitative improvement in cells function has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. By measuring mycobacterial killing activity, we evaluated IL-2-mediated functional immune enhancement ex vivo in immunological non-responders (INRs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: PBMC from 12 immunological non-responders (INRs) (CD4+

  6. Modulation of gene expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes following in vitro HIV infection: a comparison between human and chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Puissant-Lubrano, Bénédicte; Apoil, Pol-André; Gleizes, Arnaud; Forestier, Lionel; Julien, Raymond; Winterton, Peter; Pasquier, Christophe; Izopet, Jacques; Blancher, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to experimental infection by human deficiency virus (HIV)-1, but unlike humans, they exceptionally develop an immunodeficiency syndrome after HIV-1 inoculation. To explore the difference between human and chimpanzee, we analyzed the expression of 1547 genes of various functions in human or chimpanzee CD4+ lymphoblasts inoculated in vitro with HIV-1. We observed that, 1 day after HIV inoculation, fifty-eight genes were up-regulated in lymphoblasts of the three human...

  7. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo; Ana Laura Rodríguez-Morales; Fidel Orlando Buendía-González; Margarita Aguilar-Sánchez; Jorge Morales-Montor; Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower ...

  8. Human management of a wild plant modulates the evolutionary dynamics of a gene determining recessive resistance to virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 p...

  9. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  10. 糖尿病足感染的病原菌及耐药性分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance in Patients with Diabetic Foot Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艳丽; 杨永歆

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To study pathogenic bacteria distribution and antimicrobial resistance in diabetic foot infection patients ,and provid information for choosing effective antibacterials during treatment .Methods :50 diabetic foot patients were enrolled from May 2011 to July 2013 in our hospital .Pathogenic spectrum and antimicrobial resistance were con-ducted on the infection secretion from the groups .Results:63 secretion specimens were isolated from 50 patients .56 strains of pathogens were isolated ,positive rate was up to 88 .9% .Gram positive bacteria were thirty four strains (60.7% ,34/56) ,gram negative bacteria were seventeen strains (30 .4% ,17/56) and fungi were five strains(8 .9% ,5/56) .The major pathogens in the secretion were staphylococcus aureus ,saphylococcus epidermidis and proteus mirabi-lis .43 of 50 patients (86% ) were classified as Wagner’s grade two and three .The sensitive rate of gram positive bac-teria (staphylococcus) to vancocin ,furadantin was higher ,and the resistance rate of staphylococcus to benzylpenicillin , oxacillin was higher .The sensitive rate of gram-negative bacteria to imipenem ,meropenem ,the third and fourth genera-tion cephalosporins was higher ,and the resistance rates of gram-negative bacteria to ticarcillin ,generation of cephalo-sporins and the second generation cephalosporins was higher .During the course of treatment ,bacterial species and the sensitivity of the same species of bacteria changed .Conclusion:The major patients were the superficial infection group . The major pathogens of diabetic foot infection patients in our group were staphylococcus aureus ,staphylococcus epi-dermidis and proteus mirabilis . Regular microbial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary for choosing effective medication during treatment ,so the drug resistant pathogens will decrease .%目的:了解糖尿病足感染患者的病原菌分布特点及耐药性,为临床合理选择抗菌药物

  11. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  12. 胆道感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of Pathogenic bacteria in patients with biliary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培; 马春华; 罗华

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the microbiologed distribution of biliary tract infection in patients with resistant strains so as to guide rational drug use. METHODS There were 275 cases with submission sample. The isolation and culture of bacteria and drug susceptibility test were executed according to'National Clinical Laboratory Operating Procedures' (third edition) standards using automated microbial (VITEK-32, France) analyzer. KB method was used for drug susceptibility testing and the results were judged by Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI) standards. RESULTS A total of 183 strains were detected from 275 samples, with the detection rate of 66. 55%. They included 95 strains of gram-negative bacteria accounting for 51. 91%, 63 strains of gram-positive bacteria accounting for 34. 43% and 12 strains of fungi accounting for 6. 56%. The resistance rates of the major bacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to imipenem/cilastatin was 0, and the resistance rate of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococci feces, Staphylococcus aureus to quinolones was low. CONCLUSION The biliary system is widely distributed with microbial infections, and some strains may cause multidrug resistance. We suggest clinicians emphasize the monitoring of the dynamic distribution of pathogenic bacteria and changes in drug susceptibility to guide rational antibiotics use.%目的 了解胆道感染患者的病原菌分布及耐药性特点,指导合理用药.方法 送检标本275例,菌种分离培养和药物敏感试验执行《全国临床检验操作规程》(第3版)标准;分析仪器采用全自动微生物(VITEK-32法国)分析仪鉴定,用K-B法进行药物敏感试验,操作规程执行《全国临床检验操作规程》,结果判断执行美国临床实验室标准化研究所(CLSI)标准.结果 送检标本275份,检出病原菌183株,检出率为66.55%;其中革兰阴性菌95株,占51.91%,革兰阳性菌63株,占34.43%,真菌12株,占6.56%;大肠埃希菌、肺炎克

  13. 泌尿外科患者医院感染病原菌调查分析%Distribution of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in patients of urology department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明果; 林芝; 李成山; 李皇

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in the patients of urology department so as to provide a solid basis for the therapeutic treatment.METHODS A total of 166 patients in department of urology were analyzed.The indexes of blood,urine,sputum specimen collection,and corresponding bacterial culture were performed for the patients diagnosed as nosocomial infections,then the results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS Totally 42 patients were diagnosed as nosocomial infections in 1066 patients in the department of urology,among which there were 37 cases of urethral catheterization infections and 5 cases of surgical site infections,the incidence rate of nosocomial infections was 3.9%.Totally 140 copies of specimens were detected in 42 patients with nosocomial infections in department of urology,and 90 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated with the isolation rate of 64.3%,among which there were 62 strains of gram-negative bacilli (68.9 %),22 strains of gram-positive bacilli (24.4%),and 6 strains of fungi (6.7%).The Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus haemol yticus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Proteus mirabilis,and Staphylococcus epidermidis ranked the top five species of pathogens,accounting for 32.2%,11.1%,11.1%,11.1%,and 7.8%,respectively.The gram-positive bacteria were highly resistant to gentamicin,erythromycin,clindamycin,levofloxacin,and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim,the gram-negative bacteria were more resistant to gentamicin,sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim,ampicillin,ceftazidime,and cefpiramide oxime,and the fungi were highly sensitive amphotericin B,voriconazole,fluconazole,cytosine,and itraconazole.CONCLUSION The principles of the use of antibiotics should be strictly abided in patients hospitalized,and the management of antibiotics should be standardized.The medication of patients with drug resistance should be adjusted according to the test results,it is also helpful

  14. Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria in 575 Cases of Bloodstream Infection%血流感染575例病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文利; 吴诗品; 陈洪涛; 吴劲松

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with bloodstream infection(BSI).Methods Five hundred and seventy-five BSI patients hospitalized from Jan.2004 to Nov.2008 were enrolled to perform a retrospective analysis on bacterial identification and drug sensitive test results.Results A total of 645 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,including 338 gram-negative (52.4%),267 gram-positive(41.4%),40 fungi(6.2%).Mixed infection was found in 52 patients.The isolated pathogenic bacteria were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci(27.6%),Escherichia coli(21.7%),klebsiella pneumoniae(12.6%),glucose non-fermentative bacteria(9.9%),enterococcus(3.9%).The detection rates of Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae producing superspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)were 46.4%,19.7%,respectively;those of methicillin resistant S.aureus(MRSA) and meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS) were 54.8%,89.3%,respectively.Glucose non-fermentative bacteria,acinetobacter baumannii,pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia cepacia were highly resistant to most antimicrobials;gram-positive cocci resistant to vancomycin were not found.Conclusion The pathogenic bacteria inducing BSI are mainly gram-negative,and the multiple drug resistance of BSI pathogenic bacteria,especially glucose non-fermentative,is increasing.Monitoring drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria is of importance in guiding clinical rational use of antimicrobial drugs and reducing drug resistance bacteria.%目的 探讨近年来血流感染的病原菌分布及其对抗菌药物的耐药状况.方法 选择2004年1月-2008年11月在我院住院的575例血流感染患者,对患者的细菌鉴定及药敏试验结果进行回顾性分析.结果 从575例血流感染患者中共分离出645株病原菌,其中革兰阴性菌338株(占52.4%)、革兰阳性菌267株(占41.4%)、真菌40株(占6.2%),52例患者发生混合感染.分离的病原菌中,主要

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Jemo-pharm A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The Panel considers that the food, CranMax®, which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract is a beneficial physiological effect. One human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of CranMax® on reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract.

  16. Species and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile diabetics%老年糖尿病患者尿路感染的病原菌种类及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文清; 谢志强

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To approach species and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing the urinary tract infections in senile patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) so as to offer evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics. METHODS The bacterial culture of midstream urine was performed for 267 cases of diabetics with urinary tract infections. According to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, the bacterial culture and the identification were performed by the routine methods. The drug susceptibility testings were performed by K-B methods recommended by CLSI. The testing results were assessed. RESULTS Among 267 strains of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (61. 0%) rated the top one, K. peneumoniae (10. 1% )rated the second, and Enterococcus faecalis (9. 4%) ranked the third. The total detection rate of ESBLs-producing strains was 47. 4%, the detection rate of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) was 41.4%. All the grarm-negative bacilli were 100. 0% sensitive to the carbapenems antibiotics, and all the gram-positive cocci were 100. 0% sensitive to the glycopeptide antibiotics; the different species of bacteria varied in the drug resistance to other commonly used antibiotics. CONCLUSION The different species of the pathogens causing the urinary tract infections in senile diabetics vary in the drug resistance. It is recommended that the clinician should choose the susceptible drugs for anti-infection therapy based on the etiological detection and drug susceptibility testing results.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病(DM)患者尿路感染病原菌的种类和耐药性,为临床医师进行抗感染治疗提供合理用药的参考依据.方法 对医院267例糖尿病合并尿路感染患者进行中段尿细菌培养、病原菌鉴定和药物敏感试验,病原菌培养与鉴定按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,采用常规方法进行;药敏试验采用CLSI规定的K-B法进行操作和判断结果.结果 267株尿路感染病原菌构成比为

  17. Investigation and analysis of bacteria acute infection in severe burn wounds%严重烧伤急性感染期创面菌种调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓锋; 陶仁清

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解严重烧伤患者、急性感染期,创面感染菌群分布,为防治创面浸润性感染提供实验室依据。方法选择住院的、总面积(TBSA)>31%、以深二度和三度为主的患者163例,性别年龄不居。在伤后13~15 d急性感染期,进行一次性创面分泌物普通培养,用VITEK2全自动细菌鉴定仪,进行细菌鉴定;药敏实验采用纸片扩散法程序进行操作,按美国临床实验室国家标准化委员会(NCCLS)标准进行结果判断。结果共得菌种24种、163株,阳性率为100%,其中假单孢菌属占首位(33.1%),次为球菌属(22.7%)。伤后10 d左右,预防性应用亚胺培南或头孢吡圬、万古霉素或呋喃妥因3 d;163例治疗期间均未发生伤面脓毒症,并顺利治愈。结论重度烧伤伤后13~15 d,应用亚胺培南或头孢吡圬、万古霉素或呋喃妥因,能预防创面脓毒症的发生和提高临床治愈率。%Objective To understand the bacteria distribution in wound infection during acute infection period in severely burned pa-tients and provide laboratory basis for preventing and treating the invasive infection.Methods One hundred and sixty-three patients with TB-SA more than 3 1% and deep Пdegree and Ш degree of injury were investigated.The wound secretion was cultured and identified using VITEK2 automatic bacteria device in 13 to 15 d of acute infection period.Drug sensitive experiment was implemented and analysed according to the NCCLS.Results Twenty-four kinds of bacteria(163 strains)were harvested,and the positive rate was 100%,including false single spore fungus(33.1%)and staphylococcus aureus(22.7%).The imipenem,cefepime engine-grease,vancomycin and nitrofurantoin were used for 3 d.The wound sepsis in 163 patients was not found,and all patients were successfully cured.Conclusion The application of imipenem, cefepime engine-grease vancomycin and nitrofurantoincan can prevent the

  18. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  19. Lactobacillus reuteri strains reduce incidence and severity of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis via modulation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling in the intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y.; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading gastrointestinal cause of mortality and morbidity in the premature infant. Premature infants have a delay in intestinal colonization by commensal bacteria and colonization with potentially pathogenic organisms. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that inhibits enteric infections, modulates the immune system, and may be beneficial to prevent NEC. In previous studies, L. reuteri strains DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 4659 differentially modulated inflamma...

  20. Faecal culturable microbiota, growth and clinical parameters of calves supplemented with lactic acid bacteria and lactose prior and during experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin DSPV 595T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Soto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic inoculum + lactose effect on weight, intestinal culturable microbiota, morbidity and mortality of young calves challenged with Salmonella Dublin DSPV 595T. Twenty eight calves were used, divided in control group (CG and probiotic group (PG. The PG was provided with 100 g lactose.calf-1.d-1 and 10(10 CFU.calf-1.d-1 of each strain of a probiotic inoculum composed of Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T, Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 315T and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T throughout the experiment. The pathogen was administered on day 11 of the experiment, at an oral dose of 10(9 CFU.calf-1. Lactobacillus and yeast populations were modified in PG because of inoculum + lactose administration. Severity of diarrhea was lower in PG. No differences were found on the rest of clinical sings, live weight and mortality between the two groups analysed. The periodic administration of a probiotic inoculum of bovine origin and lactose, favoured the establishment of a more stable and balanced intestinal culturable microbiota, even during an infection with Salmonella. The generated model of acute infection gave opportunity to the probiotic to exert its beneficial effect on severity of diarrhea. However, the use of lower doses of S. Dublin DSPV 595T are recommended for future studies, to generate less severe model in order to evaluate if the inoculum is able to exert a differential response in the clinical symptoms of young calves.

  1. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  2. 细菌和病毒混合感染对儿童社区获得性肺炎的影响%Mixed infection of bacteria and viruses in community-acquired pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈红; 曹小彩; 宋文涛; 李真珍

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨细菌和病毒混合感染对儿童社区获得性肺炎(CAP)的影响。方法对204例CAP患儿行痰细菌、病毒、非典型病原体检测,有支气管镜检指征的患儿行支气管镜下肺泡灌洗(BALF),并进行定量培养和胞内菌检测。所有患儿给予抗菌药物序贯疗法治疗。结果204例患儿中122例检出病原菌,检出率59.80%,检出病原菌153株,其中30例细菌和病毒混合感染。70例BALF菌培养,阳性8例,BALF标本可诱导共刺激分子(ICOS)阳性5例,以BALF定量培养作为对照, ICOS在CAP诊断中的灵敏度为37.50%,特异度为96.77%。30例细菌和病毒混合感染患儿中,10 d的比例高于非混合感染组,更容易发生胸腔积液,更易出现肺大片状阴影,白细胞水平、C反应蛋白、BALF中性粒细胞比例更高,中性粒细胞比值则较低,平均住院时间高于非混合感染组,差异均有统计学意义(P均 0.05). Average hospitalization time in children with mixed infection (13.5+1.5) d was higher than that with non-mixed infection (8.6+1.1) d (P < 0.05). Conclusions Childhood CAP with mixed bacteria and virus infection can prolong the duration of fever and the length of hospital stay, and increased risk of complications. In addition, the imaging manifestations and laboratory features showed differences from the group of mixed infection, while clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis were not signiifcantly different from the group with non-mixed infection.

  3. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  4. Effect of multidrug resistance modulators on the activity of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molento Marcelo B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites have shown resistance to the anthelmintics, ivermectin and moxidectin, and there is evidence that the over-expression of parasite P-glycoprotein (P-gp may account, at least in part, for resistance to ivermectin. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the multidrug resistance (MDR modulators, verapamil, CL 347.099 (an analog of verapamil and cyclosporin A, would enhance the efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin against selected strains of Haemonchus contortus using an in vitro larval migration assay. The modulators had no effects on the number of migrating larvae when used alone. Ivermectin and moxidectin showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in its efficacy by 52.8 and 58.5% respectively, when used in association with verapamil against a moxidectin-selected strain. CL 347,099 also increased significantly (P<0.05 the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy by 24.2 and 40.0% respectively, against an ivermectin-selected strain and by 40.0 and 75.6% respectively, against an moxidectin-selected strain. At the concentrations tested cyclosporin A showed a variable effect on increasing the efficacy of the anthelmintics against the susceptible and resistant strains.

  5. Playing Hide and Seek: How Glycosylation of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Can Modulate the Immune Response to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Tate

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.

  6. In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, J A

    1979-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria should be limited to isolates from persistent or recurrent infections that have been treated adequately and appropriately with antimicrobial agents and, in reference centers, to collections of isolates in order to monitor alterations in susceptibility of species to various antimicrobial agents. An agar dilution reference method is being evaluated currently; however, practicality limits sporadic testing of single isolates to disk elution or broth dilution techniques. No single disk diffusion method has yet been found to be acceptable for testing anaerobic bacteria, and the results obtained with standardized procedures for aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria are not applicable to anaerobic bacteria. PMID:288163

  7. A STUDY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS DUE TO MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA IN CRITICAL CARE UNIT OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine antibiotic resistance pattern against commonly used drugs for urinary tract infections in patients of the ICU of the KPC Medical College and Hospital from November 2011 to May 2015 . Commonly isolated organisms were, Klebsiella pneumoniae ( 39.02%, Escherichia coli ( 8.10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 17.07% , A c inetobacterbaumannii (30.08% and Enterobacter aerogenes (5.60%. Susceptibility testing was determined using the Microscan, (Siemens and MICs of different antibiotics were determined. Since surveys of antimicrobial resistance form the basis for decisions on empirical therapy this study was designed to provide a guideline for initiation of antibiotic therapy immediately after identification of organism (even before sensitivity report is obtained.

