husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;
Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...
The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...
Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan
Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion.
Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...
Leth, Peter Mygind
Helicobacter pylori (HP) are Gram-negative spiral bacteria which occur in the human stomach. The bacteria were cultured in vitro for the first time in 1983. It is suspected that the bacteria may cause chronic gastritis of type B and may also be a contributory cause of chronic ulceration and cancer...
Solnick, J. V.; Hansen, L M; Syvanen, M
Sequence analysis of the Helicobacter pylori major sigma factor (RpoD) shows that it is highly divergent, which may be related to the marked diversity of the H. pylori chromosome. Furthermore, the rate of divergence of RpoD among other gram-negative bacteria is much greater than that among gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that RpoD from gram-negative bacteria is functionally less constrained than that from gram-positive bacteria.
Suzuki, Hideo; Sato, Masashi; Akutsu, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Sato, Taiki; Mizokami, Yuji
We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to frequent bloody mucus diarrhea. She was diagnosed with cap polyposis based on typical endoscopic and histological findings. Colonoscopy revealed multiple, reddish, mucus-capped polypoid lesions from the rectum to the sigmoid colon. A pathological examination revealed that the polyps were covered by erosive and inflamed granulation tissue with decreased crypt cells. Laboratory data indicated positive values for Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody and hypoproteinemia. Metronidazole, H. pylori eradication, and levofloxacin therapies were not effective; however, the subsequent administration of betamethasone enema dramatically improved the clinical symptoms and endoscopic findings. The hypoproteinemia was normalized after the therapy. The dose of the betamethasone enema was tapered gradually, and no recurrence was observed 6 months after discontinuation of the treatment. This case suggests that betamethasone enema may be considered as the second treatment choice for cap polyposis patients after H. pylori eradication, metronidazole or levofloxacin therapy. PMID:24949613
Flahou, Bram; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank; Sá, Rui M; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Mulama, Martin; Kiang, John; Rossi, Mirko; Haesebrouck, Freddy
A number of Helicobacter species cause gastrointestinal or hepatic disease in humans, including H. pylori, gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters from animal origin and enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Little is known on the presence of Helicobacter species in great apes, our closest living relatives and potential reservoirs of microorganisms that might emerge in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species in African chimpanzees and gorillas. Fresh fecal samples were collected from wild endangered chimpanzees and critically endangered western lowland gorillas from different African National Parks, as well as wild-born captive animals from primate sanctuaries. Intact Helicobacter bacteria were demonstrated in feces by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Screening using a Helicobacter genus-specific PCR revealed the presence of Helicobacter DNA in the majority of animals in all groups. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed a high homology to sequences from various zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species, including H. cinaedi and H. canadensis. A number of gorillas and chimpanzees also tested positive using PCR assays designed to amplify part of the ureAB gene cluster and the hsp60 gene of gastric helicobacters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a putative novel zoonotic gastric Helicobacter taxon/species. For this species, we propose the name 'Candidatus Helicobacter homininae', pending isolation and further genetic characterization. The presence of several Helicobacter species not only implies a possible health threat for these endangered great apes, but also a possible zoonotic transmission of gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters from these primate reservoirs to humans. PMID:25248691
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is the main factor that affects the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to determine the rates of resistance to efficacy clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and metronidazole among H. pylori strains isolated from Turkish patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: H. pylori was cultured from corpus and antrum biopsies that were collected from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined using the E-test (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and levofloxacin according to the EUCAST breakpoints. Point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains were investigated using real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 98 H. pylori strains were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Of these strains, 36.7% (36/98 were resistant to clarithromycin, 35.5% (34/98 were resistant to metronidazole, and 29.5% (29/98 were resistant to levofloxacin. Multiple resistance was detected in 19.3% of the isolates. The A2143G and A2144G point mutations in the 23S rRNA-encoding gene were found in all 36 (100% of the clarithromycin-resistant strains. Additionally, the levofloxacin MIC values increased to 32 mg/L in our H. pylori strains. Finally, among the clarithromycin-resistant strains, 27.2% were resistant to levofloxacin, and 45.4% were resistant to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment failure after clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based triple therapy is not surprising and that metronidazole is not a reliable agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection in Turkey.
On, Stephen L.W.
The taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter has changed dramatically since its inception in 1963. At that time the genus comprised just two species. At present, taxa that were once assigned to Campylobacter may belong to one of over 50 species distributed among six genera. Most of these taxa belong...... and taxonomists. The purpose of this article is briefly to review the major developments in the taxonomy of Campylobacter from its inception to the present day; summarize the most recent changes in the field; analyse current topical issues of special relevance to applied microbiologists, including identification...... of the bacteria; and speculate on future prospects for campylobacterial taxonomy....
Ping, Yuan; Hu, Xiurong; Yao, Qi; Hu, Qida; Amini, Shahrouz; Miserez, Ali; Tang, Guping
We present a bioinspired design strategy to engineer bacteria-targeting and membrane-disruptive nanoparticles for the effective antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Antibacterial nanoparticles were self-assembled from highly exfoliated montmorillonite (eMMT) and cationic linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) via electrostatic interactions. eMMT functions as a bioinspired 'sticky' building block for anchoring antibacterial nanoparticles onto the bacterial cell surface via bacteria-secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), whereas membrane-disruptive lPEI is able to efficiently lyse the bacterial outer membrane to allow topical transmembrane delivery of antibiotics into the intracellular cytoplasm. As a result, eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles intercalated with the antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) not only efficiently target bacteria via EPS-mediated adhesion and kill bacteria in vitro, but also can effectively remain in the stomach where H. pylori reside, thereby serving as an efficient drug carrier for the direct on-site release of MTZ into the bacterial cytoplasm. Importantly, MTZ-intercalated eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles were able to efficiently eradicate H. pylori in vivo and to significantly improve H. pylori-associated gastric ulcers and the inflammatory response in a mouse model, and also showed superior therapeutic efficacy as compared to standard triple therapy. Our findings reveal that bacterial adhesion plays a critical role in promoting efficient antimicrobial delivery and also represent an original bioinspired targeting strategy via specific EPS-mediated adsorption. The bacteria-adhesive eMMT-lPEI nanoparticles with membrane-disruptive ability may constitute a promising drug carrier system for the efficacious targeted delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections.
Dewhirst, F.E.; Fox, J.G.; On, S.L.W.
The International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Campylobacter and related bacteria has agreed in principle on minimum requirements for the description of new species of the genus Helicobacter. These requirements include the recommendation that the description...
Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.;
Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...
Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection.
Vandamme, P.; Harrington, C.S.; Jalava, K.;
of Helicobacter cinaedi and that Helicobacter sp. strain Mainz belongs to the same species. H. cinaedi occurs in various animal reservoirs, including hamsters, dogs, cats, rats, and foxes. Appropriate growth conditions and identification strategies will be required to establish the genuine significance......Whole-cell protein electrophoresis and biochemical examination by means of a panel of 64 tests were used to identify 14 putative helicobacters to the species level. The results were confirmed by means of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and were used to discuss misidentification of helicobacters...... based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data. The data indicated that comparison of near-complete 16S ribosomal DNA sequences does not always provide conclusive evidence for species level identification and may prove highly misleading. The data also indicated that "Helicobacter westmeadii" is a junior synonym...
Hoffman, Paul S; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO(2)) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A(418) to A(351)) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ(-)) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pK(a) = 6.18). We propose that NTZ(-) intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the "activated cofactor" of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:17158936
Beatriz Mateos Muñoz
Full Text Available The Helicobacter genus includes Gram negative bacteria which were originally considered to belong to the Campylobacter genus. They have been classified in a separate genus since 1989 because they have different biochemical characteristics, with more than 24 species having been identified and more still being studied. H. pylori is the best known. It has an important etiopathogenic role in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Enterohepatic Helicobacter s (EHH other than H. pylori colonize the bowel, biliary tree and liver of animals and human beings with pathogenic potential. The difficulties existing to correctly isolate these microorganisms limit the description of their true prevalence and of the diseases they cause. Many studies have tried to discover the different clinical implications of EHH. Diseases like chronic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hepatocarcinoma, autoimmune hepatobiliary disease, biliary lithiasis, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, Meckel's diverticulum, acute appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease have been related with different EHH species with different results, although their prevalence is greater than in healthy subjects. However, these data are currently not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Finally, the best known role of EHH in bowel disease is production of acute and chronic diarrhea pictures initially referred to as Campylobacter. H. pullorum has been identified in patients with acute gastroenteritis. The correct identification of EHH as producers of infectious gastroenteritis is found in its antibiotic susceptibility. It is generally macrolide-susceptible and quinolone-resistant.
Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas
A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease, and its detection and eradication are now an important part of gastroenterology. Effective regimes are available which will eliminate the organism in about 90% of cases in developed countries. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori
Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to peptic ulcer disease, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. Apart from its well-demonstrated role in gastroduodenal diseases, some authors have suggested a potential role of Helicobacter pylori infection in several extra-intestinal pathologies including haematological, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune, and dermatological diseases. Some studies suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria and rosacea. There have also been few case reports documenting association between Helicobacter pylori and psoriasis vulgaris, Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases; most of the studies do not show relevant relationships of these diseases with Helicobacter pylori infections. This review discusses skin diseases that are believed to be associated with Helicobacter pylori.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the stomach of over 50�0of the world’s population. The pathogen is responsible for many diseases including gastritis, ulcers and also gastric cancers. It is said that adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells plays a key role in infection development. Two gastric mucins, components of mucus, are assumed to have an important role in protection against adhesion and in this way in progression of infection. These are a secretory MUC5AC mucin, produced by mucous epithelial cells, and a membrane-bound MUC1 mucin, expressed by epical surfaces of epithelial cells. Interactions with bacteria occur between carbohydrate antigens of mucins and specific adhesins of the Helicobacter pylori surface. In this paper we present the latest knowledge about these intriguing interactions of both mucins and their interplay with the pathogen providing protection against infection.
Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane
This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria and a 91.5% reduction of oral bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide compared with
Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G
BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease
Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas
A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...
Tepeš, Bojan; Jeverica, Samo; Ihan, Alojz; Skvarč, Miha
Background: Antimicrobial resistance, particularly against metronidazole and clarithromycin, is the leading cause for treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori infection. Eradication rates of primary therapy have fallen below 80% in the majority of states including Slovenia. Th e aim of the study was to assess primary resistance to key antibiotics used for eradication treatment. Patients and methods: Between 2007 and 2009 we isolated 97 strains of Helicobacter pylori from the treatment naive p...
Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane
This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria and a 91.5% reduction of oral bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide compared with
Kanou, Y; Fukui, D; Yamamoto, S; Shibahara, T; Ishikawa, Y; Kadota, K
Highly invasive Helicobacter-like organisms were found in a 19-year-old female ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) with multiple ulcers in the fundic region of the stomach. The bacteria, resembling Helicobacter heilmannii, were located largely within canaliculi or in the cytosol of parietal cells. Except in the ulcerative lesions, parietal cells were hyperplastic, while chief cells and neck mucous cells were reduced in number. The term "gastroinvasive Helicobacter-like organism" was applied. It seems probable that this organism differs from other Helicobacter organisms in pathogenicity, and possible that its behaviour in vitro would help it to evade antibacterial treatment. PMID:16154138
Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G
Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.
Whitmire, Jeannette M; Merrell, D Scott
Half of the world's population is persistently infected with Helicobacter pylori. The chronicity of this infection ultimately elicits clinical manifestations ranging from gastritis and peptic ulcers to adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Laboratory research following the initial observations of Helicobacter species was greatly hindered by an inability to isolate and culture the bacteria. Thus, the ability to culture bacterial species from this genus is an extremely important step in expanding clinical knowledge and development of therapies. This chapter describes successful techniques for culturing H. pylori on selective horse blood agar media and in Brucella broth liquid media. Additionally, the specific growth requirements of other Helicobacter species are noted.
Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E
We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752
Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa
Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.
Enders, G; Brooks, W.; von Jan, N; Lehn, N.; Bayerdörffer, E; Hatz, R
Type B gastritis in its active form is characterized by a dense infiltration of the lamina propria with granulocytes. Since the bacterium Helicobacter pylori does not invade the epithelial barrier, a signaling pathway chemoattractive for granulocytes must exist across this mucosal boarder. One possible mechanism tested was whether granulocytes are directly activated by water-soluble membrane proteins (WSP) from H. pylori. These findings were compared with the effects of WSP from other bacteri...
Andersen, L P
During the last decade several new Helicobacter species have been isolated from human gastric mucosa, fecal samples, liver, and gallbladder. Gastric corkscrew-shaped Helicobacter species: H. heilmannii is usually seen in the gastric foveolae in 0.2-0.6% of histological sections from the gastric mucosa of patients with dyspepsia in Western Europe, but it has only been cultured once. It is genetically and morphologically closely related to H. bizzozeronii and H. salmonis which are common in dogs and cats. It causes constantly active chronic gastritis and is regularly associated with peptic ulcer. Intestinal Helicobacter species: H. cinaedi, H. fennelliae, H. pullorum, H. westmeadii, H. canadensis, and 'H. rappini' have been isolated from patients with enteritis and proctitis. H. fennelliae, H. cinaedi, H. westmeadii, and 'H. rappini' have been isolated also from patients with septicemia. Studies indicate that H. cinaedi is transmitted from hamsters and that H. pullorum is common in chickens. 'H. rappini' has been isolated from sheep, dogs, and mice, whereas no animal reservoir has been found for H. fennelliae. Except for the cases of septicemia, none of these Helicobacter species have yet been proven to cause human disease, but they are suspected to play a role in inflammatory bowel diseases. Hepatobiliary Helicobacter species include several Helicobacter species isolated from bile and liver of animals, but only H. bilis has been isolated from the human gallbladder and H. pylori from the human liver. H. bilis has been isolated from dogs, cats, mice, and rats. Nonpylori Helicobacter species are usually difficult to culture and may be more frequently causes of human disease than realized today.
Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.
Campy identification kits and a 16-test identification scheme developed for campylobacters failed to identify these bacteria, or identified them as Campylobacter spp. Eighteen strains (including the two isolated on a different occasion) were chosen for examination using a more comprehensive......Twenty-six unclassified Campylobacter-like strains previously isolated from 15 chicken carcasses and caecal contents, together with two more strains isolated from chicken faeces on a different occasion, were identified as Helicobacter pullorum using various phenotypic identification methods. API...
Liliam Alvarez Gil
Full Text Available
Se revisan los conocimientos sobre el papel de Helicobacter pylori en varias enfermedades gastroduodenales como la gastritis crónica (GC, úlcera gástrica (UG, úlcera duodenal (UD y dispepsia no ulcerosa (DNU. La revisión abarca aspectos históricos, microbiológicos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos de laboratorio, terapéuticos y de patogénesis.
The current knowledge of the role of Helicobacter Pylori in several gastroduodenal diseases is reviewed. It includes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and nonulcerous dyspepsia. The following aspects are treated in this paper: history, microbiology. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, therapy and pathogenesis.
Virginia Montero Campos
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori es una bacteria que se considera, presente en la mitad de la población humana y es un problema de salud pública a escala mundial. Puede evadir la respuesta inmune que provoca y permanecer durante toda la vida en el humano que la hospeda, sin producir enfermedad; sin embargo, bajo condiciones no bien establecidas en algunas personas, esta relación puede cursar provocando diferentes patologías: gastritis, úlceras, linfoma MALT de células B y cáncer gástrico. La infección ocurre mayormente en países en vías de desarrollo y estrechamente relacionado con factores socioeconómicos.Con respecto al origen, las investigaciones de Helicobacter pylori generalmente se han realizado a partir de muestras directas o indirectas de pacientes humanos. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos en el mundo dan cuenta de su hallazgo en agua y menos en agua de consumo de una población.Para la presente investigación se analizó un total de 122 muestras de agua de consumo de la población de 20 cantones escogidos de zonas de alta y baja incidencia de cáncer gástrico de Costa Rica, donde ya es reconocida en el mundo su alta incidencia, según información estadística del Registro Nacional de Tumores. Se logró el cultivo e identificación molecular de Helicobacter pylori en el 40% de las muestras de agua de las zonas de alta incidencia de cáncer gástrico y enel 7% de las muestras de las zonas de baja incidencia.La investigación mostró una comparación estadística que correlaciona la incidencia de cáncer gástrico con factores geomorfológicos y físico químicos de los suelos donde nace el agua de consumo de las poblaciones de ambas zonas.
Aebischer, Toni; Meyer, Thomas F; Andersen, Leif P
Helicobacter pylori represents the major etiologic agent of gastritis, gastric, and duodenal ulcer disease and can cause gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue B-cell lymphoma. It is clear that the consequences of infection reflect diverse outcomes of the interaction of bacteria...
Jankowski, M; Spużak, J; Kubiak, K; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Biernat, M
The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the prevalence of gastric Helicobacter in the saliva of dogs with gastritis. The study was carried out on 30 dogs of different breeds, genders and ages, which were diagnosed with gastritis. The nested-PCR method was used to detect Helicobacter spp. in saliva. Helicobacter bacteria were found in the saliva samples of 23 (76.6%) dogs. Helicobacter heilmannii was the most commonly detected species of gastric Helicobacter spp. in canine saliva, and was found in 22 (73.3%) cases. The results indicate that gastric Helicobacter spp. occurs relatively frequently in dogs with gastritis. Moreover, the saliva of dogs with gastritis may be a source of Helicobacter spp. infection for humans and other animals. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding as the PCR method does not distinguish active from inactive infections. PMID:27096797
Ernst, Florian D.; Homuth, Georg; Stoof, Jeroen; Mäder, Ulrike; Waidner, Barbara; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kist, Manfred; Kusters, Johannes G.; Bereswill, Stefan; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.
Maintaining iron homeostasis is a necessity for all living organisms, as free iron augments the generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide anions, at the risk of subsequent lethal cellular damage. The iron-responsive regulator Fur controls iron metabolism in many bacteria, including the important human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and thus is directly or indirectly involved in regulation of oxidative stress defense. Here we demonstrate that Fur is a direct regulator of the H. pylo...
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori since Marshall and Warren’s discovery has been an object of interest of gastroenterologistsand many researchers of other specialties. What needs to be highlighted is also the growing interest of dentists in the role of oral residue of H. pylori in oral pathologies such as burning mouth syndrome, periodontitis and gingivitis.With the development of medical techniques more studies using highly specific diagnostic methods are performed in order to determine the transmission pattern of bacterial infection. Suggested faecal-oral and oral-oral routes of bacterial transmission raised interest in molecular biology methods as tools for the study of these environments. Additionally, co-existence of helical and coccoidal forms of H. pylori in the mentioned niches raised the question whether the latter is potentially pathogenic. This is why molecular biology is now giving a great opportunityto explore parts of the human body that could not have been diagnosed before using only gold standard diagnostic methods. Molecular techniques have shown their usefulness in examining the potential virulence of coccoid forms of bacterium. This review was created also to summarize the knowledge about molecular methods, especially different PCR techniques, as diagnostic tools that can help medical teams during regular diagnosis of gastritis.
Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Sengeløv, Gitte; Cornett, Claus;
2-Acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC) is a major impurity of oxytetracycline (OTC) produced as a side product during fermentation. ADOTC was isolated from OTC and other impurities using preparative HPLC. The preparative column was an Xterra MS. C-18 chromatographic column (100 mm x 19 ...... sludge bacteria was deter-mined giving a potency of only 3% of that of OTC. With tetracycline-resistant bacteria, no anti-microbial activity was observed, indicating a mode of action similar to that of OTC....
AJAY GHOSH CHALASANI
Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.
Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas
A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...... place only after susceptibility testing. The association of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics for 1 or 2 weeks gives the best eradication rates. The crucial question to elucidate is whether asymptomatic children should be treated to prevent cancer in the future.......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is a common problem in pediatric practice, and its acquisition is related with poor socioeconomic conditions. Although the organism is thought to be responsible for many diseases, only a handful of them have a direct causal relationship. At present, only a small number of children with well-defined clinical syndromes are benefited from testing and treatment. The treatment should include at least two antibiotics with a proton pump inhibitor.
Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G.
Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Discussion With half of the world’s population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide...
Ménard, Armelle; Péré-Védrenne, Christelle; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram
During the past year, research on non-Helicobacter pylori species has intensified. H. valdiviensis was isolated from wild birds, and putative novel species have been isolated from Bengal tigers and Australian marsupials. Various genomes have been sequenced: H. bilis, H. canis, H. macacae, H. fennelliae, H. cetorum, and H. suis. Several studies highlighted the virulence of non-H. pylori species including H. cinaedi in humans and hyperlipidemic mice or H. macacae in geriatric rhesus monkeys with intestinal adenocarcinoma. Not surprisingly, increased attention has been paid to the position of Helicobacter species in the microbiota of children and animal species (mice, chickens, penguins, and migrating birds). A large number of experimental studies have been performed in animal models of Helicobacter induced typhlocolitis, showing that the gastrointestinal microbial community is involved in modulation of host pathways leading to chronic inflammation. Animal models of H. suis, H. heilmannii, and H. felis infection have been used to study the development of severe inflammation-related pathologies, including gastric MALT lymphoma and adenocarcinoma.
Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães; Amaral, Fabrício-Rezende
Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved ...
Pages, A.; Grice, K.; Lockhart, R.; Holman, A.; Melendez, I.; Van Kranendonk, M.; Jaraula, C.
Most biomarkers present in sediments occur in only trace concentrations, trapped in kerogen or may be highly functionalised especially in recent sedimentary deposits making them difficult to chromatographically resolve, thus presenting considerable analytical challenges, especially for isotope studies. Innovative hydro (Hy) pyrolysis (Py) techniques are able to target or convert many of these compounds into free hydrocarbons more amenable to gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). HyPy has been applied to a modern layered smooth mat from Shark Bay, Western Australia. Saturate and aromatic fractions from different layers of the mat have been analysed by GC-MS and CSIA. After HyPy, an even-odd distribution of n-alkanes has been revealed as well as very long-chain n-alkanes up to n-C38. Stable carbon isotopic values of the n-alkanes indicated the presence of at least two bacterial communities. The short-chain n-alkanes were likely to be representative of a cyanobacteria community (δ13C, C15-C23, - 18 to -25 %VPDB) while the carbon isotopic values of the long-chain n-alkanes supported the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria (δ13C, C25-C33, - 30 to - 34 %VPDB). Long-chain fatty acids have been previously reported in sulfate reducing bacteria. It is hypothesised that this distribution and isotopic character representing sulfate reducing bacteria consortia may be preserved in the rock record. This hypothesis has been tested in Australian rocks: a Devonian carbonaceous concretion containing an exceptionally well preserved fossil invertebrate from the Canning Basin, Western Australia, a Paleoproterozoic sample (1.6 billion years old) from a lead-zinc ore deposit from the McArthur Basin, Northern Territories and a Paleoproterozoic chert (2.3 billion years old) from the Pilbara, Western Australia. Biomarkers of these samples showed a strong predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, up to n-C38 with an even-odd distribution
Peren; H; Karagin; Unne; Stenram; Torkel; Wadstrm; sa; Ljungh
AIM:To analyze the association between Helicobacter spp. and some common gut bacteria in patients with cholecystitis. METHODS:A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), specif ic to 16S rRNA of Helicobacter spp. was performed on paraff in-embedded gallbladder samples of 100 cholecystitis and 102 control cases. The samples were also analyzed for some common gut bacteria by PCR. Positive samples were sequenced for species identif ication. RESULTS: Helicobacter DNA was found in seven out of 100 cases of acute a...
Helicobacter pylori infection is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and usually acquired during the first years of life. While there is a decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection in northern and western European countries, the infection is still common in southern and eastern parts of Europe and Asia. Symptoms of H. pylori-related PUD are nonspecific in children and may include epigastric pain, nausea and/or vomiting, anorexia, iron deficiency anaemia and hematemesis. Besides, only a small proportion of children develop symptoms and clinically relevant gastrointestinal disease. H. pylori infection can be diagnosed either by invasive tests requiring endoscopy and biopsy or non-invasive tests including the (13)C-urea breath test, detection of H. pylori antigen in stool and detection of antibodies in serum, urine and saliva. The aim of treatment is at least 90 % eradication rate of the bacteria, and a combination of two antibiotics plus a proton pump inhibitor has been recommended as first-line treatment. However, frequent use of antibiotics during childhood is associated with a decline in eradication rates and the search for new treatment strategies as well. This is an overview of the latest knowledge and evidence-based guidelines regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection in childhood. PMID:23015042
de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Thomas, Roger
The aim of this review is to assess whether a screening programme for Helicobacter pylori will be both successful and cost-effective. Method: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness; MEDLINE; EMBASE; SilverPlatter, Biological Abstracts and Science Citation Index-Expanded. We used the search terms Helicobacter pylori and (diagnos$ or identif$ or find$) and (syst...
Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio
Meta-analysis has shown that successful Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy improved atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Moreover, successful eradication therapy against atrophic gastritis has led to the suppression of the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer. Thus, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research concluded that all ‘H. pylori-infected persons’ should be considered for eradication therapy, irrespective of any background diseases. Successful eradication can pre...
Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Mølbak, Lars; Delègue, Camilla Lindholm;
Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with changes in the luminal gut microbiota. It is not known whether the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by NEC and stimulates inflammatory lesions. Objective: We hypothesized that the density of the mucosa-associated microbiota...... correlates with NEC severity in preterm pigs and that in vitro infection with increasing densities of Clostridium perfringens, which has been associated with NEC in preterm infants, would lead to a transcriptional response related to the inflammatory conditions of NEC. Methods: First, we determined...... the density of total bacteria and C. perfringens in the distal small intestinal mucosa of 58 NEC and healthy preterm pigs using quantitative PCR. Next, we analyzed in IPEC-J2 cells the effect of different infection densities of C. perfringens type A on the expression of genes related to intestinal function...
Ménard, Armelle; Buissonnière, Alice; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Sifré, Elodie; Mégraud, Francis
Phylogeny of Epsilonproteobacteria is based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. However, this gene is not sufficiently discriminatory in Helicobacter species and alternative markers would be useful. In this study, the 16S rRNA, gyrA, hsp60, gyrB, and ureA-ureB gene sequences, as well as GyrA, HSP60 and GyrB protein sequences were analyzed as tools to support Helicobacter species phylogeny: 72 Helicobacter strains, belonging to 41 species of which 36 are validated species, were included. Results of the phylogenetic reconstructions of the GyrA gene encoded protein (approximately 730 residues) indicated the most stable trees to bootstrap resampling with a good separation of Helicobacter taxa, especially between gastric and enterohepatic species. Moreover, the GyrA tree revealed high similarity with that of the gyrB and ureA-ureB genes (restricted to urease-positive Helicobacter species). However, some differences in clustering were observed when compared to the hsp60 and 23S rRNA gene trees. Altogether, these revised phylogenies (except the 16S rRNA gene for enterohepatic Helicobacters) enabled reliable clustering of Helicobacter cinaedi and 'Flexispira' strains, determined a reliable position for Helicobacter mustelae (except the hsp60 gene) and for novel Helicobacter species proposed such as 'Helicobacter sanguini', 'Helicobacter apodemus' or 'Helicobacter winghamensis', and suggest that Helicobacter species MIT 09-6949 and MIT 05-5293 isolated from rodents constitute novel species. Although they are not commonly used to study the phylogeny of Epsilonproteobacteria, protein sequences and, in particular, the GyrA protein sequence may constitute pertinent phylogenetic markers for Helicobacter genus.
Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola
Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic follow up of gastric ulcers until healing has a great important due to the possibility of a new proliferation. The commonest chronic infection worldwide is caused by Helicobacter pylori and it is associated to gastro duodenal diseases. Objective: To determine the endoscopic-biopsic follow up and to set the frequency of infection due to Helicobacter pylori in those patients who suffer from gastric ulcers. Methods: observational, descriptive and prospective study carried out at the University Hospital “Arnaldo Milián Castro”. It included 96 gastric ulcer sufferers diagnosed endoscopically and who fulfilled with the selection criteria. Endoscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa was done for the histological study of the gastric ulcers and for the diagnosis of infection due to Helicobacter pylori through hematoxiline-eosine and giemsa stains respectively. Results: 89 patients (92,7 % healed their ulcers in the first three months of follow up and 5 patients underwent a histological diagnosis of malignant ulcers (5,2 %. Surgery was done on the two patients whose ulcers did not heal. (2,1 %. 67,7 % had been infected with the bacteria. There was a greater frequency of patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, either with benign or malignant ulcus (93,8 % y 6,2 % respectively. Conclusions: the follow up of benign ulcers was good , almost all of them healed in a three-month follow up. 5 patients suffered from malignant ulcers, being 2 of them diagnosed in their second endoscopy. More than half of the patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori.
Tibbles, B J; Rawlings, D E
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from sediments and water of a saltmarsh lagoon on the west coast of South Africa, and characterized according to factors that regulate nitrogen fixation in the marine environment. The majority of isolates were assigned to the Photobacterium or Vibrio genera on the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics. One isolate was further assigned to the species Vibrio diazotrophicus. Carbohydrate utilization by each diazotrophic isolate was examined. Abilities of the isolates to utilize a range of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides largely reflected the predicted availability of organic carbon and energy in the lagoon, except that chitin was not utilized. Biochemical tests on the utilization of combined nitrogen showed that one isolate could utilize nitrate, and that this strain was susceptible to full repression of nitrogenase activity by 10mM nitrate. Urease activity was not detected in any of the isolates. In the absence of molybdenum two of the isolates, a Photobacterium spp. and V. diazotrophicus, reduced acetylene to ethylene and ethane, a property frequently associated with the activity of alternative nitrogenases. Addition of 25µM molybdenum inhibited ethane production by V. diazotrophicus, but stimulated ethylene and ethane production by the Photobacterium isolate. Addition of 28µM vanadium did not appear to regulate ethane production by either strain. Assays of nitrogenase activity in sediments from which some isolates were obtained indicated that molybdenum was not limiting nitrogenase activity at naturally-occurring concentrations. Southern hybridizations of the chromosomes of these strains with the anfH and vnfH genes of Azotobacter vinelandii and the nifH gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae indicated the presence of only one nitrogenase in these isolates.
Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.;
Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and cytokines which may improve knowledge concerning the outcome of gastric diseases caused by H. pylori. Antral biopsies from 42 dyspeptic patients including 27 H. pylori-positive and 15 H. pylori-negative patients were tested for apoptotic activity by the TUNEL assay, and immuno-histochemically for p53...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-gamma, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore...
Horvat, Darko; Včev, Aleksandar; Soldo˛, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Mišević, Tonči; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljika, Nikola
The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The p...
Stoicov, Calin; Saffari, Reza; Houghton, JeanMarie
Helicobacter infection, one of the most common bacterial infections in man worldwide, is a type 1 carcinogen and the most important risk factor for gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori bacterial factors, components of the host genetics and immune response, dietary cofactors and decreased acid secretion resulting in bacterial overgrowth are all considered important factors for induction of gastric cancer. Components found in green tea have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth, including the g...
Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Vandamme, P.;
Spiral bacteria were isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice during a study examining the presence of Helicobacter species and other spiral organisms naturally infecting mice maintained at four different animal facilities in Sydney, Australia. One group of 17 isolates, cultured from mice...... from three of the four facilities, were found to be helicobacters but did not fall within any of the 18 currently recognized species. These isolates were unusual in that they only grew anaerobically at 37 degreesC and were incapable of growth under microaerobic conditions. Like Helicobacter rodentium...
Quan-Jiang Dong; Qing Wang; Ying-Nin Xin; Ni Li; Shi-Ying Xuan
Genomic sequences have been determined for a number of strains of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and related bacteria.With the development of microarray analysis and the wide use of subtractive hybridization techniques,comparative studies have been carried out with respect to the interstrain differences between H pylori and inter-species differences in the genome of related bacteria.It was found that the core genome of H pylori constitutes 1111 genes that are determinants of the species properties.A great pool of auxillary genes are mainly from the categories of cag pathogenicity islands,outer membrane proteins,restriction-modification system and hypothetical proteins of unknown function.Persistence of H pylori in the human stomach leads to the diversification of the genome.Comparative genomics suggest that a host jump has occurs from humans to felines.Candidate genes specific for the development of the gastric diseases were identified.With the aid of proteomics,population genetics and other molecular methods,future comparative genomic studies would dramatically promote our understanding of the evolution,pathogenesis and microbiology of H pylori.