  8. Comparative in vitro activity of ceftaroline, ceftaroline-avibactam, and other antimicrobial agents against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultured from infected diabetic foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2013-07-01

    Foot infections are the most common infectious complication of diabetes. Moderate to severe diabetic foot infections (DFI) are typically polymicrobial with both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. The role of MRSA in these wounds has become an increasing concern. To determine if the addition of avibactam, a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor, to ceftaroline would be more active than ceftaroline alone, we tested 316 aerobic pathogens and 154 anaerobic recovered from patients with moderate to severe DFI, and compared ceftaroline with and without avibactam to other agents. Testing on aerobes was done by broth microdilution and by agar dilution for anaerobes, according to CLSI M11-A8, and M7-A8 standards. Ceftaroline-avibactam MIC90 for all Staphylococcus spp. including MRSA was 0.5 μg/mL, and for enterococci was 1 μg/mL. The MIC90s for enteric Gram-negative rods was 0.125 μg/mL. The addition of avibactam to ceftaroline reduced the ceftaroline MICs for 2 strains of resistant Enterobacter spp. and for 1 strain of Morganella. Against anaerobic Gram-positive cocci ceftaroline-avibactam had an MIC90 0.125 μg/mL and for clostridia 1 μg/mL. Avibactam improved ceftaroline's MIC90s for Bacteroides fragilis from >32 to 2 μg/mL and for Prevotella spp. from >32 to 1 μg/mL. Ceftaroline alone demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against most of the aerobes found in moderate to severe DFI. The addition of avibactam provides an increased spectrum of activity including the beta-lactamase producing Prevotella, Bacteroides fragilis and ceftaroline resistant gram-negative enteric organisms. PMID:23623385

  9. Vagus Nerve through α7 nAChR Modulates Lung Infection and Inflammation: Models, Cells, and Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiya Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP bridges immune and nervous systems and plays pleiotropic roles in modulating inflammation in animal models by targeting different immune, proinflammatory, epithelial, endothelial, stem, and progenitor cells and signaling pathways. Acute lung injury (ALI is a devastating inflammatory disease. It is pathogenically heterogeneous and involves many cells and signaling pathways. Here, we emphasized the research regarding the modulatory effects of CAP on animal models, cell population, and signaling pathways that involved in the pathogenesis of ALI. By comparing the differential effects of CAP on systemic and pulmonary inflammation, we postulated that a pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex is formed to sense and respond to pathogens in the lung. Work targeting the formation and function of pulmonary parasympathetic inflammatory reflex would extend our understanding of how vagus nerve senses, recognizes, and fights with pathogens and inflammatory responses.

  10. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinarv tract infection in children%儿童尿路感染常见病原菌的分布及耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光成; 史莉

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children and provide reference for clinical use of antibiotics. METHODS The strains isolated from midstream urine specimen from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010 were included in this study . The positive results of urine culture were analyzed statistically. Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures, the strains were cultured and identified. Susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. The drug susceptibility results were assessed according to CLSI 2009 - 2010 breakpoints. RESULTS Among the 223 isolates, the majority were Escherichia coli which accounted for 38. 1%, followed by Enterococci, accounting for 18. 8%. Except for 100. 0% sensitivity rate of carbapenems to gram-negative bacilli and of glycopeptides to grampositive cocci, the pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children were resistant to the most commonly used antibiotics of varying degrees. CONCLUSION The clinical abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is closely related to the increasing drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infection in children. We should intervene by taking effective measures.%目的 探讨儿童尿路感染常见病原菌的种类分布及耐药性,为临床医师选择抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 对2009年1月-2010年12月中段尿标本分离的病原菌进行统计分析,细菌培养和菌株鉴定严格按《全国临床检验操作规程》进行;药敏试验采用纸片扩散法,药敏结果按照CLSI 2009-2010年标准进行分析判断.结果 223株儿童尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌为主,占38.1%,其次是肠球菌属,占18.8%,除碳青霉烯类抗菌药物对革兰阴性杆菌、糖肽类抗菌药物对革兰阳性球菌保持了100.0%的抗菌活性以外,尿路感染病原菌对常用抗菌药物均显示了不同程度的耐药性.结论 儿童尿路感染

  11. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  12. ANALYSIS OF INNER HOSPITAL INFECTION-BACTERIA-SPECTRUM DISTRIBUTION AND DRUG RESISTANT SITUATION IN TIANJIN BINHAI%天津市滨海新区两年院内感染流行菌株及耐药情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张贺平; 王静; 刘兰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate prevailing strains and drug-resistances of nosocomial infections, so as to provide future clinical prevention and treatment. [Methods] 356 strains of pathogenic bacteria and the result of susceptibility test were collected in Tianjin 5th center hospital from 2008 to 2009. All the results were analyzed based on divisions, samples, strain and drug resistance. [Results] Strains of pathogenic bacteria mainly distributed in department of respiraloy, nephrology, neo-plastic hematologic disorder and cerebropathia. Gram-negative bacteria was main bacteria during past two years, accounted for 49.7%. Among all isolated bacteria, mainly including escherichia coll, kiebsiella pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acinetobacter baumannii was increasing quickly. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 22.5% of all abruptioed bacteria, and was mainly staphylococcus aureus. The main bacteria were came from sputum, urine and blood, and was gram-negative The main bacteria came from section was gram-positive. The positive rates of MRSA accounted for 25.0% and 31.3%, respectively. The positive rate of MRCNS accounted for 66.7% and 85.0%, respectively. The positive rates of eco producing ESBLs accounted for 31.7% and 55.9%, respectively. The positive rates of kpn producing ESBLs accounted for 19.4% and 22.2%, respectively. [Conclusion] We should strengthen hospital management, especially the key sections, strengthen the education, training and supervision of medical staff for the rational use of antibiotics, and control and standardize the indications of antibiotics. We should establish and improve the system of management at different levels of antibiotics to prevent and correct the unreasonable application of antibacterial drugs.%[目的]了解天津滨海新区院内感染的流行菌株及菌株酎药情况,为临床防治院内感染提供依据.[方法]收集天津滨海新区2008年和2009年所有院内感染的致病菌356株及其药敏

  13. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing skin and mucosa infection%皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的种类分布及耐药性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺; 王永涛; 贾征夫

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的种类构成比及耐药性,为临床医师诊治皮肤黏膜感染选择敏感的抗菌药物提供实验室参考依据。方法2011年1月-2013年6月医院皮肤黏膜感染患者的脓液或创面分泌物培养得到366株病原菌,病原菌培养与种型鉴定严格按照原卫生部临检中心规定的临床微生物检验规范进行试验操作;采用CLSI指定的K‐B法和折点进行敏感、中介、耐药的判读确认;采用WHONET 5.5进行数据分析。结果共检出革兰阳性菌198株占54.1%,革兰阴性菌136株占37.2%,真菌32株占8.7%;耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌分离率达到34.1%,产超广谱β‐内酰胺酶的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌分离率达到46.2%,耐亚胺培南的铜绿假单胞菌分离率达到11.5%,未发现耐糖肽类抗菌药物革兰阳性菌,链球菌属对常用抗菌药物敏感性较高。结论皮肤黏膜感染病原菌的耐药性也十分严重,为提高临床治疗效果,临床医师应加强病原学培养的观念,依据病原菌药敏试验结果,针对性的选择敏感性强、经济合理的抗菌药物来治疗皮肤黏膜感染。%OBJECTIVE To investigate constituent ratio and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing skin and mucosa infection to provide the scientific evidence for clinically reasonable use of antibiotics .METHODS Totally 366 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from purulent secretion and wound drainage fluid of patients with skin and mucosa infection .Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures ,bacterial culture and i‐dentification were performed .The drug susceptibility testing for sensitivity ,intermediacy ,and resistance was per‐formed by KB method and break point recommended by CLSI .The susceptibility testing results were assessed with the software WHONET 5 .5 .RESULTS The isolating rate of gram‐positive bacteria (198 strains

  14. 骨科感染创面病原菌分布调查及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in Osteopathic wound infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永苗; 叶承锋; 潘金波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenic bacteria distribution and their drug resistance in the department of Osteopathics in Tonglu TCM Hospital, and provide etiological evidence for using antibiotics reasonably. Methods The clinical data of pathogenic bacteria distribution and their drug risistance from January 2009 to December 2011 in the department of orthopedics were analyzed retrospectively. Results 694 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated. The isolation rate of Gram-negative bacilli was 53. 6%. The highest isolation rate (16.9%) was of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Escherichia coli (15. 6%). The isolation rate of Gram-positive cocci was 45. 8%. The highest isolation rate (25. 6%) was of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion The main pathogens in the department of Osteopathies are Gram-negative bacilli and they present multi-drug resistances. It is required to strengthen tge monitoring on the resistant strains in Osteopathies department to prevent the outbreak and prevalence of nosocomial infection.%目的 调查浙江省桐庐县中医院骨科感染创面病原菌的分布及耐药性情况,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供必要的病原学依据.方法 对骨科病房2009年1月至2011年12月期间感染创面所分离病原菌的菌群分布及其耐药情况进行回顾性分析.结果 共分离出病原菌694株,以革兰阴性杆菌为主,占53.6%,其中比例最高的为铜绿假单胞菌(16.9%),其次为大肠埃希菌(15.6%).革兰阳性球菌占45.8%,比例最高为金黄色葡萄球菌(25.6%).结论 革兰阴性杆菌为骨科感染创面主要病原菌,且呈现多重耐药趋势,需要加强骨科院内感染的检测和耐药菌监控,预防院内感染暴发流行.

  15. Discovery of functional toxin/antitoxin systems in bacteria by shotgun cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sberro, Hila; Leavitt, Azita; Kiro, Ruth; Koh, Eugene; Peleg, Yoav; Qimron, Udi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, composed of a toxic protein and a counteracting antitoxin, play important roles in bacterial physiology. We examined the experimental insertion of 1.5 million genes from 388 microbial genomes into an Escherichia coli host using over 8.5 million random clones. This revealed hundreds of genes (toxins) that could only be cloned when the neighboring gene (antitoxin) was present on the same clone. Clustering of these genes revealed TA families widespread in bacterial genomes, some of which deviate from the classical characteristics previously described for such modules. Introduction of these genes into E. coli validated that the toxin toxicity is mitigated by the antitoxin. Infection experiments with T7 phage showed that two of the new modules can provide resistance against phage. Moreover, our experiments revealed an 'anti-defense' protein in phage T7 that neutralizes phage resistance. Our results expose active fronts in the arms race between bacteria and phage.

  16. Drug resistance and pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patients with hyperplasia of prostate%前列腺增生症患者尿路感染的病原菌与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡跃世; 李鹏; 曹志华; 刘磊; 王阳

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺增生症患者尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床治疗提供依据。方法选择2013年8月-2015年8月医院收治的前列腺增生症患者250例,收集患者中段尿液,采用VIT EK‐2 Comtact法国生物梅里埃公司全自动微生物鉴定及药敏分析系统进行菌种鉴定,用K‐B纸片法进行药敏试验。结果250例前列腺增生症患者中,发生尿路感染106例,感染率为42.40%,共分离出病原菌120株,其中革兰阴性菌86株占71.67%,革兰阳性菌34株占28.33%,前3位病原菌分别为大肠埃希菌、屎肠球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌,分别占35.83%、15.83%、13.30%;大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌及奇异变形菌对庆大霉素、甲氧苄啶的耐药率均>50.00%,而对亚胺培南耐药率最低,为0;粪肠球菌、屎肠球菌对左氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、环丙沙星、青霉素以及氨苄西林的耐药率均>50.00%,对万古霉素耐药率最低,为0。结论前列腺增生症患者尿路感染病原菌以大肠埃希菌最常见,该感染多数病原菌均具有较高耐药性,临床可选择万古霉素与亚胺培南联合治疗。%OBJECTIVE To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract in‐fections in patients with hyperplasia of prostate ,so as to provide the basis for clinical treatment .METHODS A to‐tal of 250 patients with hyperplasia of prostate in our hospital from Aug .2013 to Aug .2015 were selected ,whose urine specimen were collected to have a strain identification by VIT EK‐2 Comtact a automotive bioassay and sensi‐tivity test system from French Biomerieux company ,and K‐B was used for drug resistance test .RESULTS A total of 106 patients occurred urinary tract infection among the 250 patients with hyperplasia of prostate ,and the infec‐tion rate was 42 .4% .Totally 120 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: yur - ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  1. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...

  2. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in tumor patients%肿瘤患者医院感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 余清源; 刘华; 瞿秀

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand clinical characteristics ,distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogen-ic bacteria causing nosocomial infections in tumor patients in the mountain hospital and offer a reference for clinical anti-infective treatment .METHODS The clinical records were reviewed for 226 tumor patients with nosocomial infections .Infective specimens were collected for bacterial culture and identification by the routine microbiological methods .The susceptibility test was performed by K-B method recommended by CLSI .Measurement of diameter of inhibitor zones and classification of susceptibility ,intermediate and resistance were done according to the newest breakpoints of CLSI .The WHONET 5 .5 software was used to process the data .RESULTS The main sites of nos-ocomial infections were lower respiratory tract and urinary tract .Totally 261 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 226 infective specimens .Pathogenic bacteria mainly included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 .6% ) ,K lebsiella pneumoniae (16 .5% ) , Staphylococcus aureus (13 .4% ) , E . coli (10 .7% ) and Acinetobacter baumannii (9 .6% ) .Susceptibility testing indicated that the above pathogens were multi-resistant to commonly used antibiot-ics .Imipenem-resistant P . aeruginosa and A . baumannii accounted for 16 .9% and 20 .0% , respectively . CONCLUSION It was critical to interfere and control nosocomial infections to treat tumor patients successfully .It was suggested that the clinician should reduce invasive medical procedures and apply the antibiotics reasonably in order to change the adverse tendency of the rapid growth of bacterial resistance and increase the clinical cure rate .%目的:了解山区医院肿瘤患者继发医院感染的临床特点、病原菌分布及耐药性,为有效治疗医院感染提供合理用药的实验室参考依据。方法调查2009年1月-2012年12月发生医院感染的226例肿瘤患者临床资料;标本留取、病原菌培养与鉴定均严格

  3. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ertapenem for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Bacteria in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common and important clinical problem in childhood, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- (ESBL- producing organisms are the leading cause of healthcare-related UTIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ertapenem therapy in children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Methods. Seventy-seven children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included in this retrospective study, and all had been treated with ertapenem between January 2013 and June 2014. Results. Sixty-one (79% females and sixteen (21% males with a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 76.6±52 months (range 3–204, median 72 months were enrolled in this study. Escherichia coli (E. coli (n=67; 87% was the most common bacterial cause of the UTIs followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (n=9; 11.7% and Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae (n=1; 1.3%. The mean duration of the ertapenem therapy was 8.9±1.6 days (range 4–11. No serious drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse effects were observed, and the ertapenem therapy was found to be safe and well tolerated in the children in our study. Conclusion. Ertapenem is a newer carbapenem with the advantage of once-daily dosing and is highly effective for treating UTIs caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms.

  4. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ertapenem for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Bacteria in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Ayse; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Atici, Serkan; Akkoc, Gulsen; Yakut, Nurhayat; Öcal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and important clinical problem in childhood, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms are the leading cause of healthcare-related UTIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ertapenem therapy in children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Methods. Seventy-seven children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included in this retrospective study, and all had been treated with ertapenem between January 2013 and June 2014. Results. Sixty-one (79%) females and sixteen (21%) males with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 76.6 ± 52 months (range 3-204, median 72 months) were enrolled in this study. Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 67; 87%) was the most common bacterial cause of the UTIs followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (n = 9; 11.7%) and Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) (n = 1; 1.3%). The mean duration of the ertapenem therapy was 8.9 ± 1.6 days (range 4-11). No serious drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse effects were observed, and the ertapenem therapy was found to be safe and well tolerated in the children in our study. Conclusion. Ertapenem is a newer carbapenem with the advantage of once-daily dosing and is highly effective for treating UTIs caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms. PMID:26106487

  5. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from adults with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections in France: the nationwide French PREMIUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, C; Desroches, M; Emirian, A; Coutureau, C; Anais, L; Fihman, V; Soussy, C J; Decousser, J W

    2015-10-01

    The empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) must be based on updated bacterial distribution and susceptibility data. A nationwide study consecutively collected 1288 isolates from CAP (n=467) and cSSTIs (n=821) from 18 French hospitals between 2012 and 2013. The MIC values of commonly used antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined. Bacterial distribution featured Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus for CAPs and S. aureus, β-hemolytic streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae for cSSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated i) the sustained third-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin activity against pneumococci and H. influenzae, ii) no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emergence among respiratory pathogens, iii) the high in vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from cSSTIs (98.7% susceptibility), and iv) the worrisome decreasing fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae. This laboratory-based survey depicts a contrasting situation and supports the scoring of patients for the resistant pathogen risk before empirical therapy. PMID:26166208

  6. 艾滋病患者肺部感染病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from AIDS patients with pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春明; 郑利先; 李启欣; 刘银辉; 李燕华; 谢仁岐; 李翠芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解艾滋病(AIDS)患者发生肺部感染的病原菌分布及其耐药性,为临床治疗AIDS发生肺部感染患者使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法收集2010年1月-2014年8月在医院就诊的197例AIDS发生肺部感染患者的痰标本,对其进行痰培养及药物敏感试验,按照《全国临床检验操作规程》,将送检的痰标本采用常规方法进行标本接种及病原菌分离,药敏结果参照CLSI推荐的最新标准判定。结果送检痰标本中培养出病原菌112株,其中革兰阴性菌60株占53.5%、革兰阳性菌5株占4.5%、真菌47株占42.0%;同时混合≥2种病原菌感染的有13例,占11.6%;鲍氏不动杆菌对β‐内酰胺类耐药率为38.1%~90.5%,铜绿假单胞菌耐药率为7.1%~85.7%,大肠埃希菌对喹诺酮类耐药率为41.7%~50.0%,肺炎克雷伯菌对氨基糖苷类耐药率为42.9%~57.1%。结论 AIDS患者肺部感染常同时存在多种病原菌,且以革兰阴性菌与真菌为主,呈现混合感染、多药耐药现象,应根据药敏试验结果正确选择抗菌药物。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in sputum of pul‐monary infected patients with AIDS in the city of Foshan ,so as to provide references for clinical treatments . METHODS From Jan .2010 to Aug .2014 ,197 cases with pulmonary infection in the patients with AIDS in the Hospital were investigated .Their sputum was cultured and drug sensitivity test was conducted in accordance with National Clinical Laboratory Procedures .The sputum samples were inoculated and isolated according to routine methods .Drug sensitivity results were analyzed by the newest standard recommended by CLSI .RESULTS A total of 112 positive strains were isolated ,of which gram‐negative bacteria accounted for 60 cases (53 .5% ) ,gram‐posi‐tive for 5 cases (4 .5% ) ,while fungi 47 cases (42

  7. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  8. Human Management of a Wild Plant Modulates the Evolutionary Dynamics of a Gene Determining Recessive Resistance to Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound effects on the

  9. Epigenetic modulation, stress and plasticity in susceptibility of the snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata, to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matty; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Bridger, Joanna M

    2016-06-01

    Blood flukes are the causative agent of schistosomiasis - a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. During the past decade, a concerted effort has been made to control the spread of schistosomiasis, using a drug intervention program aimed at curtailing transmission. These efforts notwithstanding, schistosomiasis has re-emerged in southern Europe, raising concerns that global warming could contribute to the spread of this disease to higher latitude countries where transmission presently does not take place. Vaccines against schistosomiasis are not currently available and reducing transmission by drug intervention programs alone does not prevent reinfection in treated populations. These challenges have spurred awareness that new interventions to control schistosomiasis are needed, especially since the World Health Organization hopes to eradicate the disease by 2025. For one of the major species of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria serve as the obligate intermediate host of this parasite. To determine mechanisms that underlie parasitism by S. mansoni of Biomphalaria glabrata, which might be manipulated to block the development of intramolluscan larval stages of the parasite, we focused effort on the impact of schistosome infection on the epigenome of the snail. Results to date reveal a complex relationship, manifested by the ability of the schistosome to manipulate the snail genome, including the expression of specific genes. Notably, the parasite subverts the stress response of the host to ensure productive parasitism. Indeed, in isolates of B. glabrata native to central and South America, susceptible to infection with S. mansoni, the heat shock protein 70 (Bg-HSP70) gene of this snail is rapidly relocated in the nucleus and transcribed to express HSP70

  10. Human Management of a Wild Plant Modulates the Evolutionary Dynamics of a Gene Determining Recessive Resistance to Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound effects on the

  11. Candida-Bacteria Interactions: Their Impact on Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Devon L; Willems, Hubertine M E; Jayatilake, J A M S; Bruno, Vincent M; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Candida species are the most common infectious fungal species in humans; out of the approximately 150 known species, Candida albicans is the leading pathogenic species, largely affecting immunocompromised individuals. Apart from its role as the primary etiology for various types of candidiasis, C. albicans is known to contribute to polymicrobial infections. Polymicrobial interactions, particularly between C. albicans and bacterial species, have gained recent interest in which polymicrobial biofilm virulence mechanisms have been studied including adhesion, invasion, quorum sensing, and development of antimicrobial resistance. These trans-kingdom interactions, either synergistic or antagonistic, may help modulate the virulence and pathogenicity of both Candida and bacteria while uniquely impacting the pathogen-host immune response. As antibiotic and antifungal resistance increases, there is a great need to explore the intermicrobial cross-talk with a focus on the treatment of Candida-associated polymicrobial infections. This article explores the current literature on the interactions between Candida and clinically important bacteria and evaluates these interactions in the context of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and disease management. PMID:27337476

  12. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  13. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst; Høiby, Niels

    being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as......A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  14. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  15. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from Cardiac Damage through Modulation of Anti-parasite Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora B Mello

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is a complex disease endemic in Central and South America. It has been gathering interest due to increases in non-vectorial forms of transmission, especially in developed countries. The objective of this work was to investigate if adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC can alter the course of the disease and attenuate pathology in a mouse model of chagasic cardiomyopathy.ASC were injected intraperitoneally at 3 days post-infection (dpi. Tracking by bioluminescence showed that cells remained in the abdominal cavity for up to 9 days after injection and most of them migrated to the abdominal or subcutaneous fat, an early parasite reservoir. ASC injection resulted in a significant reduction in blood parasitemia, which was followed by a decrease in cardiac tissue inflammation, parasitism and fibrosis at 30 dpi. At the same time point, analyses of cytokine release in cells isolated from the heart and exposed to T. cruzi antigens indicated an anti-inflammatory response in ASC-treated animals. In parallel, splenocytes exposed to the same antigens produced a pro-inflammatory response, which is important for the control of parasite replication, in placebo and ASC-treated groups. However, splenocytes from the ASC group released higher levels of IL-10. At 60 dpi, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that right ventricular (RV dilation was prevented in ASC-treated mice.In conclusion, the injection of ASC early after T. cruzi infection prevents RV remodeling through the modulation of immune responses. Lymphoid organ response to the parasite promoted the control of parasite burden, while the heart, a target organ of Chagas disease, was protected from damage due to an improved control of inflammation in ASC-treated mice.

  16. Constituent ratio of species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile patients%老年患者泌尿道感染病原菌种类及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德明; 张前进; 谢志强; 邹义春

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the constituent ratio of species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile patients and offer evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics for anti-infective treatment . METHODS Sample collection , bacterial culture and identification were performed according to standard microbiological procedures . The susceptibility testing was carried out by K-B methods recommended by WHO and results were evaluated in accordance with CLSI 2011 -2012 . The indoor quality control was performed before analysis , after analysis and during analysis . RESULTS Among 244 strains of pathogenic bacteria , Escherichia coli (129 isolates ,52 .9% ) rated the top one .Different species of pathogenic bacteria were resistant to different antibiotics in varying degrees . The resistance rate of gram-negative bacilli against sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was the highest (> 60% ) . The antibiotics with a resistant rate of>40 .0% included cefotaxime , ciprofloxacin , levofloxacin , gentamicin . Both gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive coccus showed 100 .0% sensitivity to carbapenems and glycopeptides respectively .The detection rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was 44 .4% (71 isolates) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci 41 .7%(10 isolates) .CONCLUSIONS Drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in senile varies from bacterial species to species .It is recommended that the clinician should choose the suitable drug with high sensitivity and few adverse reactions for anti-infective therapy based on etiological detection and drug susceptibility data so as to increase clinical curative rate .%目的:探讨老年患者泌尿道感染病原菌种类及耐药性,为临床医师控制泌尿道感染提供选择药物的参考依据。方法标本取材、细菌培养与鉴定按照临床微生物学检验操作技术进行,药敏试验采用W HO规定的K-B法进行

  17. Distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in patients with biliary tract infections%胆道感染患者病原菌分布与临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡轶伦; 刘玉国; 张磊; 张炀; 何花

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in biliary tract infections , and to provide objective evidence for development of clinical prevention and control program . METHODS Totally 150 patients had bile culture from Jan .2013 to Jan .2014 were selected as the research sub‐jects .The distribution of pathogenic bacteria in bile and the clinical characteristics of the patients were observed and analyzed .RESULTS A total of 113 cases of patients'bile culture were positive ,the positive rate was 75 .3% . A total of 131 strains of pathogens were isolated ,among them ,gram negative bacterial dominated ,accounting for 67 .2% .According to logistic multivariate regression analysis ,biliary operation history ,complication of gallstone , complication of pancreatic cancer were independent risk factors of biliary tract infections ( P < 0 .05 ) . CONCLUSION The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and clinical characteristics in patients with biliary tract in‐fections has certain characteristics ,which the clinicians should pay high attention to and employ effective preven‐tion and treatment measures to improve the therapeutic effects and prognosis of patients .%目的:分析胆道感染的病原菌分布和临床特征,为制定临床预防控制方案提供参考依据。方法选取2013年1月-2014年1月胆道感染的患者150例作为研究对象,对其胆汁中的病原菌分布和临床特征进行观察和分析。结果共有113例患者的胆汁培养结果呈阳性,阳性率为75.3%,共分离出131株病原菌,以革兰阴性菌为主,共88占67.2%;logistic多元回归分析结果显示,胆道手术史、合并胆结石、合并胰腺癌为发生胆道感染的独立危险因素(P<0.05)。结论胆道感染患者的病原菌分布和临床特征均具有一定的特性,临床医师应给予高度关注,采用有效的预防和治疗措施,达到提高治疗效果和改善患者预后的目的。

  18. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser; Avaliacao da reducao bacteriana em conduto radicular infectado e irradiado com laser de diodo. Estudo in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-07-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10{sup 8} CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 {mu}m optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm{sup 2}. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at

  19. Distribution of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing infections in patients of department of respiratory medicine and analysis of related factors%呼吸科患者多药耐药菌感染的类型及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕少敏; 王玲玲; 俞万钧

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the distribution of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing infections in department of respiratory medicine and put forward targeted prevention measures so as to reduce the incidence of infections . METHODS The clinical data of 60 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria infections who were treated in the re-spiratory department from Jan 2011 to Jan 2013 were retrospectively analyzed ,then the species of the drug-resist-ant bacteria and the influencing factors were analyzed ,the specific intervention measures were formulated ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of WHONET 5 .3 software .RESULTS A total of 118 strains of mul-tidrug-resistant bacteria have been isolated , including 47 (39 .8% ) strains of gram-positive bacteria and 71 (60 .2% ) strains of gram-negative bacteria ;the Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant species of gram-posi-tive bacteria ,accounting for 37 .3% ;the Acinetobacter baumannii ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,and Escherichia coli were dominant among the gram-negative bacteria ,accounting for 23 .7% ,17 .8% ,and 12 .7% ,respectively .The influencing factors for the infections caused by the multidrug-resistant bacteria included the broad use of antibiot-ics ,complication of underlying diseases ,invasive operation ,decreased immunity ,without strict implementation of isolation measures ,and poor environment for hospital stay .CONCLUSION The gram-negative bacteria are the pre-dominant multidrug-resistant bacteria causing the infections in department of respiratory medicine ;there are a vari-ety of influencing factors .It is necessary for the hospital to strengthen the surveillance of pathogens and develop targeted intervention measures so as to reduce the incidence of infections .%目的:探讨呼吸科感染多药耐药菌的类型及相关因素,并制定针对性预防措施,以降低感染的发生。方法对呼吸科2011年1月-2013年1月60例多药耐药菌感染患者的临床资料进

  20. Allergic asthma in children: Inherited, transmitted or both? (The transmission of periodontopathic bacteria concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In theory, allergic diseases including asthma, was the resultof exposure to a transmissible agent and do not depend on early infection which is said to make children more allergy-resistant. This seems, to be a direct contradiction to the hygiene hypothesis, since epidemiologic evidence can be cited in this theory's support. The fact that nearly all childrenwith asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergicchildren have asthma, at least raises the possibility that someadditional factor is involved. That this additional factor might be a transmissible agent is also suggested by the similarity between the gross epidemiologic patterns of children with paralyticpoliomyelitis in the 1950s and children with asthma currently. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the possible relationship between the transmissions of allergic asthma and periodontopathic bacteria. Reviews: Recent researches showed that periodontopathic bacteria are transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants. In addition, a collaborated research that was conducted by dental practitioners and pediatricians revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were significantly predominant (p = 0.001 in uncontrolled allergic asthmatic children compared to well-controlled ones. Nevertheless, how does these two phenomenon related was still uncertain. Literatures showed that periodontopathic bacteria modulates host immune response and sometimes caused disadvantageous effect to allergic asthma. Conclusion: According to the ability of periodontopathic bacteria and its components to stimulate immunocompetent cells, it is possible that they are able to modify host-immune response which tends to increase allergic asthma symptoms.

  1. 我院2008-2010年ICU院内感染菌株分布及耐药性分析%Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Hospital Infection in ICU and Drug Resistance Analysis in Our Hospital during 2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑虹; 安文洪; 陈微微; 黄波

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogenic bacteria of hospital infection in ICU and drug resistance of common antibiotics. METHODS: All the separation identification and drug sensitivity test of pathogens isolated from inpatients with hospital infection from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: 856 pathogenic bacteria were isolated in hospital infection cases of ICU. The main pathogen of nosocomial infection was 617 strains of gram-negative bacteria (72.1% ), 164 strains of gram-positive bacteria (19.2%) and 75 strains of fungi (8.8%) . Drug resistant rate of gram-negative bacteria to 3/4-gen-eration cephalosporins was high, while gram-negative bacteria was sensitive to imipenem, piperacillin/sulbactam sodium and amika-cin. Drug resistance rate of gram-negative bacteria to imipenem was the lowest. Drug resistant rate of gram-positive bacteria to van-comycin was 0%. CONCLUSION: Isolated pathogenic bacteria are mainly gram-negative bacteria. The proportion of gram-negative bacteria is rising year by year, and drug resistance of gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics is rising on the whole. Drug resistance of bacteria is constantly changing.%目的:了解ICU院内感染病例菌株分布及常用抗菌药物的耐药情况.方法:对我院2008-2010年ICU住院患者各类送检标本细菌培养、分离鉴定和药敏试验结果进行回顾性分析.结果:院内感染病例中共分离出病原菌856株,其中革兰阴性杆菌617株,占72.1%;革兰阳性球菌164株,占19.2%;真菌75株,占8.8%.革兰阴性杆菌对第3、4代头孢菌素耐药率较高,对亚胺培南、哌拉西林/舒巴坦、阿米卡星敏感性较好,亚胺培南总耐药率最低.革兰阳性球菌对万古霉素的耐药率为0%.结论:分离的病原菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,所占比例有逐年升高趋势,对抗菌药物的耐药率总体上有上升趋势,且耐药性不断发生变化.

  2. Back To Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  3. 20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌及耐药性分析%Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution in 20 Cases with Infective Endocarditis and their Drug Sensitivity Test Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祝嘉; 岳志刚; 李小瑛

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对20例感染性心内膜炎患者的培养结果进行回顾性研究,为临床合理使用抗生素提供依据.方法 回顾性分析煤炭总医院2010年20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌的分布及其对抗生素的敏感性.结果 革兰阳性球菌19株,占到95%,其中链球菌9株(占45%),主要为化脓性链球菌;葡萄球菌7株(占35%),主要为金黄色葡萄球菌;肠球菌3株(占15%),均为屎肠球菌.此外大肠埃希菌检出1株(占5%).不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药较严重,所有阳性菌对万古霉素敏感.结论 感染性心内膜炎病原菌以链球菌为主.不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,对感染性心内膜炎患者应及早进行细菌培养和耐药检测,以指导临床正确用药,防止耐药株的出现.%Objective To detect the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in 20 cases with infective endocarditis and their resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and to provide the reference for selecting antimicrobial drugs rationally in clinical treatment. Methods To analysis the pathogenic bacteria distribution and their sensitivity to antibiotics from 20 cases with infective endocarditis conformed by bacterial culture. Results The proportion of Gram-positive cocco bacterium was 95% (Streptococcus account for 45% ,the most was Streptococcus pyogenes; Staphylococcus account for 35% ,the most was Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococ-cus account for 15% ,all was Enterococcus faecium) ;the proportion of Gram-necgative bacillus was 5% ( Escherichia coli). Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and the drug resistance of staphylococcus aureus was serious. The Gram-positive cocco bacterium were found to be all sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion Streptococcus is still the primary pathogen among patients with Infective Endocarditis. Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and we should carry out cultivation

  4. S. aureus bacteria : a new target of serum calcification activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dy, Diane Jazmin

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are gram- positive bacteria that cause skin and soft tissue infections. The continual incidence of infection is of great concern especially with the advent of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Continued investigation on mechanisms our body uses to fight bacterial infection is vital. Our study suggests that the body takes advantage of a mechanism that mineralizes type-I collagen of bone and tendon to also mineralize bacteria. Serum driven bacterial mineralization ma...

  5. Resistant bacteria in stem cell transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Marcio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections account for most infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. While early mortality reduced dramatically with the introduction of the concept of empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic patients, no effect of prophylaxis on the mortality was observed in many studies. On the other hand, antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in the emergence of resistance among bacteria. In addition, the choice of the antibiotic regimen for empirical therapy and the practices of antibiotic therapy during neutropenia may result in a significant shift in the pattern of bacterial infections. The use of quinolones and vancomycin as prophylaxis, and of carbapenems and vancomycin in the empirical antibiotic therapy, are associated with the appearance of resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, hematologists must be aware of the impact of these practices on the emergence of infections due to multi-resistant pathogens, since these infections may be associated with increased mortality.

  6. Characteristics and Drug Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria Infections in Mass Burns Patients of Chemical Industries%化工企业成批烧伤患者感染病原菌特点及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传吉; 金少华; 张龙; 邓兴旺; 齐旭辉; 张丽香; 黄涛; 梁根秀

    2015-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively study the epidemiology of the distribution characteristics and drug re⁃sistance of hospital pathogenic bacteria infections in mass burns patients and individual burns patients admitted into our de⁃partment in recent years. Methods The medical records of 316 mass burns patients and 361 individual burns patients ad⁃mitted into our department between January 2008 and December 2014 were compared to analyze the main pathogenic bacteri⁃al strains, their distribution characteristics and drug resistance changes in collected specimens of wound secretion, blood, sputum, tracheal tube and deep venous catheter in each year. Results Infections of Gram⁃positive cocci and Gram⁃negative bacilli were detected in 176 patients (55. 70%) of the group of mass burns, of which the incidence was significantly higher than that of the group of individual burns, wherein infections of Gram⁃positive cocci and Gram⁃negative bacilli were detected in 135 patients (37. 40%). 253 strains (52. 93%) of main pathogenic bacteria were detected in mass burns group, inclu⁃ding 139 strains (54. 94%) of Gram⁃positive cocci (91 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 48 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis), 105 strains (41. 50%) of Gram⁃negative bacilli (63 strains of E coli and 42 strains of pseudomonas aerugi⁃nosa) and 9 strains of fungi (3. 56%), while totally 225 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected in individual burns group (40. 00%), of which 127 strains (56. 44%) were Gram⁃positive cocci (101 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 26 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis ) , 90 strains ( 43. 56%) were Gram⁃negative bacilli ( 51 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and 39 strains of E coli) and 8 strains of fungi (3. 56%). 59 strains (64. 84%) and 61 strains (60. 40%) of MRSA ( methicillin⁃resistant staphylococcus aureus) , as well as 31 strains ( 64. 58%) and 16 strains ( 61. 54%) of MRSE ( methicillin⁃resistant staphylococcus epidermis