Mégraud, Francis; Floch, Pauline; Labenz, Joachim; Lehours, Philippe
There is progress in endoscopy techniques. While it is not yet possible to detect Helicobacter pylori directly in the stomach, it becomes easier to detect the mucosal changes induced by the bacteria. Some small changes can also increase the sensitivity of the invasive tests, for example culture or histology, but the wide use of proton-pump inhibitors has a negative impact on these tests. Only molecular methods are able to detect a limited load of bacteria, especially by using real-time PCR but also with new methods, for example dual-priming oligonucleotide-based PCR, loop-medicated isothermal amplification, droplet-digital PCR or a multiple genetic analysis system. Among the noninvasive tests, urea breath test remains a test of major interest, while there are attempts to develop an ammonia breath test and other nanosensor devices. A new antigen stool test, a chemoluminescence immunoassay using the LIAISON apparatus has also been tested for the first time with success. Despite its limitations, serology remains the most popular test to detect H. pylori antibodies. It also allows pepsinogen dosage which is of interest for detecting atrophy. PMID:27531532
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection of humans is so old that its population genetic structure reflects that of ancient human migrations. A closely related species, Helicobacter acinonychis, is specific for large felines, including cheetahs, lions, and tigers, whereas hosts more closely related to humans harbor more distantly related Helicobacter species. This observation suggests a jump between host species. But who ate whom and when did it happen? In order to resolve this question, we determined the genomic sequence of H. acinonychis strain Sheeba and compared it to genomes from H. pylori. The conserved core genes between the genomes are so similar that the host jump probably occurred within the last 200,000 (range 50,000-400,000 years. However, the Sheeba genome also possesses unique features that indicate the direction of the host jump, namely from early humans to cats. Sheeba possesses an unusually large number of highly fragmented genes, many encoding outer membrane proteins, which may have been destroyed in order to bypass deleterious responses from the feline host immune system. In addition, the few Sheeba-specific genes that were found include a cluster of genes encoding sialylation of the bacterial cell surface carbohydrates, which were imported by horizontal genetic exchange and might also help to evade host immune defenses. These results provide a genomic basis for elucidating molecular events that allow bacteria to adapt to novel animal hosts.
Sauter, Jennifer L.; Nayar, Suresh K.; Anders, Paige D.; D’Amico, Michael; Butnor, Kelly J.; Wilcox, Rebecca L.
Sarcina are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria found to be associated with delayed gastric emptying and gastric outlet obstruction. We describe two cases of Sarcina co-existing with Helicobacter pylori organisms in pediatric siblings presenting within four months of each other with pyloric obstruction secondary to severe gastritis/duodenitis. The co-existence of Sarcina and Helicobacter pylori has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Its characteristic tetrad packeted morphology per...
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have
@@ INTRODUCTION Using an evidence-based approach this review discusses the current treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcer disease, functional (non-ulcer)dyspepsia or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).It also briefly addresses the potential role of eradication of H . pylori in preventing gastric cancer .
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%-20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of "Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis" remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001, more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005, gastric ulcer (p = 0.042, duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026 and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012, metaplasia (p = 0.022 and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS
Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo
This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A
The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488
Full Text Available Helicobacter hepaticus can lead to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in certain strains of mice. Until now the pathogenic role of Helicobacter species on human liver tissue is still not clarified though Helicobacter species identification in human liver cancer was successful in case controlled studies. Therefore we established an in vitro model to investigate the interaction of primary human hepatocytes (PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus. Successful co-culturing of PHH with Helicobacter hepaticus was confirmed by visualization of motile bacteria by two-photon-microscopy. Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with PHH conditioned media. Changes in mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines and proteins in PHH and stimulated monocytes were determined by Real-time PCR. Furthermore, cytokines and proteins were analyzed in PHH culture supernatants by ELISA. Co-cultivation with Helicobacter hepaticus induced mRNA expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-8 (IL-8 and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PHH (p<0.05 resulting in a corresponding increase of IL-8 and MCP-1 concentrations in PHH supernatants (p<0.05. IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression was induced in monocytes stimulated with Helicobacter hepaticus infected PHH conditioned media (p<0.05. An increase of Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was observed, with a concomitant increase of prostaglandin E2 concentration in PHH supernatants at 24 and 48 h (p<0.05. In contrast, at day 7 of co-culture, no persistent elevation of cytokine mRNA could be detected. High expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on PHH cell membranes after co-culture was shown by two-photon-microscopy and confirmed by flow-cytometry. Finally, expression of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and albumin mRNA were downregulated, indicating an impairment of hepatocyte synthesis function by Helicobacter hepaticus presence. This is the first in vitro model demonstrating a pathogenic
Denizot, Y.; Sobhani, I; Rambaud, J C; M. Lewin; Thomas, Y.; Benveniste, J
Clinical studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori may play a role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcers in man but direct evidence of mucosal injury by this microorganism is still lacking. Paf-acether (paf) causes a number of disorders including ischaemic bowel necrosis and gastroduodenal ulceration. Since paf is produced by Escherichia coli, we investigated whether it could be synthesised by H pylori. Five H pylori isolates were collected from antral biopsy specimens from patients wit...
Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying
Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth...
Peren H Karagin; Unne Stenram; Torkel Wadstr(o)m; (A)sa Ljungh
AIM: To analyse the possible association of various Helicobacter species and certain common gut bacteria in patients with Meckel's diverticulum and appendicitis. METHODS: A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), specific to 16S rRNA of the Helicobacter genus, was performed on paraffin embedded samples, 50 with acute appendicitis, 50 normal appendixes, and 33 Meckel's diverticulum with gastric heterotopia and/or ulcer. Helicobacter genus positive samples were sequenced for species identification. All samples were also analysed for certain gut bacteria by PCR. RESULTS: Helicobacter pullorum DNA was found in one out of 33 cases and Enterobacteria in two cases of Meckel's diverticulum. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) was found in three, Enterobacter in 18, and Bacteroides in 19 out of 100 appendix samples by PCR. Enterococcus was not found in any MD or appendix samples. All H. pylori positive cases were from normal appendixes. CONCLUSION: Helicobacter is not an etiological agent in the pathogenesis of symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum or in acute appendicitis.
Axon, Anthony T. R.
Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to b...
@@ IS THERE ANYTHING NEW? Helicobacter pylori has been for many years a forgotten bacterium, since the first report on this spiral organism dated from the 19th century. As early as in 1906, an association between a spiral organism and gastric carcinoma was suggested.Doenges reported in 1938 that on autopsy not less than 40% of human stomachs were found to be invaded by spiral organisms.
From 1994, Helicobacter pylori was classified by WHO (World Health Organization) as a class I carcinogen and its infection has been associated to gastroduodenal disease. It colonizes more than half of worldwide population, with a prevalent infection rate in developed countries. In spite of the majority of infected people are asymptomatic, around 20% develop severe pathologies like peptic ulcers and the 1% lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and stomach cancer. This signif...
Ekman, E; Fredriksson, M; Trowald-Wigh, G
The role of Helicobacter spp. infection in canine gastrointestinal disease is unclear and routes of transmission are of epidemiological and zoonotic importance. The aim of this study was to identify Helicobacter spp. in the saliva, stomach, duodenum and faeces of dogs using a multiplex PCR, and to evaluate any attendant histopathological changes. Helicobacter canis was the most common species detected in saliva and faeces and no correlation between the presence of Helicobacter spp. and histopathological changes in either the stomach or duodenum was observed. All dogs examined were co-infected with up to four species of the organism. This is the first time these bacteria have been studied at species level at multiple sites within the canine alimentary tract. PMID:22683393
ZHONG Qiao; SHAO Shi-he; CUI Lei-lei; MU Run-hong; JU Xiao-li; DONG Su-rong
Objective To review the research progress on Type IV secretion system (T4SS) in Helicobacter pylori.Data sources The data used in this review were identified by searching of PUBMED (1995-2007) online resources Study selection Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of this field were selected.Results The research progress on T4SS in Helicobacter pylori was summarized.The structure and function was discussed.Conclusions T4SS is not only involved in toxin secretion and injection of virulence factors into eukaryotic host target cells,but also involved in horizontal DNA transfer to other bacteria and eukaryotic cells,through DNA uptake from or release into the extracellular milieu.It provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori and a novel target for antimicrobials development.However,many challenges remain for us in understanding the biological role of T4SS in Helicobacter pylori.
Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R
Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy. PMID:27177639
Full Text Available Background Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Methods Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Results Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.
Clyne, M.; Drumm, B
Helicobacter pylori adheres only to gastric cells in vivo. However, the organism adheres to a wide variety of nongastric cells in vitro. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to assess the adherence of H. pylori to primary epithelial cells isolated from gastric, duodenal, and colonic biopsy specimens by collagenase digestion. After incubation of bacteria and cells together and subsequent staining with a two-stage fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled H. pylori antibody method, cells with a...
Martin, Miriam E.; Solnick, Jay V.
Long thought to be a sterile habitat, the stomach contains a diverse and unique community of bacteria. One particular inhabitant, Helicobacter pylori, colonizes half of the world’s human population and establishes a decades-long infection that can be asymptomatic, pathogenic, or even beneficial for the host. Many host and bacterial factors are known to influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, but another potentially important determinant has recently come to light: the host microbio...
Helicobacter pylori infection is universally reported from all over the world including both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Pakistan is unknown. Although a few studies have been done in adults, there are no studies looking at the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori colonization especially in children. In addition, a number of symptoms such as nonspecific abdominal pain, diarrhea and malnutrition etc. are attributed to it though most cases of Helicobacter pylori colonization remain asymptomatic. The association between Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms however, remains controversial. Hence in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, its time of acquisition and to look at its correlation with diarrhea-associated morbidity, we proposed to do the present study. In this study we will look for the evidence of Helicobacter colonization in infants with the non-invasive techniques using 13C urea breath test and stool ELISA for Helicobacter pylori every at three month interval in a cohort of infants from a periurban community in Karachi Pakistan. (author)
Vandamme, P.; On, S.L.W.
The ICSB Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Campylobacter and related bacteria has discussed several contemporaneous issues and makes the following recommendations. (i) The reported synonymy between Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter hyoilei was based on valid taxonomic arguments. The subcommittee...... therefore discourages the use of the name C. hyoilei. (ii) The revised infrasubspecific nomenclature of Campylobacter sputorum is endorsed. C. sputorum is subdivided into C. sputorum biovar sputorum (characterized by the absence of catalase and urease activity); C. sputorum biovar faecalis (characterized......, including Helicobacter bills and Helicobacter trogontum. (iv) Finally, the subcommittee wishes to point out that the etymology of several specific or subspecific epithets of Campylobacter taxa has been corrected and that the spelling of the epithet 'fecalis' was corrected to 'faecalis'....
Rimbara, Emiko; Sasatsu, Masanori; Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen whose primary niche is the human stomach. H. pylori is etiologically associated with gastric inflammation (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Both noninvasive (e.g., urea breath and stool antigen tests) and invasive (gastric biopsy for histology, culture, or PCR) tests are used for diagnosis. PCR detection of H. pylori has been reported using a variety of clinical samples including gastric biopsy, gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and stools as well as environmental samples. Whenever possibly, noninvasive tests are preferred over invasive tests. H. pylori are excreted in the stool. Culture from stool is variable whereas stool antigen testing is widely used. Stool consists of a complicated mixture of commensal bacteria and chemicals and often includes inhibitors of PCR. Nevertheless, simple extraction methods are available to efficiently extract DNA from human stools and nested-PCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene have proven to be highly sensitive for the detection of H. pylori. Detection of clarithromycin susceptibility/resistance is important clinically and the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for resistance can also be detected using stool. This described method can be modified for other clinical samples such as gastric juice or biopsy material. PMID:23104297
Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was carried out to determine whether Helicobacter pylori can be detected in normal colon or in association with colorectal neoplasia. Methods Paraffin processed colonic tissue blocks of normal colonic mucosa (n = 60, and patients diagnosed as adenoma (n = 60, and adenocarcinoma (n = 60 were retrieved from our archive; the adenoma group included tubular (n = 20, tubulovillous (n = 20 and villous adenomas (n = 20. 4 μm sections were stained by immunohistochemical methods using anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (polyclonal NCL-HPp and monoclonal NCL-C-jejuni. Results Significant numbers of Helicobacter pylori were identified in tubular adenomas (OR = 11.13; 95%CI = 1.62–76.70, tubulovillous adenomas (OR = 10.45; 95%CI = 1.52–71.52 and adenocarcinomas (OR = 8.13; 95%CI = 1.40–46.99 compared to controls: there was no association in numbers of Helicobacter pylori and villous adenomas (OR = 2.95; 95%CI = 0.29–9.96. Conclusion We conclude that although, in this pilot study, there appears to be an association in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with some, but not all, colorectal neoplasms, we can not infer causality from these results. These findings need to be further substantiated with a prospective study and the use of molecular biological techniques to determine a causal association.
Xu Yang; Xiaoli Zhao; Yongjun Gao; Zhidong Zheng; Jilai Li; Jichen Du; Xinyi Li; Xianhao Xu; Yingying Su
Previous studies have demonstrated that Helicobacterpylod infection is associated with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, but the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and ischemic stroke remains unclear.The present study assessed the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on atherothrombotic stroke.This study included 115 individuals with atherothrombotic stroke, all of whom were patients receiving treatment at the Department of Neurology, Aerospace Central Hospital (Aerospace Clinical Medical College Affiliated to Peking University) in China, from March 2006 to July 2009.In addition, 131 controls without the history of cardiovascular disease,cerebrovascular disease or atherothrombosis were also enrolled in the study.Results show that the Helicobacter pylori-IgG positive rate was greater in the atherothrombotic stroke patients than in the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant (67.8% vs.61.8%, OR＝1.301,95%CI:0.769-2.203, P= 0.327).After correction for potential risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection and known risk factors for ischemic stroke, no significant difference was detected between them (OR= 1.278, 95%Cl: 0.667-2.449, P= 0.459).These results indicate that there is no specific correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and atherothrombotic stroke.This finding requires further verification in large-sample prospective studies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The formation of a disulfide bond between two cysteine residues stabilizes protein structure. Although we now have a good understanding of the Escherichia coli disulfide formation system, the machineries at work in other bacteria, including pathogens, are poorly characterized. Thus, the objective of this work was to improve our understanding of the disulfide formation machinery of Helicobacter pylori, a leading cause of ulcers and a risk factor for stomach cancer worldwide. METHODS AND RESULTS: The protein HP0231 from H. pylori, a structural counterpart of E. coli DsbG, is the focus of this research. Its function was clarified by using a combination of biochemical, microbiological and genetic approaches. In particular, we determined the biochemical properties of HP0231 as well as its redox state in H. pylori cells. CONCLUSION: Altogether our results show that HP0231 is an oxidoreductase that catalyzes disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. We propose to call it HpDsbA.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their
Llovet, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel
Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated as trigger or disease modifier in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). So, eradication treatment for this agent could have clinical benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews comprising 40 studies addressing the question of this article overall, including one randomized controlled trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded Helicobacter eradication might decrease risk of bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia but the certainty of the evidence is low. PMID:27603101
Follow up through Endoscopical – Histological Studies and Helicobacter Pylori Infections in Patients Suffering from Gastric Ulcers Seguimiento evolutivo mediante estudio endoscópico-histológico e infección por Helicobacter pylori en pacientes con úlcera gástrica
Anagalys Ortega Alvelay
Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic follow up of gastric ulcers until healing has a great important due to the possibility of a new proliferation. The commonest chronic infection worldwide is caused by Helicobacter pylori and it is associated to gastro duodenal diseases. Objective: To determine the endoscopic-biopsic follow up and to set the frequency of infection due to Helicobacter pylori in those patients who suffer from gastric ulcers . Methods: observational, descriptive and prospective study carried out at the University Hospital “Arnaldo Milián Castro”. It included 96 gastric ulcer sufferers diagnosed endoscopically and who fulfilled with the selection criteria. Endoscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa was done for the histological study of the gastric ulcers and for the diagnosis of infection due to Helicobacter pylori through hematoxiline-eosine and giemsa stains respectively. Results: 89 patients (92,7 % healed their ulcers in the first three months of follow up and 5 patients underwent a histological diagnosis of malignant ulcers (5,2 %. Surgery was done on the two patients whose ulcers did not heal. (2,1 %. 67,7 % had been infected with the bacteria. There was a greater frequency of patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, either with benign or malignant ulcus (93,8 % y 6,2 % respectively. Conclusions: the follow up of benign ulcers was good , almost all of them healed in a three-month follow up. 5 patients suffered from malignant ulcers, being 2 of them diagnosed in their second endoscopy. More than half of the patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori.Fundamento: el seguimiento endoscópico evolutivo de la úlcera gástrica hasta su cicatrización es muy importante, debido a la posibilidad de neoproliferación. La infección crónica más frecuente en el mundo es la causada por Helicobacter pylori y se asocia a enfermedad
Hamoud, Razan; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael
Combinations of two or more drugs, which affect different targets, have frequently been used as a new approach against resistant bacteria. In our work we studied the antimicrobial activity (MIC, MBC) of individual drugs (the phenolic monoterpene thymol, EDTA and vancomycin), of two-drug interactions between thymol and EDTA in comparison with three-drug interactions with vancomycin against sensitive and resistant bacteria. Thymol demonstrated moderate bactericidal activity (MBC between 60 and 4000μg/ml) while EDTA only exhibited bacteriostatic activity over a range of 60-4000μg/ml. MICs of vancomycin were between 0.125 and 16μg/ml against Gram-positive and between 32 and 128μg/ml against Gram-negative bacteria. Checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays were performed to evaluate the mode of interaction of several combinations against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA NCTC 10442) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Checkerboard data indicate indifferent interaction against Gram-positive (FICI=1-1.3) and synergy against Gram-negative bacteria (FICI≈0.4), while time kill analyses suggest synergistic effect in different combinations against both types of bacteria. It is remarkable that the combinations could enhance the sensitivity of E. coli to vancomycin 16-fold to which it is normally insensitive. We have provided proof for the concept, that combinations of known antibiotics with modern phytotherapeutics can expand the spectrum of useful therapeutics.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ, clarithromycin (CLR, tetracycline (TET, and amoxicillin (AMX by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.
Nora J. Foegeding
Full Text Available The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells. Multiple cell types are susceptible to VacA, including gastric epithelial cells, parietal cells, T cells, and other types of immune cells. This review focuses on the wide range of VacA actions that are detectable in vitro, as well as actions of VacA in vivo that are relevant for H. pylori colonization of the stomach and development of gastric disease.
Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.
Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Pelosini, Iva; Scarpignato, Carmelo
Rifaximin is a non-absorbed semisynthetic rifamycin derivative with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both aerobes and anaerobes. Although originally developed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea, the appreciation of the pathogenic role of gut bacteria in several organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases has increasingly broadened its clinical use. Being the antibiotic active against Helicobacter pylori, even towards clarithromycin-resistant strain, and being the primary resistance very rare, several investigations explored its potential use for eradication of the microorganism. Rifaximin alone proved to be effective, but even the highest dose (1,200 mg daily) gave a cure rate of only 30%. Dual and triple therapies were also studied, with the better results obtained with rifaximin-clarithromycin and rifaximin-clarithromycin-esomeprazole combinations. However, the eradication rates (60-70%) obtained with these regimens were still below the standard set by the Maastricht Consensus guidelines. Although rifaximin-based eradication therapies are promising, new antimicrobial combinations (with and without proton pump inhibitors) need to be explored in well-designed clinical trials including a large cohort of H. pylori-infected patients. The remarkable safety of rifaximin will allow high-dose regimens of longer duration (e.g. 10 or 14 days) to be tested with confidence in the hope of achieving better eradication rates. A drawback of rifaximin could be its inability to reach sufficiently high concentrations in the gastric mucus layer under and within which H. pylori is commonly located and this would likely affect eradication rate. Taking these considerations into account, bioadhesive rifaximin formulations able to better and persistently cover gastric mucosa, or combination with mucolytic agents, such as pronase or acetylcysteine, need to be evaluated in order to better define the place of this
Rojas-Rengifo, Diana F; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Haas, Rainer; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F
Use of the Colony Lift Immunoassay has been described for several Gram negative bacteria of medical interest. In all cases detection was limited to the use of antibodies against outer membrane proteins. Here we describe the adaptation of this method for detection of the cytoplasmic CagA toxin from Helicobacter pylori.
Helicobacter pylori are bacteria with substantial strain-to-strain variability. Although frequent recombination events have been proposed as contributing to the variability, the effects of nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneities on the reconstruction of H. pylori genealogies have not been stud...
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is the most common gastric bacteria of human beings. Animal-borne helicobacter have been associated with gastritis, ulceration, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma in people. We attempted to identify the species of Helicobacter spp. that infect human beings in north Paraná, Brazil. Samples of gastric mucosa from 38 dyspeptic patients were analyzed by optic microscopy on silver stained slides, polimerase chain reaction (PCR, and enzymatic cleavage. Genus and species-specific primers to H. pylori, H. heilmannii, H. felis, and consensual primers to H. bizzozeronii or H. salomonis were used. The PCR products were submitted to enzymatic cleavage by VspI (Helicobacter spp. product and HinfI (species products enzymes. Thirty-two out of 38 patients evaluated had 3.2 to 5 µm long bacteria that resembled H. pylori in Warthin-Starry stained slides and were positive to the genus Helicobacter by PCR. In 30 of these patients the bacteria were identified as H. pylori. Two samples positive by silver stain were negative to all species tested by PCR. None of the 38 samples was positive to animal-origin helicobacter species. These results show that PCR and enzymatic restriction are practical methods to identify the species of helicobacters present in gastric mucosa of human beings. People in north Paraná appear to be infected mostly with H. pylori.
Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wade, Kristina L; Talalay, Paul
Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 260-320 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major gastric pathogen that has been associated with humans for more than 60,000 years. H. pylori causes different gastric diseases including dyspepsia, ulcers and gastric cancers. Disease development depends on several factors including the infecting H. pylori strain, environmental and host factors. Another factor that might influence H. pylori colonization and diseases is the gastric microbiota that was overlooked for long because of the belief that human stomach was a hostile environment that cannot support microbial life. Once established, H. pylori mainly resides in the gastric mucosa and interacts with the resident bacteria. How these interactions impact on H. pylori-caused diseases has been poorly studied in human. In this study, we analyzed the interactions between H. pylori and two bacteria, Streptococcus mitis and Lactobacillus fermentum that are present in the stomach of both healthy and gastric disease human patients. We have found that S. mitis produced and released one or more diffusible factors that induce growth inhibition and coccoid conversion of H. pylori cells. In contrast, both H. pylori and L. fermentum secreted factors that promote survival of S. mitis during the stationary phase of growth. Using a metabolomics approach, we identified compounds that might be responsible for the conversion of H. pylori from spiral to coccoid cells. This study provide evidences that gastric bacteria influences H. pylori physiology and therefore possibly the diseases this bacterium causes.
Taweesak Tongtawee; Soraya Kaewpitoon; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Chavaboon Dechsukhum; Wilairat Leeanansaksiri; Ryan A. Loyd; Likit Matrakool; Sukij Panpimanmas
Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resis...
Homan, Matjaž; Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja
This review summarizes important pediatric studies published from April 2011 up to March 2012. Proteomics profile of ulcerogenic Helicobacter pylori strains was defined in the most interesting study of the last year. The antigen stool test is becoming the "gold standard" in prevalence studies, and according to the last epidemiologic studies, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in childhood is not decreasing any more in the developed world. The resistance rate of H. pylori strains is high in children. Therefore, among other important issues concerning H. pylori in pediatrics, guidelines published by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN last year also recommended culture and susceptibility testing before first-line treatment in areas with high or unknown antibiotic resistance rates.
Yang Bai; Ya-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Jin; Ji-De Wang; Zhao-Shan Zhang
AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which highly expresses catalase of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) and assay the activity of H. pylori catalase.METHODS: The catalase DNA was amplified from H. pylori chromosomal DNA with PCR techniques and inserted into the prokaryotie expression vector pET-22b (+), and then was transformed into the BL21 (DE3) E. coli strain which expressed catalase recombinant protein. The activity of H.pylori catalase was assayed by the Beers & Sizers.RESULTS: DNA sequence analysis showed that the sequence of catalase DNA was the same as GenBank's research. The catalase recombinant protein amounted to 24.4 % of the total bacterial protein after induced with IPTG for 3 hours at 37 ℃ and the activity of H. pylori catalase was high in the BL21 (DE3) E. coli strain.CONCLUSION: A clone expressing high activity H. pylori catalase is obtained, laying a good foundation for further studies.
O'Connor, John P. Anthony; Taneike, Ikue; O'Morain, Colm
Compliance with therapy is the single most important factor in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Poorer levels of compliance with therapy are associated with significantly lower levels of eradication. Numerous factors can contribute to achieving good levels of compliance. These include the complexity and duration of treatment. It is also important that the physicia...
Huang, Zhen; London, Erwin
Sterols are important components of eukaryotic membranes, but rare in bacteria. Some bacteria obtain sterols from their host or environment. In some cases, these sterols form membrane domains analogous the lipid rafts proposed to exist in eukaryotic membranes. This review describes the properties and roles of sterols in Borrelia and Helicobacter.
Huang, Zhen; London, Erwin
Sterols are important components of eukaryotic membranes, but rare in bacteria. Some bacteria obtain sterols from their host or environment. In some cases, these sterols form membrane domains analogous the lipid rafts proposed to exist in eukaryotic membranes. This review describes the properties and roles of sterols in Borrelia and Helicobacter. PMID:26964703
Fernandez-Gonzalez, Esther; Backert, Steffen
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacteria. Recombination and DNA transfer contribute to its genetic variability and enhance host adaptation. Among the strategies described to increase genetic diversity in bacteria, DNA transfer by conjugation is one of the best characterized. Using this mechanism, a fragment of DNA from a donor cell can be transferred to a recipient, always mediated by a conjugative nucleoprotein complex, which is evolutionarily related to type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). Interestingly, the H. pylori chromosomes can encode up to four T4SSs, including the cagPAI, comB, tfs3, and tfs4 genes, some of which are known to promote chronic H. pylori infection. The T4SS encoded by the cagPAI mediates the injection of the effector protein CagA and proinflammatory signaling, and the comB system is involved in DNA uptake from the environment. However, the role of tfs3 and tfs4 is not yet clear. The presence of a functional XerD tyrosine recombinase and 5'AAAGAATG-3' border sequences as well as two putative conjugative relaxases (Rlx1 and Rlx2), a coupling protein (TraG), and a chromosomal region carrying a putative origin of transfer (oriT) suggest the existence of a DNA transfer apparatus in tfs4. Moreover, a conjugation-like DNA transfer mechanism in H. pylori has already been described in vitro, but whether this occurs in vivo is still unknown. Some extrachromosomal plasmids and phages are also present in various H. pylori strains. Genetic exchange among plasmids and chromosomes, and involved DNA mobilization events, could explain part of H. pylori's genetic diversity. Here, we review our knowledge about the possible DNA transfer mechanisms in H. pylori and its implications in bacterial adaptation to the host environment.
Tolga Önder; Turgut Anuk; Cihan Heybeli
Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a bacterial pathogen that leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, gastric and duodenal ulcer and atrophic gastritis. Colonization of bacteria can be shown by using rapid-urease test during endoscopy. There are conflicting data about the route of transmission and reservoir. It’s thought to be transmitted primarily by oral route. Many studies showed results supporting that the presence of bacteria in dental plaques has effects on gastric colonization and e...
Myllyluoma, E.; Ahonen, A.-M.; Korpela, R; Vapaatalo, H.; Kankuri, E.
Probiotic bacteria alleviate many gastrointestinal symptoms, but the current trend of combining bacteria for additional benefit may make their effects more complex. We characterize four probiotics and their combination in terms of pathogen adhesion, barrier function, cell death, and inflammatory response in Helicobacter pylori-infected epithelial cells. H. pylori-infected Caco-2 cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreic...
Shi-He Shao; Hua Wang; Shun-Gen Chai; Li-Mei Liu
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), one of the most common bacterial pathogens on human beings, colonizes the gastric mucosa. In its 95 paralogous gene families, there is a large outer membrane protein (OMP) family. It includes 32 members. These OMP are important for the diagnosis, protective immunity, pathogenicity of H pylori and so on. They are significantly associated with high H pylori density,the damage of gastric mucosa, high mucosal IL-8 levels and severe neutrophil infiltration. We introduce their research progress on pathogenicity.
Cobzaru, Cristina; Ganas, Petra; Mihasan, Marius; Schleberger, Paula; Brandsch, Roderich
Gram-positive soil bacteria Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, Nocardioides sp. JS614 and Rhodococcus opacus were shown to contain similarly organized clusters of homologous genes for nicotine catabolism. An uncharacterized gene of a predicted nitrilase within these gene clusters was cloned from A. nicotinovorans and biochemical data unexpectedly showed that the protein exhibited ω-amidase activity toward α-ketoglutaramate. Structural modelling of the protein suggested the presence of the catalytic triad Cys-Glu-Lys, characteristic of this class of enzymes, and supported α-ketoglutaramate as substrate. A-ketoglutaramate could be generated by hydrolytic cleavage of the C-N bond of the trihydroxypyridine ring produced by nicotine catabolism in these bacteria. This ω-amidase, together with glutamate dehydrogenase, may form a physiologically relevant enzyme couple, leading to transformation of metabolically inert α-ketoglutaramate derived from trihydroxypyridine into glutamate, a central compound of nitrogen metabolism.
Yuan Hu; Li-Hua He; Di Xiao; Guo-Dong Liu; Yi-Xin Gu; Xiao-Xia Tao; Jian-Zhong Zhang
AIM:To investigate the non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylorl) bacterial flora concurrent with H.py/ori infection.METHODS:A total of 103 gastric biopsy specimens from H.py/ori positive patients were selected for bacterial culture.All the non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).RESULTS:A total of 201 non-H.py/ori bacterial isolates were cultivated from 67 (65.0％) of the 103 gastric samples,including 153 isolates identified successfully at species level and 48 at genus level by MALDI-TOF MS.The dominant species were Streptococcus,Neisseria,Rothia and Staphylococcus,which differed from the predominantly acid resistant species reported previously in healthy volunteers.The prevalence of non-H.pylori bacteria was higher in non-ulcer dyspepsia group than in gastric ulcer group (100％ vs 42.9％,P ＜ 0.001).Six bacterial species with urease activity (Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus capitis,Staphylococcus aureus,Brevibacterium spp.and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were also isolated.CONCLUSION:There is a high prevalence of the non-H.pylori bacteria concurrent with H.pylori infection,and the non-H.pylori bacteria may also play important as-yet-undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of stomach disorders.
Luiz Gonzaga Coelho
Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.Os avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Segundo Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 2004, em São Paulo, justificam este terceiro consenso. O evento foi organizado pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, departamento da Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia, tendo sido realizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS, nos dias 12 a 15 de abril de 2011. Contou com a participação de 30 delegados provenientes das cinco regiões brasileiras e um convidado internacional, incluindo gastroenterologistas
In Thai traditional medicine, different plant extracts are known to have a bactericidal or at least a bacteriostatic effect on bacteria and/or fungi. In Thailand, medicinal plants have been used safely since ancient times as herbal medicines and also as food colouring and flavouring agents. The application of selected plant extracts to foods could prevent foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In this study the antimicrobial activities of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Curcuma zedoari...
Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J
This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.
This article aims to examine current best practice in the field reference to first-line, second-line, rescue and emerging treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The recommended first-line treatment in published guidelines in Europe and North American is proton pump inhibitor combined with amoxicillin and clarithromycin being the favoured regimen. Rates of eradication with this regimen however are falling alarmingly due to a combination of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Bismuth based quadruple therapies and levofloxacin based regimes have been shown to be effective second line regimens. Third-line options include regimes based on rifabutin or furazolidone, but susceptibility testing is the most rational option here, but is currently not used widely enough. Sequential therapy is promising but needs further study and validation outside of Italy. Although the success of first line treatments is falling, if compliance is good and a clear treatment paradigm adhered to, almost universal eradication rates can still be achieved. If compliance is not achievable, the problem of antibiotic resistance will continue to beset any combination of drugs used for H. pylori eradication.
Hyo; Jun; Ahn; Dong; Soo; Lee
Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to theoccurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cag A and vac A are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.
Full Text Available Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Heli- cobacter pylori infection with halitosis.Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years. The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, malignancies, deep carious teeth, severe periodontitis, coated tongue, dry mouth or poor oral hygiene. Control group included 22 patients without halitosis and the same age, sex, systemic and oral conditions as the case group. Halitosis was evaluated using organoleptic test (OLT and Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by Rapid Urease Test (RUT during endoscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square, Mann Whitney and t-tests.Results: Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 20 (91% out of 22 halitosis patients, and 7 control subjects (32% (P<0.001.Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori gastric infection can be a cause of bad breath. Dentists should pay more attention to this infection and refer these patients to in- ternists to prevent further gastrointestinal (GI complications and probable malig- nancies.
ÇETİNKAYA, Züleyha AKKAN; SEZİKLİ, Mesut; Güzelbulut, Fatih; YEŞİL, Atakan; Coşgun, Süleyman; ALTINÖZ, Mustafa Erhan; Atamer, Aytaç; ULU, Nuriye; KURDAŞ, Ayşe Oya ÖVÜNÇ
Background and Aims: Although different therapy regimens are used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, an ideal therapy regimen has not yet been determined. The most commonly used and most effective therapy regimens consist of a proton pump inhibitor or bismuth plus 2 antibiotics for 7-14 days. We aimed to compare the efficacies of different PPIs in combination with the same antibiotics on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Materials and Methods: This study included 90 patients wi...