  7. Retrospective observational study to assess the clinical management and outcomes of hospitalised patients with complicated urinary tract infection in countries with high prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (RESCUING)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn; Addy, Ibironke; Stoddart, Margaret; Vank, Christiane; Grier, Sally; Wiegand, Irith; Leibovici, Leonard; Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen; MacGowan, Alasdair; Carratalà, Jordi; Pujol, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including carbapenemase-producing strains, has become a major therapeutic challenge. These MDR isolates are often involved in complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. The study has been designed to gain insight into the epidemiology, clinical management, outcome and healthcare cost of patients with cUTI, especially in countries with high prevalence of MDR GNB. Methods and analysis This multinational and multicentre observational, retrospective study will identify cases from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014 in order to collect data on patients with cUTI as a cause of hospital admission, and patients who develop cUTI during their hospital stay. The primary end point will be treatment failure defined as the presence of any of the following criteria: (1) signs or symptoms of cUTI present at diagnosis that have not improved by days 5–7 with appropriate antibiotic therapy, (2) new cUTI-related symptoms that have developed within 30 days of diagnosis, (3) urine culture taken within 30 days of diagnosis, either during or after completion of therapy, that grows ≥104 colony-forming unit/mL of the original pathogen and (4) death irrespective of cause within 30 days of the cUTI diagnosis. Sample size 1000 patients afford a power of 0.83 (α=0.05) to detect an absolute difference of 10% in the treatment failure rate between MDR bacteria and other pathogens. This should allow for the introduction of about 20 independent risk factors (or their interaction) in a logistic regression model looking at risk factors for failure. Ethics and dissemination Approval will be sought from all relevant Research Ethics Committees. Publication of this study will be considered as a joint publication by the participating investigator leads, and will follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Trial

  8. Distribution and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in elderly diabetics patients%老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广斌; 申建维; 余晓凤; 谢志兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌的种类及耐药性,为临床医师治疗尿路感染用药提供参考依据。方法采集2010年1月-2012年12月住院患者清洁中段尿或导尿标本进行细菌定量培养、菌株鉴定和药敏试验,病原菌培养、鉴定按照《全国临床检验操作规程》中的方法进行;药敏试验采用CLSI规定的K-B法,试验全过程实施质量控制。结果387例患者尿液中培养出病原菌257株,阳性率为66.4%,其中大肠埃希菌检出最多173株,占67.3%;检出产超广谱β-内酰胺酶细菌71株,检出率为41.3%;检出耐甲氧西林葡萄球菌11株,检出率为40.7%;革兰阴性杆菌对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶耐药率最高,为63.6%~65.5%;对碳青霉烯类抗菌药物100.0%敏感,革兰阳性球菌对糖肽类抗菌药物100.0%敏感。结论老年糖尿病患者尿路感染病原菌的耐药现状已日趋严重,建议实施《抗菌药物临床应用管理办法》,根据药敏结果,选择性价比高的抗菌药物治疗尿路感染。%OBJECTIVE To approach the species and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM ) ,so as to evidence for reasonable use of antibiotics for anti-infective treatment .METHODS The clearing urine or catheterized urine samples from inpatients in the hospital between Jan .2010 to Dec .2012 were collected to perform the bacterial quantitation culturation ,identification and susceptibility testing .Referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures ,pathogenic culturation and identification were carried out .The susceptibility testings were performed by K-B methods recommended by CLSI . The quality control was carried out throughout the testing .RESULTS Of 387 urine samples ,257 pathogenic bacteria were isolated .The positive detection rate was 66 .4% .Escherichia coli (173

  9. Bacteria in goat meat: Biological danger

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Pavlović I.; Žujović M.; Tomić Z.; Memiši N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world, especially in China, India, Pаkistаn and Nigeria goat meat represents an important foodstuff in nutrition of people. Goat meat is being increasingly consumed in Serbia owing to its distinctive taste and desirable chemical composition. As many other types of meat, goat meat can be the source of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can find their way into meat of healthy goats or goats with no clinical symptoms premortally (infection) or postmortally (...

  10. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  11. Identification of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria recovered from dogs and cats with contaminated and infected traumatic wounds /
    Identificação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de cães e gatos com feridas traumáticas contaminadas e infectadas

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César de Freitas; Thacyana Teixeira de Carvalho; Graciane Aiello; Luana de Assis Battaglia; Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic wounds in dogs and cats are frequent in a clinician veterinarian’s routine. Most of them occur due to either bites from other animals or car accidents. As a result, many wounds become contaminated or infected and do not respond to treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate animals with traumatic wounds that present such complications during treatment as increased secretions, change in the color of these secretions or unsuitable healing, to identify bacteria in those wo...

  12. Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  13. Analysis of Drug Resistance and Distribution of Pathogenic Bacteria of Respiratory Tract Infection in NICU%NICU患儿呼吸道感染病原菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉葵; 邓秋连; 钟华敏; 谢永强; 刘旻; 周珍文

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of common pathogenic bacterium and drug resistance of respiratory tract infections in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and provide references for rational use of antibiotics in clinic. Methods: Distribution and drug susceptibility of the pathogenic bacteria from respiratory tract specimens were statistically analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010 in NICU. Results: There were 367 strains of pathogens, of which the first 6 isolation rate of pathogenic bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae (46%), Escherichia coli (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (8.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), fungi (4.9%). Analysis of drug resistance, Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance in severe cases, ESBLs production rate 54.4%, the resistance rate of cefotaxime, ceftriaxone is respectively 91.7%, 90.5%, the resistance rate of cefepime, Cefoperazone/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, gentamicin is respectively 68.6%, 66.9%, 66.9%, 47.3%, 44.4%, low resistance rate of ciprofloxacin and Amikacin, respectively 7.7% and 16.6 %. Escherichia coli high rates of resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, sensitive or more sensitive to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, ESBLs generation rate 51%. Imipenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae bacteria of which the first 6 found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in addition to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime resistance rate is higher, more sensitive or highly sensitive to other antibiotics. Drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, erythromycin is higher, respectively 95.2%, 71.4%, low resistance rate of clindamycin, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, respectively 23.8%, 23.8%, 14.3%, 4.7%, MARSA is detected in 3 strains (14.3%), vancomycin resistant strains not found; Streptococcus pneumoniae among 4 strains resistant to all erythromycin, resistance to β-lactam drugs is not serious. Conclusions: Klebsiella pneumoniae was

  14. Bacterial modulation of the lung response to coal mine dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, R.T.; Slight, J.; MacLaren, W.M. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    A study is reported which examined, in an animal model, the effects of bacteria (Corynebacterium parvum) and a bacterial product, lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), on the pulmonary response to instilled coal mine dust. Dust from the air of a British mine producing a low rank coal was instilled into the lungs of SPF male Wistar rats. The study concluded that infection, both in the lung and at remote sites, could modulate the activity of the alveolar macrophage, a key cell in dust pathogenesis because of its ability to imitate and regulate inflammation and fibrogenesis. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Isolamento e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias em infecções uterinas de éguas Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria in uterine infections in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 206 "swabs" cervicais e uterinos de éguas de várias raças, de diversas regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais, durante o período de 1986 a 1996. Cerca de 164 "swabs" foram positivos para a presença de microrganismos causadores de endometrites. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25,7% e Escherichia coli (15,1% foram os principais agentes infecciosos isolados. Outros microrganismos presentes foram: Staphylococcus aureus (9,2%, Streptococcus alfa-hemolítico (9,2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3,9%, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (6,3%, Bacillus spp. (1,9%, Rhodococcus equi (3,4% e Proteus mirabilis (1,5%. As provas de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos revelaram que amicacina e gentamicina (70,2%, ampicilina (59,5% e cloranfenicol (59,5% foram os antibióticos de maior ação in vitro contra os microrganismos isolados.This study examined 206 cervical and uterine swabs collected from infected mares from herds in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1986 to 1996. Amongst 164 successful isolations, 25.7% were identified as Streptococcus equi, subsp. zooepidemicus, and 15.1% as Escherichia coli, both considered the most important isolates. Other bacteria found included Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%, Streptococcus alpha-hemolytic (9.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (6.3%, Bacillus spp. (1.9%, Rhodococcus equi (3.4% and Proteus mirabilis (1.5%. The antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed amikacin and gentamicin (70.2%, ampicillin and chloramphenicol (59.5% as the most effective in vitro antibiotics against these microorganisms.

  16. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  17. The pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with urinary tract infections%探讨泌尿系统感染患者病原菌的分布及耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究泌尿系统感染患者病原菌的分布和耐药情况,为患者临床治疗中抗生素的合理应用提供依据.方法:选取2012-04/2013-04于我院进行治疗的285例门诊和住院泌尿系统感染患者,并对其病原菌和耐药性进行总结.结果:研究发现,大肠埃希菌是泌尿系统感染的主要病原菌(占31.93%),然后是肠球菌(占12.28%),最后是念珠菌(占9.12%).亚胺培南对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为99.5%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为96.8%,阿米卡星对大肠埃希菌的敏感率为95.9%.亚胺培南对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为92.8%,阿米卡星对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为82.7%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对肺炎克雷伯菌的敏感率为74.3%.阿米卡星对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为97.1%,亚胺培南对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为94.8%,他唑巴坦、哌拉西林对铜绿假单胞菌敏感率为93.6%.利奈唑胺对肠球菌敏感率为99.9%,万古霉素对肠球菌敏感率为95.2%.大部分抗生素对白色念珠菌的敏感率高于90%,除了伊曲康唑为77.5%.伊曲康唑和氟康唑对光滑念珠菌的敏感率分别为14.9%和24.0%.结论:只有在充分认识泌尿系统感染病原菌分布和耐药情况的基础上合理使用抗生素,才能有效减少耐药菌产生,提高泌尿系统感染患者的临床疗效.%AIM:In order to provide the data for reasonable ap-plication of antibiotics in clinical,we analyzed the pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in patients with urinary tract infections.METHODS:Choosing 285 cases outpatient and inpatient in our hospital from April 2012 to April 2012,analying pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance in urinary sys-tem of them.RESULTS:The primary infectious pathogenic bac-teria in the urinary system were Escherichia coli (3 1

  18. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  19. Immune modulators with parasite infections

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiangsheng

    2014-01-01

    SNPs in immune-related genes (IL-2 and IL-2R alpha) may used for future prospective studies examining disease susceptibility or may better elucidate various physiological responses. Distinctive immune response profiles could provide a better understanding of the immune response during disease progression or regression and improve the monitoring of alveolar echinococcosis patients.

  20. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  1. 糖尿病足合并感染患者754株病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of 754 pathogenic bacteria in diabetic foot infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秋燕; 林迪妮; 朱虹; 葛胜洁; 吴文俊; 潘晓燕; 顾雪疆; 谷雪梅; 沈飞霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of organisms isolated from diabetic foot ulcers so as to provide selection rationales of antibiotics.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibilities in 754 strains of pathogens isolated from 519 patients with diabetic foot ulcers at our hospital from January 2010 to August 2013.The inter-group data were compared by Chi-square test.Results There were 322 (62.0%)males and 197 (38.0%) females.Their mean age was (67.7 ± 12.3) (30-93) years,duration of diabetes 10 (0-40) years,duration of lower-limb lesion 1.0 (0.0-72.0) months and HbA1c (9.09% ± 2.28%).Among 444 (85.5%) cases,a total of 754 strains of pathogens were isolated.Gram-positive aerobes were the most frequently isolated (47.3%,357 strains) and followed by gram-negative aerobes and fungus (40.3% vs 12.3%,304 vs 93 strains respectively).With rising Wagner's grades,bacterial floras transformed from Gram-positive cocci to Gram-negative rods while fungus and composite infections increased.And 122 strains were of multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO).Among 357 strains of Gram-positive bacteria,Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were dominating floras.Staphylococcus was highly resistant to penicillin G,erythromycin,and oxacillin while vancomycin and linezolid were the most effective agents against gram-positive bacteria.Among 304 strains of gram-negative bacteria,enterobacteria were the most prevalent,including 48 strains of Escherichia coli,34 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 31 strains of Proteus vulgaris.And there were 29 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Enterobacteria were highly resistant to ampicillin,followed by bactrim and furadantin while meropenem,imipenem,piperacillin/sulbactam,sulperazone and cefepime were the most effective agents.The predominant fungus was Blastomyces albicans.Conclusions In

  2. Infection Feature and Drug Resistance of Bacteria of Inferior Respiratory Tract in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Guiyang of China%贵阳地区慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期下呼吸道细菌感染特征和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠; 王燕; 蔡翠; 龙海; 张娟; 查小芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infective bacteria of inferior respiratory tract by analyzing sputum and secretion from inferior respiratory tract in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ) in Guiyang of China, and to provide evidence for clinical therapy. Methods Sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract of 254 patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from 1 April 2009 to 30 April 2010 in Guiyang were cultured and drug sensitivity tests were conducted, with one or more strains of bacteria being cultured. Results Positive sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract culture were found in 215 ( 84. 65% ) patients with AECOPD, and 516 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured. Among these bacteria, the six main pathogenic bacteria were 305 (59. 11% ) strains of moraxella catarrhalis, 108 ( 20. 93% ) strains of streptococus viridans, 22 ( 4. 26% ) strains escherichia coli, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of enteroaerogen, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of klebsie pneumoniae and 11 ( 2. 13% ) strains of hafnia alvei. There were single infective bacteria in 154 patients with AECOPD and mixing infective bacteria in 61 patients with AECOPD. Single infective bacteria were the mainly influence factors for the severity of AECOPD. Single infective bacteria and mixing infective bacteria both showed linear regression correlation with the severity of AECOPD. The same bacterial isolates were founded many times in sputum cultures, but the drug resistances of these outcomes were not the same in 60 patients with AECOPD. Six main types of pathogenic bacteria had more drug resistance ( moraxella catarrhalis et al ) to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Most of the gram-negative bacillus had low drug resistance to cephalosporins. The positive sputum germiculture was positively correlated with the severity of heart function of corpulmonale. Conclusion The moraxella catarrhalis and treptococus

  3. Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution and Drug Resistance in the Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Urethral Catheterization%留置尿管相关性尿路感染的病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 周云; 陶云珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial spectrum of the CAtlTI and the Bnti-microbial resistance of commonly used antimicrobial agents,and to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods 427 cases of detaining ure-thral catheter children from July 2009 to July 2011 in Children' s Hospital of Soochow University were collected, urine culture was done in the day before drawing tube,bacteriological culture was performed among any positive,drug sensitive test was conducted to the separated pathogen by Kir-Bauer AGAR diffusion method. Results Among 427 cases of detaining urethra) catheter urine samples of children,53 slrains( 12.4% ) of pathogenic bacteria were separated ,with gram-positive bacteria 31 cases,gram-negative bacteria 20 cases, candida albicans in 2 cases. Gram-positive cocci were highly resistant to rifampin( >77.8% ) ,and had a certain resistance to aminoglycosides, but were sensitive to the linezolid and vancomycin. Enterocoecus faecalis' s resistance to penicillin and levofloxacin were significantly lower than Enterococcus faecium.but almost all of them were resistant to dalfopris-lin. All of the Enterococcus faecium were resistant to penicillin,also had a very high resistance to levofloxacin( >87.5% ). Cram-negative bacteria had a high drug-resistant rate to 1 -3 generations and penicillins (about 75% ) ,were lowly resistant to imipen-em,amikaein, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin( <30%). Conclusion Gram-positive enterocoecua and escherichia coli were primarily in urinary catheter related urinary tract infections,and showed multiple resistance;to different pathogens,sensitive drugs were quite different. Drug resistance should be tested before treatment.%目的 了解留置尿管相关性尿路感染(CAUTIU)的细菌谱及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考.方法 收集苏州大学附属儿童医院小儿泌尿外科2009年7月-2011年7月住

  4. 603株骨科患者伤口感染病原菌分布及耐药性监测%Pathogenic bacteria distributions and drug resistance surveillances of 603 bacterial strains for wound infection of ortho-pedic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏群志; 陈森雄; 陈敏; 唐荣德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the pathogenic bacteria distributions and drug resistance tendencies and to provide the basis of rational use for the antimicrobial drugs in the clinical .Methods VITEK 2 Compact Automatic bacteria identification equipment was used to identify the bacteria and to accomplish the drug sensitive test .The path‐ogenic bacteria distributions and drug resistance circumstances were analyzed for the wound secretion in the orthope‐dic patients .Results 603 strains bacteria were separated from 3 317 specimens and the gram positive bacteria ac‐counted for 56 .4% ,the gram negative bacteria accounted for 40 .8% ,the candida is 2 .8% .In front of the seven kinds of strains are the epidermis staphylococcus(15 .4% ) ,the pseudomonas aeruginosa(11 .0% ) ,the staphylococcus au‐reus(7 .6% ) ,the hemolysis staphylococcus(7 .3% ) ,the Enterococcus faecalis(6 .8% ) ,the sewer enterobacter(6 .3% ) and the E .coli pin(3 .5% ) in the order .The methicillin‐resistants aureus bacteria and the coagulase negative staphy‐lococcus aureus is 24 .0% and 38 .7% respectively .The incidence rate of E coli pin to produce super broad spectrumβ‐lactamase (ESBLs) is 60 .0% .Conclusion The gram positive bacteria are main bacteria in the pathogenic bacteria of the orthopedic wound infection .The endogenous normal flora or the conditioned pathogen from the surrounding environment has become the main pathogenic bacteria of the orthopedic wound infection .The vancomycin and imipen‐em still keep higher antimicrobial activity .%目的:了解该院骨科患者伤口感染的病原菌分布及耐药性趋势,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据。方法采用VITEK 2 Compact自动细菌鉴定仪进行细菌鉴定及药敏试验,分析骨科患者伤口分泌物病原菌分布及耐药情况。结果从3317份标本中共分离出细菌603株,其中革兰阳性球菌占56.4%,革兰阴性杆菌占40.8%,假丝酵母菌占2.8%。前7种菌种

  5. [Research of modulation of CD95-mediated apoptosis in lymphoblastic MP-1 and BJAB cells infected by adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, N V; Diachenko, N S; Zahorodnia, S D; Nosach, L M; Povnytsia, O Iu; Baranova, H V; Zhovnovata, V L

    2006-01-01

    Model systems of infecting limphoblastic MP-1 and BJAB cells by Epstein-Barr virus, 5 serotype adenovirus and double infection are developed. A rather high level of accumulation of DNA of these viruses in the cells in dynamics at monoinfection and inhibition interference at multi-infection was shown by PCR method. The influence of virus infection on proliferative activity was studied. The stimulation of cells growth in the system BJAB + EBV was detected, and double infecting inhibited the process by 50%. The 25% difference in development of apoptosis process between cells infected by adenovirus and EBV was established when defining CD95-mediated apoptosis in infected MP-1 cells. The infecting of BJAB cells by viruses had a scarce effect on the processes of spontaneous apoptosis, but the data on CD95-mediated apoptosis at EBV infection testify to inhibition of this process both at a monoinfection, and at a double infection. The work was performed in the framework of the fundamental agreement of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine F7/366-2001, and grant INTAS N011-2382. PMID:16786631

  6. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  7. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  8. L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: may oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-05-01

    compounds, and suggest important interactions between neutrophills and carnosine related compounds in the host response to viruses and bacteria. Carnosine and anserine were also found to reduce apoptosis of human neutrophils. In this way these histidine-containing compounds can modulate the Influenza virus release from neutrophills and reduce virus dissemination through the body of the organism. This review points the ability of therapeutic control of Influenza viral infections associated with modulation by oral nonhydrolized forms of carnosine and related histidine-containg compounds of PMN apoptosis which may be involved at least in part in the pathophysiology of the disease in animals and humans. The data presented in this article, overall, may have implications for global influenza surveillance and planning for pandemic influenza therapeutic prevention with oral forms of non-hydrolized natural L-carnosine as a suitable alternative to the conventional vaccination for various flu ailments. PMID:23441838

  9. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Ryan S.; Thom, Kerri A.; Sharma, Saarika; Phillips, Michael; Johnson, J. Kristie; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Once confined to outbreaks in the northeastern United States (US), they have spread throughout the US and most of the world. KPCs are an important mechanism of resistance for an increasingly wide range of Gram-negative bacteria and are no longer limited to K pneumoniae. KPC-producing bacteria ar...