Velin, Dominique; Straubinger, Kathrin; Gerhard, Markus
The tight control of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the stomach mucosa during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is of prime importance for the bacteria to persist and for the host to prevent inflammation-driven diseases. This review summarizes recent data on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses during H. pylori/host interactions. In addition, the latest preclinical developments of H. pylori vaccines are discussed with a special focus on the clinical trial reported by Zeng et al., who provided evidence that oral vaccination significantly reduces the acquisition of natural H. pylori infection in children. PMID:27531535
Nora J. Foegeding; Caston, Rhonda R.; McClain, Mark S.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Cover, Timothy L.
The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA ac...
Van der Wouden, EJ; Thijs, JC; Van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, JH
The efficacy of a nitroimidazole-containing regimen for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection is decreased by nitroimidazole resistance. Nitroimidazoles are metabolized by H. pylori by several nitro-reductases of which an oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase encoded by the rdxA gene is t
In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005. Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 8/17/2010.
Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.
There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detec
J. Stoof (Jeroen)
textabstractGastric Helicobacter species are adapted to colonize the acidic environment of the stomach. Colonization with H pylori is life long if untreated, and can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and eventually to gastric cancer. Although H pylori is sensitive to many antibiotics in vitro,
Luiz Gonzaga Coelho
Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.
Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP have recently emerged as a novel eliciting factor for chronic urticaria (CU. The possible association between HP and CU has enormous potential, as eradicating HP could cure CU. Aims and Objectives: We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of HP infection and effect of bacterium eradication on skin lesions in patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU. Settings and Design: Four hundred sixty patients of CU attending the allergy clinic, SMS hospital, Jaipur during the period February 6, 2004, to February 6, 2006, were screened for possible eliciting factors. Patients with CIU were enrolled and others were excluded. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients of CIU and similar number of age and sex matched controls, attending the allergy clinic, SMS Hospital, Jaipur were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent endoscopy with antral biopsy for urease and histopathology to identify HP-associated gastritis. Infected patients were given HP eradication therapy. Eradication of bacterium was confirmed by fecal antigen assay. Subjective response to treatment was judged using chronic urticaria quality-of-life questionnaire (CU-Q 2 oL while objective response to treatment was judged by need for ′rescue medication′ (antihistaminics. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Chi square and paired′t′ test for their level of significance. Results: HP associated gastritis was present in 48 (70.58% patients, out of which 39 (81.25% patients responded to eradication therapy. Ten (50.00% patients without HP associated gastritis showed response to symptomatic therapy. Overall 49 (72.05% patients responded and 19 (27.94% showed no response. The value of χ2 was 28.571 (P = 0.003, which showed significant association between presence of HP and response to eradication regimen. Conclusion: The response of HP eradication therapy in infected patients of CIU is significant. HP should be included in diagnostic
Dhar, Poshmaal; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip
The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent of a range of gastrointestinal pathologies including peptic ulcer disease and the major killer, gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection with this bacterium induces a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa (gastritis). It is this gastritis that, over decades, eventually drives the development of H. pylori-associated disease in some individuals. The majority of studies investigating H. pylori pathogenesis have focused on factors that promote disease development in infected individuals. However, an estimated 85% of those infected with H. pylori remain completely asymptomatic, despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria that drive a chronic gastritis that lasts many decades. This indicates the presence of highly effective regulatory processes in the host that, in most cases, keeps a check on inflammation and protect against disease. In this minireview we discuss such known host factors and how they prevent the development of H. pylori-associated pathologies.
Clausen, M R; Franzmann, M B; Holst, C;
Seventy-four patients with duodenal ulcer were followed up longitudinally for 2 years after initial ulcer healing. Endoscopy including biopsy of the antral mucosa was performed every 3rd month and whenever clinical symptoms of relapse occurred. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in the biopsy...... specimens was scored as 0 (none), 1 (sporadic occurrence), 2 (clusters), and 3 (numerous bacteria found diffusely in the mucus layer). The incidence rates of ulcer relapse per patient-month, grouped in accordance with these scores, were (with 95% confidence intervals) 0.073 (0.048-0.111), 0.083 (0.......052-0.133), 0.123 (0.096-0.157), and 0.069 (0.041-0.116), respectively. No significant differences in incidence rates across H. pylori scores were observed when taking into account the observation period after healing of the first ulcer, number of ulcer recurrence (1st, 2nd, 3rd), sex, age, smoking habits, peak...
Roussos, Anastasios; Philippou, Nikiforos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I
In the past few years, a variety of extradigestive disorders, including cardiovascular, skin, rheumatic and liver diseases, have been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The activation of inflammatory mediators by H. pylori seems to be the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the observed associations. The present review summarizes the current literature, including our own studies, concerning the association between H. pylori infection and respiratory diseases.
... or bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds. H. pylori testing may also be ordered when a person has completed a regimen of prescribed antibiotics to confirm that the H. pylori bacteria have been eliminated. A follow-up test is ...
Daniel A Todd
originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages.
Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E
Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952
Cats, A.; Kuipers, E.J.; Bosschaert, MA; Pot, RG; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported inhibitory effects of lactic acid bacteria on bacterial pathogens. AIM: To test whether a drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth. METHODS: The in vitro growth inhibition of H. pylori was studied when L. casei
Kurtaran, Hanifi; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Kasapoglu, Benan; Turkay, Cansel; Yilmaz, Turker; Akcay, Ali; Kanbay, Mehmet
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the frequently encountered micro-organisms in the aerodigestive tract. Although infections caused by H. pylori are this common, the exact mode of transmission has not been fully understood yet. Oral-oral, fecal-oral and gastrointestinal-oral routes are the possible modes of transmission. This infection is usually acquired in childhood and may persist for the whole life of the patient. However, about 80% of the infected humans are asymptomatic. Human stomach was considered to be the only reservoir of H. pylori until bacteria were discovered in human dental plaque, in oral lesions, in saliva, in tonsil and adenoid tissue. It is suggested that H. pylori enters the nasopharyngeal cavity by gastroesophageal reflux and colonize in the dental plaques, adenoid tissues and tonsils. From these localizations, the bacteria ascend to the middle ear and to the paranasal sinuses directly or by the reflux again and may trigger some diseases, including otitis, sinusitis, phyrangitis, laryngitis and glossitis. But still, the exact mechanism remains unclear. PMID:18942285
Marion S Dorer
Full Text Available The discovery of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, that is resident in the human stomach and causes chronic disease (peptic ulcer and gastric cancer was radical on many levels. Whereas the mouth and the colon were both known to host a large number of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome, the stomach was thought to be a virtual Sahara desert for microbes because of its high acidity. We now know that H. pylori is one of many species of bacteria that live in the stomach, although H. pylori seems to dominate this community. H. pylori does not behave as a classical bacterial pathogen: disease is not solely mediated by production of toxins, although certain H. pylori genes, including those that encode exotoxins, increase the risk of disease development. Instead, disease seems to result from a complex interaction between the bacterium, the host, and the environment. Furthermore, H. pylori was the first bacterium observed to behave as a carcinogen. The innate and adaptive immune defenses of the host, combined with factors in the environment of the stomach, apparently drive a continuously high rate of genomic variation in H. pylori. Studies of this genetic diversity in strains isolated from various locations across the globe show that H. pylori has coevolved with humans throughout our history. This long association has given rise not only to disease, but also to possible protective effects, particularly with respect to diseases of the esophagus. Given this complex relationship with human health, eradication of H. pylori in nonsymptomatic individuals may not be the best course of action. The story of H. pylori teaches us to look more deeply at our resident microbiome and the complexity of its interactions, both in this complex population and within our own tissues, to gain a better understanding of health and disease.
Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M;
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...
Smith, J. G.; L. Kong; Abruzzo, G K; Gill, C J; Flattery, A M; Scott, P.M.; Bramhill, D; Cioffe, C.; Thompson, C. M.; Bartizal, K
Many animal models of Helicobacter infection have been described, including infection in rhesus monkeys, ferrets, gnotobiotic piglets, and mice. These animal models utilize a combination of detection methods, including culture, urease testing, and histopathology, all of which may be unreliable, insensitive, or labor-intensive. Development of new animal models of Helicobacter pylori requires new methods of detection with increased sensitivity and specificity. We have developed sensitive and sp...
Hunt, RH; Fallone, CA; Thomson, ABR
The first Canadian Helicobacter pylori Consensus Conference took place in April 1997. The initial recommendations of the conference were published in early 1998. An update meeting was held in June 1998, and the present paper updates and complements the earlier recommendations. Key changes included the following: the recommendation for testing and treating H pylori infection in patients with known peptic ulcer disease was extended to testing and treating patients with ulcer-like dyspepsia; it ...
Rimbara, Emiko; Sasatsu, Masanori; David Y Graham
Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen whose primary niche is the human stomach. H. pylori is etio-logically associated with gastric inflammation (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Both noninvasive (e.g., urea breath and stool antigen tests) and invasive (gastric biopsy for histology, culture, or PCR) tests are used for diagnosis. PCR detection of H. pylori has been reported using a variety of clinical samples including gastric biopsy, gastric juice, saliva, dental p...
Corrigan, Mark Anthony
The finding of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is rare, with less than 40 reported cases in the literature. A condition of unknown etiology, several hypotheses exist including infectious and congenital. We report a case of ectopic gastric tissue in the rectum of a 47-year-old female, and her subsequent clinical course. Furthermore for the first time, we present immunohistologic evidence of the presence of Helicobacter pylori in rectal ectopic gastric tissue.
Shimoyama, T.; Fukuda, S.; Liu, Q.; Nakaji, S; Fukuda, Y.; Sugawara, K
Backgrounds/Aims: Chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is characterised by considerable neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosa without mucosal invasion of bacteria. Bacteria have different characteristics with respect to their ability to stimulate human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species and chemokines. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of H pylori water extracts on the oxidative burst and chemokine production of human neutrophils.
Hunt, Richard; Thomson, Alan BR
These guidelines were created to dispel confusion and provide guidance about how the isolation of Helicobacter pylori infection has led to new opportunities and initiatives to improve patient care. The guidelines are designed for practical application in management decisions, but must remain flexible and amenable to change with new information. Updated versions of the recommendations are anticipated. Although it is now clear that H pylori is a major gastrointestinal pathogen, the extent of th...
Bulajic, Milutin; Panic, Nikola; Löhr, Johannes Matthias
A possible role for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in pancreatic diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection with antral predomination leading to an increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output and inducing ductal epithelial cell proliferation could contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer via complex interactions with the ABO genotype, dietary and smoking habits and N-nitrosamine exposure of the host. Although the individual study data available so far is inconsiste...
Full Text Available Abstract VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin A of Helicobacter pylori, induces apoptosis in epithelial cells of the gastic mucosa and in leukocytes. VacA is released by the bacteria as a protein of 88 kDa. At the outer surface of host cells, it binds to the sphingomyelin of lipid rafts. At least partially, binding to the cells is facilitated by different receptor proteins. VacA is internalized by a clathrin-independent mechanism and initially accumulates in GPI-anchored proteins-enriched early endosomal compartments. Together with early endosomes, VacA is distributed inside the cells. Most of the VacA is eventually contained in the membranes of vacuoles. VacA assembles in hexameric oligomers forming an anion channel of low conductivity with a preference for chloride ions. In parallel, a significant fraction of VacA can be transferred from endosomes to mitochondria in a process involving direct endosome-mitochondria juxtaposition. Inside the mitochondria, VacA accumulates in the mitochondrial inner membrane, probably forming similar chloride channels as observed in the vacuoles. Import into mitochondria is mediated by the hydrophobic N-terminus of VacA. Apoptosis is triggered by loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, recruitment of Bax and Bak, and release of cytochrome c.
Clinical observation on the effects of drug triple therapy combined with bifidobacterium and lactobacillus triple live bacteria on the radical treatment of Helicobacter pylori among the seafarers%药物三联疗法联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌治疗船员幽门螺杆菌的临床观察
彭卫斌; 容海鹰; 朱雅丽; 张明
目的 探讨药物三联疗法联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌对船员幽门螺杆菌(helicobacter pylori,Hp)根除治疗中的疗效.方法 根据患者意愿,将126例Hp感染且患有消化性溃疡的船员分为2组,对照组用兰索拉唑+克拉霉素+阿莫西林治疗；治疗组用兰索拉唑+克拉霉素+阿莫西林+双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌治疗,疗程均为2周.停药4周后复查13C尿素呼气试验及胃镜,观察2组幽门螺旋杆菌根除率、溃疡愈合率及不良反应发生情况.结果 胃肠道不良反应中,恶心、腹胀、腹泻及味觉异常的发生率,治疗组分别为41.7％、46.7％、25.0％、30.0％,对照组分别为73.6％、66.0％、52.8％、56.6％,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P＜0.05或P＜0.01)；治疗4周后,对照组与治疗组溃疡愈合率分别为90.57％、95.00％,差异无统计学意义(P＞0.05)；对照组根除率按意愿(intention-to-treat,ITT)分析和按方案(per-protocol,PP)分析分别为71.4％、84.1％,治疗组分别为84.9％、88.3％,2组比较差异均无统计学意义(P＞0.05).结论 药物三联疗法联合双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌不能提高Hp根除率及溃疡愈合率,但能够显著降低药物三联疗法的胃肠道不良反应,提高患者依从性.%Objective To investigate the effects of drug triple therapy combined with bifidobacterium and lactobacillus triple live bacteria on the radical treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) among the seafarers.Methods In accordance with the wishes of the patients,126 Hp-infected cases with peptic ulcer were divided into 2 groups.The control group was treated with lansoprazole,clarithromycin and amoxicillin for a succession of 2 weeks.The therapeutic group received lansoprazole,clarithromycin and amoxicillin combined with bifidobacterium and lactobacillus triple live bacteria,also for a succession of 2 weeks.All the patients in both groups were detected with 13 C-urea breath test and gastroscopy,4 weeks
Graham, David Y; Dore, Maria Pina
Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a leading cause of gastroduodenal disease, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication therapies and their efficacy are summarized. A number of current treatment regimens will reliably yield >90% or 95% cure rates with susceptible strains. None has proven to be superior. We show how to predict the efficacy of a regimen in any population provided one knows the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As with other infectious diseases, therapy should always be susceptibility-based. Susceptibility testing should be demanded. We provide recommendations for empiric therapies when that is the only option and describe how to distinguish studies providing misinformation from those providing reliable and interpretable data. When treated as an infectious disease, high H. pylori cure rates are relatively simple to reliably achieve. PMID:27077447
Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer
The RecA protein is a central component of the homologous recombination machinery and of the SOS system in most bacteria. In performing these functions, it is involved in DNA repair processes and plays an important role in natural transformation competence. This may be especially important in Helicobacter pylori, where an unusually high degree of microdiversity among strains is generated by homologous recombination. We have suggested previously that the H. pylori RecA protein is subject to po...
Dubois, A.; Berg, D E; Incecik, E T; Fiala, N; Heman-Ackah, L M; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J
Helicobacter pylori can establish chronic infection in the human gastric mucosa, and it is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and a principal risk factor for gastric cancer. This creates a need for H. pylori infection models that mimic the human condition. To test the suitability of rhesus monkeys as infection models, H. pylori-free animals were inoculated intragastrically with mixtures of H. pylori strains, bacteria recovered from colonized animals were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR, an...
Mai, U E; Perez-Perez, G I; Wahl, L. M.; Wahl, S M; Blaser, M J; Smith, P. D.
The inflammatory lesions associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis and duodenitis contain large numbers of mononuclear cells. The close proximity of H. pylori to gastric mucosa suggests that the organism interacts with mononuclear cells, thereby modulating the inflammatory response. To investigate the role of monocytes/macrophages in this response, we examined the effect of whole H. pylori bacteria, H. pylori surface proteins, and H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on purified human monoc...
Hans-Olof Nilsson; Unne Stenram; Ingemar Ihse; Torkel Wadstr(o)m
AIM: To determine whether gastric and enteric Helico-bacter species are associated with pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer(n = 40), neuroendocrine cancer (n = 14), multipleendocrine neoplasia type 1 (n = 8), and chronic pan-creatitis (n = 5) were studied. Other benign pancreat-ic diseases (n = 10) and specimens of normal pancre-as (n = 7) were included as controls. Pancreatic tissuespecimens were analyzed by Helicobacter-specificPCR-assay and products were characterized by dena-turing gradient electrophoresis and DNA-sequencing.From a subset of the pancreatic cancer patients, gas-tric and/or duodenal tissue as well as gallbladder andductus choledochus tissue were analyzed. Gallbladderand choledochus samples were included as controls.Stomach and duodenum samples were investigated toanalyze whether a gastric helicobacter might dissemi-nate to the pancreas in pancreatic cancer patients.Pancreatic specimens were analyzed by Bacteroides-specific PCR for detecting the translocation of indig-enous gut microbes to the diseased pancreas.RESULTS: Helicobacter DNA was detected in pancreas(tumor and/or surrounding tissue) of 75% of patientswith exocrine cancer, 57% of patients with neuro-endocrine cancer, 38% of patients with multiple eh-docrine neoplasia, and 60% of patients with chronicpancreatitis. All samples from other benign pancreaticdiseases and normal pancreas were negative. Thirty-three percent of the patients were helicobacter-positive in gastroduodenal specimens. Surprisingly,H. bilis was identified in 60% of the positive gastro-duodenal samples. All gallbladder and ductus cho-ledochus specimens were negative for helicobacter.Bacteroides PCR-assay was negative for all pancreaticsamples.CONCLUSION: Helicobacter DNA commonly detectedin pancreatic cancer suggests a possible role of theemerging pathogens in the development of chronicpancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
Yilmaz, Ismail; Erkul, E; Berber, U; Kucukodaci, Z; Narli, G; Haholu, A; Demirel, D
A definitive relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established. In this case-control study, we investigated the relationship between HP and laryngeal carcinoma by real-time PCR method in Turkey. 74 subjects were enrolled from patients who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department. Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue samples with laryngeal cancer were used and all samples were evaluated by real-time PCR method. Our study population included 72 males and 2 females with a mean age range of 62.7 years. Helicobacter Pylori was detected in only one case. The positive case was also investigated with histopathologic evaluation and HP immunohistochemistry. However, we could not detect HP in this case with both methods. This study revealed that HP might not contribute to the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. A definitive relationship between HP and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established.
Consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including examinations of bacteria risks; Konsekvenser ved solvarmeforberedte beholdere i bygningsreglementet herunder undersoegelse af risici for bakteriegener
Ellehauge, K.; Kaersgaard, K. [Teknologisk Inst., SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Bagh, L. [Teknologisk Inst., Miljoedivisionen (Denmark)
A larger dissemination of solar heating units must be expected, if requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating are introduced in the building regulations. However, this may have effects, which have to be discussed beforehand, just as it has to be decided how the regulations can be put into practice. 1) The aim is to examine and discuss the consequences of introducing requirements for tanks prepared for solar heating in the building regulations including connections with other legislation, potential, consequences for the building services sector and proposals for rules in the building regulations (exceptions etc.) 2) Furthermore, the aim is to explain the risk of bacteria in tanks prepared for solar heating according to existing or new additional studies. It must be explained whether tanks prepared for solar heating will result in an increased number of bacteria in the water compared to traditional hot water tanks and - if possible - whether the change is caused by the increased volume of the tank (the water stays in the tank for a longer period) or changed temperature conditions which favours growth of bacteria at a certain incubation temperature. (EHS)
CHUNG, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Lee, Young-Sun; Hwang, Cheol-Yong
ABSTRACT Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-spe...
Guo-Yong Hu; Bao-Ping Yu; Wei-Guo Dong; Mu-Qi Li; Jie-Ping Yu; He-Sheng Luo; Zong-Xue Rang
AIM: To investigate the expression of TFF2 and Helicobacter pyloriinfection in carcinogenesis of gastric mucosa.METHODS: The expression of TFF2 was immunohistochemically analyzed in paraffin-embedded samples from 119 patients with endoscopic biopsy and subtotal gastrectomy specimens of gastric mucosal lesions, including 16 cases of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), 20 chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG),35 intestinal metaplasia (IN), 23 gastric epithelial dysplasia (GED) and 25 gastric carcinoma (CA), and Helicobacter pylori infection was detected by Warthin-Starry staining.RESULTS: 1:TFF2 was located in the cytoplasm of gastrk mucous neck cell. The expression of TFF2 was 100 %,100 %, 0, 56.5 % and 0 in CSGs, CAGs, INs, GEDs and CAs, respectively. 2: The value of TFF2 positive cell density in CSG with Helicobacter pyloriinfection was higher than that without Helicobacter pyloriinfection. (52.89±7.27vs46.49±13.04, P＞0.05); But the value of TFF2 positive cell density in CAG and GED with Helicobacter pyloriinfection was significantly lower than that without Helicobacter pylori infection (18.17±4.09 vs 37.93±13.80, P＜0.01 and 14.44±9.32 vs 24.84±10.22, P＜0.05).CONCLUSION: Increase of TFF2 expression in CSG is perhaps associated with the protective mechanism after gastric mucosal injury. Decrease of TFF2 expression in CAG possibly attributes to the decrease in the number of gastric gland cell expressing TFF2. Re-expression of TFF2 in gastric epithelial dysplasia implies that TFF2 possibly contributes to the initiation of gastric carcinoma. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on the expression of TFF2 depends on the status of gastric mucosa.
Full Text Available Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the second most common infectious disease of humans. The severe pathological consequences of this infection include gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, the development of gastric mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, and, more rarely, malignant tumors of the lymphoma. H. pylori infections cause very high morbidity and mortality and are of particular concern in developing countries, where H. pylori prevalences as high as 90% have been reported. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-Locus of Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori isolates in Russia. MLVA of 4 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 10 candidates were performed on a collection of 22 strains of H. pylori which originated from Rostov region of Russia. This method provides a starting point on which improvements to the method and comparisons to other techniques can be made.
... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...
Coldham, Thosaporn; Rose, Karrie; O'Rourke, Jani; Neilan, Brett A; Dalton, Helen; Lee, Adrian; Mitchell, Hazel
The presence of Helicobacter spp. was examined in the liver and in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) including the stomach, 3 cm above ileum, ileum, caecum, colon and rectum of 10 ringtail possums (RTPs) and 3 koalas using a combination of microscopy, culture and PCR. Helicobacter was detected in the distal end of the GIT of 7 of 10 RTPs by direct PCR and in all (10/10) RTPs by nested PCR. Five 'S' shaped isolates with bipolar sheathed flagella were isolated from the lower bowel of 3 of the 10 RTPs. 16S rRNA sequence analysis of these 5 isolates confirmed them as potentially novel Helicobacter species. No Helicobacter species were cultured from the koalas, however Helicobacter DNA was detected, in the majority of liver and/or stomach samples of the three koalas and in the colonic region of one koala, using nested PCR. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced directly from DNA extracted from the homogenised livers and mucus scrapings of the stomach from koala 1 and were confirmed to be Helicobacter species. Based on histopathological examination of sections from the liver and intestine no evidence of infection could be related to the presence of helicobacters in either the RTP or koala. Based on our results, it is possible that diet may influence the detection of Helicobacter species; however this required further investigation.
peptic ulcer disease and malignant conditions of upper GI tract, which is in broad agreement with the studies done earlier. Thus we conclude that, Helicobacter pylori infection may have a major role in the aetiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and malignant conditions of upper GI tract here appears to be no significant association between Helicobacter pylori infection and unexplained dyspepsia. Hence, we recommend eradication of the bacteria only in patients positive for the bacterium, who have peptic ulceration. The cases positive by rapid urease test were found positive from biopsy also. Peter C Robin’s dictum: “If a person with peptic ulcer disease is shown to have Helicobacter pylori, then eradication is indicated.
Yoshiyuki Kawakami, Kozue Oana, Masayoshi Hayama, Hiroyoshi Ota, Masahiko Takeuchi, Kazuhiro Miyashita, Tsunetomo Matsuzawa, Kiyomi Kanaya
Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori has now been widely recognized as a causative agent of gastroduodenal diseases. The development of safer anti- H. pylori compounds is desirable due to the antibiotic-resistant strains emerged to date. Methods: We successfully developed the compounds of Rice-fluid derived from unpolished, polished, and usually cooked Japanese rice, and investigated their in vitro antibacterial activities by means of the Time-Kill-Curve methods against various species of bacteria including H. pylori strains. Results: All of the compounds revealed keen bactericidal activities against H. pylori, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Campylobacter jejuni strains, but failed to affect the viability of other bacterial species investigated including staphylococci, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram-negative rods belonging to the family Enterobacteraceae. The bactericidal activities were demonstrated to be time- and concentration-dependent. Conclusions: The compounds of Rice-fluid are considered to be potentially new and safe therapeutic regimens against H. pylori infections. The mechanism of their bactericidal activities against H. pylori strains remains to be elucidated.
Batool M Mahdi
Full Text Available Background : Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a common condition, affecting 25%-40% of the population. Increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CagA+ H. pylori and endoscopically proven gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Patients and Methods: The study group included 60 hospital patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease between 2007 and 2009 as compared with 30 healthy patients from a control group that was age and sex matched. Helicobacter pylori CagA+ was identified by an immunological test (Immunochromatography test (ACON, USA. Results : Helicobacter pylori CagA+ was present in 42/60 (70% of the patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and in 11/30 (36.6% patients in the control group (p=0.002. The Odds ratio = 0.8004 with 95% Confidence Interval = from 0.3188 to 2.0094. The relative risk=1.35 that indicates an association between Helicobacter pylori and disease. Conclusions: The presence of Helicobacter pylori is significantly increased in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease as compared with the control group.
Hardcastle, Joseph; Martinez, Laura; Salama, Nina; Bansil, Rama; Boston University Collaboration; University of Washington Collaboration
Bacteria's body shape plays an important role in motility by effecting chemotaxis, swimming mechanisms, and swimming speed. A prime example of this is the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori;whose helical shape has long been believed to provide an advantage in penetrating the viscous mucus layer protecting the stomach lining, its niche environment. To explore this we have performed bacteria tracking experiments of both wild-type bacteria along with mutants, which have a straight rod shape. A wide distribution of speeds was found. This distribution reflects both a result of temporal variation in speed and different shape morphologies in the bacterial population. Our results show that body shape plays less role in a simple fluid. However, in a more viscous solution the helical shape results in increased swimming speeds. In addition, we use experimentally obtained cell shape measurements to model the hydrodynamic influence of cell shape on swimming speed using resistive force theory. The results agree with the experiment, especially when we fold in the temporal distribution. Interestingly, our results suggest distinct wild-type subpopulations with varying number of half helices can lead to different swimming speeds. NSF PHY
Zhao-chun Chi; Xin-juan Yu; Quan-jiang Dong
This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.
Matisko, Ann; Thomson, ABR
‘Beginning the Second Decade’ - a recent international meeting on Helicobacter pylori - was held in conjunction with the VIIth International Workshop on Gastroduodenal Pathology and H pylori and with the meeting of the European Helicobacter pylori Study Group in Houston, Texas from September 30 to October 1, 1994. A menu of 476 abstracts, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology (1994;89:8), highlighted the explosion of advances in this area. The Houston meeting was followed by t...
It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, 13CO2 and H2 breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)
Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna
Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.
de Klerk, Nele; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Gebreegziabher, Hanna; Saroj, Sunil D; Eriksson, Beatrice; Eriksson, Olaspers Sara; Roos, Stefan; Lindén, Sara; Sjölinder, Hong; Jonsson, Ann-Beth
The human gastrointestinal tract, including the harsh environment of the stomach, harbors a large variety of bacteria, of which Lactobacillus species are prominent members. The molecular mechanisms by which species of lactobacilli interfere with pathogen colonization are not fully characterized. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of lactobacillus strains upon the initial attachment of Helicobacter pylori to host cells. Here we report a novel mechanism by which lactobacilli inhibit adherence of the gastric pathogen H. pylori In a screen with Lactobacillus isolates, we found that only a few could reduce adherence of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells. Decreased attachment was not due to competition for space or to lactobacillus-mediated killing of the pathogen. Instead, we show that lactobacilli act on H. pylori directly by an effector molecule that is released into the medium. This effector molecule acts on H. pylori by inhibiting expression of the adhesin-encoding gene sabA Finally, we verified that inhibitory lactobacilli reduced H. pylori colonization in an in vivo model. In conclusion, certain Lactobacillus strains affect pathogen adherence by inhibiting sabA expression and thereby reducing H. pylori binding capacity.
Full Text Available Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.
Shi-Ying Xuan; Ning Li; Xin Qiang; Rong-Rong Zhou; Yong-Xin Shi; Wen-Jie Jiang
AIM: To investigate whether Helicobacter species (Helicobacter spp.) could be detected in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue.METHODS: Liver samples from 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed by histopathology were studied. Twenty-two patients with other liver diseases (5 with liver trauma, 7 with cavernous liver hemangioma, 6 with liver cyst and 4 with hepatolithiasis), 25 patients with gastric cancer, 15 with colonic cancer and 15 with myoma of uterus served as controls. Two piceces of biopsy were obtained from each patient. One was cultured for Helicobacter spp. and extraction of DNA, the other was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in situ hybridization. The samples were cultured on Columbia agar plates with microaerobic techniques. Helicobacter spp. in biopsy from the studied subjects was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Helicobacter spp. 16S rRNA primers. Amplified products were identified by Southern hybridization and sequenced further. Besides, other genes (vacA, cagA) specific for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) were also detected by PCR. Helicobacter spp. in biopsies was observed by SEM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to identify the cultured positive Helicobacter spp. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was detected by in situ hybridization to confirm the type of Helicobacter.RESULTS: The positive rate of Helicobacter cultured in HCC and gastric cancer tissue was 10.7% (3/28) and 24%(6/25), respectively. Helicobacter microorganisms were identified further by typical appearance on Gram staining, positive urease test and characteristic colony morphology on TEM. The bacterium was observed in adjacent hepatocytes of the two HCC samples by SEM.The number of cocci was greater than that of bacilli. The bacterium was also found in four gastric cancer samples.PCR showed that the positive rate of HCC and gastric cancer samples was 60.7% and 72% respectively, while the controls were negative
Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Yousuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Hisama, Kazuhiro; Okada, Ichizo; Hirofuji, Takao
Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, is considered a possible cause of halitosis. Recently, the oral cavity was identified as a possible H. pylori reservoir, particularly in the presence of periodontal disease, which is a cause of halitosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate by PCR the prevalence of oral H. pylori in the saliva of subjects complaining of halitosis. Samples were obtained from 326 non-dyspeptic subjects, comprising 251 subjects with actual malodour and 75 subjects without halitosis. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the presence of H. pylori and periodontopathic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Prevotella intermedia was examined by PCR. H. pylori was detected in 21 (6.4 %) of 326 samples. The methyl mercaptan concentration and periodontal parameters including tooth mobility, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and occult blood in the saliva were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Each of the periodontopathic bacteria was also detected at a significantly higher frequency in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Among those patients with a PPD of > or =5 mm and a tongue coating score of pylori-positive and -negative subjects. However, the presence of occult blood in the saliva and the prevalence of Prevotella intermedia were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. H. pylori was detected in 16 (15.7 %) of 102 subjects with periodontitis, suggesting that progression of periodontal pocket and inflammation may favour colonization by this species and that H. pylori infection may be indirectly associated with oral pathological halitosis following periodontitis. PMID:19018029
Jennifer Angeline Gaddy
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world’s population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between the H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host’s innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts.
Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata
Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions. PMID:27008253
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients. The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.
Anastasios Roussos; Nikiforos Philippou; Konstantinos I Gouraoulianis
In the past few years, a variety of extradigestive disorders,including cardiovascular, skin, rheumatic and liver diseases,have been associated with Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)infection. The activation of inflammatory mediators by H. pyloriseems to be the pathogenetic mechanism underlying theobserved associations. The present review summarizes thecurrent literature, including our own studies, concerning theassociation between H. pvloriinfection and respiratory diseases.A small number of epidemiological and serologic, case-control studies suggest that H. pyloriinfection may beassociated with the development of chronic bronchitis. Afrequent coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis and H. pyloriinfection has also been found. Moreover, recent studies haveshown an increasedH. pyloriseroprevalence in patients withbronchiectasis and in those with lung cancer. On the otherhand, bronchial asthma seems not to be related withH. pyloriinfection.All associations between H. pyloriinfection and respiratorydiseases are primarily based on case-control studies,concerning relatively small numbers of patients. Moreover,there is a lack of studies focused on the pathogenetic linkbetween respiratory diseases and H. pylori infection.Therefore, we believe that larger studies should beundertaken to confirm the observed results and to clarifythe underlying pathogenetic mechanisms.