  10. The Role of Anaerobic Bacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent bacterial infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are the primary cause for morbidity and mortality in CF. Advancements in second generation sequencing and evolution of the lung microbiome has prompted greater interest in other bacteria present in the lung. Anaerobic bacteria have been one of the most common bacteria found on molecular sequencing, their cause and role is as of yet unknown. In our project, we recruited 450 patients prospectively and followed them at both stable and exacer...

  11. Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN......-a mRNA expressed in samples derived from animals that were identified subsequently as persistently infected FMDV-carriers. It was concluded that there was a significant difference in the host-response in the DSP of calves that were identified as persistently infected, subclinical carriers of FMDV....

  12. 血清降钙素原对522例不同细菌类型和感染部位的全身性炎症反应患者的早期诊断差异分析%The Analysis of the Diagnosis Differellce of PCT early Diagnosing 522 lases Patients with SIRS which Infected by Different type Bacteria and in Infection site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远程; 刘欣

    2015-01-01

    of serum procalcitonin ( PCT) expression and the types of bacteria, infection site in patients with bacterial infection , evaluation of differences Value of PCT in patients with systemic inflammation diagnostic ,with bacterial in-fection type and the site of infection, promoted clinical and reliably for PCT in the accurate application of early diagnosis of bacterial infection and provide clinical observation data. Method 6728 cases of patients with infection from pathogens in 522 cases confirmed by systemic inflammatory response of patients, identify the site of infection and pathogenic bacteria types, combined with PCT clinical diagnosis standard, analysised that pathogens at early stage of infection, pathogen infection sites and different type bacterias affecting on PCT. Results By according to the type of bacterial infection, 81 cases of G +, 441 Cases of bacteria G-strain;analysis accord-ing to the site of infection, 95 cases of sterile site ( blood, pleural and ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, bile duct, peritoneal fluid) and bacteria (part of 427 cases respiratory secretions, urine, wound secretion and other). In accordance with the standard PCT, the positive predictive value PCT≥0. 1 diagnosed that 522 patients with systemic inflammation rate was 55. 94% (292/522), aseptic part 15. 79% infection was cut off (15/95), bacteria parts of 49. 64% (212/427), 57. 05% G-strains (251/440) detected PCT positive, 48. 78% (strain G + positive PCT 40/82). Analysis of site of infection and bacterial types considered, PCT positive rate is respectively:blood ( G-95. 24%, G +57. 14%) and drainage fluid ( G-89. 66%, G +40. 0%) , urine ( G-52. 84%, G +50%) , respiratory secretions ( G-41. 67%, G +58. 33%) , wound secretion and other ( G-41. 03%, G +26. 67%) . Analysis of the influence of diagnostic efficacy of bacterial type and infection sites on PCT, the site of bacterial infections affect the detection efficien-cy of PCT, bacterial infection type for the PCT

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  14. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates the gene interactions to activate the HIV replication and faster disease progression in a co-infected host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S Toor

    Full Text Available Understanding of the chronic immune activation, breakdown of immune defense and synergistic effect between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb may provide essential information regarding key factors involved in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. In this study, we aimed to highlight a few of the immunological events that may influence and accelerate the progression of HIV disease in the presence of co-infecting Mtb. A cross-sectional study was performed on cohorts, including anti-tubercular therapy (ATT naïve active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve HIV-1 infected individuals at different stages of disease, ATT and ART naïve HIV-PTB co-infected individuals and healthy controls. A significantly higher T-regulatory cell (Treg frequency coupled with the high FoxP3 expression in the CD4 T-cells indicated an immunosuppressive environment in the advance stage of HIV-1 infection. This is further substantiated by high HO-1 expression favoring TB co-infection. Functionally, this change in Treg frequency in HIV-1 infected individuals correlated well with suppression of T-cell proliferation. Mtb infection seems to facilitate the expansion of the Treg pool along with increased expression of FoxP3, specifically the variant-1, as evident from the data in HIV-1 co-infected as well as in patients with only PTB. A significantly lower expression of HO-1 in co-infected individuals compared to patients with only HIV-infection having comparable CD4 count correlated well with increased expression of CCR5 and CxCR4 as well as NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which collectively may contribute to enhanced viral replication and increased cell death, hence faster disease progression in co-infected individuals.

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  18. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  19. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  20. The effect of sinus surgery with intensive follow-up on pathogenic sinus bacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; von Buchwald, Christian; Hjuler, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have chronic rhinosinusitis; their sinuses are often colonized with bacteria that can initiate and maintain deleterious pulmonary infections. Theoretically, eradication of the sinus bacteria should reduce the frequency of lung infections and thereby reduce...... pulmonary morbidity. This article addressed whether bacteria in CF sinuses are eligible for eradication by sinus surgery and postoperative treatment....

  1. Distribution and Drug Resistance Analysis of ICU Hospital Infection Bacteria in Patients with Severe ARDS and H7N9 Inlfuenza Virus Infection%苏州地区重症人感染H7N9禽流感病例院内感染细菌谱及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 郭强; 王佳佳; 赵大国; 刘盛兰; 黄小平; 金钧; 陆士奇; 黄建安

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the characteristics of bacterial spectrum and drug resistance of nosocomial infection in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9 virus, in order to provide reference for the rational use of antimicrobial agents.Methods A retrospective analysis of Suzhou area of severe human infection bird flu cases hospitalized during the acquisition of various samples of bacterial culture and drug susceptibility test results, all specimens were treated with K-B antimicrobial susceptibility testing with a result according to CLSI 2010 judgment.Results All the 10 patients were cultured bacteria 79 strains, dominated by Gram negative bacilli, the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and onion Burkholderia bacteria was the highest account for 27.85%, followed by Bauman Acinetobacter, Serratia marcescens and pneumonia Klebsiella, accounted for 22.78%,11.39% and 5.06% respectively. Bauman Acinetobacter was highly resistant to antibiotics, while sensitive to cefoperazone sulbactam. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the sensitivity to piperacillin tazobactam is the highest, while the resistant rate to ceftazidime and imipenem was high. Burkholderia cepacia has lower rates of Antimicrobial resistance, but resistant to amikacin. Serratia marcescens was highly resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin. Klebsiella pneumoniae had higher sensitivity to the second or third generation of the cephalosporin, but it was resistant to penicillin.Conclusion When the patients who is infected with avian influenza A H7N9 virus suffered from nosocomial infection, while the etiology is not clear, it is important to select antibiotics according to the bacterial spectrum and drug resistance.%目的:总结人感染H7N9禽流感病例院内感染的细菌谱及耐药性特点,为其经验性使用抗菌药物提供参考依据。方法回顾性分析苏州地区重症人感染H7N9禽流感病例,住院期间采集各种病原学标本,所有标本均采用K-B法进行抗

  2. Increased susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice due to Mycobacterium bovis co-infection which modulates production of Th2 cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, A M; Vicentini, M A; Dias, A T; Alves, L L; Alves, C C S; Brandi, J S; De Paula, M L; Fernandes, A; Barsante, M M; Souza, M A; Teixeira, H C; Negrão-Corrêa, D; Ferreira, A P

    2009-09-01

    An estimated quarter of the world's population possesses an infection caused by gastrointestinal nematodes, which induce a Th2 type immune response. Concomitant infection of nematodes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which induces a predominantly Th1 type response, is very frequent in tropical and subtropical regions. This study examined immune responses of BALB/c mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis and then co-infected with Mycobacterium bovis. The number of worms in the intestine, eggs in feces, cytokine production in lungs and intestine and the expression of CD80, CD86, CTLA-4 and CD28 cell markers on pulmonary cells were analysed. Our results indicate that co-infected mice had an increased parasite burden, which correlates with elevated IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine production and decreased IL-4 and IL-13. Moreover, decreased expression of CD80 and increased expression of CTLA-4 were observed in co-infected mice. Our data point out that susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is increased by Mycobacterium bovis co-infection, resulting in higher parasite survival. PMID:19660155

  3. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.;

    2003-01-01

    of CD2+, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in...

  4. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture in...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  6. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  7. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria enhance mucosal B cell responses and differentially modulate systemic antibody responses to an oral human rotavirus vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a key role in generation of protective immunity against rotavirus infection, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Current RV vaccines are less effective in developing countries compared to developed countries. Commensals/probiotics influence mucosal immunity, but the role of early gut colonizing bacteria in modulating intestinal B cell responses to RV vaccines is largely unknown. We co-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the only animal model susceptible to HRV diarrhea...

  8. Modulation of cytokines and transcription factors (T-Bet and GATA3 in CD4 enriched cervical cells of Chlamydia trachomatis infected fertile and infertile women upon stimulation with chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhan Sudha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial Inclusion membrane proteins (Incs, are involved in biochemical interactions with host cells and infecting Chlamydiae. We have previously reported the role of two Chlamydia trachomatis (CT Incs, namely IncB and IncC in generating host immunity in CT infected women. Emerging data shows involvement of Inc stimulated CD4 positive T cells in aiding host immunity in infected fertile and infertile women through the secretion of interferon gamma. However the lack of data on the intra-cytokine interplay to these Incs in infected cell milieu prompted us to investigate further. Methods A total of 14 CT-positive fertile, 18 CT-positive infertile women and 25 uninfected controls were enrolled in this study. CD8 depleted, CD4 enriched cervical cells were isolated and upon stimulation with IncB and IncC, modulation of cytokines (Interleukin (IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, Interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and T cell lineage regulating transcription factors T-Bet and GATA3 was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Significant higher expression (P Conclusion Overall our data shows that CT IncB and IncC are able to upregulate expression of cytokines, namely interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23 and GM-CSF in CT-positive fertile women while expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were upregulated in CT-positive infertile women. Our study also suggests that Incs are able to modulate expression of T cell lineage determinants indicating their involvement in regulation of immune cells.

  9. Power Module

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them. Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module

  10. Analysis of frequent species and antibacterial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing infections in burn patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2014%2012~2014年某院烧伤患者易感病原菌及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小敏; 宫娜娜; 郭兆旺; 陈红涛; 李克学; 曾涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequent species of pathogenic bacteria causing infections in burn patients and their re‐sistance to commonly used antibacterial agents ,so as to provide references for rational use of antibacterials in clinic .Methods The distribution and drug susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria isolated from secretions of wound surfaces of 140 cases of burn patients from January 2012 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed .Results A total of 152 strains of pathogenic bacteria were iso‐lated .The gram‐negative bacteria accounted for 59 .2% ,in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa ,Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter bau‐mannii were the most common isolates ;the gram‐positive bacteria accounted for 34 .2% ,in which Staphylococcus aures ,Staphylo‐coccus haemolyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common isolates ;and fungi were accounted for 6 .6% .A majority of these isolates were multiple resistant to the antibacterial agents .Conclusion Culturing ,identifing and carring out drug‐sensitivity test of pathogenic bacteria isolated from burn patients could provide basis for rational application of antibacterial agents and effec‐tive control of infection .%目的:了解烧伤患者感染病原菌的常见种类及其对常用抗菌药物的耐药性,为临床合理选用抗菌药物提供依据。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2014年12月140例烧伤患者创面分泌物分离培养病原菌的分布及药敏结果。结果共分离病原菌152株,其中革兰阴性菌占59.2%,以铜绿假单胞菌、奇异变形杆菌及鲍曼不动杆菌为主;革兰阳性菌占34.2%,以金黄色葡萄球菌、溶血葡萄球菌及粪肠球菌为主;真菌占6.6%。药敏结果显示,分离的病原菌绝大多数呈多重耐药。结论对烧伤患者进行病原菌培养、鉴定及相应的药敏分析有助于指导临床合理使用抗菌药物,有效控制感染。

  11. Genome-wide non-CpG methylation of the host genome during M. tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Garima; Sowpati, Divya Tej; Singh, Prakruti; Khan, Mehak Zahoor; Ganji, Rakesh; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian cell utilizes DNA methylation to modulate gene expression in response to environmental changes during development and differentiation. Aberrant DNA methylation changes as a correlate to diseased states like cancer, neurodegenerative conditions and cardiovascular diseases have been documented. Here we show genome-wide DNA methylation changes in macrophages infected with the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Majority of the affected genomic loci were hypermethylated in M. tuberculosis infected THP1 macrophages. Hotspots of differential DNA methylation were enriched in genes involved in immune response and chromatin reorganization. Importantly, DNA methylation changes were observed predominantly for cytosines present in non-CpG dinucleotide context. This observation was consistent with our previous finding that the mycobacterial DNA methyltransferase, Rv2966c, targets non-CpG dinucleotides in the host DNA during M. tuberculosis infection and reiterates the hypothesis that pathogenic bacteria use non-canonical epigenetic strategies during infection. PMID:27112593

  12. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumita; Owen, Katherine A; Ly, Kim T; Park, Daeho; Black, Steven G; Wilson, Jeffrey M; Sifri, Costi D; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Ernst, Peter B; Casanova, James E

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial recognition by host cells is essential for initiation of infection and the host response. Bacteria interact with host cells via multiple pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbial products or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to this interaction, host cell signaling cascades are activated that lead to inflammatory responses and/or phagocytic clearance of attached bacteria. Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells through its conserved type I thrombospondin repeats and triggers their engulfment through an ELMO1/Dock/Rac1 signaling module. Because thrombospondin repeats in other proteins have been shown to bind bacterial surface components, we hypothesized that BAI1 may also mediate the recognition and clearance of pathogenic bacteria. We found that preincubation of bacteria with recombinant soluble BAI1 ectodomain or knockdown of endogenous BAI1 in primary macrophages significantly reduced binding and internalization of the Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Conversely, overexpression of BAI1 enhanced attachment and engulfment of Salmonella in macrophages and in heterologous nonphagocytic cells. Bacterial uptake is triggered by the BAI1-mediated activation of Rac through an ELMO/Dock-dependent mechanism, and inhibition of the BAI1/ELMO1 interaction prevents both Rac activation and bacterial uptake. Moreover, inhibition of ELMO1 or Rac function significantly impairs the proinflammatory response to infection. Finally, we show that BAI1 interacts with a variety of Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria through recognition of their surface lipopolysaccharide. Together these findings identify BAI1 as a pattern recognition receptor that mediates nonopsonic phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by macrophages and directly affects the host response to infection. PMID:21245295

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Jemo-pharm A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The ...

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Jemo-pharm A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  16. Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Julian W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

  17. 重症监护病房呼吸机相关肺炎患者血流感染病原菌分布及耐药性分析%The distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria related to bloodstream infection in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia at intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distributions and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria related to bloodstream infection in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia ( VAP) at intensive care unit ( ICU) in order to provide the information for reasonable use of antibacterial agents and guide the control and prevention of hospital infection.Methods The pathogenic bacterial identification and drug sensitive test of bacteria were carried out by using an automatic microbial analysis system (VITEK2 COMPACT).WHO-NET5.6 software was used for statistical analysis.Results There were 194 cases with bloodstream infection in 275 patients.The main pathogens were gram negative bacteria,accounting for 50.52%,followed by gram positive bacteria (39.18%) and fungi (10.30%).In gram-negative bacilli,Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were still the main pathogens causing bloodstream infections and highly sensitive to imipenem,meropenem and amikacin.In gram-positive cocci mainly were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylo-coccus aureus and highly sensitive to vancomycin,linezolid and teicoplanin.Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria and multiple drug resist-ant bacteria are detected by ICU.The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance of VAP in ICU patients are mastered which is of great significance for rational use of antibiotics.%目的:探讨重症监护病房( ICU)呼吸机相关肺炎( ventilator-associated pneumo-nia,VAP)患者血流感染病原菌分布及耐药情况,为指导医院感染的预防控制和临床合理使用抗生素提供依据。方法使用全自动微生物分析系统( VITEK2 COMPACT)对我院ICU 275例VAP患者的血液标本进行细菌鉴定和药敏试验,运用WHONET5.6软件对微生物检测结果进行统计分析。结果275例VAP患者中有194例发生血流感染,病原菌主要以革兰阴性菌为主,占50.52%;其次为革兰阳性菌(39.18%)和真菌(10.30%)。在革兰阴性杆菌中,

  18. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim;

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics in...... dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  19. Primary and Chronic HIV Infection Differently Modulates Mucosal Vδ1 and Vδ2 T-Cells Differentiation Profile and Effector Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cimini

    Full Text Available Gut-associated immune system has been identified as a major battlefield during the early phases of HIV infection. γδ T-cells, deeply affected in number and function after HIV infection, are able to act as a first line of defence against invading pathogens by producing antiviral soluble factors and by killing infected cells. Despite the relevant role in mucosal immunity, few data are available on gut-associated γδ T-cells during HIV infection. Aim of this work was to evaluate how primary (P-HIV and chronic (C-HIV HIV infection affects differentiation profile and functionality of circulating and gut-associated Vδ1 and Vδ2 T-cells. In particular, circulating and mucosal cells were isolated from respectively whole blood and residual gut samples from HIV-infected subjects with primary and chronic infection and from healthy donors (HD. Differentiation profile and functionality were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry. P-HIV and C-HIV were characterized by an increase in the frequency of effector Vδ1-T cells both in circulating and mucosal compartments. Moreover, during P-HIV mucosal Vδ1 T-cells expressed high levels of CD107a, suggesting a good effector cytotoxic capability of these cells in the early phase of infection that was lost in C-HIV. P-HIV induced an increase in circulating effector Vδ2 T-cells in comparison to C-HIV and HD. Notably, P-HIV as well as HD were characterized by the ability of mucosal Vδ2 T-cells to spontaneously produce IFN-γ that was lost in C-HIV. Altogether, our data showed for the first time a functional capability of mucosal Vδ1 and Vδ2 T-cells during P-HIV that was lost in C-HIV, suggesting exhaustion mechanisms induced by persistent stimulation.