Okuda, Masumi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 or 3 years and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. In developing countries, acquisition age of the infection is probably lower than in developed countries. In Japan, main transmission route is intrafamilial and mother to children infection is most important. But in developing countries, some reports suggest that extrafamilial infection is more important. The famous paper revealed that H. pylori can be cultivated from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of H. pylori infection. Bed sharing, large number of family members, delayed weaning from a feeding bottle, regurgitated gastric juice in the mother's mouth are reported as risk factors of the infection. PMID:19999106
Research published over the past year has documented the continued decline of Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease and increased recognition of non-H. pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcer disease--idiopathic ulcers. Despite reduced prevalence of uncomplicated PUD, rates of ulcer complications and associated mortality remain stubbornly high. The role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is unclear, with some authors considering H. pylori-associated nonulcer dyspepsia a distinct organic entity. There is increasing acceptance of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but little understanding of how GERD might be more common\\/severe in H. pylori-negative subjects. Research has focused on factors such as different H. pylori phenotypes, weight gain after H. pylori eradication, and effects on hormones such as ghrelin that control appetite.
Rehvathy, Vellaya; Tan, Mun Hua; Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Teh, Xinsheng; Wang, Susana; Baybayan, Primo; Singh, Siddarth; Ashby, Meredith; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Hazel M Mitchell; Croft, Laurence J.; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna
Helicobacter pylori causes human gastroduodenal diseases, including chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is also a major microbial risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-one strains with different ethnicity, disease, and antimicrobial susceptibility backgrounds were sequenced by use of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio RS platforms.
Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram
Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included who were permanent resident of…
Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a bacterial pathogen that leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, gastric and duodenal ulcer and atrophic gastritis. Colonization of bacteria can be shown by using rapid-urease test during endoscopy. There are conflicting data about the route of transmission and reservoir. It’s thought to be transmitted primarily by oral route. Many studies showed results supporting that the presence of bacteria in dental plaques has effects on gastric colonization and eradication. There are data about the potential inhibitory effect of oral flora on HP. We aimed to analyze the association of simplified oral hygiene index -a possible representation of a healthy oral flora- with HP positivity. Methods: Patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy for symptoms of dyspepsia were assessed by a dentist for the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI. Patients were classified as good, poor and bad groups based on oral hygiene index scale. Pre-pyloric biopsy materials were assessed using rapid-urease test. Oral hygiene indexes were analyzed retrospectively, groups were compared for HP positivity. Results: 66 patients (30 females, 45.5% were included. Mean age of patients was 34.17±14.7 years. 11 (16.7%, 29 (43.9% and 26 (39.4% patients were classified as in good, poor and bad hygiene index groups, respectively. In patients with good OHI gastric HP positivity was less frequent. Conclusion: Decreased frequency in gastric HP may be observed with maintaining an ideal oral hygiene.
Yuan, Yuping; Wu, Qinyi; Cheng, Guoxiang; Liu, Xuefang; Liu, Siguo; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Aimin; Bian, Li; Chen, Jianquan; Lv, Jiajun; Dong, Xiangqian; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Yunzhen; Ma, Lanqing
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a life-threatening pathogen which causes chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and even stomach cancer. Treatment normally involves bacterial eradication; however, this type of treatment only has a rate of effectiveness of <80%. Thus, it is a matter of some urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies. Lactoferrin, a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins, has been proven to be effective in removing a vast range of pathogens, including H. pylori. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) isolated from transgenic goats as a treatment for H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo experiments, BALB/c mice received an intragastric administration of 0.1 ml of a suspension of H. pylori. The mice were then divided into 4 groups: group A, treated with saline; group B, treated with 1.5 g of rhLF; group C, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen; and group D, treated with the standard triple therapy regimen plus.5 g of rhLF. Following sacrifice, the stomach tissues of the mice were histologically examined for the presence of bacteria. For the in vitro experiments, the bacteria were cultured in BHI broth and RT-qPCR and western blot analysis were carried out to determine the mRNA and protein levels of virulence factors (CagA and VacA) in the cultures. Our results revealed that rhLf not only inhibited the growth of H. pylori, but also suppressed the expression of two major virulence factors. Moreover, rhLf markedly increased bacterial eradication and effectively reduced the inflammatory response when combined with the standard triple therapy regimen. These results provide evidence supporting the use of rhLF as an adjuvant to traditional therapeutic strategies in the treatment of H. pylori.
Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Anita P. O. Godoy; Yune H. B. Benvengo; Christina C. Ecclissato; Sergio Mendonça; José Pedrazzoli Jr
BACKGROUND: Among the various diagnostic methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, histological examination and microbiological processing of gastric biopsy samples are assumed to be the gold standard techniques. AIMS: Since H. pylori culture can be affected by the presence of non-H. pylori bacteria, we evaluated the efficacy of endoscope disinfection and the influence of endoscopic procedures on culture contamination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The procedures used during the fir...
Shcherbakov, P L; Belousova, N L; Shcherbakova, M Iu; Kashnikov, V S
Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper digestive tract, associated with Helicobacter pylori has recently greatly complicated by the presence of significant number of resistant strains of this microorganism to traditionally used drugs for eradication therapy. Average resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Russia is about 30 and 25% respectively. The article presents the experience of treating patients with metronidazole resistant strains of H. pylori with using triple therapy, which included a drug used nitrofurans--nifuroxazide in suspension, proton pump inhibitors and clarithromycin. PMID:21485525
Farnaz HajiFattahi; Maryam Hesari; Homayoun Zojaji; Fatemeh Sarlati
Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Heli- cobacter pylori infection with halitosis.Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years). The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, ma...
Nélio Veiga; Carlos Pereira; Carlos de Resende; Odete Amaral; Manuela Ferreira; Paula Nelas; Claudia Chaves; João Duarte; Luis Cirnes; José Carlos Machado; Paula Ferreira; Correia, Ilídio J.
Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire a...
Pavan Kumar Pindi
Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against...
Olofsson, Annelie; Nygård Skalman, Lars; Obi, Ikenna; Lundmark, Richard; Arnqvist, Anna
UNLABELLED: Bacteria shed a diverse set of outer membrane vesicles that function as transport vehicles to deliver effector molecules and virulence factors to host cells. Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that infects half of the world's population, and in some individuals the infection progresses into peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer. Here we report that intact vesicles from H. pylori are internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and further dynamin-dependent processes, as ...
Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; López-Brea, Manuel; Alarcón, Teresa; Rodrigo, Sandra
La presente invención se refiere a una serie de compuestos fenólicos que pueden ser extraídos de la uva o del vino y que poseen capacidad bacericida contra Helicobacter pylori, por lo que dichos compuestos son útiles para la fabricación de un medicamento para el tratamiento y/o prevención de patologías causadas por esta bacteria o como aditivos en alimentos funcionales o productos alimentarios.
Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J.; López-Brea, Manuel; Alarcón, Teresa; Rodrigo, Sandra
[ES] La presente invención se refiere a una serie de compuestos fenólicos que pueden ser extraídos de la uva o del vino y que poseen capacidad bactericida contra Helicobacter pylori, por lo que dichos compuestos son útiles para la fabricación de un medicamento para el tratamiento y/o prevención de patologías causadas por esta bacteria o como aditivos en alimentos funcionales o productos alimentarios.
F. Tugba Kos
Full Text Available Aim: Until now many researches have showed that Helicobacter pylori infection may be etiological factor of colorectal cancer. The aim of current study was to investigate the frequency of H.pylori infection seropositivity of colorectal cancer patients and compare the clinicopathological features of H.pylori positive patients with negative ones. Material and Method: Seventy four colorectal patients were included in study. Retrospectively, patients clinical features, surgery history and pathological characteristics were screened. Patients group serum samples were collected. H.pylori Ig G level were quantitatively measured with ELISA method and levels above 5 arbU/ml were accepted as seropositive. Results: Patients median age was 60.5 ( range 26-83 and 56.8% (n=42 were male. H.pylori Ig G was positive in 37.8% (n=28 and negative in 62.2% (n=46 of patient group. H.pylori serpositive and negative patients median age of diagnosis were 56 and 64 respectively (p=0.01. There were no significant difference between H.pylori seropositive group when compared with negative group according to age, level of CEA and Ca 19-9, stage, lymph node involvement, perineural and vascular invasion, presence of polyps, differantion, localisation of tumours. Discussion: H.pylori seropositive patients were diagnosed at younger age. Association of this finding with etiology was confusing. Further studies with healthy controls may provide detailed information about whether H.pylori seropositivity is associated with colorectal cancer etiology.
Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.
To compare the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by stool antigen test in children with and without halitosis. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2008 and June 2009. Methodology: Fifty-three patients aged between 3-15 years who presented to paediatrics outpatient clinic with halitosis and 55 healthy children aged between 4-15 years without halitosis were included in the study. Halitosis was confirmed with organoleptic test. Stool antigen test was performed in both groups. Inter group proportions were compared using chi square and Fisher exact tests with significance at p 0.05). Two weeks eradication treatment was administered to 11 patients with H. pylori infection and halitosis. After treatment, the symptoms of 8 patients with halitosis (72.7%) completely resolved and persisted in 3 patients (27.3%). Seven of the 11 patients who were administered eradication treatment also had abdominal pain along with halitosis. Both symptoms completely resolved in all those patients after treatment. Conclusion: Although no statistically significant difference existed between the rate of H. pylori infections among those with and without halitosis. Eradication treatment was found beneficial in the treatment of children with halitosis and positive H. pylori stool antigen test. (author)
It is accepted that the success of Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment using standard triple therapy is declining. Resistance, particularly to clarithromycin, has been shown in numerous countries to be rising to a level where the use of standard triple therapy in its current form may no longer be justified. The two major factors influencing resistance are prior exposure to the antibiotic and compliance with therapy. Regimes based on bismuth and levofloxacin, which had previously been mainly second-line options, are now emerging as superior first-line options. Trials of sequential and concomitant therapies are also showing the usefulness of these treatments in different populations. Options for third and subsequent line therapies include furazolidone and rifabutin-based regimes. Susceptibility testing should be performed to maintain accurate data on resistance levels, and has also clinical utility in difficult to eradicate cases. None of these, however, will be successful unless compliance is improved upon. If compliance is assured and eradication confirmation pursued, it has been repeatedly illustrated that near full eradication is achievable.
Bacteria repelling poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide) coatings for biomedical devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer microarray screening, including analysis of bacterial adhesion by fluorescence microscopy and SEM, and chemical composition of bacteria repelling polymers identified in the screen; polymer synthesis and characterisation; preparation of catheter pieces and solvent studies, and details for confocal imaging/analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb01129e Click here for additional data file.
Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Wu, Mei; Gwynne, Peter J.; Hardman, Ailsa; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Blakely, Garry; Swann, David G.
Nosocomial infections due to bacteria have serious implications on the health and recovery of patients in a variety of medical scenarios. Since bacterial contamination on medical devices contributes to the majority of nosocomical infections, there is a need for redesigning the surfaces of medical devices, such as catheters and tracheal tubes, to resist the binding of bacteria. In this work, polyurethanes and polyacrylates/acrylamides, which resist binding by the major bacterial pathogens underpinning implant-associated infections, were identified using high-throughput polymer microarrays. Subsequently, two ‘hit’ polymers, PA13 (poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide)) and PA515 (poly(methoxyethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate-co-methylmethacrylate)), were used to coat catheters and substantially shown to decrease binding of a variety of bacteria (including isolates from infected endotracheal tubes and heart valves from intensive care unit patients). Catheters coated with polymer PA13 showed up to 96% reduction in bacteria binding in comparison to uncoated catheters. PMID:25580245
Alvarez-Calatayud, Guillermo; Margolles, Abelardo
Probiotics are living micro-organisms that do not naturally have shelf life, and normally are weakly protected against the digestive action of the GI tract. A new dual coating technology has been developed in an effort to maximize survival, that is, to be able to reach the intestine alive and in sufficient numbers to confer the beneficial health effects on the host. Dual-coating of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the result of fourth-generation coating technology for the protection of these bacteria at least 100-fold or greater than the uncoated LAB. This innovative technique involves a first pH-dependent protein layer that protects bacteria from gastric acid and bile salt, and a second polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from external factors, such as humidity, temperature and pressure, as well as the digestive action during the passage through the GI tract. Dual-coated probiotic formulation is applicable to different therapeutic areas, including irritable bowel syndrome, atopic dermatitis, acute diarrhea, chronic constipation, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. An updated review of the efficacy of doubly coated probiotic strains for improving bacterial survival in the intestinal tract and its consequent clinical benefits in humans is here presented. PMID:26780116
幽门螺杆菌感染在全世界广泛存在,能引起多种胃部疾病,包括胃癌.尽管抗生素治疗有效,但是人们一致认为幽门螺杆菌疫苗可能是控制幽门螺杆菌感染的最佳方法.有效的幽门螺杆菌疫苗策略可显著增进全世界人群的健康.此文就幽门螺杆菌疫苗的保护性抗原、佐剂、动物模型、免疫机制的研究进展进行综述.%Helicobacter pylori infection is widespread in the world and can cause several gastric diseases,including gastric cancer. Although antibiotic therapy is effective,there is a consensus that Helicobacter pylori vaccines may be the best approach to control Helicobacter pylori infection.An effective vaccine strategy against Helicobacter pylori can significantly improve population health worldwide.This review describes the advancements in the research of Helicobacter pylori vaccines,including protective antigens,adjuvant,animal models and immunological mechanisms.
Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983, numerous detection methods for the presence of the bacterium have been developed. Each one of them has been associated with advantages and disadvantages. Noninvasive tests such as serology, (13)C urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen tests are usually preferred by the clinicians. Serology has its own limitation especially in endemic areas while (13)C UBT is technically very demanding. The stool antigen detection method, although specific, is usually associated with poor sensitivity. The (13)C UBT is believed to be specific, but with present revelation of the fact that stomach is colonized by many other urease producing bacteria makes it questionable. Histology, culture, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the tests which are carried out on antral biopsies collected by invasive means. Histology has been proposed to be very sensitive and specific but the question is how by simply looking the morphology of the bacteria in the microscope, one can claim that the curved bacterium is exclusively H. pylori. Rapid urease test (RUT), the doctor's test, is also challenged because the presence of other urease producing bacteria in the stomach cannot be denied. Moreover, RUT has been reported with poor sensitivity specially, when density of the bacterium is low. Isolation of H. pylori is essential to investigate its growth requirements, antibiotic susceptibility testing, studying virulence factor to develop vaccine and many more explorations. It has also got several disadvantages i.e., special condition for transporting, media, incubation and few days waiting for the colonies to appear, apart from the speed essentially needed to process the specimens. Till date, majority of the microbiological laboratories in the world are not equipped and trained to isolate such fastidious bacterium. The option left is PCR methods to detect H. pylori's DNA in gastric mucosa, gastric juice, saliva, dental
Molnar, Bela; Galamb, Orsolya; Sipos, Ferenc; Leiszter, Katalin; Tulassay, Zsolt
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common pathogens affecting humankind, infecting approximately 50% of the world's population. Of those infected, many will develop asymptomatic gastritis, but 10% develop gastric or duodenal ulcers. The clinical outcome of the infection may involve a combination of bacterial factors, host factors and environmental factors. In the process of development of gastritis, ulceration and cancer, several cellular and molecular steps follow each other. Infection, acid survival, adhesion, cytotoxicity, epithelial cell turnover changes, inflammation, regeneration or pathological alteration towards erosions, ulceration, and cancer can be observed on the cellular level. Bacterial factors like urease, AmiE, AmiF, hydrogenase and arginase are needed for survival in the acidic gastric environment. The bacterial flagellae are essential to move the bacteria towards the epithelial surface. Adhesive factors like BabA, SabA and ureaseA are necessary for adhesion against MHC-II complexes and Le antigens. The bacteria VacA and CagA are cytotoxic factors. The Cag type IV secretion system delivers these proteins inside the epithelial cells. After disruption of epithelial cell junctions, the bacteria can pass through the gastric wall facing direct immune response from neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells and dendritic cells. This review describes and summarizes our present molecular biological information and knowledge about the Helicobacter infective component, cell functions and processes. The possible role of host counter responses and interactions with gastric epithelia and immune cells are also detailed. PMID:21088410
目的：观察不同菌型幽门螺杆菌（H．pylori）感染消化性溃疡患者白介素-10（IL-10）、肿瘤坏死因子-α（ TNF-α）的表达情况。方法选择2012年3月至2014年11月接受治疗的100例H．pylori感染消化性溃疡患者作为研究病例，分别测定患者血清中IL-10、TNF-α水平。记录患者血清中IL-10、TNF-α水平含量，并比较H．pylori感染十二指肠球部溃疡与胃溃疡血清中IL-10、TNF-α水平含量。结果 IL-10的表达水平Ⅰ型H．pylori感染检测值显著高于H．pylori阴性组，差异有统计学意义（ P ＜0�．05）；Ⅰ型H．pylori感染组检测值仅稍高于Ⅱ型H．pylori感染组，差异无统计学意义（P＞0．05）。 TNF-α的表达水平Ⅰ型H．pylori感染检测值均显著高于H．pylori阴性组及Ⅱ型H．pylori感染组，差异均有统计学意义（ P ＜0．05）。 IL-10的表达水平在Ⅰ型H．pylori感染及Ⅱ型H．pylori感染十二指肠球部溃疡均与胃溃疡基本相符，差异均无统计学意义（ P ＞0．05）；TNF-α的表达水平在Ⅰ型H．pylori感染十二指肠球部溃疡显著高于胃溃疡，差异有统计学意义（ P ＜0．05）；TNF-α的表达水平在Ⅱ型H．pylori感染十二指肠球部溃疡仅稍高于胃溃疡，差异无统计学意义（ P ＞0．05）。结论不同菌型H．pylori感染消化性溃疡患者血清中的IL-10、TNF-α水平差异较大，可以为临床上消化性溃疡的诊断提供有利价值。%Objective To investigate the expression levels of IL-10, TNF-αof different types of bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection in patients with peptic ulcer.Methods The expression levels of IL-10,TNF-αin serum of 100 patients with H.pylori infection peptic ulcer who were treated in our hospital from March 2012 to November 2014, were detected and compared among different types of H.pylori infection groups.Moreover the expression levels of IL-10,TNF-αwere compared
Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...
Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola
The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding. PMID:16117312
Objective:To investigate the correlation between childhood asthma andHelicobacter pylori infection.Methods: A total of 80 children with asthma who were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2015 were selected as the research subjects, and 40 cases of healthy children were selected as control group, theHelicobacter pylori infection of the two groups of patients were compared, the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the serumHelicobacter pylori-IgG,Helicobacter pylori-CagAIgG, IL-4,Helicobacter pylori, IFN-γ and IL-1β,etc., and the correlation betweenHelicobacter pylori infection and asthma was analyzed.Results:The positive rates ofHelicobacter pylori infection in asthma group and children in attack stage were significantly higher than those in control group and children in remission stage (P<0.05). The positive rates of serumHelicobacter pylori-IgG and Helicobacter pylori-CagAIgG in asthma group and children in attack stage were significantly lower than those in control group and children in remission stage (P<0.05). The serum levels of IFN-γ in asthma group and children in attack stage were significantly lower than those in control group and children in remission stage, IL-4 and IL-1β levels in the former were significantly higher than those in the latter (P<0.05).Helicobacter pyloriinfection positive had significant positive correlation with IL-1β concentration (r=0.75,P<0.05).Conclusions:Helicobacter pylori infection in children has significant positive correlation with the incidence of asthma, suggesting thatHelicobacter pylori infection has a certain protective effect on childhood asthma, but persistentHelicobacter pyloriinfection in children with asthma can aggravate the immune disorder, which is the main reason for the difficulty of treatment of asthma.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.
Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco
Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.
Milutin; Bulajic; Nikola; Panic; Johannes; Matthias; L?hr
A possible role for Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infec-tion in pancreatic diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection with antral predomination leading to an increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output and induc-ing ductal epithelial cell proliferation could contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer via complex interactions with the ABO genotype, dietary and smok-ing habits and N-nitrosamine exposure of the host. Although the individual study data available so far is inconsistent, several meta-analyses have reported an increased risk for pancreatic cancer among H. pylori seropositive individuals. It has been suggested that H. pylori causes autoimmune pancreatitis due to molecu-lar mimicry between H. pylori a-carbonic anhydrase(a-CA) and human CA type Ⅱ, and between H. pylori plasminogen-binding protein and human ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2, enzymes that are highly expressed in the pancreatic ductal andacinar cells, respectively. Future studies involving large numbers of cases are needed in order to examine the role of H. pylori in autoimmune pancreatitis more fully. Considering the worldwide pancreatic cancer burden, as well as the association between autoimmune pan-creatitis and other autoimmune conditions, a complete elucidation of the role played by H. pylori in the gen-esis of such conditions could have a substantial impact on healthcare.
Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R
Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.
Yadegar, Abbas; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Lawson, Andy J; Mirzaei, Tabassom; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Zali, Mohammad Reza
Phenotypic identification of non-pylori Helicobacter species has always been problematic and time-consuming in comparison with many other bacteria. We developed a rapid two-step identification assay based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the 23S rRNA gene for differentiating between non-pylori Helicobacter species. A new genus-specific primer pair based on all available complete and partial 23S rRNA sequences of Helicobacter species was designed. In silico restriction analysis of variable regions of the 23S rRNA gene suggested SmaI and HindIII endonucleases would provide a good level of differentiation. Analysis of the obtained 23S rRNA RFLP patterns divided all Helicobacter study strains into three species groups (groups A-C) and 12 unique restriction patterns. Wolinella succinogenes also gave a unique pattern. Our proposed PCR-RFLP method was found to be as a valuable tool for routine identification of non-pylori Helicobacter species from human or animal samples.
Every Alison L
Full Text Available Abstract Since the discovery that Helicobacter pylori causes a range of pathologies in the stomachs of infected humans, it has become apparent that Helicobacters are found in a diverse range of animal species where they are frequently associated with disease. In 2003 and 2004, there were two outbreaks of increased mortality associated with gastric bleeding and weight-loss in a captive colony of the Australian marsupial, the Stripe-faced Dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura. The presence of gastric pathology led to an investigation of potential Helicobacter pathogenesis in these animals. Histological examination revealed the presence of gastritis, and PCR analysis confirmed the presence of Helicobacter infection in the stomachs of these marsupials. Surprisingly, sequencing of 16S rRNA from these bacteria identified the species as H. pylori and PCR confirmed the strain to be positive for the important pathogenesis factor, cagA. We therefore describe, for the first time, an apparent reverse zoonotic infection of Stripe-faced Dunnarts with H. pylori. Already prone to pathological effects of stress (as experienced during breeding season, concomitant H. pylori infection appears to be a possible essential but not sufficient co-factor in prototypic gastric bleeding and weight loss in these marsupials. The Stripe-faced Dunnart could represent a new model for investigating Helicobacter-driven gastric pathology. Infections from their human handlers, specifically of H. pylori, may be a potential risk to captive colonies of marsupials.
Dugina V.V.; Shirali Rashmi; Lebedeva N.V.; Babayan S.R.; Rudakova G.V.; Khrulyova N.S.
The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of Licopid and bifid and lactic acid bacteria complex on Helicobacter pylori eradication and lysozyme activity as the factor of nonspecific immune protection in gastric and duodenal ulcer. Materials and Methods. There were studied 30 patients suffering from Helicobacter associated gastric and duodenal ulcer, lysozyme activity was determined in 8 conditionally healthy individuals. There were used endoscopic, cytomorphological, and imm...
Bernal-Guadarrama, María José; Fernández-Gallardo, Nuhacet; Zamora-Padrón, Rafael; Pacheco, Víctor; Reyes-Batlle, María; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique
Helicobacter pylori is considered to be responsible for the most common gastric infections in humans worldwide. In animals, other Helicobacter species are linked to gastritis with and without the presence of ulcers in their respective hosts. Moreover, gastric ulcers have been reported for decades in wild and captive dolphins. Clinical signs include lack of appetite, anorexia, abdominal tenderness, depression, and occasional unresponsiveness. In this study, serum and stool of nine bottlenose dolphins from Loro Parque collection Tenerife, Spain were examined for the presence of Helicobacter spp. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of two commercially available kits for the detection of H. pylori in humans: a stool antigen immunoassay (Letitest H. pylori CARD) and a Western blot assay (EUROLINE-WB H. pylori) that were adapted to identify specific Helicobacter spp. antibodies in the tested Loro Parque bottlenose dolphin collection. The utility of these diagnostic kits for their application in dolphins is demonstrated, and their use in the future for the diagnosis of Helicobacter spp. in both wild and captive dolphins is proposed in this study.
Elsom, Giles K.; Hide, Denis; Salmon, David M.
Both the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (expressed in terms of thiosulphinate concentration) of an aqueous extract of garlic was determined against nine species of bacteria. Helicobacter pylori proved to be extremely sensitive to garlic extract, whilst Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus all were moderately sensitive to the garlic extract treat...
The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5
Bacteriën kennen geen geslachtelijke voortplanting, ze hebben altijd één “ouder” in plaats van twee. Ze kunnen dus tijdens de voortplanting niet kruisen. Om toch erfelijke eigenschappen te kunnen uitwisselen hebben ze andere methoden. De maagbacterie Helicobacter pylori kan dit bijvoorbeeld doen doo
Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn;
National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...
Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...
Khwaja Saifullah Zafar; Vidyasagar Ram; Manoj Kumar
Background: Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection in human beings. The aim was to study the association of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients of diabetes mellitus. Design of the study was observational analytic cross sectional study. Methods: A total of 69 subjects were studied. Of these 30 were non diabetics and 39 were diabetics, with disease duration more than 1 year. The serological diagnosis of H. pylori was made by Anti- Helicobacter pylori antibody test....
Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primar-ily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori(H pylori infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lym-phoid tissue lymphorna. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in Hpylori injected sub-jects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in associa-tion with atrophic gastritis induced by Hpylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentra-tion. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may re-sult from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations be-fore and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.
Nobeli meditsiiniauhind määrati sel aastal Austraalia teadlastele Robin Warrenile ja Barry Marshallile, kes avastasid, et gastriit ning peptiline haavand tekib Helicobacter pylori infektsiooni tulemusena
Full Text Available Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN
For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega
Jun, X.; Xiuzheng, F.; Tongbing, Y.
Analyses of pond water and mud samples show that nitrifying bacteria (including ammonifying bacteria, nitrite bacteria, nitrobacteria and denitrifying bacteria) are in general closely correlated with various physico-chemical factors, ammonifying bacteria are mainly correlated with dissolved oxygen; denitrifying bacteria are inversely correlated with phosphorus; nitrite bacteria are closely correlated with nitrites, nitrobacteria are inversely correlated with ammoniac nitrogen. The nitrifying ...
Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.
Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...
Full Text Available Purpose: In gram-negative bacteria, active efflux pumps that excrete drugs can confer resistance to antibiotics however, in Helicobacter pylori this role is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of active efflux in resistance of H. pylori isolates to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Twelve multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR isolates resistant to at least four antibiotics, including β-lactams, metronidazole, tetracycline, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin; three resistant to only β-lactams, and two hyper-susceptible isolates, were obtained from screening of 96 clinical isolates of H. pylori . Their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for antibiotics and ethidium-bromide (EtBr were compared in the presence- and absence of a proton-conductor, carbonyl cyanide-m chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP using agar-dilution and disc diffusion. Drug accumulation studies for EtBr and antibiotics were assessed in the presence and absence of CCCP using spectrofluorometry. Results: MIC of EtBr for eight MAR-isolates was decreased two- to four-folds in the presence of CCCP, of which five showed reduced MICs for β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin with CCCP. Accumulation of EtBr by the MAR-isolates was rapid and not dependant on the pattern of multiple resistance. Antibiotic accumulation assay confirmed the presence of energy-dependant efflux of β-lactam, metronidazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, but no erythromycin in five MAR isolates. Energy-dependant efflux of EtBr or antibiotics was not observed for four MAR-isolates, and three isolates were resistant only to β-lactams. Conclusion: Energy-dependant efflux plays a role in the resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates to structurally unrelated antibiotics in a broadly specific multidrug efflux manner. Difference in the efflux potential of MAR isolates may be related to the presence or absence of functional efflux-pumps in diverse H. pylori
Al-Ahmad, A; Kürschner, A; Weckesser, S; Wittmer, A; Rauberger, H; Jakob, T; Hellwig, E; Kist, M; Waidner, B
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of at least half of the world's human population. The role of the oral cavity in this colonization is not clear and there are, to date, no comprehensive data that clearly demonstrate the isolation of this bacterium from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori in the oral cavity of 15 patients who tested positive for H. pylori. A comprehensive dental examination of all patients was conducted. Samples were taken from supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, periapical exudates and tongue swabs. All samples were taken before the application of antibiotics. A total of 163 oral samples were investigated by PCR using two different H. pylori-specific primer pairs. A PCR inhibition control using a modified plasmid was always included for the most specific primer pair. In addition, a culture technique was used to confirm PCR results. Despite a PCR detection limit of 10(2) bacteria ml(-1), out of 14 patients, H. pylori could not be detected in any of the samples taken. In one patient, H. pylori-positive PCR signals were obtained in two samples using only one primer pair. H. pylori could not be cultivated from these two PCR-positive samples; therefore, no correlation to oral colonization status could be established. This study challenges the misleading preconception that H. pylori resides in the human oral cavity and suggests that this bacterium should be considered transient and independent of the oral status. To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature. PMID:22499779
Al-Ahmad, A; Kürschner, A; Weckesser, S; Wittmer, A; Rauberger, H; Jakob, T; Hellwig, E; Kist, M; Waidner, B
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of at least half of the world's human population. The role of the oral cavity in this colonization is not clear and there are, to date, no comprehensive data that clearly demonstrate the isolation of this bacterium from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori in the oral cavity of 15 patients who tested positive for H. pylori. A comprehensive dental examination of all patients was conducted. Samples were taken from supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, periapical exudates and tongue swabs. All samples were taken before the application of antibiotics. A total of 163 oral samples were investigated by PCR using two different H. pylori-specific primer pairs. A PCR inhibition control using a modified plasmid was always included for the most specific primer pair. In addition, a culture technique was used to confirm PCR results. Despite a PCR detection limit of 10(2) bacteria ml(-1), out of 14 patients, H. pylori could not be detected in any of the samples taken. In one patient, H. pylori-positive PCR signals were obtained in two samples using only one primer pair. H. pylori could not be cultivated from these two PCR-positive samples; therefore, no correlation to oral colonization status could be established. This study challenges the misleading preconception that H. pylori resides in the human oral cavity and suggests that this bacterium should be considered transient and independent of the oral status. To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature.
Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter
Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population
Martínez, Laura E; Hardcastle, Joseph M; Wang, Jeffrey; Pincus, Zachary; Tsang, Jennifer; Hoover, Timothy R; Bansil, Rama; Salama, Nina R
The helical shape of the human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to provide mechanical advantage for penetrating the viscous stomach mucus layer. Using single-cell tracking and quantitative morphology analysis, we document marked variation in cell body helical parameters and flagellum number among H. pylori strains leading to distinct and broad speed distributions in broth and viscous gastric mucin media. These distributions reflect both temporal variation in swimming speed and morphologic variation within the population. Isogenic mutants with straight-rod morphology showed 7-21% reduction in speed and a lower fraction of motile bacteria. Mutational perturbation of flagellum number revealed a 19% increase in speed with 4 versus 3 median flagellum number. Resistive force theory modeling incorporating variation of both cell shape and flagellum number predicts qualitative speed differences of 10-30% among strains. However, quantitative comparisons suggest resistive force theory underestimates the influence of cell body shape on speed for helical shaped bacteria.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is infecting %70-80 of the world’s population and is assumed to cause gastric diseases. Diagnosis of the bacteria is crucial for the treatment of the bacteria related infections. Histology, culture, urea breath test, stool antigen test some of the diagnosis methods each having specific strength and weaknesses as sensitivity, specificity, cost, easiness, time, effectiveness in the treatment and laboratory requirements. In this study, three of the commonly used H. pylori diagnosis methods: histology, culture and urea breath test, are evaluated with Analytic network process (ANP and the rank of the criteria and alternatives are obtained. The evaluation of the methods and the rank of the diagnosis methods can reduce time, cost, and validity of the test results.
Background: Helicobacter pylori imparts a considerable burden to public health. Infections are mainly acquired in childhood and can lead to chronic diseases, including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The bacterium subsists in water, but the environment’s role in H. pylori ...
Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F
The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. PMID:27531533
D'Elios, Mario M; Andersen, Leif P
Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the population worldwide and represents the major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, such as duodenal and gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune gastritis, and B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Helicobacter pylori induces...... the activation of a complex and fascinating cytokine and chemokine network in the gastric mucosa. Different bacterial and environmental factors, other concomitant infections, and host genetics may influence the balance between mucosal tolerance and inflammation in the course of H. pylori infection. An inverse...... association between H. pylori prevalence and the frequencies of asthma and allergies was demonstrated, and the neutrophil activating protein of H. pylori was shown to inhibit the allergic inflammation of bronchial asthma. During the last year, significant progress was made on the road to the first efficient...