  20. Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

    1989-05-10

    A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  2. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  3. Monitoring Ubiquitin-Coated Bacteria via Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lork, Marie; Delvaeye, Mieke; Gonçalves, Amanda; Van Hamme, Evelien; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is capable of infecting a variety of hosts. Inside host cells, most Salmonella bacteria reside and replicate within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. They use virulence proteins to manipulate the host cell machinery for their own benefit and hijack the host cytoskeleton to travel toward the perinuclear area. However, a fraction of bacteria escapes into the cytosol where they get decorated with a dense layer of polyubiquitin, which labels the bacteria for clearance by autophagy. More specifically, autophagy receptor proteins recognize the ubiquitinated bacteria and deliver them to autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse to lysosomes. Here, we describe methods used to infect HeLa cells with Salmonella bacteria and to detect their ubiquitination via immunofluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy. PMID:27613040

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  5. Total and Envelope Protein-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response in Pediatric Dengue Is Highly Modulated by Age and Subsequent Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Jessica F; Salgado, Doris M; Vega, Rocío; Rodríguez, Jairo A; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A; Greenberg, Harry B; Narváez, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    The response of antibody-secreting cells (ASC) induced by dengue has only recently started to be characterized. We propose that young age and previous infections could be simple factors that affect this response. Here, we evaluated the primary and secondary responses of circulating ASC in infants (6-12 months old) and children (1-14 years old) infected with dengue showing different degrees of clinical severity. The ASC response was delayed and of lower magnitude in infants, compared with older children. In primary infection (PI), the total and envelope (E) protein-specific IgM ASC were dominant in infants but not in children, and a negative correlation was found between age and the number of IgM ASC (rho = -0.59, P = 0.03). However, infants with plasma dengue-specific IgG detectable in the acute phase developed an intense ASC response largely dominated by IgG and comparable to that of children with secondary infection (SI). IgM and IgG produced by ASC circulating in PI or SI were highly cross-reactive among the four serotypes. Dengue infection caused the disturbance of B cell subsets, particularly a decrease in the relative frequency of naïve B cells. Higher frequencies of total and E protein-specific IgM ASC in the infants and IgG in the children were associated with clinically severe forms of infection. Therefore, the ASC response induced by dengue is highly influenced by the age at which infection occurs and previous immune status, and its magnitude is a relevant element in the clinical outcome. These results are important in the search for correlates of protection and for determining the ideal age for vaccinating against dengue. PMID:27560782

  6. Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    Full Text Available Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction.

  7. Predatory bacteria are nontoxic to the rabbit ocular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Brothers, Kimberly M.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Funderburgh, James L.; Gupta, Shilpi; Dharani, Sonal; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant microbes and the near absent development of new antibiotic classes, innovative new therapeutic approaches to address this global problem are necessary. The use of predatory bacteria, bacteria that prey upon other bacteria, is gaining interest as an “out of the box” therapeutic treatment for multidrug resistant pathogenic bacterial infections. Before a new antimicrobial agent is used to treat infections, it must be tested for safety. The goal of this study was to test the tolerability of bacteria on the ocular surface using in vitro and in vivo models. Predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus were found to be non-toxic to human corneal stromal keratocytes in vitro; however, they did induce production of the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8 but not IL-1β. Predatory bacteria did not induce inflammation on the ocular surface of rabbit eyes, with and without corneal epithelial abrasions. Unlike a standard of care antibiotic vancomycin, predatory bacteria did not inhibit corneal epithelial wound healing or increase clinical inflammatory signs in vivo. Together these data support the safety of predatory bacteria on the ocular surface, but future studies are warranted regarding the use predatory bacteria in deeper tissues of the eye. PMID:27527833

  8. Clinical characteristics of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections in neonates of plateau region and control measures%高原地区新生儿多药耐药菌感染的临床特点及控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曦; 罗丽玲; 李晓莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高原地区新生儿多药耐药菌感染临床特点、细菌定植,并总结医院感染预防对策,以期提高临床诊治水平。方法选取2010年5月-2013年8月42例多药耐药菌感染新生儿为研究对象,采用美国强生公司提供的微生物分析系统、抗菌药物试卡、细菌鉴定试卡等对病原菌及其耐药性进行鉴定分析,采用SPSS16.0软件进行统计。结果新生儿多药耐药菌感染部位以痰液为主,24例占57.15%;入院<48 h培养出病原菌53株,革兰阴性菌占64.15%、革兰阳性菌占35.85%,>48 h培养出病原菌26株,革兰阴性菌占65.38%、革兰阳性菌占34.62%;革兰阴性菌对亚胺培南耐药率为0,对氨曲南耐药率10.00%~26.32%;革兰阳性菌对替考拉宁和万古霉素耐药率均为0。结论高原地区新生儿多药耐药菌感染以大肠埃希菌等革兰阴性菌为主,早期进行消毒隔离等措施,能有效降低医院感染发生率。%OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical characteristics of multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections in neonates of plateau region ,observe the bacterial colonization ,and put forward prevention measures for nosocomial infec‐tions so as to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment .METHODS A total of 42 neonates with multidrug‐resist‐ant bacteria infections who were treated in the hospital from May 2010 to Aug 2013 were recruited as the study ob‐jects ,the pathogens were identified ,and the drug resistance was analyzed by using the microorganism analysis system ,antibiotics test card ,and bacterial identification test card that were offered by Johnson & Johnson of the US ;the statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS16 .0 software .RESULTS The major specimen source was the sputum specimens that were obtained from 24 (57 .15% ) neonates with multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections . Totally 53 strains of pathogens have been cultured within

  9. Mechanisms of Multi-strain Coexistence in Host-Phage Systems with Nested Infection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jover, Luis F.; Cortez, Michael H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and their viruses ("bacteriophages") coexist in natural environments forming complex infection networks. Recent empirical findings suggest that phage-bacteria infection networks often possess a nested structure such that there is a hierarchical relationship among who can infect whom. Here we consider how nested infection networks may affect phage and bacteria dynamics using a multi-type Lotka-Volterra framework with cross-infection. Analysis of similar models have, in the past, assum...

  10. Anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  11. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynt...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  13. Dataset on protein composition of a human plasma sub-proteome able to modulate the Dengue 2 virus infection in Huh 7.5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Vivian; Ramos, Yassel; Yero, Alexis; Pupo, Dianne; Martin, Dayron; Márquez, Gabriel; Martín, Alejandro; Sarría, Mónica; Gallien, Sebastien; González, Luis J; Domon, Bruno; Chinea, Glay

    2016-03-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) are the causal agents of the emerging disease Dengue Fever and its severe forms. DENV is inoculated into human blood through a mosquito bite. Thus, plasma is an important media for DENV dissemination in infected persons and several important interactions should take place for the virus with human plasma proteins that strongly influence or may determine the course of the infection. This dataset contains 239 proteins identified in the elution fractions of human plasma subjected to DE-52 anion exchange chromatography. Data on DENV2 infection of Huh 7.5 cells in presence of the human plasma fraction is also presented. PMID:26862582

  14. A Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from kefir protects against intestinal infection with Yersinia enterocolitica O9 and modulates immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Montijo-Prieto, Soumi; Moreno, Encarnación; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Lasserrot, Agustín; Ruiz-López, María-Dolores; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Jiménez-Valera, María

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum C4, previously isolated from kefir and characterized as a potential probiotic strain, was tested for its protective and immunomodulatory capacity in a murine model of yersiniosis. The inoculation of BALB/c mice with a low pathogenicity serotype O9 strain of Yersinia enterocolitica results in a prolonged intestinal infection with colonization of Peyer's patches. Pretreatment with C4 was without effect on fecal excretion of yersiniae, but shortened the colonization of Peyer's patches. This protective effect was associated with pro-inflammatory status in the intestinal mucosa (TNF-α production in infected mice was increased by C4) and an increase in total IgA secretion. At a systemic level, C4 did not promote a pro-inflammatory response, although production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IFN-γ was enhanced. These findings suggest that L. plantarum C4 can increase resistance to intestinal infections through its immunomodulatory activity. PMID:26272025

  15. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiangfeng; (黎向锋); LI; Yaqin; (李雅芹); CAI; Jun; (蔡军); ZHANG; Deyuan; (张德远)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  16. Gammaherpesvirus infection modulates the temporal and spatial expression of SCGB1A1 (CCSP) and BPIFA1 (SPLUNC1) in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Leeming, Gail H.; Kipar, Anja; David J. Hughes; Bingle, Lynne; Bennett, Elaine; Moyo, Nathifa A; Tripp, Ralph A.; Bigley, Alison L; Bingle, Colin D.; Sample, Jeffery T.; Stewart, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an established model of γ-herpesvirus infection. We have previously developed an alternative system using a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), and shown that the MHV-68 M3 chemokine-binding protein contributes significantly to MHV-68 pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate in A. sylvaticus using high-density micro-arrays that M3 influences the expression of genes involved in the host response incl...

  17. Economic loss due to multidrug-resistant bacteria nosocomial infections in a tertiary general hospital%某三级综合医院多药耐药菌医院感染经济损失分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢敏; 邱会芬; 姜雪锦; 王琳; 张霞; 陈建伟; 赵爱荣; 孙吉花

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解某三级综合医院多药耐药菌(MDROs)医院感染对住院日及住院费用的影响 ,评价其导致的经济损失.方法 回顾性调查 2013 -2014 年 MDROs 医院感染及非 MDROs 医院感染患者相关资料 ,采用SPSS17 .0对医院感染发生、两年患者的住院日及住院费用进行统计.结果 2013年 MDROs医院感染率为37 .43% ,2014年降至37 .24% ,2013、2014年MDROs医院感染率差异无统计学意义 ,但MDR/PDRPA 医院感染所占比例两年差异有统计学意义(χ2 =11 .414 ,P<0 .01) ,2013、2014年MDROs医院感染患者平均住院日分别为45 .16、38 .62 d ,均显著高于同年非MDROs医院感染21 .19、22 .79 d ;MDROs医院感染住院总费用2013年为96 351 .30元、2014年为94 843 .64元,均显著高于同年非MDROs医院感染13 543 .46元、18 762 .04元.结论 MDROs医院感染可明显增加患者的住院日及经济损失 ,积极采取有效的预防控制措施势在必行.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) nosocomial infections on the length of hospital stay and hospitalization expenses in a tertiary general hospital and evaluate the economic los-ses induced by the MDROs nosocomial infections .METHODS From 2013 to 2014 ,a retrospective survey was con-ducted for the related data of the patients with MDROs nosocomial infections and the patients with non-MDROs nosocomial infections ,and the statistical analysis was performed for the incidence of nosocomial infections ,lengths of hospital stay ,and hospitalization costs by using SPSS17 .0 software .RESULTS The incidence of MDROs noso-comial infections was 37 .43% in 2013 ,dropping to 37 .24% in 2014 ,and there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of MDROs nosocomial infections between 2013 and 2014 ,however ,there was statisti-cally significant difference in the proportion of the patients with MDR/PDRA nosocomial infections between the two years (χ2 =11 .414 ,P<0 .01) .The

  18. 288例烧伤患者早期创面感染病原菌种类及主要致病菌耐药性分析%Analysis on the Bacterium Species and Drug Resistance of the Main Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from 288 Patients with Earlier Period Infected Burn Wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华丽; 张传领; 沈丽蒙; 郭远瑜; 张国祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteria species and drug resistance characteristics of the main pathogenic bacteria isolated from earlier period infected burn wound patients,and to provide evidence for reasonable clinical treatment with antibiotics.Methods We collected the earlier period infected secretion specimens and clinical and epidemiological data of the bum wound cases from January 2008 to December 2011.The pathogenic bacteria were isolated,cultured and identified,and the drug sensitivity test (DST) was conducted on the main species of the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics by means of conventional methods.Results A total of 288 bacteria strains were isolated from 288 earlier period infected bum wound patients' secretion samples.There were more than 10 bacteria species identified from these strains,including Staphylococcus aureus (116/288,40.3 %),Staphylococcus epidermidis (36/288,12.5 %),Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27/288,9.4 %),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35/288,12.2%),Enterobacter cloacae (15/288,5.2%),Escherichia coli (9/288,3.1%),and the other bacteria strains (50/288,17.4%).The results of DST showed that S.aureus and S.epidermidis were highly resistant to penicillin (with the resistant rates of 93.1% and 100%,respectively),but highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin,linezolid,and rifampicin,and in which no vancomycin-resistant strains were found.The resistant rates of P.aeruginosa to ampicillin,cefozolin,cefuroxime and cefoxitin were all of 100 %,but to ceftazidime,cefepime,piperacillin/tazobactam,levofloxacin,gentamycin and kanamycin were all less than 10 %.Conclusions The results of this study show that bacteria species and their drug resistance in earlier period infected burn wound patients are multiple and complex.The main pathogenic bacteria are S.aureus,S.epidermidis,S.haemolyticus and P.aeruginosa.Clinicians should pay attention to the types of pathogenic bacteria which cause earlier period surface infections and the resistance to

  19. Bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Preveden Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a reduced defensive reaction to bacterial infections and patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing infections, sepsis and death. The most common bacterial infections in these patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infection and bacteremia. The most common causes are Gram negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determi...

  20. IL-2 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with respiratory tract infection and may modulate the effect of vitamin E on lower respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E supplementation has been suggested as a potential strategy to prevent respiratory infections (RI) in the elderly. Previously, we showed that vitamin E reduced RI in some but not all nursing home residents. The efficacy of vitamin E supplementation may depend on individual factors including...

  1. The Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Reduces Pathogen Invasion and Modulates Cytokine Expression in Caco-2 Cells Infected with Crohn's Disease-Associated E. coli LF82 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Claudia; Ding, Yaoyao; Petermann, Ivonne; Knapp, Christoph; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2011-01-01

    Increased numbers of adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been found in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. In this report, we investigate the potential of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) to reduce features associated with AIEC pathogenicity in an already established infection with AIEC reference strain LF82.

  2. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R;

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...

  3. IL-8 EXPRESSION IN NORMAL NASAL EPITHELIUM AND ITS MODULATION BY INFECTION WITH RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS AND CYTOKINES TNF, IL-1, AND IL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation in the nasal and airway tissue caused by allergens, microbial infection and air pollution is likely to be regulated by inflammatory mediators produced by airway epithelial cells. We have therefore investigated the baseline expression of a number of cytokine genes kno...

  4. The microvesicle component of HIV-1 inocula modulates dendritic cell infection and maturation and enhances adhesion to and activation of T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Mercier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is taken up by immature monocyte derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs into tetraspanin rich caves from which the virus can either be transferred to T lymphocytes or enter into endosomes resulting in degradation. HIV-1 binding and fusion with the DC membrane results in low level de novo infection that can also be transferred to T lymphocytes at a later stage. We have previously reported that HIV-1 can induce partial maturation of iMDDCs at both stages of trafficking. Here we show that CD45⁺ microvesicles (MV which contaminate purified HIV-1 inocula due to similar size and density, affect DC maturation, de novo HIV-1 infection and transfer to T lymphocytes. Comparing iMDDCs infected with CD45-depleted HIV-1BaL or matched non-depleted preparations, the presence of CD45⁺ MVs was shown to enhance DC maturation and ICAM-1 (CD54 expression, which is involved in DC∶T lymphocyte interactions, while restricting HIV-1 infection of MDDCs. Furthermore, in the DC culture HIV-1 infected (p24⁺ MDDCs were more mature than bystander cells. Depletion of MVs from the HIV-1 inoculum markedly inhibited DC∶T lymphocyte clustering and the induction of alloproliferation as well as limiting HIV-1 transfer from DCs to T lymphocytes. The effects of MV depletion on these functions were reversed by the re-addition of purified MVs from activated but not non-activated SUPT1.CCR5-CL.30 or primary T cells. Analysis of the protein complement of these MVs and of these HIV-1 inocula before and after MV depletion showed that Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs and nef were the likely DC maturation candidates. Recombinant HSP90α and β and nef all induced DC maturation and ICAM-1 expression, greater when combined. These results suggest that MVs contaminating HIV-1 released from infected T lymphocytes may be biologically important, especially in enhancing T cell activation, during uptake by DCs in vitro and in vivo, particularly as MVs have been detected in the circulation of HIV-1

  5. Infection of primary cells by adeno-associated virus type 2 results in a modulation of cell cycle-regulating proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, J; Schulze, A; Jansen-Db1urr, P; Kleinschmidt, J A; Schmidt, R; zur Hausen, H

    1997-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that infection of primary human cells with adeno-associated viruses (AAV) leads to a decrease in cellular proliferation and to growth arrest. We analyzed the molecular basis of this phenomenon and observed that infection with AAV type 2 (AAV2) had an effect on several factors engaged in the control of the mammalian cell cycle. In particular, all of the pRB family members, pRB, p107, and p130, which are involved in G1 cell cycle checkpoint control, were affected. After infection, a shift from hyper- to hypophosphorylated forms was observed. Cyclins A and B1, which are required for G1/S transition and progression into mitosis, respectively, were downregulated at the transcriptional level as well as at the protein level, whereas the G1 cyclins D1 and E remained unaffected. In addition, the steady-state levels of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 and of transcription factor E2F-1 were diminished. Of all the factors known to be involved in phosphorylation of pRB family proteins, only the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1 exhibited a response to AAV2 infection. p21WAF1 mRNA was quickly and progressively upregulated in a p53-independent manner over at least 72 h. Consistent with the increased p21WAF1 protein levels, cyclin E- and cyclin A-dependent kinase activities declined to low levels and E2F-p130-cyclin-CDK2 complexes were disrupted. From these data, we conclude that the major effect of AAV2 infection on primary human fibroblasts appears to be upregulation of p21WAF1 gene expression and thus cell cycle arrest by the suppression of pRB family protein phosphorylation. PMID:9223493

  6. Morinda citrifolia Linn. Reduces Parasite Load and Modulates Cytokines and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Cardoso, Flávia de Oliveira; Souza, Bruno Vinicius da Conceição; do Valle, Tânia Zaverucha; de Sá, Joicy Cortez; Oliveira, Iara Dos Santos da Silva; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Moragas Tellis, Carla Junqueira; Chagas, Maria do Socorro Dos Santos; Behrens, Maria Dutra; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-01

    The absence of an effective vaccine and the debilitating chemotherapy for Leishmaniasis demonstrate the need for developing alternative treatments. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia have shown various biological activities, including antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the in vivo activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice (Noni) against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice. M. citrifolia fruit juice from the Brazilian Amazon has shown the same constitution of other juices produced around the world and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified five compounds: deacetylasperulosidic acid, asperulosidic acid, rutin, nonioside B and nonioside C. Daily intragastric treatment with Noni was carried out after 55 days of L. (L.) amazonensis infection in C57BL/6 mice. Parasitic loads, cytokine and extracellular protein matrix expressions of the lesion site were analyzed by qPCR. Histopathology of the lesion site, lymph nodes and liver were performed to evaluate the inflammatory processes. Cytokines and biochemical parameters of toxicity from sera were also evaluated. The Noni treatment at 500 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 60 days decreased the lesion size and parasitic load in the footpad infected with L. (L.) amazonensis. The site of infection also showed decreased inflammatory infiltrates and decreased cytokine expressions for IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10. On the other hand, Noni treatment enhanced the extracellular matrix protein expressions of collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin in the infected footpad as well collagen I and II, fibronectin and laminin in the mock-infected footpads. No toxicity was observed at the end of treatment. These data show the efficacy of Noni treatment. PMID:27579922

  7. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria attenuate the proinflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Christine M; Kostrzynska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a physiological response to infections and tissue injury; however, abnormal immune responses can give rise to chronic inflammation and contribute to disease progression. Various dietary components, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics, have the potential to modulate intestinal inflammatory responses. One factor in particular, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL-8), is one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate modulation of the inflammatory host response induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in the presence of selected probiotics and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from human sources, dairy products, and farm animals. IL-8 gene expression and protein production in HT-29 cells were evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Pre-incubation of HT-29 cells with Lactobacillus kefir IM002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis FRP 61, Bifidobacterium longum FRP 68 and FRP 69, Bifidobacterium breve FRP 334, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IM080 significantly inhibited IL-8 secretion induced by Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Co-culture of selected probiotics and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 reduced IL-8 production, while potential probiotics and LAB had no effect on IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells preincubated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 prior to adding probiotics. Lactobacillus kefir IM002 supernatant also significantly reduced IL-8 production. In conclusion, our study suggests that probiotic bifidobacteria and LAB modulate cytokine induction and possess anti-inflammatory properties; however, the effectiveness is strain dependent. PMID:23391223

  8. Microbiology of secondary bacterial infection in scabies lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, I

    1995-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were grown from specimens obtained from 30 children with secondarily infected scabies lesions. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were present in 14 (47%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only were present in 6 (20%) patients, and a mixed anaerobic-aerobic flora was present in 10 (33%) patients. Fifty isolates were recovered (1.7 per specimen); 27 were aerobic or facultative bacteria and 23 were strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria we...

  9. [Innovative treatments for multidrug-resistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Tattevin; Aurélien, Lorleac'h; Matthieu, Revest

    2014-03-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has accelerated sharply in the last decade. According to the World Health Organization they are responsible for an estimated 25 000 deaths in Europe each year. In addition, few new antibiotics are under development, raising the spectrum of a return to the "pre-antibiotic era". Non antibiotic antibacterial agents have recently attracted renewed interest. The most promising candidates are: i) phages (bacteria-infecting viruses) have been widely used in Eastern European countries since the 1930s but come up against logistic and regulatory obstacles due to the evolutionary nature of these biologic agents, while convincing clinical data are lacking; ii) bacteriocines are smallantibacterialpeptidesproducedby numerous bacteria; some have a rapid bactericidal effect, good tolerability, and a limited impact on the commensal flora; however, clinical use of bacteriocines is complicated by their fragility, poor penetration, and substantial risk of resistance selection ; iii) antisense oligonucleo tides act by inactivating genes through specific interaction with a complementary DNA or RNA fragment, potentially allowing specific inhibition of selected bacterial virulence factors. However, this therapeutic class may be more suitable for viral or genetic diseases than for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, owing to the difficulty of delivering them inside bacteria. PMID:26427289

  10. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections Aspectos ecológicos da resistência antimicrobiana de bactérias de importância em infecção humana

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico de Meirelles-Pereira; Angela de Meirelles Santos Pereira; Márcio Cataldo Gomes da Silva; Verônica Dias Gonçalves; Paulo Roberto Brum; Almeida Ribeiro de Castro; Alexandre Adler Pereira; Francisco de Assis Esteves; José Augusto Adler Pereira

    2002-01-01

    In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc.), the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteri...

  11. V-antigen homologs in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Teiji; Katoh, Hideya; Yasumoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria cause many types of infections in animals from fish and shrimps to humans. Bacteria use Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to translocate their toxins directly into eukaryotic cells. The V-antigen is a multifunctional protein required for the TTSS in Yersinia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V-antigen vaccines and anti-V-antigen antisera confer protection against Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections in animal models. The V-antigen forms a pentameric cap structure at the tip of the Type III secretory needle; this structure, which has evolved from the bacterial flagellar cap structure, is indispensable for toxin translocation. Various pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. encode homologs of the V-antigen. Because the V-antigens of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria play a key role in toxin translocation, they are potential therapeutic targets for combatting bacterial virulence. In the USA and Europe, these vaccines and specific antibodies against V-antigens are in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections. Pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are of great interest because of their ability to infect fish and shrimp farms, their potential for exploitation in biological terrorism attacks, and their ability to cause opportunistic infections in humans. Thus, elucidation of the roles of the V-antigen in the TTSS and mechanisms by which these functions can be blocked is critical to facilitating the development of improved anti-V-antigen strategies. PMID:24641673

  12. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  13. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance surveillance for elderly Alzheimer's disease combined with hospital-acquired pulmonary infection%老年阿尔茨海默病合并院内肺部感染的病原菌分布及耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨老年阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者院内肺部感染病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗生素提供依据。方法对2011‐01—2013‐10在我院神经内科住院的126例老年阿尔茨海默病患者痰培养及药物敏感试验结果进行回顾性分析。结果痰培养共检出134株病原菌,其中 G -菌80株(59.7%),G +菌37株(27.6%),真菌17株(12.7%)。 G -茵主要有肺炎克雷伯茵、绿脓假单胞杆菌、肝炎杆茵及大肠杆茵;G +菌46株(34.8%),G +菌主要有金黄色葡萄球菌、化脓性链球菌及表皮葡萄球菌;真菌13株(9.9%)。药物敏感试验结果显示:G -菌对泰能最为敏感,对头孢噻肟、对氨苄西林、庆大霉素、哌拉西林和环丙沙星耐药性比较高;G +菌对万古霉素最为敏感,对青霉素 G 、四环素药性比较高。结论老年 AD 患者院内肺部感染病原菌以 G -菌为主,大部分出现多重耐药现象,细菌耐药性监测对指导临床合理用药具有重要意义。%Objective To investigate pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance for hospital‐acquired pulmonary infection among patients with elderly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and provide a basis for the rational use of antibiotics clinically.Methods A retrospective analysis was made of sputum culture and drug sensitivity test results among 126 AD patients hospi‐talized in neurology of our hospital from January 2011 to October 2013. Results A total of 134 pathogenic bacterial strains were detected in the sputum culture ,including 80 G - bacterial strains ,accounting for 59.7% ,37 G + bacterial strains ,account‐ing for 27.6% and 17 fungi strains ,accounting for 12.7% . G - bacteria mainly included pneumonia klebsiella ,green pus pseud‐omonas ,hepatitis and Escherichia coli. There were 46 G + bacterial strains ,accounting for 34.8% ,mainly including staphylo‐coccus aureus ,pyogenic

  14. A new role of the complement system: C3 provides protection in a mouse model of lung infection with intracellular Chlamydia psittaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bode

    Full Text Available The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C. psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ∼100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3(-/- mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3(-/- mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3(-/- mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci.

  15. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia L. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

  16. Immunization with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Serotype 3 and Lipopolysaccharide Modulates Lung and Liver Inflammation during a Virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Restori, Katherine H.; Kennett, Mary J.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination reduces morbidity and mortality from pneumonia, but its effect on the tissue-level response to infection is still poorly understood. We evaluated pneumonia disease progression, acute-phase response, and lung gene expression profiles in mice inoculated intranasally with virulent Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (ST 3) with and without prior immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide ST 3 (PPS3) or after coimmunization with PPS3 and a low dose of lipopolysacchari...

  17. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73 modulates the innate immune response to influenza infection but is not required for development of influenza-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Woods, Parker S; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are important signaling molecules in the lung. Nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations in alveolar lining fluid are controlled by a complex network of surface ectonucleotidases. Previously, we demonstrated that influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus resulted in increased levels of the nucleotide ATP and the nucleoside adenosine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Influenza-induced acute lung injury (ALI) was highly attenuated in A1-adenosine receptor-knockout mice. Because AMP hydrolysis by the ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) plays a central role in and is rate-limiting for generation of adenosine in the normal lung, we hypothesized that ALI would be attenuated in C57BL/6-congenic CD73-knockout (CD73-KO) mice. Infection-induced hypoxemia, bradycardia, viral replication, and bronchoconstriction were moderately increased in CD73-KO mice relative to WT controls. However, postinfection weight loss, pulmonary edema, and parenchymal dysfunction were not altered. Treatment of WT mice with the CD73 inhibitor 5'-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (APCP) also had no effect on infection-induced pulmonary edema but modestly attenuated hypoxemia. BALF from CD73-KO and APCP-treated WT mice contained more IL-6 and CXCL-10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10, less CXCL-1/keratinocyte chemoattractant, and fewer neutrophils than BALF from untreated WT controls. BALF from APCP-treated WT mice also contained fewer alveolar macrophages and more transforming growth factor-β than BALF from untreated WT mice. These results indicate that CD73 is not necessary for development of ALI following influenza A virus infection and suggest that tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase may be responsible for increased adenosine generation in the infected lung. However, they do suggest that CD73 has a previously unrecognized immunomodulatory role in influenza. PMID:26432867

  18. Primary Cultures of Female Swine Genital Epithelial Cells In Vitro: a New Approach for the Study of Hormonal Modulation of Chlamydia Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Guseva, Natalia V.; Knight, Stephen T.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that female reproductive hormones influence chlamydial infection both in vivo and in vitro. Due to the reduced availability of human genital tissues for research purposes, an alternative hormone-responsive model system was sought to study chlamydial pathogenesis. Mature female swine eliminated from breeding programs were selected as the animals of choice because of the similarity of a sexually transmitted disease syndrome and sequelae in swine to a disease s...

  19. Survival of the Fittest: How Bacterial Pathogens Utilize Bile To Enhance Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistrunk, Jeticia R; Nickerson, Kourtney P; Chanin, Rachael B; Rasko, David A; Faherty, Christina S

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with humans in order to efficiently infect, replicate within, and be transmitted to new hosts to ensure survival and a continual infection cycle. For enteric pathogens, the ability to adapt to numerous host factors under the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract is critical for establishing infection. One such host factor readily encountered by enteric bacteria is bile, an innately antimicrobial detergent-like compound essential for digestion and nutrient absorption. Not only have enteric pathogens evolved to resist the bactericidal conditions of bile, but these bacteria also utilize bile as a signal to enhance virulence regulation for efficient infection. This review provides a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of bile-related research with enteric pathogens. From common responses to the unique expression of specific virulence factors, each pathogen has overcome significant challenges to establish infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Utilization of bile as a signal to modulate virulence factor expression has led to important insights for our understanding of virulence mechanisms for many pathogens. Further research on enteric pathogens exposed to this in vivo signal will benefit therapeutic and vaccine development and ultimately enhance our success at combating such elite pathogens. PMID:27464994

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: mariacristina.arcangeletti@unipr.it [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Mirandola, Prisco [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Gatti, Rita [Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  1. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  2. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry

  3. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  4. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care ... Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ...

  5. Isolation and identification of conjunctival bacteria in cattle in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study included examination of (120 eye swabs, from cows from different ages and regions in Mosul city. This study extended from September – December 2009. The samples were collected from clinically healthy and infected eyes of animals. 11 bacterial species were isolated they included Staphylococcus spp. 22.4%, Bacillus spp. 18.2%, Corynebacterium 17.6%, Streptococcus spp. 7%, Staphylococcus aureus 8.2%, Moraxella bovis 10.6%, E. coli 5.9%, Pseudomonas spp. 4.7%, Klebsiella spp. 2.4%, Micrococcus spp. 1.8%, Proteus spp. 1.2%. The isolated bacteria were 170, Gram positive bacteria were 128/170 while Gram negative bacteria 42/170 (24.7%. Many types of bacteria isolated from healthy swabs 110 (64.7% and 60 (35.3% from infected swabs.

  6. 综合干预措施对多药耐药菌感染与定植预防控制效果的研究%Effects of comprehensive interventions to control and prevention of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections and colonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聚源; 蔡虻; 李燕明; 胡云建; 吴锁薇; 邵文博; 李娜; 王琢非; 王蕾; 刘安雷

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To take comprehensive interventions to the multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections and colonization in a three‐A hospital for three years and evaluate the intervention effects .METHODS The prospective targeted surveillance of the multidrug‐resistant bacteria was conducted for the patients who were hospitalized from Apr to Jun ,2012 ;the comprehensive interventions were taken to reduce the incidence of the multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections and colonization based on the prospective surveillance from Jul 2012 to Mar 2015 ,and the effects on the control and prevention were evaluated .RESULTS A total of 1 355 strains of new multidrug‐resistant bacteria and colonized bacteria have been isolated from Apr 2012 to Mar 2015 ;the methicillin‐resistant Staphylo‐coccus aureus , multidrug‐resistant or pandrug‐resistant A cinetobacter baumannii , and methicillin‐resistant coagulase‐negative Staphylococcus ranked the top three multidrug‐resistant bacteria ,accounting for 24 .13% , 21 .99% ,and 21 .33% ,respectively .The percentage of all the multidrug‐resistant bacteria was reduced from 0 .24‰ in the second quarter of 2012 to 0 .09‰ in the first quarter of 2015 .The hand hygiene compliance of the health care workers of the whole hospital increased from 31 .83% to 52 .99% ,the hand hygiene compliance of the doctors increasing from 21 .19% to 41 .95% ,the hand hygiene compliance of the nurses increasing from 47 .50%to 61 .73% ,the hand hygiene compliance of the ground skilled worker increasing from 23 .29% to 52 .35% .The usage amount of hand‐washing free disinfectant was increased from 3 .9ml/bed/day to 5 .7 ml/bed/day . The incidence of the multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections and colonization was inversely correlated with the hand hygiene compliance and the usage amount of hand‐washing free disinfectant ( P< 0 .05 ) .CONCLUSION The incidence of the multidrug‐resistant bacteria infections and colonization can be effectively

  7. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis muscle infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, M.V.; Beiting, D.P.; Bliss, S.K.; Appleton, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis larvae establish chronic infections in skeletal muscles of immunocompetent hosts. Muscle infection is crucial to transmission and survival of the parasite in nature. Chronic infections by this highly immunogenic parasite are associated with modulation or escape from potentially destructive immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge of immunity to muscle infection with T. spiralis.

  8. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samp...

  9. Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K.; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A.; Lampe, David J.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mos...

  10. Bacteria and cancer: cause, coincidence or cure? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Mager DL

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Research has found that certain bacteria are associated with human cancers. Their role, however, is still unclear. Convincing evidence links some species to carcinogenesis while others appear promising in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of cancers. The complex relationship between bacteria and humans is demonstrated by Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella typhi infections. Research has shown that H. pylori can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contras...

  11. The transcriptome of Legionella pneumophila-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T D Price

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within alveolar macrophages through injection of ∼ 300 effector proteins by its Dot/Icm type IV translocation apparatus. The bona fide F-box protein, AnkB, is a nutritional virulence effector that triggers macrophages to generate a surplus of amino acids, which is essential for intravacuolar proliferation. Therefore, the ankB mutant represents a novel genetic tool to determine the transcriptional response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs to actively replicating L. pneumophila.Here, we utilized total human gene microarrays to determine the global transcriptional response of hMDMs to infection by wild type or the ankB mutant of L. pneumophila. The transcriptomes of hMDMs infected with either actively proliferating wild type or non-replicative ankB mutant bacteria were remarkably similar. The transcriptome of infected hMDMs was predominated by up-regulation of inflammatory pathways (IL-10 anti-inflammatory, interferon signaling and amphoterin signaling, anti-apoptosis, and down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways. In addition, L. pneumophila modulated diverse metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with bio-active lipid metabolism, and SLC amino acid transporters expression.Taken together, the hMDM transcriptional response to L. pneumophila is independent of intra-vacuolar replication of the bacteria and primarily involves modulation of the immune response and metabolic as well as nutritional pathways.

  12. The real threat of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry

    2009-04-01

    From early this decade, Enterobacteriaceae that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) were reported in the USA and subsequently worldwide. These KPC-producing bacteria are predominantly involved in nosocomial and systemic infections; although they are mostly Enterobacteriaceae, they can also be, rarely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. KPC beta lactamases (KPC-1 to KPC-7) confer decreased susceptibility or resistance to virtually all beta lactams. Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem) may thus become inefficient for treating enterobacterial infections with KPC-producing bacteria, which are, in addition, resistant to many other non-beta-lactam molecules, leaving few available therapeutic options. Detection of KPC-producing bacteria may be difficult based on routine antibiotic susceptibility testing. It is therefore crucial to implement efficient infection control measures to limit the spread of these pathogens. PMID:19324295

  13. HLA-B27 Modulates Intracellular Growth of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Mutants and Production of Cytokines in Infected Monocytic U937 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Ge; Qiushui He; Kaisa Granfors

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 KS8822/88 replicates rapidly in HLA-B27-transfected human monocytic U937 cells. In this process, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes play a crucial role. Our previous study indicated that 118 Salmonella genes, including 8 SPI-2 genes were affected by HLA-B27 antigen during Salmonella infection of U937 cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further investigate Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive U937 monocytic cells, two...