De Luca, Concetta; Mancin, Annalisa; Calabrò, Maria; Daleno, Cristina; Ferrario, Antonella; Renzulli, Raffaella; Scuderi, Cristina; Casari, Erminia
We report a case of Helicobacter pylori transient bacteremia in a woman with ulcerated antral gastric cancer. The patient was hospitalized for laparoscopy and subtotal gastrectomy. After surgery she developed fever (39°C) and was empirically treated with levofloxacin. Blood cultures, collected and sent immediately to Laboratory, were positive for a spiral Gram-negative bacterium. This isolate was identified as H. pylori and the specific susceptibility test was performed. One day after the fever was decreased but antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin was continued and it was maintained until discharge. In summary, H. pylori transient bacteremia may occur as a rare complication after stomach surgery. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the potential role of Helicobacter pylori presence in blood.
Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric
Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.
Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Lee, Young-Sun; Hwang, Cheol-Yong
Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR. One hundred twenty-four eligible human subjects and 39 dogs participated in this study. Relativity of contact with dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection diagnosed by genus-specific PCR showed a statistically significant result (Pdogs and H. pylori, H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections diagnosed using species-specific PCR, only Helicobacter felis showed a statistically significant result. Although H. pylori infection showed a statistically significant relativity, no statistically significant association was found between veterinarian subjects and Helicobacter. spp., H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections. On performing risk factor analyses of HHLO-2 infection by transmission, using matching species, between HHLO-2-positive dog owners and HHLO-2-positive dogs, Helicobacter felis infection showed an extremely significant relativity (Pdogs was proved to be correlated with human H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections in this study. PMID:24065079
Jiang, Weiwen; Baker, Henry J.; Smith, Bruce F.
The mucosal delivery of antigens requires an effective adjuvant to induce mucosal immunity. Current mucosal adjuvants include cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. Unmethylated CpG immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been proposed as novel mucosal adjuvants. In this study, mice were immunized with sonicated Helicobacter felis with CT and/or CpG ODN adjuvants. All groups receiving either adjuvant singly or in combination developed increased serum anti-H. fe...
Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world’s population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still recommended as a first-line treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection in countries with low clarithromycin resistance. Generally, this therapy is well-tolerated, with ...
CEYLAN, Abdullah; Kırımi, Ercan; Tuncer, Oğuz; Türkdoğan, Kürşat; Arıyuca, Sevil; Ceylan, Nesrin
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children and their family members and to evaluate some epidemiologic characteristics. The study included 275 children, aged 1-15 year(s), suffering from different gastrointestinal complaints. Blood serology and stool antigen testing were used for the diagnosis of infection due to H. pylori. Sixty-five (23.6%) of the 275 children were positive for H. pylori, and this positivity had a significantly increasing cor...
A. Rella; C. Tamborrino; G. V. Celano; Normanno, G; Alberti, F.; A. Dambrosio; N.C. Quaglia
Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Ap...
Handa, Osamu; Yoshida, Norimasa; TANAKA, Yukiko; Ueda, Miho; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu
Helicobacter pylori-infected gastrointestinal mucosa is frequently infiltrated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and these invading cells have been implicated in gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation. To clarify the efficacy of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, against H pylori-induced inflammation including PMN infiltration, the in vitro effects of this drug on interleukin (IL)-8 production by an established gastric cancer cell line (MKN 4...
Kuipers, E.J.; Israel, D.A.; Kusters, J G; Gerrits, M M; Weel, J.; Ende, van der, A; Hulst, van der, R.W.M.; Wirth, H.P.; Höök-Nikanne, J; Thompson, S A; Blaser, M J
Helicobacter pylori isolates show greater genetic diversity than other bacterial species studied, but the basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Whether detectable genomic mutation appears within an H. pylori population during persistent colonization was investigated. Paired H. pylori populations obtained across 7- to 10-year intervals from 13 patients were characterized by use of methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping for cagA, vacA, iceA, recA, and IS605; random arbitra...
Trieber, Catharine A.; Taylor, Diane E.
Low-cost and rescue treatments for Helicobacter pylori infections involve combinations of several drugs including tetracycline. Resistance to tetracycline has recently emerged in H. pylori. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of two tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates (MIC = 64 μg/ml) were determined and compared to the consensus H. pylori 16S rRNA sequence. One isolate had four nucleotide substitutions, and the other had four substitutions and two deletions. Natural transformation with the 16S ...
Goldman, R.C. (Robert C.); Zakula, D; Flamm, R; Beyer, J; Capobianco, J.
Clarithromycin is a recently approved macrolide with improved pharmacokinetics, antibacterial activity, and efficacy in treating bacterial infections including those caused by Helicobacter pylori, an agent implicated in various forms of gastric disease. We successfully isolated ribosomes from H. pylori and present the results of a study of their interaction with macrolides. Kinetic data were obtained by using 14C-labeled macrolides to probe the ribosomal binding site. Clarithromycin, its pare...
Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen; Munday, Rachel; Heavner, Karen; Huntington, Janis; Morse, John; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Fedorak, Richard N.; Corriveau, Andre; Bailey, Robert J.
The Canadian North Helicobacter pylori (CANHelp) working group is a team composed of investigators, health officials and community leaders from Alberta and the Northwest Territories. The group’s initial goals are to investigate the impact of H pylori infection on Canada’s Arctic communities; subsequent goals include identifying treatment strategies that are effective in this region and developing recommendations for health policy aimed at management of H pylori infection. The team’s investiga...
Watanabe, Miki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Ashida, Chieko; Tajima, Kazuo; Katoh, Hisato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo
Gastric cancer incidence and mortality have been decreasing in Japan. These decreases are likely due to a decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to characterize the trends in prevalence of H. pylori infection focused on birth‐year. We carried out a cross‐sectional study that included 4285 subjects who were born from 1926 to 1989. We defined H. pylori infection by the serum H. pylori antibody titer. Individuals having H. pylori infection and those with negative H....
Mahajan, Divya; Jain, Anju; Singh, Varsha; Jain, A.K.; Rao, G. R. K.; Nath, Gopal
Helicobacter pylori remains a controversial organism with regards to humans, its epidemiology still unclear nearly two decades after discovery. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of the organism in the gastrointestinal tract in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects to understand its precise natural history in India. A total of 154 specimens were a part of the study. These included gastric biopsies from peptic ulcer disease and Non ulcer dyspepsia subjects, as visualiz...
Ali Hakan KAYA; Savaş ÖZTÜRK; Meltem GÜRSU; Burcu KAYA; Baysal, Birol; POTUROĞLU, Şule; Mustafa Ertuğrul MERCAN; Rümeyza KAZANCIOĞLU; Hikmet FEYİZOĞLU
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relationship between gastroscopic findings and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in uremic patients; and to compare them with the normal population. MATERIAL and METHODS: Sixty two patients who had dyspeptic symptoms and who had a gastroscopic examination were included. These patients were grouped as hemodialysis group (n=29); peritoneal dialysis group (n=12), predialysis group (n=29) and the control group (n=29). RESULTS: On pathological examinatio...
Nicole; Acosta; Andrés; Quiroga; Pilar; Delgado; María; Mercedes; Bravo; Carlos; Jaramillo
AIM: To investigate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA diversity and to evaluate the association between protein polymorphisms and the occurrence of gastric pathologies. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two clinical isolates of H. pylori cultured from gastric biopsies obtained from Colombian patients with dyspepsia were included as study material. DNA extracted from isolates was used to determine cagA status, amplifying the C-terminal cagA gene region by polymerase chain reaction. One hundred and six strai...
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired in childhood, plays a causative role in chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is associated with the development of gastric cancer. The present review focuses on recent advances in the scientific knowledge of H pylori infection in children, including clinical sequelae, diagnosis and treatment. In addition, recent insights regarding both bacterial and host factors that mediate human diseases associated with H pylori infection are discussed.
Despite a general declining secular trend of incidence in most parts of the world, stomach cancer is still a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to its poor prognosis. Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established risk factor for stomach cancer, the true magnitude of the association is still not determined. Besides H. pylori infection, some other factors including host genetic variation and environmental exposures might to play a role in ...
Azuma, T; Suto, H.; Ito, Y.; Ohtani, M.; Dojo, M; Kuriyama, M; Kato, T.
BACKGROUND—Leptin regulates feeding behaviour and therefore may be a mediator of anorexia associated with acute and chronic inflammation. Recently, leptin mRNA and leptin protein were found in the gastric epithelium. AIM—The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric leptin expression to investigate the pathophysiological role of gastric leptin. METHODS—Surgically resected human stomach tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry and reve...
Hardo, P G; Tugnait, A; Hassan, F.; Lynch, D A; West, A P; Mapstone, N P; Quirke, P.; Chalmers, D M; Kowolik, M J; Axon, A T
Sixty two patients (mean age 45.6 years) were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination before endoscopy. Information about oral care, smoking, and dentures was obtained and samples of dental plaque collected. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in plaque as sought by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gastric antral biopsy specimens were taken for histological examination. Although H pylori was detected in the antral specimens of 34 patients (54%) ...
Feldman, M; Peterson, W. L.
Medical therapy for duodenal or gastric ulcer disease has traditionally involved gastric acid antisecretory therapy for 4 to 8 weeks to promote initial healing and indefinitely to prevent recurrences of ulcer. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori in most patients with peptic ulcer disease has led to a change in this approach. Therapy designed to eradicate H pylori may facilitate ulcer healing with acid antisecretory agents and, more important, may greatly reduce the incidence of ulcer recurre...
Cutler, A. F.
Many diagnostic tests are available to establish Helicobacter pylori infection status. Most of the tests are accurate though none works perfectly, and no gold standard for diagnosis exists. Newly developed serum immunoassay kits can substitute for laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, but whole blood immunoassays do not yet demonstrate adequate performance characteristics. Serologic diagnosis of H. pylori remains the most cost-effective option and should be utilized to establis...
Halter, F.; Hurlimann, S.; Inauen, W
Considerable knowledge has recently accumulated on the mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastritis. Although H. pylori is not an invasive bacterium, soluble surface constituents can provoke pepsinogen release from gastric chief cells or trigger local inflammation in the underlying tissue. Urease appears to be one of the prime chemoattractants for recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Release of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interl...
Nøorgaard, A; Andersen, L P; Nielsen, H
Mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric antrum contain an increased amount of myeloperoxidase. This study was performed to elucidate the interaction of H pylori sonicate protein(s) and neutrophils concerning myeloperoxidase release. Neutrophil degranulation with myeloperoxidase release was examined in a direct stimulating assay. Priming activity of H pylori was examined after preincubating neutrophils in sonicate, either crude or modified by heat t...
Ferguson, D A; C. Li; Patel, N. R.; Mayberry, W R; Chi, D S; Thomas, E.
Helicobacter pylori was grown in low numbers from the saliva of one of nine patients who were positive for gastric H. pylori. The saliva-derived isolate from this patient was identical to the antral biopsy-derived isolate from the same patient and differed from isolates cultured from the antral biopsies of all other patients by soluble-protein electrophoresis, restriction endonuclease DNA analysis, and Southern blot hybridization. This is the first observation, to our knowledge, of the recove...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis is still not clear. To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and GERD taking into account endoscopic, pH-metric and histopathological data. Methods Between January 2001 and January 2003 a prospective study was performed in 146 patients with GERD in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection at gastric mucosa; further the value of the De Meester score endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric parameters, i.e. reflux episodes, pathological reflux episodes and extent of oesophageal acid exposure, of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection were studied and statistically compared. Finally, univariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed in order to evaluate the statistical correlation with reflux esophagitis. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, HP infected and HP negative patients, regarding age, gender and type of symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding severity of symptoms and manometric parameters. The value of the De Meester score and the ph-metric parameters were similar in both groups. On univariate analysis, we observed that hiatal hernia (p = 0,01, LES size (p = 0,05, oesophageal wave length (p = 0,01 and pathological reflux number (p = 0,05 were significantly related to the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Conclusion Based on these findings, it seems that there is no significant evidence for an important role for H. pylori infection in the development of GERD and erosive esophagitis. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence to define the relationship between HP and GERD. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted.
Lucia; Pacifico; Caterina; Anania; John; F; Osborn; Flavia; Ferraro; Claudio; Chiesa
Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the hu-man stomach for many decades without adverse con-sequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen, and its prevalence varies with socioeconomic conditions (10–80%. It has recently been recognized as a class I carcinogen in relation to gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in neoplasms of the colon by immunohistochemical methods. Methods The polypectomy materials of 51 patients (19 male and 32 female who had undergone colonoscopic polypectomy were retrieved for retrospective examination. The endoscopic size and colonic localization of the polyps were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin stains were evaluated according to histological type and grade of dysplasia. Biopsy stains were immunohistochemically treated with Helicobacter pylori antibodies by the streptavidine-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Helicobacter pylori staining in the gastric mucosa was used as the control for the immunohistochemical method. Specimens were classified according to the presence of Helicobacter pylori under an optical microscope, and Helicobacter pylori positive specimens were stratified according to the respective staining pattern. Results Mean age was 61.88 ± 10.62 (40–82 years. Polyp sizes were 1.45 ± 0.92 (1–4 cm; and 25.5% of polyps were localized in the right colon, 68.6% in the left colon and 5.9% in the transverse colon. Presence of Helicobacter pylori was not correlated with localization (p > 0.05 or size of the polyps (p > 0.05. Eleven (21.6% of all specimens included in the study were Helicobacter pylori positive by immunohistochemical methods. Of the Helicobacter pylori positive specimens, the staining pattern was diffuse: Equivocal in 90.9%, nonspecific with a finely granular type concentrated on the luminal surface in 90.9%, dot-like granular in 54.5%, and spiral in 9.1%. Of the tubular polyps, 17.9% were H. pylori positive, and the staining pattern was equivocal in 100%, luminal in 85.7%, and dot-like granular in 57.1%. Of the
Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo
Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity. PMID:21663492
Constantino, Maira; Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium associated with ulcers, gastric cancer, gastritis among other diseases. In order to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the stomach H. pylori has to go across the viscoelastic mucus layer of the stomach. Many studies have been conducted on the swimming of H. pylori in viscous media however none have taken into account the influence of cell-body shape on the trajectory. We present an experimental study of the effects of body shape in the swimming trajectory of H. pylori in viscous media by a quantitative analysis of the bacterium rotation and translation in gels using phase contrast microscopy and particle tracking techniques. Preliminary microscopic tracking measurements show very well defined helical trajectories in the spiral-shaped wild type H. pylori. These helical trajectories are not seen in rod-shaped mutants which sometimes display whirling motion about one end acting as a hinge. We will present an analysis of the different trajectories for bacteria swimming in media with different viscoelastic parameters. Supported by the National Science Foundation PHY PoLS.
Magdalena; Chmiela; Adrian; Gajewski; Karolina; Rudnicka
In this review,we discussed the findings and concepts underlying the potential role of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infections in the initiation,development or persistence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease(CHD).This Gram-negative bacterium was described by Marshall and Warren in 1984.The majority of infected subjects carries and transmits H.pylori with no symptoms; however,in some individuals these bacteria may cause peptic ulcers,and even gastric cancers.The widespread prevalence of H.pylori infections and the fact that frequently they remain asymptomatic may suggest that,similarly to intestinal microflora,H.pylori may deliver antigens that stimulate not only local,but also systemic inflammatory response.Recently,possible association between H.pylori infection and extragastric disorders has been suggested.Knowledge on the etiology of atherosclerosis together with current findings in the area of H.pylori infections constitute the background for the newly proposed hypothesis that those two processes may be related.Many research studies confirm the indirect association between the prevalence of H.pylori and the occurrence of CHD.According to majority of findings the involvement of H.pylori in this process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CHDrelated pathologies.It needs to be elucidated,if the infection initiates or just accelerates the formation of atheromatous plaque.
Shcherbakov, P L; Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Mitrokhin, S D; Kudriavtseva, L V; Minaev, V I; Filin, V A; Petrova, N N; Zaĭtseva, S V
To elucidate the significance of the familial microenvironment in the genesis of Helicobacter infection, a clinical and instrumental investigation was made of 13 families selected by the probands who had digestive diseases associated with H. pylori: gastroduodenitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The occurrence of Helicobacter infection and gastritis in the family members was ascertained to be largely determined by their concurrent residence in the limited area, i.e. by the way of life. The contribution of the "family" factor in antral gastritis, fundal gastritis, and H. pylori infection was 60.0, 40.0, and about 90.0%, respectively. The patients with gastroenterological abnormalities associated with H. pylori were found to show changes in the species-specific and quantitative composition of the colonic microbiocenosis, which were symptomatic and revealed by bacteriological studies in 47.5% of cases and severe in 32.5%. When antihelicobacter therapy is planned, a through treatment of all family members and, if possible, pets should be made. Colonic microbiocenosis should be monitored while treating Helicobacter infection. PMID:9662996
Senatore, Frank J; Wilmot, Jonathan; Birk, John W
Helicobacter pylori is a common worldwide bacterium, possessing adaptability that has created difficulty achieving eradication. While the standard treatment was thought to be triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, growing rates of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance have stimulated research into novel regimens. Quadruple therapy with bismuth has been compared for both first- and second-line treatments, but eradication still has not reached expected goals. Innovative regimens including sequential and concomitant therapy, as well as the introduction of new antibiotics into previous treatment schedules, have shown promising improvements in eradication rates. We discuss and compare these unique regimens, reviewing the current literature to deduce those which are most likely to provide the highest success in curing H. pylori infection.
Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Sheng, Liang; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers of digestive system globally and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is believed to be a major risk factor. HP can be classified into different types based on the presence and expression level of CagA and VacA, and, when exposed to adverse environment, HP changes its phenotype from helical type to coccoid type, with each having different pathogenicity. The mechanisms of HP-induced gastric carcinogenesis and progression are complicated, including DNA nitration and oxidation induced by mutagenic factors, HP-induced epigenetic modifications, HP-induced disruption of the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and HP-induced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HP may also affect the biological function of cancer stem cells and induction of cell autophagy. The lipopolysaccharide produced by HP can act through toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) to induce gastric mucosal inflammation and is thereby linked to the development of gastric cancer.
Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive 13CO2 Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by 13CO2 Urea Breath Tests. (author)
Vishal; Sharma; Amitesh; Aggarwal
Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a known pathogen implicated in genesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Beyond the stomach, the organism has also been implicated in the causation of immune thrombocytopenia and iron deficiency anemia. Although an area of active clinical research, the role of this gram negative organism in causation of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease(CAD) remains enigmatic. CAD is a multifactorial disease which results from the atherosclerosis involving coronaryarteries. The major risk factors include age, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The risk of coronary artery disease is believed to increase with chronic inflammation. Various organisms like Chlamydia and Helicobacter have been suspected to have a role in genesis of atherosclerosis via causation of chronic inflammation. This paper focuses on available evidence to ascertain if the role of H. pylori in CAD causation has been proven beyond doubt and if eradication may reduce the risk of CAD or improve outcomes in these patients.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and a co-factor in development of gastric malignancies. LPS are among toxic substances produced by H. pylori exhibiting low endotoxic activity compared to typical bacterial LPS. The aim of this study was to investigate bioactivity of LPS produced by different serotypes of Helicobacter pylori compared to Escherichia coli and Brucella abortus LPS. Materials and Methods: Bacterial LPS was extracted by the hot phenol-water method. Biological activities of LPS were determined via the limulus lysate assay, pyrogenic assay, and blood pressure and PBMC induction test in rabbits.Results: Biological activity of O2 serotype LPS of H. pylori was less than the biological activity of other H. pylori serotypes.Conclusion: Our data supported the hypothesis that the unique bacterial LPS of the O2 serotype must be included in the formulation of a multivalent H. pylori vaccine.
de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen
To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pantibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.
Zelickson, Marc S; Bronder, Cathy M; Johnson, Brent L; Camunas, Joseph A; Smith, Dane E; Rawlinson, Dustin; Von, Stephen; Stone, H Harlan; Taylor, Spence M
As the number of patients requiring operation for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) declines, presumed contemporary ulcer etiology has largely been derived from medically treated patients not subjected to surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the specific causes of PUD in patients requiring surgery. Our Acute Care Surgical Service registry was reviewed for patients operated on for complications of PUD from 2004 to 2009. Emphasis was placed on individual etiologic factors for PUD. There were 128 patients (52% male, 81% white) who underwent emergency operation including: simple patch closure (n = 61, 48%); gastric resection (n = 22, 17%); gastric resection with vagotomy (n = 21, 16%); vagotomy and pyloroplasty (n = 18, 14%); or other procedures (n = 6, 5%). Complications necessitating operation were perforation (n = 79, 62%); bleeding (n = 29, 23%); obstruction (n = 12, 9%); and intractability (n = 8, 6%). Perioperative mortality was 12.5 per cent. Risk factors for PUD included tobacco use (50%), alcohol abuse (34%), and steroids (21%). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use was confirmed in 68 (53%) patients. Of the 128 patients, 82 (64%) were tested for Helicobacter pylori, 33 (40%) of which were positive and 49 (60%) negative. Helicobacter pylori, thus, was the confirmed ulcer etiology in only 26 per cent of cases. Unlike contemporary series of medically treated PUD, Helicobacter pylori may not be the predominant etiologic factor in patients who experience complications requiring surgery. A "traditional" surgical approach with liberal use of vagotomy, not antibiotic triple therapy, may well be the preferred treatment consideration in such cases. PMID:21944523
Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...
José Guilherme Nogueira da Silva
Full Text Available A low frequency of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of patients with alkaline gastritis has been reported. At the same time, it can be noted that the growth of bacteria can be inhibited by bile acids. We studied 40 patients with chronic gastritis related to Helicobacter pylori in order to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on this infection. Diagnoses of the infection and the inflammatory process were obtained by histologic study of gastric biopsies collected during endoscopy. Two groups were studied: group I received ursodeoxycholic acid - 300 mg/day, and group II received the placebo, twice a day, both for 28 days. The colonization by Helicobacter pylori and the intensity of the mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate were determined before (time 1 and after (time 2 treatment. Ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on the Helicobacter pylori infection. A significant reduction in the intensity of the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric antrum mucosa was observed in patients from group I, when we compared not only times 1 and 2 but also groups I and II. However, this was not the case with the body mucosa. We concluded that ursodeoxycholic acid had no action on the colonization by Helicobacter pylori or on the polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate, but it caused a significant reduction in the intensity of the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric antrum.Tem sido relatada uma baixa freqüência da infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori na mucosa gástrica de pacientes portadores de gastrite alcalina. Ao mesmo tempo, foi observada inibição do crescimento da bactéria, in vitro, pelos ácidos biliares. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do ácido ursodeoxicólico sobre a colonização da mucosa gástrica por este microorganismo foram estudados 40 pacientes com gastrite crônica relacionada ao Helicobacter pylori. O diagnóstico da infecção e do processo inflamatório foi realizado por
Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer (DU). Guidelines recommend that all patients with DU be considered for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Therapy (HPET). However, the proportion of patients with DU on long term anti-ulcer medication receiving HPET is small. This study examined the effectiveness of the continuing medical education (CME) network of the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) in promoting best practice in DU treatment among GPs in an eastern region of Ireland. Ninty eight GPs recruited from the CME network of the ICGP were randomised in two cohorts. Cohort 1 received an (early) intervention; GPs were asked to identify their patients with DU receiving long term anti-ulcer medication and prescribe HPET according to defined criteria. Cohort 2 received the intervention later. Prescribing of HPET was monitored using routine prescribing data. Twenty per cent (286\\/1,422) of patients in cohort 1 and 19.2% (127\\/661) in cohort 2 had a DU. After exclusions, 53% (152\\/286) in cohort 1 and 30.7% (39\\/127) in cohort 2, were eligible for HPET. A significantly higher proportion of patients in cohort 1 received HPET compared with cohort 2 during the early intervention period (13.8% vs 0.0%, p<0.05). Reasons for not prescribing HPET included concurrent illness in patients, failure to comply with treatment. Best practice guidelines on HPET treatment of DU can be successfully applied using CME networks. This model could be repeated in another therapeutic area where established research is not yet current practice.
Abu Al-Soud, W.; Bennedsen, M.; On, Stephen L.W.;
bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus in a Nile crocodile, Helicobacter cinaedi in a baboon and a red panda, and Helicobacter felis in a wolf and a Taiwan beauty snake. All of these PCR products (similar to400 bp) showed 100 % sequence similarity to 16S rDNA sequences of the mentioned species. These results...
Sharma, Ruchika; Rao, Desirazu N
Haemophilus influenzae and Helicobacter pylori are major bacterial pathogens that face high levels of genotoxic stress within their host. UvrD, a ubiquitous bacterial helicase that plays important roles in multiple DNA metabolic pathways, is essential for genome stability and might, therefore, be crucial in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. In this study, the functional characterization of UvrD helicase from Haemophilus influenzae and Helicobacter pylori is reported. UvrD from Haemophilus influenzae (HiUvrD) and Helicobacter pylori (HpUvrD) exhibit strong single-stranded DNA-specific ATPase and 3'-5' helicase activities. Mutation of highly conserved arginine (R288) in HiUvrD and glutamate (E206) in HpUvrD abrogated their activities. Both the proteins were able to bind and unwind a variety of DNA structures including duplexes with strand discontinuities and branches, three- and four-way junctions that underpin their role in DNA replication, repair and recombination. HiUvrD required a minimum of 12 nucleotides, whereas HpUvrD preferred 20 or more nucleotides of 3'-single-stranded DNA tail for efficient unwinding of duplex DNA. Interestingly, HpUvrD was able to hydrolyze and utilize GTP for its helicase activity although not as effectively as ATP, which has not been reported to date for UvrD characterized from other organisms. HiUvrD and HpUvrD were found to exist predominantly as monomers in solution together with multimeric forms. Noticeably, deletion of distal C-terminal 48 amino acid residues disrupted the oligomerization of HiUvrD, whereas deletion of 63 amino acids from C-terminus of HpUvrD had no effect on its oligomerization. This study presents the characteristic features and comparative analysis of Haemophilus influenzae and Helicobacter pylori UvrD, and constitutes the basis for understanding the role of UvrD in the biology and virulence of these pathogens. PMID:22500516
Full Text Available Prevalence of helicobacter pylori CagE genotypes, in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinomaM.H. Shirazi, M.R. Pourmand ,M.R. Haghshenas, V.A. Rezaee, AbstractBackground and Purpose: Helicobacter pylori are a bacterial pathogen evolved to chronically colonize the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and even gastric malignancies in few infected humans. More recently, a pathogenicity island has been identified within the H. pylori genome that contains a cluster of genes, including cagE. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of cagE genotypes of H. pylori isolates from patients with NUD(Non Ulcer Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer and cancer.Materials and Methods: 150 Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from patients were inoculated onto a Brucella Columbia Agar containing 5% sheep for 3 to 5 days at 37°C under micro aerobic conditions (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2. After DNA extraction, genotyping of the cagE gene was performed by PCR amplification using the primers. PCR products were separated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis and examined under UV illumination.Results: Of 92 positive cultures, 34, 28, 20, and 10 isolations were obtained from patients with NUD, duodenal ulcers (DU, gastric ulcers (GU and gastric cancer (GC, respectively. The frequency of cagE gene was 88/24%, 100% , 85% , 100% and within isolates of patients with NUD, DU, GU and GC, respectively.Conclusion: The presence of cagE in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection is not a marker for predicting or diagnosing the resultant diseases.Key words: Helicobacter pylori, CagE, NUD, CancerJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 37-43 (Persian
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to develop an oral Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Methods. After L. lactis NZ3900/pNZ8110-hspA was constructed, growth curves were plotted to study whether the growth of recombinant L. lactis was affected after hspA was cloned into L. lactis and whether the growth of empty bacteria, empty plasmid bacteria, and recombinant L. lactis was affected by different concentrations of Nisin; SDS-PAGE and Western blot were adopted, respectively, to detect the HspA expressed by recombinant L. lactis and its immunoreactivity. Results. There was no effect observed from the growth curve after exogenous gene hspA was cloned into L. lactis NZ3900; different concentrations of Nisin did not affect the growth of NZ3900 and NZ3900/pNZ8110, while different concentrations of Nisin inhibited the growth of NZ3900/pNZ8110-hspA except 10 ng/mL Nisin. No HspA strip was observed from SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis showed that HspA expressed by recombinant bacteria had favorable immunoreactivity. Conclusion. The growth of recombinant L. lactis was suppressed even though a small amount of HspA had been induced to express. Therefore recombinant L. lactis only express HspA which was not suitable to be oral vaccine against Helicobacter pylori.
Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infection due to Helicobacter Pylori is recognized as a medical problem worldwide. It causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, lymphatic proliferative disorders and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Objective: To characterize Helicobacter Pylori infection in patients with gastric ulcer and to relate this infection to gastric histological diagnoses. Methods: An observational, descriptive, correlational retrospective study in patients with gastric ulcers at the Dr.Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital was carried out from January 2005 to December 2007. Endoscopy and mucous gastric biopsy were performed for the histological and diagnostic study of the infection due to Helicobacter Pylori by means of the hematoxiline-eosine and giemsa stain respectively. The sample was composed by 137 patients. Results: the frequency of infection due to Helicobacter pylori was 59,1 % prevailing in the age groups 51-60 years old (34,6 % and 61-70 yearsold. (30,8 %. The highest frequency of malignant ulcers were located at the antral region (85,7 % with predominance of Helicobacter Pylori (80 %. There was a 95 % reliability between the relationship of Helicobacter Pylori and the histological diagnoses. The patients under the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori showed a greater probability to present cancer (OR 4,32 IC: 0,58-39,44 and worsened chronic gastritis (OR 2,59 IC: 0,61-11,30. Chronic gastritis did not constitute a risk factor for acute gastritis(OR 0,86 IC: 0,09-7,08. Conclusions: The probability of suffering from gastric cancer, chronic gastritis and worsened chronic gastritis was greater in all those patients who presented with Helicobacter pylori infection but in this study Helicobacter pylori did not constitute a risk factor for acute gastritis
Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.
Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori is the cause of serious diseases including gastric cancer and gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.50% of world population is infected by this microorganism and it -based on epidemiologic studies - is mainly acquired during childhood . there is not enough evidence about prevalence of this infection in children and its risk factors so encourage us to study on it.Method : we tested 282 apparently healthy 9-12 year old students in a population based cross sectional study for Helicobacter pylori colonization using H pylori Antigen EIA Test Kit (ACON company.a short socio demographic questionnaire was used to assess risk factors.Findings: the overall prevalence of H pylori colonization in 282 students is 13.1%. we found statistically significant relationship between H pylori colonization and sex, duration of breast feeding, and family crowding but there is not significant relationship with age , family history of dyspepsia , number of days in week consuming yogurt and economically stratified living region in present study.Conclusion: Helicobacter Pylori is a big concern even in young asymptomatic children and it needs to be further studied about its potential risk factors and how to manage them for the goal of prevention.
Athmann, Christoph; Zeng, Ningxin; Kang, Tao; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Scott, David R.; Rektorschek, Marina; Buhmann, Anita; Melchers, Klaus; Sachs, George
Helicobacter pylori resists gastric acidity by modulating the proton-gated urea channel UreI, allowing for pHout-dependent regulation of urea access to intrabacterial urease. We employed pH- and Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes and confocal microscopy to determine the location, rate, and magnitude of pH changes in an H. pylori-AGS cell coculture model, comparing wild-type bacteria with nonpolar ureI-deletion strains (ureI-ve). Addition of urea at pH 5.5 to the coculture resulted first in eleva...
Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V
We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.
Bešlić, Ivan; Baturina, Stjepan; Mihalj, Monika; Zekanović, Dražen; Ljubičić, Neven; Turčinov, Jadranko
Eradikacija infekcije Helicobacter pylori prvi je korak u liječenju bolesti koje su povezane s ovom infekcijom. U terapijskim protokolima koriste se uobičajeno kombinacije dvaju antibiotika i jednoga lijeka koji suprimira izlučivanje želučane kiseline (inhibitor protonske pumpe – IPP). Kombinacije lijekova podijeljene su u lijekove prve linije, lijekove druge linije i lijekove treće linije, s tim da se u trećoj liniji izbor lijeka zasniva na testiranju osjetljivosti na antibiotik izoliranoga ...
Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn;
National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first...... or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric...
Rupert WL Leong; Ching C Lee; Thomas KW Ling; Wai K Leung; Joseph JY Sung
AIM: Helicobacter pylori can be diagnosed by invasive ornon-invasive tests but to obtain bacteria for culture andantibiotic susceptibility testing, an upper GI endoscopy isoften required. The string test may be a minimally-invasivealternative method of obtaining H. pylori samples. This studyevaluates the sensitivity and specificity of the string test inthe diagnosis of H. pylori in comparison with endoscopicmeans of diagnosis.METHODS: This was a prospective open comparative studyof patients with dyspepsia with endoscopy-based tests asgold standard (defined as a positive CLO test and antralhistology). Fasting patients swallowed the encapsulated-string(Entero-test Hp), which was withdrawn after 1 hour. Thegastric juice from the string was plated onto H. pylori-selectivemedia for culture. Helicobacter pylori was identified by typicalcolony morphology, gram stain and biochemical test results.RESULTS: Thirty dyspeptic patients were recruited of whom21 (70 %) were positive for H. pylori according to the goldstandard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value,and negative predictive value for the string test were 38 %,100 %, 100 % and 41% respectively, and for endoscopicbiopsies 81%, 100 %, 100 %, 69 % respectively (P=0.004).Logistic regression showed that only abundant growthdensity from endoscopic biopsy cultures to be a predictor ofa positive string test (P=0.018).CONCLUSION: The string test is an alternative method toendoscopy in obtaining H. pylori but has a low sensitivitycompared to endoscopic biopsies.
Pulić, Ivana; Cendron, Laura; Salamina, Marco; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Zanotti, Giuseppe
Flagellin component D (FlgD) from Helicobacter pylori is involved in the assembly of the hook of flagella, helical tubular structures that provide motility in non-filamentous bacteria. Data provided in this article refer to HpFlgD from strains 26695 (HpFlgD_26695) and G27 (HpFlgD_G27). Within this article, information on the secondary structure content and different type of interfaces found in the two crystal forms of HpFlgD (monoclinic, HpFlgD_m and tetragonal, HpFlgD_t) are provided, as well as the list of the hydrogen bonds between monomers that are relevant for their assembly into a tetramer. Additionally, data involving investigation of the size of HpFlgD in the solution and the crystallized HpFlgD are presented, “Crystal structure of truncated FlgD from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori” . The superposition of the different domains of HpFlgD (Fn-III and tudor domains) with the similar domains found in other species is shown, as well as the superposition of HpFlgD and modeled HpFlgE (flagellar hook protein). PMID:27014738
Kazemi, E; Kahrizi, D; Moradi, M T; Sohrabi, M; Yari, K
The Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium found usually in the stomach and use a number of mechanisms to survive in the stomach lumen. The presence of these bacteria in the stomach can lead to gastritis and reduction in stomach acid production. Acute inflammation can directly damage to the peripheral cells that are responsible for the secretion of acid. The risk of developing gastric carcinoma is associated to heterogeneity of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors. The HopQII is one of the outer membrane proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to also play a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between different H. pylori virulence hopQII allele and patients with gastroduodenal disorders. For this purpose 58 stomach biopsies of patients with gastric cancer and 100 saliva samples from healthy individuals were collected. Then genomic DNA was purified and PCR for was done for desired genes via specific primers. The H. pylori infections were diagnosed by PCR for GlmM gene. Then frequencies of hopQII+ and hopQII- genotypes was determined in H. pylori infected cases. Statistical analysis showed that there were not significant differences between healthy and diseased ones for genotype hopQII+. PMID:26950460
Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Akamatsu, Taiji; Koide, Naohiko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Kubota, Seiko; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyoshi
A spiral bacterium (SH9), morphologically different from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), was found in a 62-year-old woman's gastric mucosa. Gastroscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers near the pyloric ring; mapping gastric biopsy showed mild mononuclear infiltration with large lymphoid follicles in the antrum, without corpus atrophy. Urea breath test and H. pylori culture were negative, but Giemsa staining of biopsies revealed tightly coiled bacteria that immunostained with anti-H. pylori antibody. Sequencing of SH9 16S rRNA and the partial urease A and B subunit genes showed that the former sequence had highest similarity (99%; 1302/1315 bp) to Helicobacter heilmannii (H. heilmannii) sensu stricto (H. heilmannii s.s.) BC1 obtained from a bobcat, while the latter sequence confirmed highest similarity (98.3%; 1467/1493 bp) to H. heilmannii s.s. HU2 obtained from a human. The patient was diagnosed with multiple gastric ulcers associated with H. heilmannii s.s. infection. After triple therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole) with regimen for eradicating H. pylori, gastroscopy showed ulcer improvement and no H. heilmannii s.s. upon biopsy.
Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.
Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram
Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.
Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB
, the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...
Gina Ferrer Poveda
Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P.M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine (a) the advantages and disadvantages of treatment options for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and (b) whether eradication of H. pylori is indicated in patients with duodenal ulcer, nonucler dyspepsia and gastric cancer. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search for articles published in English between January 1983 and December 1992 with the use of MeSH terms Helicobacter pylori (called Campylobacter pylori before 1990) and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, dyspepsia and cli...
Roberto Hernández Conde; Guillermo Noa Pedroso; Carlos Domínguez Álvarez; Isabel Mora Díaz; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Yagén Pomares Pérez
Background: the rate of Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers is increasing. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other ulcerogenic drugs plays a significant role.Objective: to characterize patients with Helicobacter pylori-negative peptic ulcer. Methods: a case series study of patients attended by the Gastroenterology Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital was conducted in the year 2009. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, endoscopic and histological variables were ...
In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole
Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung
AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless
Full Text Available Las enfermedades bacterianas son generalmente consideradas como problemas sanitarios serios, sin embargo, pueden a menudo solucionarse mediante una simple terapia antibiótica. Mucho más complicada es la curación de enfermedades fúngicas y virales. Muchos cánceres se pueden curar si el diagnóstico es temprano, pero la mayoría tienen un remedio casi tan perjudicial como la misma enfermedad. Otras enfermedades como las autoinmunes o las que afectan el corazón, simplemente son controladas, tratando de paliar los síntomas con medicamentos normalmente muy costosos. Por tanto, tenemos que comprender la sorpresa de la comunidad médica, cuando una enfermedad por mucho tiempo pensada incurable aunque controlable, se vio que estaba causada por una bacteria. Más aún, cuando desde siempre se había pensado que el microambiente del estómago era demasiado extremo como para albergar vida microbiana. Helicobacter pylori es la principal responsable de la formación de úlceras en la población mundial. Su capacidad de colonización y adaptación a ambientes hostiles le ha permitido sobrevivir y crecer en las condiciones adversas que ofrece el estómago. En esta revisión se resumen brevemente aspectos importantes de la historia del descubrimiento de tan relevante microorganismo, así como algunas características moleculares y clínicas de la patología que causa.
Songhee H Kim; Melanie L Langford; Jean-Luc Boucher; Traci L Testerman; David J McGee
AIM: To investigate the role of host and bacterial argi-nases in the colonization of mice by Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori).METHODS: H. Pylori produces a very powerful urease that hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which neutralizes acid. Urease is absolutely essential to H. Pylori pathogenesis; therefore, the urea substrate must be in ample supply for urease to work efficiently. The urea substrate is most likely provided by arginase activity, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Previous work has demonstrated that H. Pylori arginase is surprisingly not required for colonization of wild-type mice. Hence, another in vivo source of the critical urea substrate must exist. We hypothesized that the urea source was provided by host arginase Ⅱ, since this enzyme is expressed in the stomach, and H. Pylori has previously been shown to induce the expres-sion of murine gastric arginase Ⅱ. To test this hypoth-esis, wild-type and arginase (rocF) mutant H. Pylori strain SS1 were inoculated into arginase Ⅱ knockout mice. RESULTS: Surprisingly, both the wild-type and rocF mutant bacteria still colonized arginase Ⅱ knock-out mice. Moreover, feeding arginase Ⅱ knockout mice the host arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC), while inhibiting > 50% of the host arginase Ⅰactivity in several tissues, did not block the ability of the rocF mutant H. Pylori to colonize. In con-trast, BEC poorly inhibited H. Pylori arginase activity. CONCLUSION: The in vivo source for the essential urea utilized by H. Pylori urease is neither bacterial arginase nor host arginase Ⅱ; instead, either residual host arginase Ⅰor agmatinase is probably responsible.
Full Text Available When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya, they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.
Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)
Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua;
Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...... permeabilization and fixation of the bacteria, which is normally part of in vitro studies, the ability of LNA/2'OMe to efficiently hybridize with H. pylori was hampered by the presence of mucus. Future research should focus on developing nanocarriers that shield LNA/2'OMe from components in the gastric mucus...
Maixner, Frank; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Turaev, Dmitrij; Herbig, Alexander; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hallows, Janice L; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Vigl, Eduard Egarter; Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Sullivan, Niall; Cipollini, Giovanna; Coia, Valentina; Samadelli, Marco; Engstrand, Lars; Linz, Bodo; Moritz, Robert L; Grimm, Rudolf; Krause, Johannes; Nebel, Almut; Moodley, Yoshan; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert
The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years. PMID:26744403
Nguyen, Huy Q; Davis, Ryan A; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn
Steryl glycosides produced by bacteria play important biological roles in the evasion and modulation of host immunity. Step-economical syntheses of three cholesteryl-6-O-phosphatidyl-α-D-glucopyranosides (αCPG) unique to Helicobacter pylori have been achieved. The approach relies upon regioselective deprotection of per-O-trimethylsilyl-α-D-cholesterylglucoside at C6 followed by phosphoramidite coupling. Global TMS ether deprotection in the presence of oxygen and subsequent deprotection of the cyano ethyl phosphoester afforded the target compounds in 16-21 % overall yield starting from D-glucose. The structures of these natural products were determined using a combination of 2D NMR methods and mass spectrometry. These robust synthesis and characterization protocols provide analogues to facilitate glycolipidomic profiling and biological studies. PMID:25195783
Full Text Available The Dsb protein family is responsible for introducing disulfide bonds into nascent proteins in prokaryotes, stabilizing the structure of many proteins. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 is a Dsb-like protein, shown to catalyze disulfide bond formation and to participate in redox homeostasis. Notably, many H. pylori virulence factors are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. By employing H. pylori HP0231 deficient strains we analyzed the effect of lack of this bacterial protein on the functionality of virulence factors containing putative disulfide bonds. The lack of H. pylori HP0231 impaired CagA translocation into gastric epithelial cells and reduced VacA-induced cellular vacuolation. Moreover, H. pylori HP0231 deficient bacteria were not able to colonize the gastric mucosa of mice, probably due to compromised motility. Together, our data demonstrate an essential function for H. pylori HP0231 in gastric colonization and proper function of bacterial virulence factors related to gastric pathology.
Miroslaw Jarosz; Ewa Rychlik; Magdalena Siuba; Wioleta Respondek; Malgorzata Ry(z)ko-Skiba; Iwona Sajór; Sylwia Gugala; Tomasz Bla(z)ejczyk; Janusz Ciok
AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H py/or/infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups;I-examined group (111 persons with Hpy/or/re-infection) and Ⅱ-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of Hpylori re-infection.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are gut bacteria colonize in the epithelial cell lining of the stomach and persist there for long duration. Around two-thirds of the world’s populations are infected with H. pylori and cause more than 90 percent of ulcers. The development of persistent inflammation is the main cause of chronic gastritis that finally results in a severe consequence known as stomach cancer. Two major virulence factors cytotoxin-associated gene product (cagA and the vacuolating toxin (vacA are mostly investigated as their close association with gastric carcinoma. In this review, host immunity against H. pylori infection and their evasion mechanism are intensely explored. It is the fact, that understanding pin point molecular mechanisms of any infection is critical to develop novel strategies to prevent pertinent diseases. .J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(4: 170-176
Bago, J; Strinić, D.; Belošić Halle, Ž.; Jandrić, D.; Tomić, M.; Bilić, A.; Bago, P.
The extent of the regression of duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection is controversial. Therefore, we decided to assess the degree of DGM before, sex weeks and one year after H. pylori eradication. 105 consecutive Helicobacter pylori positive patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer, with DGM and Helicobacter pylori infection were recruited for this study. The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was based on CL...
Sakagami, T; Dixon, M; O'Rourke, J; Howlett, R.; Alderuccio, F; Vella, J; Shimoyama, T; Lee, A.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of host factors has been neglected in studies of the pathogenesis of Helicobacter associated disease. The aim of this study was to assess the response of different mouse strains to infection with a single strain of Helicobacter felis. METHOD: Six strains of inbred mice were infected with the identical H felis culture and were killed at one month, two months, and six months after infection to assess histopathological changes. In addition, two strains of mice were infe...
A B Olokoba
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.
Adil Edan Alsaimary; Hayder M Abdulnbi; Abdulhadi Laibi; Ahmed Rasheed Jwad
Objective: To detect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in hydatid liver disease. Methods: A total of 58 patients with hydatid liver disease attending AL-Sadder Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf and Al-Basrah governorate from February to August, 2008 were included in the study and served as group A. One hundred and twenty 1st degree relative patients (group B) and 20 normal persons including 10 male and 10 female (group C) as control were detected for the presence of H. pylori infection in general population. Chest X-ray was done for the above groups to exclude lung hydrated cyst. The patients were screened by ultrasound to obtain intra abdominal hydrated cyst and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) test was utilized to detect the H. pylori infection. Results: Fifty eight patients from group A with hydatid liver disease, 30 male (51.7%) and 28 female (48.3%) were screened for the presence of H. pylori infection by using ELISA test. We found that 28 patients from group A had positive ELISA test including 19 male (32.8%) and 9 female (15.5%) (P<0.01). However, there were no positive results of H. pylori infection in group B and C by chest X-ray, ultrasound and ELISA test. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a strong relationship between hydatid liver disease and presence of H. pylori.
Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.
Coelho, L.G.; Passos, M.C.; Chausson, Y.; Castro L de, P. (Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Digestive Surgery Unit, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil))
Previous studies have demonstrated that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a significant reduction of the rate of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of a bismuth-free triple therapy on the eradication of H. pylori and reduction of DU relapse. After informed consent, 61 patients with endoscopically proven DU and H. pylori infection detected on 14C-urea breath test (BT) were included in the study. All patients received a combination of furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, three times a day, for 5 days, in addition to eventual classical antiulcer agents prescribed by their attending physicians. BT was repeated after an interval of at least 60 days to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Endoscopy and another BT were performed again at 6.5 months after therapy to detect possible recurrences. Forty-eight patients completed the trial: 26 (54%) patients were negative for H. pylori at 6.5 months after the end of treatment, and 22 (46%) persisted H. pylori positive. Ninety-two percent of the patients in whom the bacteria were eradicated showed endoscopically healed ulcers and were asymptomatic, and two that were symptomatic presented only occasional pain not requiring therapy. Among the 22 patients who persisted H. pylori positive, six (27%) showed endoscopically active ulcers (p = 0.012) and eight (36%) patients continued to be symptomatic (p less than 0.01), and were still using antiulcer drugs (p = 0.002) 6.5 months after treatment. It is concluded that combined treatment with furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 5 days represents a well-tolerated, inexpensive, and effective therapeutic regime for the eradication of H. pylori and abolition of DU relapse in more than 50% of the patients during a follow-up period of 6.5 months.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a significant reduction of the rate of duodenal ulcer (DU) relapse. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effect of a bismuth-free triple therapy on the eradication of H. pylori and reduction of DU relapse. After informed consent, 61 patients with endoscopically proven DU and H. pylori infection detected on 14C-urea breath test (BT) were included in the study. All patients received a combination of furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, three times a day, for 5 days, in addition to eventual classical antiulcer agents prescribed by their attending physicians. BT was repeated after an interval of at least 60 days to evaluate H. pylori eradication. Endoscopy and another BT were performed again at 6.5 months after therapy to detect possible recurrences. Forty-eight patients completed the trial: 26 (54%) patients were negative for H. pylori at 6.5 months after the end of treatment, and 22 (46%) persisted H. pylori positive. Ninety-two percent of the patients in whom the bacteria were eradicated showed endoscopically healed ulcers and were asymptomatic, and two that were symptomatic presented only occasional pain not requiring therapy. Among the 22 patients who persisted H. pylori positive, six (27%) showed endoscopically active ulcers (p = 0.012) and eight (36%) patients continued to be symptomatic (p less than 0.01), and were still using antiulcer drugs (p = 0.002) 6.5 months after treatment. It is concluded that combined treatment with furazolidone, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 5 days represents a well-tolerated, inexpensive, and effective therapeutic regime for the eradication of H. pylori and abolition of DU relapse in more than 50% of the patients during a follow-up period of 6.5 months
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a human pathogen that is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, has been considered a microaerophile, but there is no general consensus about its specific O2 requirements. A clear understanding of Hp physiology is needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism(s of Hp infection. Results We cultured Hp under a range of O2 levels with or without 10% CO2 and evaluated growth profiles, morphology, intracellular pH, and energy metabolism. We found that, in the presence of 10% CO2, the normal atmospheric level of O2 inhibited Hp growth at low density but stimulated growth at a higher density. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of Hp cells cultured under 20% O2 tension revealed live spiral-shaped bacteria with outer membrane vesicles on a rugged cell surface, which became smooth during the stationary phase. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, and succinate were detected in cell culture media grown under microaerobic conditions, but not under the aerobic condition. CO2 deprivation for less than 24 h did not markedly change cytoplasmic or periplasmic pH, suggesting that cellular pH homeostasis alone cannot account for the capnophilic nature of Hp. Further, CO2 deprivation significantly increased intracellular levels of ppGpp and ATP but significantly decreased cellular mRNA levels, suggesting induction of the stringent response. Conclusions We conclude, unlike previous reports, that H. pylori may be a capnophilic aerobe whose growth is promoted by atmospheric oxygen levels in the presence of 10% CO2. Our data also suggest that buffering of intracellular pH alone cannot account for the CO2 requirement of H. pylori and that CO2 deprivation initiates the stringent response in H. pylori. Our findings may provide new insight into the physiology of this fastidious human pathogen.
高正琴; 岳秉飞; 贺争鸣
目的 克隆并鉴定布鲁氏菌的16S rRNA、支原体的16S rRNA、泰泽氏菌的16S rRNA、空肠弯曲菌的flaA、肝螺杆菌的flaB和幽门螺杆菌的cagA基因,为建立实时荧光定量PCR检测方法作准备.方法 设计、合成布鲁氏菌的16S rRNA、支原体的16S rRNA、泰泽氏菌的16S rRNA、空肠弯曲菌flaA、肝螺杆菌flaB和幽门螺杆菌的cagA基因的特异性引物;PCR扩增、克隆16S rRNA、flaA、flaB和cagA基因;对重组质粒进行酶切鉴定、PCR鉴定和测序分析.结果 布鲁氏菌的16S rRNA、支原体的16S rRNA、泰泽氏菌的16S rRNA、空肠弯曲杆菌的flaA、肝螺杆菌的flaB和幽门螺杆菌的cagA基因PCR扩增产物分别在612 bp、600 bp、922 bp、637 bp、1 545 bp和1 168 bp处出现特异性目的 条带,结果均与预期扩增的目的 片段大小一致.将PCR产物分别与pMD18-T载体连接并转化感受态细菌大肠埃希菌JM109.对重组质粒pT-BC16S rRNA、pT-MP16S rRNA、pT-CP16S rRNA、pT-CJflaA、pT-HHflaB和pT-HPcagA分别进行酶切鉴定及PCR鉴定,结果均可见特异性目的 条带.测序结果显示,布鲁氏菌的16S rRNA、支原体的16S rRNA、泰泽氏菌的16S rRNA、空肠弯曲菌的flaA、肝螺杆菌的flaB和幽门螺杆菌的cagA基因序列与GenBank中细菌相应序列同源性高达100 %,说明上述6种致病菌的16S rRNA、flaA、flaB和cagA基因已成功克隆.结论 成功克隆了布鲁氏菌16S rRNA、支原体的16S rRNA、泰泽氏菌的16S rRNA、空肠弯曲菌的flaA、肝螺杆菌的flaB和幽门螺杆菌的cagA基因,为建立实时荧光定量PCR检测方法奠定了基础.
Fox, J G; Li, X; Yan, L; Cahill, R J; Hurley, R; Lewis, R; Murphy, J C
induced by bacteria belonging to this expanding genera of pathogenic Helicobacter species.
Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.
O'Toole, Paul W
Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin\\/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A\\/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was
Bacteria fertilizer is used most widely among all kinds of microbial fertilizers. We summarize the research headway of bacteria fertilizer. It mainly focuses on bacteria fertilizer improving the stress resistance of plant. Then we can offer basis to research and exploit bacteria fertilizer. These bacteria include azotobacter, photosynthetic bacteria, Bacillus mucilaginosus siliceous, phosphorus bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR), effective microorganism(EM).
Goodman Karen J.
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.
Helicobacter pylori （H. pylori ） infection is highly prevalentin human, affecting nearly half of the world＇spopulation; however, infection remains asymptomaticin majority of population. During its co-existence withhumans, H. pylori has evolved various strategies tomaintain a mild gastritis and limit the immune responseof host. On the other side, presence of H. pylori is alsoassociated with increased risk for the development ofvarious gastric pathologies including gastric cancer （GC）.A complex combination of host genetics, environmentalagents, and bacterial virulence factors are consideredto determine the susceptibility as well as the severityof outcome in a subset of individuals. GC is one of themost common cancers and considered as the third mostcommon cause of cancer related death worldwide. Manystudies had proved H. pylori as an important risk factorin the development of non-cardia GC. Although both H.pylori infection and GC are showing decreasing trendsin the developed world, they still remain a major threatto human population in the developing countries. Thecurrent review attempts to highlight recent progress inthe field of research on H. pylori induced GC and aimsto provide brief insight into H. pylori pathogenesis,the role of major virulence factors of H. pylori thatmodulates the host environment and transform thenormal gastric epithelium to neoplastic one. This reviewalso emphasizes on the mechanistic understanding ofhow colonization and various virulence attributes of H.pylori as well as the host innate and adaptive immuneresponses modulate the diverse signaling pathways thatleads to different disease outcomes including GC.
Vasilios; Papastergiou; Sotirios; D; Georgopoulos; Stylianos; Karatapanis
Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a major human patho-gen associated with significant morbidity and mortal-ity. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clar-ithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, are now recommended as first-line empirical treatment options providing high ef-ficacy(reportedly > 90% in intention to treat analysis) even in high clarithromycin resistance settings. These include the bismuth quadruple, concomitant, sequential and hybrid therapies. Due to the rapid development of quinolone resistance, levofloxacin-based regimens should be reserved as second-line/rescue options. Adjunct use of probiotics has been proposed in order to boost eradication rates and decrease occurrence of treatment-related side effects. Molecular testing meth-ods are currently available for the characterization of H. pylori therapeutic susceptibility, including genotypic detection of macrolide resistance and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 2C19 status known to affect the me-tabolism of proton pump inhibitors. In the future, use of these techniques may allow for culture-free, non-invasive tailoring of therapy for H. pylori infection.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difference of opinion about the prevalence of H. pylori association with gastric cancer exists in the literature. AIMS: To study the correlation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to gastric carcinoma. METHODS: 50 proved cases of gastric cancer were studied by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and ELISA test for H. pylori IgG. RESULTS: 68% of cases of gastric cancer were found to be positive for H. pylori infection as compared to 74% of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in our patients of gastric cancer was lower than in the control population though statistically not significant, suggesting that H. pylori may not be responsible for gastric carcinogenesis in this population.
Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Van Deun, Kim; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy
Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious porcine gastric pathogen, which is also considered to be of zoonotic importance. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility cannot be determined using standard assays, as this agent only grows in a biphasic medium with an acidic pH. Therefore, a combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyse the activity of nine antimicrobial agents against nine H. suis isolates. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth. Only for enrofloxacin a bimodal distribution of MICs was demonstrated, indicating acquired resistance in one strain, which showed an AGT→AGG (Ser→Arg) substitution at codon 99 of gyrA. In conclusion, the assay developed here is suitable for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. suis isolates, although activity of acid sensitive antimicrobial agents may be higher than predicted from MIC endpoints. PMID:21733643
This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors.
Al Mofleh Ibrahim
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major etiological factor of peptic ulcer disease (PUD. It is supposed to be a risk factor for the more frequently encountered PUD in patients with liver cirrhosis. Several investigators have evaluated the effect of H. pylori on liver cirrhosis, portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG and encephalopathy with controversial results. Some reports have shown a higher seroprevalence and suggested a synergistic effect of H. pylori on liver cirrhosis and PHG. However, this increased prevalence is associated with a negative histology and is not influenced by the cause of cirrhosis, PHG, Child class or gender. Most studies have not found any correlation between H. pylori and PHG. In contrast, other studies have reported a markedly lower prevalence of H. pylori in cirrhotics with duodenal ulcer compared to controls. The aim of this article is to review the relationship between H. pylori infection and portal hypertensive gastropathy and the role of H. pylori eradication in cirrhotic patients.
Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N;
Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18......-88 in the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits was obtained in personal interviews using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...
Yue-Hua Gong; Ying Wang; Yuan Yuan
AIM: To compare the distribution of virulence-associatedgenotypes of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in two areas of north China with different gastric cancer risk and furthermore probe into the pathogenicity of the bacterium. METHODS: Gastric biopsies were taken from 355 subjects from Zhuanghe, a high risk area of gastric cancer, and 136 subjects from Shenyang, a low risk area of gastric cancer. A total of 149 H pylori strains isolated from these patients were studied by PCR for differences in the genotypes of cagA, vac A, and iceA.RESULTS: In patients with high risk for gastric cancer, higher frequencies of vacA s1 or s1m1b genotypes were found as compared to those from the low risk area. CONCLUSION: There is significantly different distribution of H pylori genotypes between Zhuanghe and Shenyang areas in north China.
The aetiology of dyspepsia is unknown in the majority of patients. Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) is the cause in a subset of patients. A non invasive test to assess the presence of H pylori is recommended in the management of patients under the age of 50 presenting to a family practitioner with dyspepsia. A urea breath test or a stool antigen test are the most reliable non invasive tests. Eradication of H pylori will reduce the risk to the patient with dyspepsia of developing a peptic ulcer, reduce the complication rate if prescribed nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and later reduce the risk of gastric cancer. The recommended treatment for non ulcer dyspepsia associated with a H pylori infection should be a 10-d course of treatment with a PPI and two antibiotics. Treatment efficacy should be assessed four weeks after completing treatment with a urea breath test or a stool antigen test.
Cytotoxic test in vitro combined with cytochemical stain, fluorescent stain, transmission electronmicrograph was used to study the vacuolated effect by helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) (Toxin＋) and its pathological mechanism. 78.26 % patients with peptic ulcer associated with H.pylori was infected with H.pylori (Toxin＋), while 42.86 % patients with gastritis was infected with H.pylori (Toxin＋). It was positive in vacuole with acridine orange and acid phosphatase stain. Transmission electronmicrograph of vacuole revealed the presence of abounding membrane. There was a closed relationship between infection with H.pylori (Toxin＋) and peptic ulcer disease. The vacuole induced by H.pylori (Toxin＋) was autophagosome, which was pathological phenomenon induced by toxin.
Vincenzo; De; Francesco; Enzo; Ierardi; Cesare; Hassan; Angelo; Zullo
Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis,peptic ulcer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-lymphoma,and is also involved in carcinogenesis of the stomach.H.pylori treatment still remains a challenge for physicians,since no current first-line therapy is able to cure the infection in all treated patients.Several factors may help in the eradication of therapy failure.We reviewed both bacterial and host factors involved in therapeutic management of the H.pylori infection.In addition,we evaluated data on the most successful therapy regimens-sequential and concomitant therapies-currently available for H.pylori eradication.
Mar Mar Khin; Jie Song Hua; Hah Cong Ng; Bow Ho; Torkel Wadstrorr
AIM To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms.METHODS Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A ),fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas ( Lotus A ) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori-lectin agglutination. Interestingly, heating of H.pylori cells at 60℃ for 1 hour was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during theevents of morphological transformation,resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection.This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease.
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should
Jamshid Vafaeimanesh; Mojgan Jalalzadeh; Morteza Nazarian
To compare a triple-therapy regimen based on change of antibiotic (azithromycin and clarithromycin) for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in hemodialysis (HD) patients, we studied in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial 39 patients who had dyspepsia and showed two positive results from the diagnostic tests of H. pylori infection including anti-H. pylori serology and stool antigen (HpSAg) and urease breath test (UBT). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-A ...
Kevan Jacobson; Mohamed Satti; Suzanne Kutbi; Khaled Alghamdi; Mohammed Hasosah; Abdullah Baothman
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lympho...
Hussain, Khiyam; Letley, Darren P.; Greenaway, A. Borgel; Kenefeck, Rupert; Winter, Jody A.; Tomlinson, William; Rhead, Joanne; Staples, Emily; Kaneko, Kazuyo; Atherton, John C.; Robinson, Karen
Helicobacter pylori infections are usually established in early childhood and continuously stimulate immunity, including T-helper 1 (Th1), Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, throughout life. Although known to be the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, disease occurs in a minority of those who are infected. Recently, there has been much interest in beneficial effects arising from infection with this pathogen. Published data robustly show that the infection is pro...
Khiyam eHussain; Darren eLetley; Borgel eGreenaway; Rupert eKenefeck; Jody eWinter; William eTomlinson; Joanne eRhead; Emily eStaples; Kazuyo eKaneko; John eAtherton; Karen eRobinson
Helicobacter pylori infections are usually established in early childhood and continuously stimulate immunity, including T-helper 1 (Th1), Th17 and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, throughout life. Although known to be the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, disease occurs in a minority of those who are infected. Recently there has been much interest in beneficial effects arising from infection with this pathogen. Published data robustly show that the infection is prote...
AIM:To investigate the potential anti-Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori ) and anti-inflammation in vivo effects of two lactobacillus strains from human stomach.METHODS:Forty H.pylori infected Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics triple treated group,Lactobacillus fermenti(L.fermenti ) treated group,Lactobacillus acidophilus treated group and normal saline control group.Ten uninfected mice were also included as blank control group.The infection of H.pylori was dete...
Jönsson, Klas; Guo, Betty P.; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Mekalanos, John J.; Kronvall, Göran
Helicobacter pylori binds a number of host cell proteins, including the plasma protein plasminogen, which is the proenzyme of the serine protease plasmin. Two H. pylori plasminogen-binding proteins have been described; however, no genes were identified. Here we report the use of a phage display library to clone two genes from the H. pylori CCUG 17874 genome that mediate binding to plasminogen. DNA sequence analysis of one of these genes revealed 96.6% homology with H. pylori 26695 HP0508. A s...
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Full Text Available Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with common antibiotics is typically recommended for several digestive conditions, including peptic ulcers. However, reports of resistant H. pylori isolates are increasing, and unfortunately, these do not respond to currently available therapeutic regimens. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with two peptic ulcers in the duodenal antrum. An H. pylori strain was isolated, and tested for antibiotic resistance using agar dilution and disk diffusion. The isolated strain was found to be resistant to all seven antibiotics that were tested. Therefore, constant monitoring for antibiotic resistance should be performed prior to initiating antibiotic therapy.
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are one of the most common bacterial infections, seen in humans, worldwide and their possible relationships to different diseases are a focus of attention nowadays. H. pylori may cause some extra intestinal manifestations some of which are dermatological conditions, including Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. We describe a 49-year-old man who presented with HSP triggered by gastric H. pylori infection. Treatment of H. Pylori infection was accompanied by prompt resolution of the gastrointestinal manifestations and purpuric rashes. These findings suggest a causative role for H. pylori in the occurrence of HSP.
Nasser; Amjad; Hussain; Ali; Osman; Najibah; Abdul; Razak; Junaini; Kassian; Jeffri; Din; Nasuruddin; bin; Abdullah
AIM:To study the presence of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) virulence factors and clinical outcome in H.pylori infected patients.METHODS:A prospective analysis of ninety nine H.pylori-positive patients who underwent endoscopy in our Endoscopy suite were included in this study.DNA was isolated from antral biopsy samples and the presence of cagA,iceA,and iceA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and a reverse hybridization technique.Screening for H.pylori infection was performed in all patie...
AIM:To investigate the resistance of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) to ciprofloxacin(CIP),levofloxacin(LVX) and moxifloxacin(MOX) in the Beijing area and to elucidate the resistance mechanisms.METHODS:Seventy-nine H.pylori clinical strains,isolated from patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 to 2009,were tested for their susceptibility to CIP,LVX and MOX using the E-test method.H.pylori strain 26695 was included in the susceptibility testing ...
Santosh K Tiwari; Aleem A Khan; Mohd Ibrahim; Mohd Aejaz Habeeb; C Ml Habibullah
AIM: To investigate the presence of Helicobacter species by nested PCR of 16S rRNA genes followed by the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) 16S rRNA, ureA, cagA genes in bile obtained at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) from 60Indian subjects.METHODS: Sixty bile samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with various hepato-biliary diseases and control subjects at ERCP. PCR analysis was carried out using primers for Helicobacter genus 16S rRNA gene and H pylori(16S rRNA, ureA and caaA) genes. Gastric Hpyloristatus was also assessed from biopsies obtained at endoscopy from patients with various hepato-biliary diseases and controls. The control group mainly consisted of subjects with gastric disorders. Sequencing analysis was performed to confirm that PCR products with 16S rRNA and cagA primers were derived from H pylori.RESULTS No Helicobacters were grown in culture from the bile samples. Helicobacter DNA was detected in bile of 96.7% and 6.6% of groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ respectively. Ten from group Ⅰ were positive for 16S rRNA and ureA and 9were positive for cagA gene. In contrast of the 2 from the control, 1 amplified with 16S rRNA, ureA and cagA primers used. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes and cagA were 99% similar to Helicobacter pylori.CONCLUSION: Helicobacters are associated with the pathogenesis of various hepato-biliary disorders.