  14. Analysis of common pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in community senile patients with lower respiratory tract infection%社区老年患者下呼吸道感染常见病原菌及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解近年来社区老年患者下呼吸道感染常见病原菌分布特点及耐药情况,为合理使用抗菌药物提供依据.方法: 2011年6月至2014年6月3年内来院住院治疗的社区老年患者痰标本中分离的病原菌进行体外药敏试验,并进行回顾性分析.结果:分离出的临床菌株共961株,其中革兰阴性菌774株(80.6%),革兰阳性菌105株(10.9%),真菌82株(8.5%).常见的病原菌为铜绿假单胞菌(24.9%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(22.4%)、大肠埃希菌(12.6%)、鲍曼不动杆菌(10.7%)、金黄色葡萄球菌(7.8%).阿米卡星、加酶抑制剂的β内酰胺类、碳青霉烯类对革兰阴性敏感性较好,万古霉素、利奈唑胺、替考拉宁对革兰阳性菌有较高的敏感性,鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药率低于其他同级医院.结论:社区老年患者下呼吸道感染以革兰阴性菌为主.感染细菌耐药状况严重,应加强社区医生对细菌耐药监测工作的重视,避免单纯经验用药导致的细菌耐药性继续产生.%Objective:To investigate the common pathogens distribution and resistance of the community gerontal patients with lower respiratory tract infection, so as to provide a basis for the guidance of rational use of antibiotics.Methods:Test the antibiotic susceptibility of pathogens in vitro from sputum specimens of gerontal patients from June 2011 to June 2014, and the data were analyzed retrospectively.Results:961 strains were isolated, 774 strains of which, were Gram-negative bacteria (80.6%), 105 strains were Gram-positive bacteria (10.9%), 82 strains were fungi (8.5%). The common pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.9%),Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%), Escherichia col (12.6%), acinetobacter baumanii (10.7%),Staphylococcus aureus (7.8%). Amikacin, β-lactamase inhibitor, carbapenem had better bactericidal effect on Gram-negative sensitivity. Vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin had better bactericidal on Gram-positive bacteria. The resistance rate of

  15. COMPLEX EFFECTS OF SALMOZAN MEDICINE AND PROBIOТIC BACTERIA OF LACTOBACILLUS GENUS ON NATURAL RESISTANCE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNIТY OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIМALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. N. Nikolaeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of study of immunoprotective properties of medicine Salmozan and its combined effect with probiotic bacteria of genus Lactobacillus оп natural resistance and parameters of adaptive immunity of experimental animals аге presented. Salmozan stimulates production of IL-1α, IL-12, TNFα in peritoneal macrophages, production of MIF in реуеr patch and spleen cells and, thus, activates Th1 cells and cytotoxic T cells. Bacteria of Lactobacillus genus enhance modulating effects of Salmozan оn cellular immune reactions. Results of the experiments carried out provide the basis for conclusion abont stimulation of anti-infection and anticancer immunity bу Salmozan which саn bе used fог immunoprophylaxis and соrrеction of cellular immune reactions bу means of probiotic therapy.

  16. 妇科肿瘤患者医院感染病原菌耐药性与抗菌药物应用分析%Drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing nosocomial infection in gynecological cancer patients and application of antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周陈西; 刘孟娟; 王增; 毛彩萍; 翁琳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妇科肿瘤并发医院感染患者的抗菌药物应用合理性.方法 回顾性调查肿瘤医院2007年3月-2010年2月妇科肿瘤患者病原菌的耐药率及抗菌药物使用率.结果 2007年3月-2010年2月妇科肿瘤患者分离的大肠埃希菌对大部分抗菌药物的耐药率>60.0%;并发医院感染患者的抗菌药物使用率为89.3%;应用抗菌药物的726例患者中一联使用率为74.9%,二联为24.3%,≥三联为0.8%;治疗用药中病原菌送检率为97.1%;根据药敏抗菌药物使用率为34.8%.结论 根据具体临床科室的病原菌结构和耐药性情况制定最佳的抗菌疗法,有助于提高妇科肿瘤患者医院感染治愈率.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the rationality of antimicrobials application in gynecological cancer patients complicated with hospital infection. METHODS The data of pathogenic bacteria in gynecological cancer patients and the antimicrobials application information of 813 patients complicated with hospital infection were retrospectively investigated from 2007 Mar. to Feb 2010. RESULTS The resistant rate of Escherichia coli to antimicrobials in gynecological cancer patients exceeded 60.0%. Among 726 cases who used antimicrobials, the antimicrobials usage rate of patients complicated with hospital infection was 89.3 % ; the single antimicrobial application rate was 74.9 %, and the two antimicrobial application was 24. 3 %, and three or more antimicrobial application was 0.8 %;during antimicrobials treatment, the pathogenic bacteria detection rate was 97.1 % which surpassed the hospital level. The use rate by the drug susceptibilily testing was 34.8%. CONCLUSION The structure and resistant characteristics of causative agents in specific clinical division should be considered when formulating the anti-antimicrobial plan,so as to increase the hospital infection curative rate in gynecological cancer patients.

  17. Value of Quantitative Detection of Urinary Endotoxin for the Diagnosis of Gram-negative Bacteria Infection in Urinary System%内毒素检测在上、下尿路革兰氏阴性杆菌感染中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳; 汪明; 乔斌; 李艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To survey the value of quantitative detection of urinary endotoxin for the diagnosis of gram-negative bacteria infection in urinary system,in order to provide evidences for early diagnosis and treatment.Methods The levels of urinary endotoxin were detected by kinetic turbidimetric technique,at the same time urine was cultured and WBC,CRP were detected.Results In 379 patients with gram-negative bacteria infection in urinary system,132 patients were upper urinary tract infection and 247 were lower urinary tract infection.The level of WBC,CRP and endotoxin were 11.25(7.98,13.99)× 109/L,81.36(76.64,83.50)mg/L and 49.57(17.28,78.37)pg/ml in upper urinary tract infection patients and in lower uri-nary tract infection patients were 10.24(7.94,12.24)×109/L,70.46(70.46,77.32)mg/L and 21.18(21.18,37.31)pg/ml. The group of upper urinary tract infection was higher than lower urinary tract infection on CRP and endotoxin,and have sig-nificant difference between the two groups of patients (P<0.05).Analysis of ROC,the diagnostic Cut-off value of 39.7pg/ml,the sensibility and specificity of endotoxin for the diagnosis of gram-negative bacteria infection on upper or lower urinary system were 84.1% and 90.3%.Conclusion The levels of urinary endotoxin detected by kinetic turbidimetric technique is simple and efficient,and have significant diagnosis value of gram-negative bacteria infection on upper or lower urinary sys-tem.%目的:探讨内毒素在鉴别上、下尿路革兰氏阴性杆菌感染中的价值,为患者的早期诊断和治疗及抗生素的合理使用提供依据。方法采用动态浊度法检测患者尿液内毒素含量,同时进行尿培养;检测患者血液白细胞和 CRP水平。结果379例泌尿系革兰氏阴性杆菌感染患者中,上尿路感染132例,下尿路感染247例。上尿路革兰氏阴性杆菌感染组的WBC,CRP和内毒素水平分别为11.25(7.98,13.99)×109/L,81.36(76.64,83.50)mg/L和49.57(17

  18. 糖尿病患者感染的病原菌分布与耐药性研究%Distribution of infected diabetic patients and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏洁; 李高申; 薛现军; 郑勇

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of pathogens for infections in diabetic patients ,drug resist‐ance and related factors affecting infections ,and propose specific measures to reduce infection rates .METHODS Totally 180 cases of diabetes during Dec .2012 to Dec .2013 were selected .The samples from patients were cul‐tured and analyzed for pathogen detection by ATB microbe system (France) and drug susceptibility test by K‐B method .The software SPSS 16 .0 was used for statistical analysis of data .RESULTS Totally 71 out of 180 patients had infections with the infection rate of 39 .44% .Totally 105 pathogens were isolated ,the most prevalent ones were Staphylococcus aureus (30 strains ,28 .57% ) .Irrational use of antimicrobial drugs ,neurological ischemic wounds ,underlying diseases ,the number of hospitalization times more than twice a year had a close relationship with infections in patients (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The incidence of infections in diabetic patients was high and countermeasures such as primary care ,glycolic control ,and infection control can effectively reduce the incidence of infection .%目的:探讨糖尿病患者感染的病原菌分布、耐药性及影响感染的相关因素,并提出针对性对策,以降低感染率。方法选取2012年12月-2013年12月180例糖尿病患者,对感染患者送检标本进行培养,采用A T B微生物鉴定仪进行细菌检测,使用K‐B法进行药敏试验,数据采用SPSS 16.0进行统计分析。结果180例患者中71例发生感染,感染率39.44%;共分离出105株病原菌,以金黄色葡萄球菌为主,共30株占28.57%;抗菌药物不合理使用、神经缺血性伤口、合并基础性疾病、住院1年>2次与患者发生感染密切相关(P<0.05)。结论糖尿病患者感染发生率较高,通过基础护理、血糖控制、感染控制等对策,能有效降低感染发生率。

  19. Influence of disturbances on bacteria level in an operating room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Hyldig, Mikkel; Kamper, Simon;

    2008-01-01

    In operating rooms great effort is manifested to reduce the bacteria level in order to decrease the risk of infections. The main source of bacteria is the staff and the patient, thus, the resulting bacteria concentration is roughly speaking a combination of the ventilation system and the emission...... from the occupants. This study investigates the influence of two main disturbances in an operating room namely the door opening during the operation and the activity level of the staff. It is found that the frequent door opening in this case does not cause significant transport of air from outside...... the operating room to the wound area of the patient. However, a significant influence of the activity level on the bacteria emission and concentration is found. Counting the number of persons in an operating room to estimate the bacteria source strength is not sufficient, the corresponding activity level must...

  20. Mast cells in bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which mast cells contribute to the host response are only partially understood. Previous studies have examined how mast cells react to purified bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate how mast cells react to live bacteria we co-cultured mast cells and the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus equi (S. equi) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)...

  1. Chronic Wounds: The Persistent Infection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gillian Davis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds heal poorly and can have a huge impact on a sufferer’s life. They are caused by a number of factors, one of which is the presence of persistent infections. Many standard treatments are unsuccessful at destroying these infections as the bacteria form a biofilm. Biofilms encase the bacteria, preventing immune cells from destroying them. There are multiple bacterial species within a biofilm, sometimes with antibiotics resistance, and which species are present changes over time. The changing, multi-species nature of biofilms can make finding an effective antibiotic treatment difficult. Also, bacteria in biofilms genetically differ from planktonic bacteria, and are often less susceptible to antibiotics. Additionally, biofilms are thought to reduce the access of antibiotics to the bacteria within. These reasons are discussed in further detail in this review, along with some of the reasons why bacteria can prevent wound closure.

  2. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  3. Oil eating bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The article discusses the unusual technology of using oil-eating bacteria to increase oil recovery. The background for the discovery that bacteria injection into the reservoirs may increase the oil recovery is the study of microbial action in breaking down oil pollution. About 20 per cent of the organisms living naturally in the sea can eat oil. But they need water to grow. In the absence of water, the bacteria produce enzymes to make the oil water soluble and allow them to extract nutrients from them. Oil does not vanish upon being eaten, but enzymes from the digestive process act as effective detergents to wash away the oil, which is then easier to recover.

  4. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis infection in cattle is associated withsingle nucleotide polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 2 which modulate immune responses against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koets, A; Santema, W; Oostenriik, D;

    2010-01-01

    genotype. Cows with the TLR2-1903 T/C mutation (i.e., the CT and CC genotypes) were at 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.8) times the odds of being Map-infected compared to cows with the TT genotype. In in vitro functional assays, monocyte-derived macrophages from animals with a TLR2-1903 TT genotype produced more IL12p......40 and IL1β when stimulated with Map compared to cells derived from TLR2-1903 CT and CC genotypes. Also, T cell proliferative responses to mycobacterial antigens were higher in animals with a TLR2-1903 TT genotype. In conclusion, we have found a significant association between SNP TLR2-1903 T...

  5. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Marinus, Martin G.; Xu, Tao; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity...... putative immune effector gene F35E12.5 was up-regulated in response to Harmane treatment. This indicates that Harmane stimulates the innate immune response of the nematode; thereby increasing its lifespan during bacterial infection. Expression of F35E12.5 is predominantly regulated through the p38 MAPK....... Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs....

  6. Certain Steroids Raise Risk for Serious Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aureus bacteria-associated blood infections outside of a hospital. Infection risk rose along with the dose of the ... of this type of infection -- and if the infection occurs, treat it as quickly as ... Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Mayo Clinic Proceedings , news release, ...

  7. Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yiping W.; Shi, Wenyuan; HUANG, GEORGE T.-J.; Kinder Haake, Susan; Park, No-Hee; Kuramitsu, Howard; Genco, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria are causative agents of periodontal diseases. Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epithelial cells are essential aspects of periodontal infections. Using an in vitro tissue culture model, a selected group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria frequently associated with periodontal diseases, including Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter curvus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, were examined for their ability ...

  8. Oral infections and systemic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Andersen, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    An association between periodontal infection and CVD has been revealed in some epidemiologic studies, whereas other studies were unable to demonstrate such an association. A link between the two diseases may be explained by shared established or nonestablished risk factors. Future studies with...... extended control of confounding factors and intervention studies may add to the understanding of a possible relationship between the diseases. In some cases, IE is caused by dental plaque bacteria. Several studies are suggestive of oral bacteria causing respiratory infection. The pathogenesis and course of...

  9. Tinea Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body they infect. Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the skin on the body. ("Corporis" is ... Causes & Risk Factors How did I get a fungal infection? You can get a fungal infection by touching ...

  10. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients%肺结核患者下呼吸道医院感染病原菌的分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋斌; 叶燕青

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肺结核患者下呼吸道医院感染病原菌的分布及耐药现状,为临床选择抗菌药物提供参考依据.方法 病原菌培养与鉴定按照《全国临床检验操作规程》进行;药敏试验采用CLSI推荐的K-B法.结果 223株下呼吸道病原菌中,革兰阴性杆菌占78.5%,革兰阳性球菌占16.1%,真菌占5.4%;分离出的病原菌为多药耐药菌,对常用抗菌药物产生了严重的耐药性;MRSA的检出率为57.7%.结论 应采取有效的干预措施,降低肺结核患者医院感染的发病率.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory Tract infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients so as to provide reference for clinical use of antibiotics.METHODS The culture and the identification of pathogens were performed by referring to National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Operation Procedures; the antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by using K-B method recommended by CLSI.RESULTS Among 223 strains of pathogenic bacteria causing lower respiratory tract infections, gram-negative bacilli accounted for 78.5% , gram-positive cocci accounted for 16.1%, and fungal accounted for 5.4%.Most of the isolated strains were multidrug-resistant to commonly used antibiotics.The detection rate of MRSA was 57.7%.CONCLUSION Effective interventions should be taken to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  11. Regulation of surface architecture by symbiotic bacteria mediates host colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Cui Hua; Lee, S. Melanie; VanLare, Jordan M.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2008-01-01

    Microbes occupy countless ecological niches in nature. Sometimes these environments may be on or within another organism, as is the case in both microbial infections and symbiosis of mammals. Unlike pathogens that establish opportunistic infections, hundreds of human commensal bacterial species establish a lifelong cohabitation with their hosts. Although many virulence factors of infectious bacteria have been described, the molecular mechanisms used during beneficial host–symbiont colonizatio...

  12. 糖尿病合并尿路感染患者尿液细菌培养及药物敏感试验分析%Analysis of the Bacteria Culture and Microbial Sensitivity Test for Urine of Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Uri-nary Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁丽萍; 王庆莅; 王占科; 郭靓; 赵婉茹

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析糖尿病( diabetes mellitus, DM)患者尿液细菌培养和药物敏感试验结果,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供依据. 方法 取我院2013年1月—2014年12月门诊及住院1486例DM患者的尿液样本,对其细菌培养及药物敏感试验情况进行回顾性分析. 结果 1486 例 DM 合并尿路感染患者尿液细菌培养阳性率 9. 6%(142/1486),其中检出大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形杆菌、屎肠球菌和铜绿假单胞菌总构成比为85. 2%(121/142),其他菌株构成比为14. 8%(21/142);药物敏感试验显示:对大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形杆菌、屎肠球菌和铜绿假单胞菌敏感性最高的抗菌药物分别为亚胺培南(85. 5%)、亚胺培南(84. 0%)、哌拉西林钠-他唑巴坦钠(93. 8%)、万古霉素(100. 0%)和头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦(87. 5%). 结论 大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形杆菌、屎肠球菌、铜绿假单胞菌是导致DM合并尿路感染患者的常见致病菌;万古霉素、亚胺培南、哌拉西林钠-他唑巴坦钠和头孢哌酮钠-舒巴坦可作为DM合并尿路感染患者治疗的敏感药物.%Objective To analyze the results of bacteria culture and microbial sensitivity test of urine of diabetes mellitus ( DM) patients with urinary tract infection in order to provide basis for the rational use of antimicrobial drugs. Methods The results of bacteria culture and microbial sensitivity test of the urine samples from 1486 DM inpatients dur-ing January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results The positive rate of bacterial culture was 9. 6% (142/1486) for the 1486 DM patients with urinary tract infections, in which the total constituent ratio of Esche-richia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 85. 2%(121/142), and the ration of others was 14. 8% (21/142);the microbial sensitivity test showed that the top sensitivity rate of

  13. Effects of selected non-digestible dietary carbohydrates on the composition of the large intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne

    complex food components. In this regard there is a considerable interest in dietary components that can modulate the gut microbiota and potentially improve gut health. Some gut bacteria, known as probiotics, are belived to improve gut health upond ingestion, whereas non-digestible (ND) dietary......The mammalian intestinal tract is a complex ecosystem colonised by a high and diverse number of commensal bacterial. Bacteria colonising the intestinal tract have a profound impact on host health e.g. by acting as a barrier against colonisation by pathogens and by contributing to digestion of...... of the gut microbiota or by stimulating the immune response. Salmonella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that are a major cause of food-borne illness globally. Several studies with probiotics have demonstrated protective effects against murine Salmonella infections, while studies with prebiotics...

  14. A new and simple technique for the isolation of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ULUĞ, DERYA; HAZIR, Canan; HAZIR, SELÇUK

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a new, simple, and economical method for isolation of symbiotic bacteria from entomopathogenic nematodes. Isolation of the symbiotic bacteria from entomopathogenic nematodes is useful for mass production of the nematodes. In addition to traditional isolation methods from infected insect larvae or infective juveniles, we show a new method of isolating symbiotic bacteria from either gravid females or females in the endotokia matricida stage, producing symbiont colonies afte...

  15. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a cleanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  16. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  17. Modeling the interactions between pathogenic bacteria, bacteriophage and immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Yin (Joey); Weitz, Joshua S.

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in the use of bacteriophage (phage), or virus that infects bacteria, as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infections. However, little is known about the theoretical mechanism by which phage therapy may work. In particular, interactions between the bacteria, the phage and the host immune response crucially influences the outcome of th