Full Text Available Background. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA are common in adults. Although the most common causes of IDA usually arise from the gastrointestinal tract, the association between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia remains unclear. Aim. To evaluate the association of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 882 patients from January 2010 to April 2013. The status of Helicobacter pylori (H.p infection was confirmed and blood samples from the same participants were taken on the same day to check the level of hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC. Results. No significant difference was noted from the demographic data. The average level of hemoglobin (Hb was not different between negative and positive groups, pos 13.57 g/dL versus neg 13.65 g/dL (P=0.699. Although the levels of serum IDA related parameters were expected in positive group (lower serum iron and ferritin and higher TIBC these differences did not reach statistical significance (P=0.824 for iron, P=0.360 for ferritin, and P=0.252 for TIBC. Conclusion. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is not attributed to IDA. The levels of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, and TIBC remain unaffected after chronic H.p infection. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to prove the association.
Zheng Feei eMa
Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy.Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusions: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy.
Full Text Available Objective:This study aims to evaluate the role of breastfeeding in the acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in Iran and to compare the histopathologic changes occurring in children feeding on breast milk with those in infants feeding on formula. Methods:In a case-control study parents of children with and without H. pylori infection who had undergone endoscopic survey and gastric biopsy in the Childrens Medical Center, Tehran, were asked about their feeding practices during the first 6 months after birth, the duration of breastfeeding period, the symptoms, and the duration of symptoms and concomitant diseases. Findings:A total of 154 children were included in this study. From this sample, 77 children formed the case group and 77 children formed the control group. A significant difference was found between H. pylori infection and feeding with formula (P=0.045. In case group, a significant difference was found between breastfeeding and age of the infected child (P=0.034, shorter duration of symptoms (P=0.016, and finally degree of H. pylori colonization (P=0.021. Conclusion:It appears that breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth can decrease the degree of H. pylori colonization, postpone infection until older age, shorten the duration of symptoms, and be concomitant with milder gastritis.
Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma
Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.
An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.
Full Text Available The functional characterization of Open Reading Frames (ORFs from sequenced genomes remains a bottleneck in our effort to understand microbial biology. In particular, the functional characterization of proteins with only remote sequence homology to known proteins can be challenging, as there may be few clues to guide initial experiments. Affinity enrichment of proteins from cell lysates, and a global perspective of protein function as provided by COMBREX, affords an approach to this problem. We present here the biochemical analysis of six proteins from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 26695, a focus organism in COMBREX. Initial hypotheses were based upon affinity capture of proteins from total cellular lysate using derivatized nano-particles, and subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. Candidate genes encoding these proteins were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized biochemically and their biochemical parameters compared with the native ones. These proteins include a guanosine triphosphate (GTP cyclohydrolase (HP0959, an ATPase (HP1079, an adenosine deaminase (HP0267, a phosphodiesterase (HP1042, an aminopeptidase (HP1037, and new substrates were characterized for a peptidoglycan deacetylase (HP0310. Generally, characterized enzymes were active at acidic to neutral pH (4.0-7.5 with temperature optima ranging from 35 to 55°C, although some exhibited outstanding characteristics.
Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y
The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262
Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422
Seng-Kee Chuah; Feng-Woei Tsay; Ping-I Hsu; Deng-Chyang Wu
With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment success of standard triple therapy has recently declined to unacceptable levels (i.e., 80% or less) in most countries. Therefore, several treatment regimens have emerged to cure Helicobacter pylori (H .pylori)infection. Novel first-line anti-H. pylorii therapies in 2011 include sequential therapy, concomitant quadruple therapy, hybrid (dual-concomitant) therapy and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. After the failure of standard triple therapy, a bismuth-containing quadruple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole can be employed as rescue treatment. Recently, triple therapy combining a PPI, levofloxacin and amoxicillin has been proposed as an alternative to the standard rescue therapy. This salvage regimen can achieve a higher eradication rate than bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in some regions and has less adverse effects. The best second-line therapy for patients who fail to eradicate H. pylori with first-line therapies containing clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole is unclear. However, a levofloxacin-based triple therapy is an accepted rescue treatment. Most guidelines suggest that patients requiring third-line therapy should be referred to a medical center and treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test. Nonetheless, an empirical therapy (such as levofloxacin-based or furazolidone-based therapies) can be employed to terminate H. pylorii infection if antimicrobial sensitivity data are unavailable.
Ozlem Aydin; Reyhan Egilmez; Tuba Karabacak; Arzu Kanik
Because the presence or absence of H pylori infection has important implications for therapeutic decisions based on histological assessment, the reproducibility of Sydney system is important. The study was designed to test the reproducibility of features of Helicobacter pylori gastritis,using the updated Sydney classification.METHODS: Gastric biopsies of 40 randomly selected cases of Hpylori gastritis were scored semiquantitatively by three pathologists. Variables analysed included chronic inflammation,inflammatory activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, H pylori,surface epithelial damage. Κ values below 0.5 represented poor, those between 0.5 and 0.75 good and values over 0.75excellent interobserver agreement.RESULTS: The best interobserver agreement (κ=0.62) was present for intestinal metaplasia. The agreement was the poorest for evaluating atrophy (κ=0.31).CONCLUSION: Although the results of this study were in accordance with some previous studies, an excellent agreement could not be reached for any features of H pylori gastritis. This low degree of concordance is assumed to be due to the personal evaluation differences in grading the features, the lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, and the ignorance to reach a consensus about the methods to be used in grading the features of H pylori gastritis before initiating the study.
Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.
Su; Young; Kim; Duck; Joo; Choi; Jun-Won; Chung
Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) has been associated with gastroduodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a groupI carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacil us. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication.
Hugh James Freeman
Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.
James C, Byrd; Robert S, Bresalier
AIM To determine the role of Helicobacter pylori in altering gastric mucin synthesis and define how thprocess relates to H. pylori-related diseases.METHODS Analyses of human gastric tissues using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridizatiodocument the role of H. pylori in altering the composition and distribution of gastric mucins.RESULTS These data indicate a decrease in the product of the MUC5 (MUC5AC) gene and aberraexpression of MUC6 in the surface epithelium of H. pylori-infected patients. A normal pattern was restorby H. pylori eradication. Inhibition of mucin synthesis including MUC5AC and MUCl mucins by H. pvlohas been established in vitro using biochemical and Western blot analyses. This effect is not due to inhibitiof glycosylation, but results from inhibition of synthesis of mucin core structures. In vitro experiments usiinhibitors of mucin synthesis indicate that cell surface mucins decrease adhesion of H. pylori to gastepithelial cells.CONCLUSION Inhibition of mucin synthesis by H. pylori in vivo can disrupt the protective mucous layand facilitate bacterial adhesion, which may lead to increased inflammation in thc gastric epithelium.
Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie S W; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang
Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes.
Fox, J G; MacGregor, J A; Shen, Z; Li, X; Lewis, R; Dangler, C A
In a long-term rodent bioassay evaluating the carcinogenicity of triethanolamine, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a marginal increase in the number of hepatocellular adenomas and hepatoblastomas. Interpretation was complicated by the presence of Helicobacter hepaticus in selected silver-stained liver sections which also had histological evidence of karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. An increase in numbers of liver tumors, as evidence of carcinogenic activity, was also noted in female mice. However, H. hepaticus was not considered a complicating factor, because the livers of the female mice did not have histological features compatible with H. hepaticus infection. A retrospective analysis of 51 liver tissue samples from the original carcinogenicity study was conducted to determine the incidence of H. hepaticus infection and to evaluate different diagnostic approaches for assessing the presence of H. hepaticus in livers lacking characteristic lesions. In an initial evaluation of seven mice with liver tumors, argyrophilic bacteria resembling H. hepaticus were observed in liver sections, associated with characteristic liver lesions of hepatocytic karyomegaly and oval cell hyperplasia. Frozen liver tissue was available from four of these mice; all were confirmed to be infected with H. hepaticus by culture and PCR. In a larger subsequent analysis using frozen liver tissues from 44 mice without characteristic hepatic lesions, H. hepaticus-specific DNA was amplified from the livers of 21 of 44 of the mice (47%), compared to 14 of 44 of the mice (32%) having H. hepaticus cultured from their frozen liver tumors. The results of H. hepaticus culture and H. hepaticus-specific PCR concurred (i.e., both positive and negative results) in 84% of the cases. Microscopic detection of immunofluorescence-labeled or silver-stained bacteria in liver sections was relatively insensitive compared to either culture or PCR detection. This
Deng, Jiaqi; Yan, Qiong; Yang, Chun; Xia, Guodong; Zhou, Xian
Background Traditional Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapies have shown efficacies below 80% in several studies, and their use has been accompanied by antibiotic-related side effects. Some recent studies have reported that supplementing standard therapies with probiotics can improve the efficacy and tolerability of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Objective To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on the eradication rates and therapy-related adverse event rates of anti-Helicobacter pylori regimens. Methods We searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and the Chinese Biomedical Database for eligible randomized controlled trials published through July, 2015. Review Manager 5.3 was used for all statistical analyses. Results Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving a total of 2306 patients were included in our analysis. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis performed using a fixed-effects model (test for heterogeneity I2 = 45%) showed that the pooled relative risk (RR) of eradication was significantly higher in the probiotic supplementation group than in the control group [RR 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.20, Ppylori eradication rates. However, supplementation with Lactobacillus alone did not significantly decrease the overall incidence of side effects (RR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.11–3.51, P = 0.58). Our study also showed that probiotic supplementation before, during or after H. pylori eradication therapy improved eradication rates, regardless of supplementation duration. Furthermore, probiotic supplementation during H. pylori treatment reduced the incidence of side effects. Conclusion Probiotic supplementation during anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment may be effective for improving H. pylori eradication rates, minimizing the incidence of therapy-related adverse events and alleviating most disease-related clinical symptoms. However, our results should be interpreted with caution because of
Hanafy, A S; El Hawary, A T; Hamed, E F; Hassaneen, A M
The possibility of delaying treatment of HCV due to severe thrombocytopenia is challenging. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of active helicobacter infection as a claimed cause of thrombocytopenia in a cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic active HCV awaiting combined anti-viral therapy. The study included 400 chronic HCV patients with thrombocytopenia. Laboratory investigations included liver function tests, real time quantitative PCR, reticulocytic count, ESR, ANA, bone marrow aspiration, measurement of anti-helicobacter antibodies, and helicobacter stool antigen. Positive cases for active H. pylori were given the standard triple therapy for 2 weeks. Helicobacter stool antigen was detected 4 weeks after termination of therapy and the change in platelet count was detected 1 month after eradication. A total of 248 out of 281 seropositive patients for H. pylori (88.3 %) showed positive stool antigen (p = 0.01). Eradication was achieved in 169 (68.1 %) patients with platelet mean count 114.9 ± 18.8 × 10(3)/μl with highly significant statistical difference from pretreatment value (49.7 ± 9.2 × 10(3)/μl, p = 0.000). Seventy-nine patients were resistant to conventional triple therapy and given a 7-day course of moxifloxacin-based therapy; 61 patients responded (77.1 %) with mean platelet improvement from 76.4 ± 17.4 × 10(3)/μl to 104.2 ± 15.2 × 10(3)/μl (p = 0.000). The non-responders showed no improvement in their platelet count (74.6 ± 20.5 vs. 73.6 ± 15.3 × 10(3)/ul, P = 0.5). Eradication of active H. pylori in HCV augments platelet count and enhances the early start of antiviral therapy. PMID:27180243
Norma Angélica Sánchez-Zauco
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori coloniza el epitelio gástrico y la mayoría de las personas infectadas es asintomática, de 10 al 20% desarrolla gastritis atrófica, úlcera péptica, y menos de 3% genera cáncer gástrico. Estas patologías están determinadas por la relación entre los factores de virulencia de la bacteria y los factores del hospedero como predisposición genética y respuesta inmune. La inmunidad innata, representada principalmente por los receptores tipo Toll y tipo Nod, reconocen a sus ligandos específicos y activan factores de transcripción como NF-kB, AP-1, CREB-1, induciendo la producción de citocinas inflamatorias como IL-8, IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18 y TNF-α, e IL-10. La inflamación crónica favorece los cambios de morfología gástrica, evita la apoptosis y favorece la angiogénesis, ocasionando lesiones neoplásicas y cáncer. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los mecanismos propuestos a la fecha de la respuesta inmune innata y adaptativa, involucrados en la infección por H. pylori, y se puntualiza en los mecanismos de eliminación o persistencia de la infección.Helicobacter pylori colonize the gastric epithelial, most infected people are asymptomatic, 10 to 20% develop atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and less than 3% gastric cancer. These diseases are determined by the relationship between virulence factors of bacteria, host factors such as, genetic predisposition, and immune response. The innate immune response mainly represented by Toll-like receptors and Nod-like receptors that recognize their specific ligands, activate transcription factors as NF-kB, AP-1, CREB-1, inducing production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL -8, IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-10. Chronic inflammation promotes gastric morphological changes, prevents apoptosis and allows angiogenesis generating neoplasic lesions and cancer. The aim of this review is to analyze the mechanisms proposed to date of the innate and adaptative
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a widely spread bacterium that mainly inhabits the gastric mucosa and can lead to serious illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and gastric MALT lymphoma. The oral-oral route seems to be the main transmission route. The fact that endoscopes are contaminated after being used to perform a gastroscopy leads one to question whether gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses and assistants run a higher risk of infection. Methods A systematic search for literature was conducted in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and further publications were found in reference lists of relevant articles. Epidemiological studies on the occupational exposure of endoscopy personnel were collected and their quality was assessed. Pooled effect estimates were identified in a meta-analysis. Results Of the 24 studies included in the analysis, 15 were considered to be methodologically good. Of these 15 studies, eight single studies showed a statistically significant increased risk of infection for gastroenterologists, and five for their assistants. Meta-analysis across all methodologically good studies found a statistically significant risk of 1.6 (95%CI 1.3-2.0 for doctors. The pooled effect estimates also indicated a statistically significant risk of Helicobacter pylori infection (RR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8 for assistants too. When studies are stratified by medical and non-medical control groups, statistically significant risks can only be recognised in the comparison with non-medical controls. Conclusions In summary, our results demonstrated an increased risk of Helicobacter pylori infection among gastroenterological personnel. However, the choice of control group is important for making a valid assessment of occupational exposure risks.
Full Text Available Invasive and non-invasive techniques are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. Some factors influence the choice of a diagnostic test, such as the sensitivity and specificity of the tests, the clinical circumstances and the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between different H. pylori infection diagnosis methods, and clarify the application scope of each diagnosis method.patients were included in the study, and specimens including biopsies, blood and stool were taken. Biopsies were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin, and Giemsa staining. A sequence of 294 bp in the ureC (glmM gene was amplified. The rapid urease test (RUT was performed using a non-commercial validated test. Stool samples were analyzed using a polyclonal ELISA stool antigen test. A serological assay for IgG antibodies was performed by a commercial Helicobacter pylori IgG ELISA kit.According to the predefined criteria, a total of 46 (50.5% patients tested were positive by at least 2 of the 3 biopsy-based methods. The best sensitivity (95.6% belonged to histology and RUT. The sensitivities of other tests including PCR, serology and stool antigen test were 93.5%, 91.3% and 73.9%, respectively. RUT showed the best specificity (100%, and the specificities of the other tests, including PCR, stool antigen test, histology and serology, were 95.6%, 86.7%, 77.8% and 55.6%, respectively.In view of the better results obtained for invasive vs non-invasive tests, for a more accurate diagnosis, it is advisable not to solely rely on non-invasive methods of H. Pylori diagnosis.
Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of Licopid and bifid and lactic acid bacteria complex on Helicobacter pylori eradication and lysozyme activity as the factor of nonspecific immune protection in gastric and duodenal ulcer. Materials and Methods. There were studied 30 patients suffering from Helicobacter associated gastric and duodenal ulcer, lysozyme activity was determined in 8 conditionally healthy individuals. There were used endoscopic, cytomorphological, and immunological (polymerase chain reaction, photonephelometric techniques. To study the effect of immunomodulator and probiotic on eradication and nonspecific immune protection, there were determined H. pylori contamination and lysozyme activity of oropharyngeal secretion and gastric juice before and after the treatment. Results. The analysis of biopsy specimens and lysozyme biological tests revealed the use of immunomodulator (Licopid and bifid and lactic acid bacteria complex combined with anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy increases H. pylori eradication and enhances lysozyme activity of saliva and gastric juice compared to data on quadroscheme. Conclusion. The administration of Licopid and bifid and lactic acid bacteria complex can be recommended in complex therapy of patients suffering from Helicobacter associated gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Christine M Szymanski
Full Text Available As we commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms (CHRO workshops with this special Frontiers edition, we look back upon three decades of research and provide some highlights from the 16th International CHRO meeting. As Martin Skirrow noted, Elizabeth King was the first to isolate campylobacters in the 1950’s, although Escherich himself provided drawings of these fecal organisms back in the 1880’s. Helicobacter is a more recent organism, first described to be the causative agent of stomach ulcers at a CHRO meeting by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren – who then later received the Nobel Prize for their findings that bacteria could cause diseases previously believed to be caused by human factors. Studies of the intersection of host microbial ecology and pathogen infection have been pioneered by scientists such as Brett Finlay, who described his current work on this topic. And as general antibiotics are routinely administered, we see a rise in bacterial antibiotic resistance. Julian Davies emphasized that there is a growing need for the development of new bioactive compounds on the horizon as we advance our knowledge on these pathogens. The first genome of C. jejuni was published in 2000; now one decade later we have 30 Campyobacter taxa sequenced, and this number continues to rise quickly. However, we continue to obtain unexpected results as a pioneer in CHRO research, Martin Blaser explained – i.e., although H. pylori is now classified as a level I carcinogen, there may be benefits to carrying this organism as part of your normal flora. Other findings indicate that Campylobacters and Helicobacters do not follow classic paradigms of other well-characterized gastrointestinal pathogens. And we are learning that there is a whole world of interesting related organisms beyond C. jejuni and H. pylori. This review summarizes some of the history of CHRO research and the exciting directions ahead.
Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar
Full Text Available The histo-blood group ABH antigens were first described in humans. These antigens are only present on erythrocytes from great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. The ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment and potentially serve as ligands for pathogens or inhibitors of tissue connections. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (i to determine the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of 16 captive and 24 free-living New World monkeys and (ii to evaluate the presence of histopathological alterations related to bacterial infection and the associated expression of ABH antigens in the tissue. Stomach tissues from 13 species of monkey were assessed using haematoxylin-eosin and modified Gram staining (Hucker methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of infectious bacteria that were characteristic of the genus Helicobacter sp. The results demonstrate that various species of monkey might be naturally infected with the Helicobacter sp. and that there is an increased susceptibility to infection. This study serves as a comparative analysis of infection between human and non-human primates and indicates the presence of a new species of Helicobacter.
Shahid Khan; Asim Karim; Shaheryar Iqbal
The urease of the human pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, is essential for pathogenesis. The ammonia produced by the enzyme neutralizes stomach acid; thereby modifying its environment. The dodecameric enzyme complex has high affinity for its substrate, urea. We compared urease sequences and derivative 3D homology model structures from all published Helicobacter genomes and an equal number of genomes belonging to strains of another enteric bacterium, Escherichia coli. We found that the enzyme’s architecture adapts to fit its niche. This finding, coupled to a survey of other physiological features responsible for the bacterium’s acid resistance, suggests how it copes with pH changes caused by disease onset and progression.
Queralt i Díaz, Núria
[cat] Aquesta Tesi Doctoral té com objectius principals l’estudi d’Helicobacter pylori en mostres aquàtiques de Catalunya, en aigües procedents de sistemes dentals de consultes de dentistes, en saliva i en femtes de pacients amb símptomes gastrointestinals mitjançant el mètode de la PCR. També es va estudiar la supervivència d’Helicobacter pylori en aigua dolça usant un model de laboratori aplicant diferents tècniques d’anàlisi i es va interpretar el canvi de morfologia, la viabilitat i la cu...
Oluwasola, A O
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram-negative bacterium with a relatively small genome and is known to be the most common human bacterial infection worldwide, infecting about half of the world's population. The bacterium represents one of the most successful human pathogens, inducing severe clinical symptoms only in a small subset of individuals, thus signifying a highly balanced degree of co-evolution of H. pylori and humans. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies greatly among countries and among population groups within the same country, but is falling in most developed countries. The clinical course of H. pylori infection is highly variable and is influenced by both microbial and host factors including genetic susceptibility while the pattern and distribution of inflammation correlate strongly with the risk of clinical sequelae, namely duodenal or gastric ulcers, mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, or gastric lymphoma. Cytokine gene polymorphisms directly influence inter-individual variation in the magnitude of cytokine response, and this clearly contributes to an individual's ultimate clinical outcome. Polymorphisms in genes coding for innate immune factors have also been incriminated in the pathogenesis of H. pylori related disease, while promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is considered an important factor in carcinogenesis and known to be present in H. pylori associated gastric tumors. Functional genomics may fill many of the gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection and accelerate the development of novel therapies, including H. pylori specific antimicrobial agents.
Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru
Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:22194341
Full Text Available Over 380 abstracts, presentations and posters of recent advances were highlighted at the European and International Helicobacter pylori meeting held July 7 to 9, 1995 in Edinburgh, Scotland. New advances abound, with major interest focusing on the simple, safe, inexpensive new `gold standard’ for H pylori eradication therapy: a single week of tid omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg. To avoid false negative results, two biopsies must be taken from the antrum and two from the gastric body at least four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, and ideally should be supplemented with at least one further H pylori test such as a biopsy for urease activity or culture, or a urea breath test. While most patients with a gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU who do not consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are infected with H pylori, the association is much less apparent in those with a DU who present with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. H pylori eradication for nonulcer dyspepsia is not widely recommended, and the patient with a DU given effective H pylori eradication who presents with dyspepsia likely has erosive esophagitis rather than recurrent DU or H pylori. Gastroenterologists are at increased risk of H pylori infection, particularly older gastroenterologists who are very busy endoscopists.
Lu, Bin; Li, Meng
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.
Giuseppe Del Giudice
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most widespread infections worldwide: it affects more than 50% of the human population, and is responsible for serious gastric pathologies such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis and, in some individuals, gastric cancer. Current treatments with antibiotics are efficacious, but encounters several drawbacks at the level of compliance, side effects, antibiotic resistance, etc.The availability of vaccines could contribute in reducing the burden of H. pylori associated diseases. Several bacterial antigens have been identified as virulence factors and proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Some of these antigens have been tested in experimental animal models of challenge with H. pylori. The experiments in animals have shown that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori is indeed feasible. Several open questions still remain concerning the understanding of the host-microbe relationship and the quality of the immune response which should be induced in order to confer protective immunity in man.The answers to these questions will be crucial in helping the preparation of appropriate vaccine formulations able to efficaciously protect humans both prophylactically and therapeutically. A few clinical trials have been carried out so far with still limited results. Other trials in humans are in progress and are planned for the next few years.The final hope is that these new vaccines will show the expected efficacy against H. pylori and will permit the elimination of this pathogen which has cohabited with humans for more than 100,000 years.
Xiu-Li Liu; Shu-Qin Li; Chun-Jie Liu; Hao-Xia Tao; Zhao-Shan Zhang
AIM: To construct and select antigen epitopes of vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) for nontoxic VacA vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection.METHODS: Eleven VacA epitopes were predicted according to VacA antigenic bioinformatics. Three candidates of VacA epitope were constructed through different combined epitopes. The candidate was linked with E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) by a linker of 7 amino acids, and cloned into plasmid pQE-60 in which fusion LTB-VacA epitope was efficiently expressed. To test the antigencity of the candidate, 6 BALB/c mice were treated with the fusion LTB-VacA epitope through intraperitoneal injection. To explore the ability of inhibiting the toxicity of VacA, cantiserum against the candidate was used to counteract VacA that induced HeLa cells to produce cell vacuoles in vitro.RESULTS: Serum IgG against the candidate was induced in the BALB/c mice. In vitro, the three antisera against the candidate efficiently counteracted the toxicity of VacA, and decreased the number of cell vacuoles by 14.17%, 20.20%and 30.41% respectively.CONCLUSION: Two of the three candidates, LZ-VacA1and LZ-VacA2, can be used to further study the mechanism of vacuolating toxicity of VacA, and to construct nontoxic VacA vaccine against H pylori infection.
Javier P. Gisbert
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final—overall—eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based “rescue” therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line “rescue” option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several “rescue” therapies are consecutively given.
Bansal, Divya; Sharma, Sonal; Agarwal, Sarla; Saha, Rumpa; Gupta, Neelima
To detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. A case-control study was conducted enrolling 35 patients with nasal polyps (cases) and patients undergoing septoplasty (controls). Fresh tissue samples were used for urea broth test and imprint cytology, while formalin fixed tissue sections were used for morphology, special stains and immunohistochemistry for H. pylori. Fresh stool samples from both groups were tested to correlate the gastrointestinal status. H. pylori was detected in 40.0 % (14/35) of cases and 8.5 % of controls (3/35) (p = 0.004) by immunohistochemistry. Amongst cases, eight were positive with urea broth test, six with imprint cytology (Giemsa stain), three with H & E, and nine with modified McMullen's stain. Hyperplasia of the lining epithelium and lymphoid aggregates were significantly noticed in nasal polyps positive for H. pylori. Stool antigen test was positive in subjects who were positive for H. pylori in the nasal mucosa. There appears to be an association between H. pylori and nasal polyps. Immunohistochemistry is more sensitive and specific method to detect H. pylori. H. pylori induced inflammatory tissue reaction pattern indicates a possible causal association. Further studies are needed to prove the causal relationship between H. pylori and nasal polyps. PMID:26830396
Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low. Sequential Therapy Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy. Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.
This review summarizes important studies regarding Helicobacter pylori therapy published from April 2012 up to March 2013. To begin with, the updated European Consensus Guidelines were published last year, highlighting the role of bismuth and nonbismuth quadruple regimen as first-line treatments. Cure rates for standard triple therapy remain acceptable in quite a few settings nowadays, and some reports on innovative triple therapies look promising. One study evaluating bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line therapy was reported. Regarding nonbismuth quadruple regimens, there is a trend of superiority emerging for the "concomitant" therapy over the "sequential" regimen. "Hybrid" therapy, a combination of sequential and concomitant therapy, has also shown advantage over sequential therapy. Levofloxacin-based therapies appear to be useful and versatile in second- and third-line therapies, with interesting results for newer generation quinolones, which may partially overcome antibiotic resistance. Some promising works have been reported for bismuth-based rescue therapy, using individualized therapies upon antimicrobial information, as well as for rifabutin fourth-line therapy. Probiotics appear to have an effect in terms of reducing side effects and improving compliance, but data on improvement of eradication rates remain controversial.
Calvet, Xavier; Ramírez Lázaro, María-José; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis
A limited amount of new information was published in the field of diagnosis and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori this last year. Besides some improvement in current tests, it is interesting to note the attempts to identify severe disease, for example gastric cancer, by breath analysis using nanomaterial-based sensors. In contrast, the predictive value for gastric cancer and atrophy of pepsinogen determinations was found inadequate. Prevalence studies of H. pylori infection have been carried out in adults and children around the world in the general population but also in specific communities. The usual risk factors were found. In addition, a Japanese study highlighted the role of grandmothers in the familial transmission of H. pylori. A study showed that the infection may not always readily establish itself in children, given the number of transient infections observed. It was also noted that after eradication, a first-year relapse is likely to be a recurrence of the previous infection, while later on it is probably a reinfection with a new strain.
Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.
Beatriz Gutiérrez; Teresita Vidal; Carlos Ernesto Valmaña; Christine Camou-Juncas; Adriana Santos; Françis Mégraud; Nery González; Ibrahim Leonard; Rolando Martínez; Osvaldo Díaz-Canel; Manuel Paniagua; María del Pilar Escobar; George L. Mendez
Existe una gran falta de información acerca de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en los países de la región del Caribe. Nuestros objetivos en este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia, la resistencia a los antibióticos y los factores de virulencia de la bacteria. La medida de la prevalencia de la infección por H. pylori se determinó en un grupo de pacientes a los que se les practicó una endoscopia en tres centros hospitalarios de La Ciudad de La Habana, lo que nos permitió evaluar la r...
Luana Paredes Leite de Barros PEREIRA
present a significant difference in relation to the macroscopic aspect of the tumor either intestinal or diffuse histological types. Conclusions - These data suggest the presence of the bacteria is predominant in the antral region and it does not show relation with the macroscopic types or histological intestinal or diffuse types of gastric carcinoma.Racional e Objetivos Considerando a elevada prevalência de câncer gástrico na região norte do Brasil e a conhecida relação entre a inflamação por gastrite crônica causada pelo Helicobacter pylori e seu potencial carcinogênico, os objetivos deste estudo foram detectar a presença do microorganismo nas apresentações macro e microscópicas da neoplasia nas diferentes regiões do estômago, e nas lesões não-malignas concomitantes ao adenocarcinoma, em doentes oriundos da área metropolitana de Belém (Estado do Pará, Brasil. Método - Foram examinados 172 doentes divididos em dois grupos: grupo I, constituído por 75 enfermos com carcinoma gástrico e grupo II composto por 97 doentes com gastrite enantemática leve, considerado grupo controle. Os diagnósticos foram obtidos por meio de exame endoscópico e respectiva biopsia. As neoplasias gástricas foram classificadas macroscopicamente de acordo com a classificação de Borrmann e microscopicamente de acordo com a classificação de Laurén. No grupo I, 54 doentes eram do sexo masculino e 21 do sexo feminino. No grupo II, 22 enfermos eram masculinos e 75 femininos. A média de idade no grupo I foi de 61,2 anos (27 a 86 anos e a do grupo II foi de 37,5 anos (16 a 69 anos. As lâminas foram preparadas e coradas pelo método da hematoxilina e eosina, utilizando-se o método de Gram modificado na pesquisa do H.pylori. A análise estatística foi realizada com os testes do chi ², teste de Mann Whitney e teste exato de Fisher. Resultados - A detecção do H.pylori foi significativamente maior nos doentes com gastrite enantemática leve do que nos enfermos com
Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies. PMID:15373702
Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Faber-Zuschratter, Heidi; Zuschratter, Werner; Renner, Lydia; Sokolova, Olga; Naumann, Michael; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef
Infection with Helicobacter pylori results often in chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers or even gastric tumor development. Little is known about the initial interaction between gastric epithelial cells and H. pylori. The aim of the present study was to analyze the initial host contact to the bacteria. Monolayers of the human gastric epithelial cell line NCI-N87 grown on porous membranes were used and the apical side of the epithelium was exposed to the H. pylori wild-type strain P1 for 1 hr. Many epithelial cells were colonized by bacteria within the period of 60 min. Using scanning electron microscopy we detected that the bacteria were in close contact with the epithelia via microvilli. Further, transmission electron microscopy of the contact sites revealed no difference in the morphology of the microvilli in comparison to those not attached to the bacteria. The present study demonstrates the importance of microvilli on apical epithelial cells during the initial contact of the host by colonizing H. pylori.
Jalava, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; Harrington, Clare S.;
We compared the characteristics of a cultured human "Helicobacter heilmannii" isolate with those of other helicobacters found in animals. Phenotypic, protein profile, 16S rDNA sequence, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses identified the human strain as H. bizzozeronii, a species frequently found...... in dogs. Thus, H. bizzozeronii may have zoonotic potential....
CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan
Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.
van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.
Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health a
M.M. Gerrits (Monique)
textabstractAn estimated 4 to 5 million individuals in the Netherlands are actively infected with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of this bacterium becomes more difficult as the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide. Most H. pylori infections are now diagnosed by non-invasi
Spee, Leo A A; Madderom, Marieke B; Pijpers, Maaike; van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Berger, Marjolein Y
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common complaints among children. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the cause of these complaints remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is an increasing pressure on primary care clinicians to screen for H py
Vonkeman, Harald E.; Leest, de H.T.J.I.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Baarlen, van J.; Steen, K.S.S.; Lems, W.F.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Kuipers, E.J.; Houben, H.H.M.L.; Janssen, M.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.
Background: In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial, we measured the sensitivity and specificity of Helicobacter pylori IgG-antibody titer changes, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and culture results in NSAID using patien
H.E. Vonkeman (Harald); H.T.J.I. de Leest; M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J. Van Baarlen; K.S.S. Steen (K. S S); W.F. Lems (Willem); J.W.J. Bijlsma (Hans); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); H.H.M.L. Houben (Harry); M. Janssen (Matthijs); B.A.C. Dijkmans (Ben)
textabstractBackground: In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial, we measured the sensitivity and specificity of Helicobacter pylori IgG-antibody titer changes, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and culture results in NSAID
Brown, Joseph C.; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping
Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy.
Full Text Available Aim: Helicobacter pylori is the major gastric pathogen which has an important role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic gastritis. We investigated the presence of Helicobacter pylori as an extragastric reservoir in the tonsillectomy specimens to display if it is an etiologic factor in the development of chronic tonsilitis. Material and Method: In the current study, 100 cases with chronic tonsilitis were examined in bilateral tonsillectomy specimens. The colonization of the microorganism have been evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin and giemsa stains under the light microscope.Results: Helicobacter pylori has been detected in 33 cases (33% on one side of the bilateral tonsillectomy specimens while it has been seen in 15 cases (15% on both sides which demonstrated positivity in 48 cases (48% in total. No colonization has been observed in the remaining 52 cases (52%. Discussion: Due to the considerable positivity in our study, the histopathologic evaluation of tonsillary Helicobacter pylori colonization may be instrumental in the etiologic association with chronic tonsillitis.
Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Muraoka, Hiroe; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi
A high rate of resistance (49.5 to 72.7%) to amoxicillin (AMX) was observed in Helicobacter pylori after two or three unsuccessful eradication attempts. Unsuccessful eradication regimens significantly increase resistance to not only clarithromycin (CLR) and metronidazole (MNZ) but also AMX.
Wallace, R. A.; Schluter, P. J.; Webb, P. M.
Compared to the general population, Helicobacter pylori infection is more common among adults with intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with greater levels of disability, maladaptive behaviour, and institutionalization. Little information exists about the effects of eradication therapy in this group, so we aimed to evaluate: (1) success…
The mode by which Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of most gastric ulcers, is transmitted remains undetermined. Epidemiological evidence suggests these organisms are waterborne; however, H. pylori has rarely been grown from potential water sources. This may be due to th...
Vincenzo De Francesco; Enzo Ierardi; Cesare Hassan; Angelo Zullo
Some aspects related with the use of furazolidone as a rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection should be remarked, especially regarding its potential oncologic risk. The inclusion of furazolidone in a treatment regimen for H pylori infection is, at least, controversial, and it does not appear to be safe.
Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...
Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya
During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several...
Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.;
The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...
Mourad-Baars, Petronella Elisabeth Cornelia
In this dissertation we present the results of our research on Helicobacter pylori infections in childhood, focusing on the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of the infection. Our studies were conducted in the Netherlands, Europe and Indonesia. We discuss diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, re
Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide positive health benefits. Bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium belong to this group. These bacteria have to meet a number of criteria so that they could be considered for probiotic. These include the ability to survive, grow, and be metabolically active in the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. Probiotics protect the intestinal mucus from the adhesion of pathogenic organisms. The aim of this thesis was to test the ability of different ...
To study the frequency of Helicobacter Pylori (HP) infection among children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi from December 2011 to February 2012. Patients and Methods: One hundred children of either gender aged 2 to 12 years presenting with RAP were tested for HP at Paediatric OPD MH, Rawalpindi who consented to participate in the study. Those children who tested positive for Helicobacter Pylori Stool Antigen Test (HPSAT) were labeled as those having Hp infection. The stool assay was performed using the HpSAT kit and the socio-demographic and clinical profiles of children were associated. Results: Out of 100 children included in the study HpSAT was positive in 38% children. Frequency of Hp infection was significantly associated with source of drinking water (p = 0.014), socioeconomic status (p = 0.001) and positive family history of yspepsia (p= 0.023). While age and gender have no significant association with HP infection. Conclusion: Hp infection is very common in children presenting with RAP in our Paediatric OPD. Children with family history of dyspepsia, from low socioeconomic class and those drinking filtered water are at greater risk for HP infection. It is recommended that children from other populations in our country should also be tested in their medical health facilities in order to have a wider analysis of this problem in our setup. (author)
Full Text Available Clinical relevance of infection with different Helicobacter pylori strains was reviewed in this paper. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection most probably include acne rosacea and chronic urticaria, while the importance of H. pylori infection for pathogenesis of growth retardation in children, iron deficiency anemia, coronary heart disease, stroke and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura remains vague. The expression of two H. pylori proteins, cytotoxin associated protein (cag A and vacuolization cytotoxin (vac A is considered to be related with pathogenicity of the bacterium. It is clear that presence of cag A+ strains is important for development of peptic ulcer; nevertheless, it is also protective against esophageal reflux disease. On the other hand, cag A+ strains are common in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma patients, but it seems that certain subtypes of vac A cytotoxin are more important risk factors. Infection with cag A+ strains is more common in patients with acne rosacea, stroke and coronary heart disease.
To determine the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test (HpSA), compared with endoscopic histopathology for the diagnosis of gastric Helicobecter pylori infection. A total of 50 patients underwent endoscopy for gastric antral mucosal tissue biopsy for histopathology of H.pylori and advised for HpSA. Patient's information including age, gender, past history, presenting signs and symptoms, results of HpSA and histopathology were recorded. Sensitivity analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of HpSA. Among 50 patients, 48% males and 52% females (M: F 1: 1.08), a total of 27 (54%) were true positive while 20 (40%) were true negative. Two patients were false negative and only one was false positive. Sensitivity of HpSA was, therefore, 93.1%, specificity 95% and positive and negative predictive values were 96.42% and 90.9% respectively. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen was an accurate and reliable test for the diagnosis of gastric H. pylori infection. (author)
The crystal structures of the Helicobacter pylori FtsH ATPase domain in the nucleotide-free state and complexed with ADP have been determined. The ATP-dependent protease, FtsH, degrades misassembled membrane proteins for quality control like SecY, subunit a of FoF1-ATPase, and YccA, and digests short-lived soluble proteins in order to control their cellular regulation, including σ32, LpxC and λcII. The FtsH protein has an N-terminal transmembrane segment and a large cytosolic region that consists of two domains, an ATPase and a protease domain. To provide a structural basis for the nucleotide-dependent domain motions and a better understanding of substrate translocation, the crystal structures of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) FtsH ATPase domain in the nucleotide-free state and complexed with ADP, were determined. Two different structures of HpFtsH ATPase were observed, with the nucleotide-free state in an asymmetric unit, and these structures reveal the new forms and show other conformational differences between the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound state compared with previous structures. In particular, one HpFtsH Apo structure has a considerable rotation difference compared with the HpFtsH ADP complex, and this large conformational change reveals that FtsH may have the mechanical force needed for substrate translocation
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection in the world. In Senegal prevalence rates is high as well in symptomatic patients (85,8%) as in general population (82%). Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in earlier age and leads to chronic infection (80% of children under 5 years old are infected in Senegal). On the other hand, malnutrition is common in children under 5 years old in Senegal (25%). H. pylori can cause malnutrition in a variety of ways including decreased food intake due to dyspepsia, defective digestion/absorption, diarrhea and may impact on the growth of children. H. pylori infection is a deep public health problem because non-invasive diagnosis tests are not available in routine practice and mainly because there are many difficulties in its treatment: no availability of drug (Clarithromycine); too much high cost of classic and effective therapeutic strategy ( three times minimal salary); high rate of resistance to antibiotics: 60-95% to Metronidazole, 50-60% to Tetracyclines, 30-40% to Macrolides as Azithromycine and Roxithromycine. So, the main problem in Senegal is to find the good, available and cheep treatment without resistance. Probiotics have been considered as a possible tool for this purpose
Kim, Sung Hyun; Kang, Gil Bu; Song, Hye-Eun; Park, Sang Jin; Bea, Man-Ho; Eom, Soo Hyun, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Life Science, Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)
The crystal structures of the Helicobacter pylori FtsH ATPase domain in the nucleotide-free state and complexed with ADP have been determined. The ATP-dependent protease, FtsH, degrades misassembled membrane proteins for quality control like SecY, subunit a of FoF1-ATPase, and YccA, and digests short-lived soluble proteins in order to control their cellular regulation, including σ32, LpxC and λcII. The FtsH protein has an N-terminal transmembrane segment and a large cytosolic region that consists of two domains, an ATPase and a protease domain. To provide a structural basis for the nucleotide-dependent domain motions and a better understanding of substrate translocation, the crystal structures of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) FtsH ATPase domain in the nucleotide-free state and complexed with ADP, were determined. Two different structures of HpFtsH ATPase were observed, with the nucleotide-free state in an asymmetric unit, and these structures reveal the new forms and show other conformational differences between the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound state compared with previous structures. In particular, one HpFtsH Apo structure has a considerable rotation difference compared with the HpFtsH ADP complex, and this large conformational change reveals that FtsH may have the mechanical force needed for substrate translocation.
Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong
Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva an...
Magdalena Kazanowska-Dygdała; Irena Duś; Małgorzata Radwan-Oczko
ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presenc...
Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether helicobacter pylori eradication could improve gastric atropy or intestinal metaplasia. Material and Method: Forty-two pylori infected patients were evaluated for the status of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Two biopsy specimens from antrum and two biopsy specimens from corpus were taken before and 6 months after the helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by C-urea br...
Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard
Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pi...
Zaidi, Syed Faisal
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world's population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with
Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Gorrell, Rebecca J; Steen, Jason A; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Kwok, Terry; Grimmond, Sean M; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Jennings, Michael P
Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes) that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression). In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M) system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion"), via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates). Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis. PMID:22162751
Yogitha N Srikhanta
Full Text Available Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression. In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion", via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates. Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis.
Full Text Available This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries.A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT. Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori.The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.08-2.52, residence area (urban, OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.03-2.29 and parents´ professional situation (unemployed, OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.02-1.23. Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3.The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status.
Interactions between BabA and Lewis b (Leb) related antigens are the best characterized adhesin-receptor interactions in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). Several mechanisms for the regulation of BabA expression are predicted, including at both transcriptional and translational levels. The formation of chimeric proteins (babA/B or babB/A chimeras) seems to play an especially important role in translational regulation. Chimeric BabB/A protein had the potential to bind Leb;however, protein production was subject to phase variation through slipped strand mispairing. The babA gene was cloned initially from strain CCUG17875, which contains a silent babA1 gene and an expressed babA2 gene. The sequence of these two genes differs only by the presence of a 10 bp deletion in the signal peptide sequence of babA1 that eliminates its translational initiation codon. However, the babA1 type deletion was found only in strain CCUG17875. A few studies evaluated BabA status by immunoblot and confirmed that BabA-positive status in Western strains was closely associated with severe clinical outcomes. BabA-positive status also was associated with the presence of other virulence factors (e.g. cagA-positive status and vacA s1 genotype). A small class of strains produced low levels of the BabA protein and lacked Leb binding activity. These were more likely to be associated with increased mucosal inflammation and severe clinical outcomes than BabA-positive strains that exhibited Leb binding activity. The underlying mechanism is unclear, and further studies will be necessary to investigate how the complex BabA-receptor network is functionally coordinated during the interaction of Hpylori with the gastric mucosa.
Marjan Mohammadi; Delaram Doroud; Nazanin Mohajerani; Sadegh Massarrat
AIM: To examine the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Iranian Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) strains isolated from two major hospitals in Tehran.METHODS: Examination of antibiotic resistance was performed on 120 strains by modified disc diffusion test and PCR-RFLP methods. In addition, in order to identify the possible causes of the therapeutic failure in Iran, we also determined the resistance of these strains to the most commonly used antibiotics (metronidazole, amoxicillin,and tetracycline) by modified disc diffusion test.RESULTS: According to modified disc diffusion test, 1.6% of the studied strains were resistant to amoxicillin, 16.7% to clarithromycin, 57.5% to metronidazole, and there was no resistance to tetracycline. Of the clarithromycin resistant strains, 73.68% had the A2143G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, 21.05% A2142C, and 5.26% A2142G.None of the sensitive strains were positive for any of the three point mutations. Of the metronidazole resistant strains, deletion in rdxA gene was studied and detected in only 6 (5%) of the antibiogram-based resistant strains.None of the metronidazole sensitive strains possessed rdxA gene deletion.CONCLUSION: These data show that despite the fact that clarithromycin has not yet been introduced to the Iranian drug market as a generic drug, nearly 20% rate of resistance alerts toward the frequency of macrolide resistance strains, which may be due to the widespread prescription of erythromycin in Iran. rdxA gene inactivation,if present in Iranian H pylori strains, may be due to other genetic defects rather than gene deletion.
Javier P Gisbert
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)infection is the main cause of gastritis,gastroduodenal ulcer disease,and gastric cancer.After more than 20 years of experience in Hpylori treatment,in my opinion,the ideal regimen to treat this infection is still to be found.Currently,apart from having to know first-line eradication regimens well,we must also be prepared to face lyeatment failures.Therefore,in designing a treatment strategy we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone,but also on the final (overall) eradication rate.The choice of a "rescue" treatment depends on which treatment is used initially.If a clarithromycinbased regimen was used initially,a subsequent metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy)may be used afterwards,and then a levofloxacinbased combination would be a third "rescue" option.Alternatively,it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy,representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure,with the advantage of efficacy,simplicity and safety.In this case,a quadruple regimen may be reserved as a third-line rescue option.Finally,rifabutin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging empirical fourthline strategy after multiple previous eradication failures with key antibiotics such as amoxicillin,clarithromycin,metronidazole,tetracycline,and levofloxacin.Even after two consecutive failures,several studies have demonstrated that H pylor/eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several rescue therapies are consecutively given.Therefore,the attitude in H pylori eradication therapy failure,even after two or more unsuccessful attempts,should be to fight and not to surrender.
Bacteria repelling poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide) coatings for biomedical devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer microarray screening, including analysis of bacterial adhesion by fluorescence microscopy and SEM, and chemical composition of bacteria repelling polymers identified in the screen; polymer synthesis and characterisation; preparation of catheter pieces and solvent studies, and details for confocal imaging/analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb01129e Click here for additional data file.
Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Wu, Mei; Gwynne, Peter J.; Hardman, Ailsa; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Blakely, Garry; Swann, David G; Gallagher, Maurice P.; Bradley, Mark
Nosocomial infections due to bacteria have serious implications on the health and recovery of patients in a variety of medical scenarios. Since bacterial contamination on medical devices contributes to the majority of nosocomical infections, there is a need for redesigning the surfaces of medical devices, such as catheters and tracheal tubes, to resist the binding of bacteria. In this work, polyurethanes and polyacrylates/acrylamides, which resist binding by the major bacterial pathogens unde...
Andersen, L P; Colding, H; Kristiansen, J E
Treatment failures using triple therapy that include metronidazole, are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. Higher eradication rates in such patients have been described when treatment regimens include bismuth salts compared...... to regimens that include proton pump inhibitors. In the present study, the synergistic effect of subinhibitory concentrations (0.25-0.5 MIC) of either bismuth subcitrate or omeprazole with metronidazole on the susceptibility of 42 H. pylori strains was investigated by agar dilution method and the Epsilometer...... test (Etest). With 0.5 MIC of either of the two drugs, the susceptibility of all H. pylori4 mg/l) reverted to being metronidazole sensitive. These results suggested that either bismuth salts or proton pump inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of some infections with metronidazole-resistant H...
Wolf, van der J.M.; Boer, de S.H.
A few hundred bacterial species, belonging to the Proteobacteria, Mollecutes and Actinomycetes cause a large number of different plant diseases, some of which are devastating for agricultural crops. Symptoms of bacterial plant diseases are diverse and include necrosis, tissue maceration, wilting, an
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori bacteria are ‘slow’ bacterial pathogens and are associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Type (MALT B-cell lymphomas. Several methods, both invasive and noninvasive, are available for detection of H. pylori infection. Invasive methods involve endoscopy and examination of gastric biopsies, e.g. by culture, rapid urease test or histology and are not appropriate for large-scale population studies. Non-invasive methods include the urea breath test, serology and stool antigen test. The latter approach is non-invasive, does not require highly specialized equipment and unlike serology is more likely to provide evidence of active rather than past infection. Furthermore, it may be more appropriate for use in paediatric patients, where techniques such as serology are insensitive and invasive methods are undesirable. Additionally, it may be used for treatment follow-up purposes. Pathogen-specific stool antigen tests are a valid alternative to the Urea Breath Test for non-invasive detection of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY A total of 120 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for various gastrointestinal disturbances like dyspepsia were included in the study. Stool samples were obtained from the patient on the day of endoscopy and stored at – 20oC. Three biopsy samples were collected, two from the gastric antrum and one from the corpus. One biopsy sample from the antrum was used for performing Rapid urease test at the Endoscopy room and the other two samples were placed in 10% formalin and sent to the laboratory for histopathological examination. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ELISA was 100%, 77%, 52% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSION H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA is suitable to use particularly in developing countries and for selection of patients for endoscopy. Detection of HpSA shows high sensitivity
Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G
We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.
Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao
The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.
Full Text Available The human population history in Southeast Asia was shaped by numerous migrations and population expansions. Their reconstruction based on archaeological, linguistic or human genetic data is often hampered by the limited number of informative polymorphisms in classical human genetic markers, such as the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various countries in Southeast Asia and we provide evidence that H. pylori accompanied at least three ancient human migrations into this area: i a migration from India introducing hpEurope bacteria into Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia; ii a migration of the ancestors of Austro-Asiatic speaking people into Vietnam and Cambodia carrying hspEAsia bacteria; and iii a migration of the ancestors of the Thai people from Southern China into Thailand carrying H. pylori of population hpAsia2. Moreover, the H. pylori sequences reflect iv the migrations of Chinese to Thailand and Malaysia within the last 200 years spreading hspEasia strains, and v migrations of Indians to Malaysia within the last 200 years distributing both hpAsia2 and hpEurope bacteria. The distribution of the bacterial populations seems to strongly influence the incidence of gastric cancer as countries with predominantly hspEAsia isolates exhibit a high incidence of gastric cancer while the incidence is low in countries with a high proportion of hpAsia2 or hpEurope strains. In the future, the host range expansion of hpEurope strains among Asian populations, combined with human motility, may have a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence in Asia.
Lv, Xiaobo; Song, Hui; Yang, Jue; Li, Tong; Xi, Tao; Xing, Yingying
Vaccination is an effective mean of preventing infectious diseases, including those caused by Helicobacter pylori. Th17 cell responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. In view of Th17 responses to multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE, the IL-17 production in antiserum was examined. CTB-UE immunization decreased IL-17 production, implying that Th17 responses may be inhibited. Furthermore, IL-17 aggravated GES-1 cell injury induced by H. pylori SS1; In contrast, CTB-U...
Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin;
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. The infection is established early in life and persists lifelong leading to a sustained chronic inflammation. Iron is essential for most living organisms. Bacteria use several mechanisms to acquire iron...... characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...
Walz, Anke; Odenbreit, Stefan; Stühler, Kai; Wattenberg, Andreas; Meyer, Helmut E; Mahdavi, Jafar; Borén, Thomas; Ruhl, Stefan
Because gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori takes place via the oral route, possible interactions of this bacterium with human salivary proteins could occur. By using modified 1- and 2-D bacterial overlay, binding of H. pylori adhesins BabA and SabA to the whole range of salivary proteins was explored. Bound salivary receptor molecules were identified by MALDI-MS and by comparison to previously established proteome maps of whole and glandular salivas. By use of adhesin-deficient mutants, binding of H. pylori to MUC7 and gp-340 could be linked to the SabA and BabA adhesins, respectively, whereas binding to MUC5B was associated with both adhesins. Binding of H. pylori to the proline-rich glycoprotein was newly detected and assigned to BabA adhesin whereas the SabA adhesin was found to mediate binding to newly detected receptor molecules, including carbonic anhydrase VI, secretory component, heavy chain of secretory IgA1, parotid secretory protein and zinc-alpha(2)-glycoprotein. Some of these salivary glycoproteins are known to act as scavenger molecules or are involved in innate immunity whereas others might come to modify the pathogenetic properties of this organism. In general, this 2-D bacterial overlay technique represents a useful supplement in adhesion studies of bacteria with complex protein mixtures. PMID:19253298
Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter
Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We
Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.
A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.
Chen, Ming; Jensen, Bente; Zhai, Lin;
Treatment failures are common in patients infected with metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa when triple therapy including metronidazole is used. In patients with treatment failure and metronidazole-resistant H. pylori, a higher eradication rate for H. pylori was found...... after secondary treatment with bismuth/ranitidine in combination with antibiotics including metronidazole, compared with the same antibiotics combined with a standard dose of omeprazole. This agrees with our previous finding that bismuth was able to reduce the susceptibility of H. pylori...... to metronidazole. In this study, we have found that nizatidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist, is also able to reduce the susceptibility of H. pylori to metronidazole in vitro, despite having no direct inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori. This agrees with earlier findings that compounds having the ability...
E. A. Kornienko
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of gastroduodenal disorders, virulent feathers of Helicobacter pylori (HP strains and efficacy of eradication therapy in children of the North Ossetia (Alania. 1265 children from 4 till 18 years old were examined, НР was found in 84%. 53% of HP(+ atients had erosions and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Strains, resistant to clarithromycin, were revealed in 13% of the patients. We have estimated efficacy of 4 regimes of eradication therapy. Regimes, that included clarithromycin and metronidazole, had the lowest efficacy the worst compliance. The best results were observed in triple therapy, including PPI, amoxicillin and bismuth, and quadrotherapy with PPI amoxicillin, bismuth and nifuratel. The duration of therapy should not be shorter than 10 days.
Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as
Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial
Full Text Available BACKGROUD: There is substantial evidence that infection with Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the development of gastric cancer and that it is rarely found in gastric biopsy of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. On advanced gastric tumors, the bacteria can be lost from the stomach. AIMS: To analyze the hypothesis that the prevalence of H.pylori in operated advanced gastric carcinomas and adjacent non-tumor tissues is high, comparing intestinal and diffuse tumors according to Lauren's classification METHODS: A prospective controlled study enrolled 56 patients from "Hospital Universitário", Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, with advanced gastric cancer, treated from February 2000 to March 2003. Immediately after partial gastrectomy, the resected stomach was opened and several mucosal biopsy samples were taken from the gastric tumor and from the adjacent mucosa within 4 cm distance from the tumor margin. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lauren's classification for gastric cancer was used, to analyse the prevalence of H. pylori in intestinal or diffuse carcinomas assessed by the urease rapid test, IgG by ELISA and Giemsa staining. H. pylori infected patients were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 7 days. Follow-up endoscopy and serology were performed 6 months after treatment to determine successful eradication of H. pylori in non-tumor tissue. Thereafter, follow-up endoscopies were scheduled annually. Chi-square and MacNemar tests with 0.05 significance were used. RESULTS: Thirty-four tumors (60.7% were intestinal-type and 22 (39.3% diffuse type carcinomas. In adjacent non-tumor gastric mucosa, chronic gastritis were found in 53 cases (94.6% and atrophic mucosa in 36 patients (64.3%. All the patients with atrophic mucosa were H. pylori positive. When examined by Giemsa and urease test, H. pylori positive rate in tumor tissue of intestinal type carcinomas was
Tyndall, Richard L.
New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.
Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S
Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.
Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S
Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260
Objective: To evaluate effects of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted in 22 identified studies through Chinese literature searching which were published after 1995 and evaluated diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Results: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had the best performance with diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 6.7 (5.5-7.8), followed by 13C urea breath test and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitative serological test, with DOR being 6.4 (5.4-7.4) and 4.5 (3.8-5.2), respectively. Conclusion: Non-invasive tests are the appropriate methods for screening H. pylori infection, whereas invasive tests are the best methods for ascertaining the suspected patients.
Kuo, Chao-Hung; Liu, Chung-Jung; Yang, Ching-chia; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Hui-Min David; Ren, Jian-Lin; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Lin-Li
Abstract Because Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) would cause carcinogenesis of the stomach, we need sufficient information for deciding on an appropriate strategy of eradication. Many factors affect the efficacy of eradication including antimicrobial resistance (especially clarithromycin resistance) and CYP2C19 polymorphism. This study was to survey the efficiency of gastric juice for detecting H pylori infection, clarithromycin resistance, and CYP2C19 polymorphism. The specimens of gastric ju...
Song, Hyun Jin; Kwon, Jin-Won; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Young Soo
Background/Aims This study was performed to investigate the cost effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening/eradication in South Korean patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or aspirin. Methods A decision Markov model was used to estimate the effectiveness and economic impact of an H. pylori screening/eradication strategy compared to a no-screening strategy among patients who were included in the model at the age of 40 years. Utility weights were applied ...
Jeong Hun Bae; Joon Mo Kim
Purpose To investigate an association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and HLA-B27-positive acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in Korean patients. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed with data from 106 patients previously diagnosed with AAU without clinical evidence of spondyloarthropathy. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HLA typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction of DNA amplification. We included...
Nakamura, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Suekane, H; Takeshita, M; Hizawa, K; Kawasaki, M.; Yao, T; Tsuneyoshi, M; M.Iida; Fujishima, M.
BACKGROUND—While a close association between gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori infection has been established, there are still cases which do not respond to H pylori eradication. AIMS—To investigate the clinicopathological factors which may help predict the therapeutic efficacy of H pylori eradication in gastric MALT lymphoma. PATIENTS—Forty one patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, including low and high grade lesions. METHODS—After endosonograp...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of Helicobacter pylori allowed tracing the spread of infection through populations on different continents but transmission pathways between individual humans have not been clearly described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate person-to-person transmission, we studied three families each including one child with persistence of symptoms after antibiotic treatment. Ten isolates from the antrum and corpus of stomach of each family member were analyzed both by sequencing of two housekeeping genes and macroarray tests. RESULTS: A total of 134 (8.4% out of the 1590 coding sequences (CDSs tested, including cag PAI and insertion sequences, were present in some but not all isolates (and are therefore defined as variable CDSs. Most of the variable CDSs encoded proteins of unknown function (76/134 or were selfish DNA including that encoding restriction/modification enzymes (13/134. Isolates colonizing the stomach of one individual can vary by point mutations, as seen in hspA, or by the gain or loss of one to five CDSs. They were considered as (genetic variants. The phylogenetic clustering of gene profiles obtained on macro-arrays allowed identifying the different strains infecting families. Two to five strains circulated within a family. Identical strains were present in at least two members of all three families supporting the accepted model of intrafamilial transmission. Surprisingly, the mother was not implicated in the transmission of H. pylori in the two French families. Sibling-to-sibling transmission and acquisition of H. pylori from outside the family appeared to be probable in the transmission pathways. CONCLUSION: Macroarray analysis based on previously selected CDSs gives a comprehensive view of the genome diversity of a pathogen. This approach combined with information on the origin of the hspA and glmM alleles revealed that Helicobacter pylori infection may be acquired by more diverse routes
G M Panyushkina
Full Text Available Article presented results of the treatment (150 mcg/day KI of goitre with subclinical hypothyroidism associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in 54 women. In conclusion total eradication of Helicobacter pylori could increase efficacy of goitre treatment up to 90%.
Nielsen, H H; Qiu, J; Friis, S;
It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis.......It has been speculated that gastrointestinal infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used nationwide Danish registers to investigate this hypothesis....
Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha
Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…
Astl, J; Šterzl, I
Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in stimulation of immune system, development of autoimmune endocrinopathies as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and on other hand induction of immunosupresion activates gastric and extra-gastric diseases such as gastric ulcer or cancer. It causes persistent lifelong infection despite local and systemic immune response. Our results indicate that Helicobacter pylori might cause inhibition of the specific cellular immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with or without autoimmune diseases such as AT. We cannot also declare the carcinogenic effect in oropharynx. However the association of any infection agents and cancerogenesis exists. The adherence of Helicobacter pylori expression and enlargement of benign lymphatic tissue and the high incidence of the DNA of Helicobacter pylori in laryngopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer is reality. LTT appears to be a good tool for detection of immune memory cellular response in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and AT. All these complications of Helicobacter pylori infection can be abrogated by successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori.
Conclusions: The results of this study proved the successful cloning of the epitope area. The recombinant protein can probably be introduced as a good candidate for the production of IgY from the chickenimmunized and the control of Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. It could also be possibly used for the design of diagnostic kits and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori
Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby
Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015
Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby
Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.
Helicobacter suis is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomach of the majority of slaughter pigs worldwide. An infection with this microorganism has been associated with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the non-glandular part of the porcine stomach and with chronic gastritis. A reduction in daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs has been described, emphasizing the importance of H. suis infections for the pig industry. Furthermore, it is the most prevalent...
Monteiro, L; Bonnemaison, D; Vekris, A. (A.); Petry, K G; Bonnet, J; Vidal, R.; Cabrita, J; Mégraud, F.
A model was developed to study inhibitors present in feces which prevent the use of PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. A DNA fragment amplified with the same primers as H. pylori was used to spike samples before extraction by a modified QIAamp tissue method. Inhibitors, separated on an Ultrogel AcA44 column, were characterized. Inhibitors in feces are complex polysaccharides possibly originating from vegetable material in the diet.
Monteiro, L; Bonnemaison, D; Vekris, A; Petry, K G; Bonnet, J; Vidal, R; Cabrita, J; Mégraud, F
A model was developed to study inhibitors present in feces which prevent the use of PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. A DNA fragment amplified with the same primers as H. pylori was used to spike samples before extraction by a modified QIAamp tissue method. Inhibitors, separated on an Ultrogel AcA44 column, were characterized. Inhibitors in feces are complex polysaccharides possibly originating from vegetable material in the diet. PMID:9157172
Kang, Josephine; Martin J Blaser
Orthologs of RecG and RuvABC are highly conserved among prokaryotes; in Escherichia coli, they participate in independent pathways that branch migrate Holliday junctions during recombinational DNA repair. RecG also has been shown to directly convert stalled replication forks into Holliday junctions. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, with remarkably high levels of recombination, possesses RecG and RuvABC homologs, but in contrast to E. coli, H. pylori RecG limits recombinational repair. We no...
Peksen Yildiz; Sunter Ahmet; Canbaz Sevgi; Leblebicioglu Hakan
Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori, occurring throughout the world and causing gastroduodenal diseases, is one of the most common chronic bacterial agents in humans. The purpose of this study was to measure the general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge and practices pertaining to H. pylori infection. Methods A cross-sectional type questionnaire survey was conducted in all of 19 primary health care centres (PHCC) in Samsun, Turkey, between November 1 and December 31, 2003. The questionnaire ...
Contractor Qais; Tahir Mohammed; Naseem Shahzad; Ahmad Shamweel
The objective of this study is to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis and its relation to dental care. One hundred randomly selected healthy Saudis attending the dental clinic were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination. Information about the use of toothpaste, chewing stick, smoking and dentures was obtained. Samples of dental plaque were collected after scoring it according to the plaque index. Presence of H. ...
Nasrin Esfahanizadeh; Rahele Modanlou
As introduced by different studies, dental plaque is known as a reservoir of Helicobacter Pylori (HP) and a potential source for gastric re-infection. Also, it has been demonstrated that individuals with gastric HP infection manifest a greater plaque index and a higher incidence rate for gingivitis. The goal of the present research was survey of severity and prevalence of periodontal diseases associated with gastric HP infection among patients having referred to the endoscopy wards of Imam Kh...
D'Elios, Mario Milco
Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially eli...
Gião, M. S.; Azevedo, N. F.; Wilks, S. A.; Vieira, M. J.; Keevil, C. W.
Although the route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains unknown, drinking water has been considered a possible transmission vector. It has been shown previously that, in water, biofilms are a protective niche for several pathogens, protecting them from stressful conditions, such as low carbon concentration, shear stress, and less-than-optimal temperatures. In this work, the influence of these three parameters on the persistence and cultivability of H. pylori in drinking-water biofil...
Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important...
Sarita Bajaj; Lokendra Rekwal; SP Misra; Vatsala Misra; Rakesh Kumar Yadav; Anubha Srivastava
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and subsequent insulin resistance and epidemiologically linked to type 2 diabetes. Objectives: To study the prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in type 2 diabetes and its relation with HbA1C levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 80 patients (≥18 years) who met the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) criteria for diabetes were rec...
Javier P Gisbert
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After more than 20 years of experience in H pylori treatment, in my opinion, the ideal regimen to treat this infection is still to be found. Currently, apart from having to know first-line eradication regimens well, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. Therefore, in designing a treatment strategy we should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone,...
El-Nujumi, A; Williams, C; Ardill, J; Oien, K; McColl, K
Background—Both proton pump inhibitor drug treatment and Helicobacter pylori infection cause hypergastrinaemia in man. Aims—To determine whether eradicating H pylori is a means of reducing hypergastrinaemia during subsequent proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods—Patients with H pylori were randomised to treatment with either anti-H pylori or symptomatic treatment. One month later, all received four weeks treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/day for one month followed by 2...
Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; David Y Graham
The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more s...
Dunn, B E; Phadnis, S H
Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of most cases of gastritis. Once acquired, H. pylori establishes chronic persistent infection; it is this long-term infection that, is a subset of patients, leads to gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer or gastric MALT lymphoma. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which is essential to survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A significant fraction of urease is associated with the surface of H. pylori both in ...
Yu, Min; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Yu, Qing
Objective: To investigate the incidence of oral infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and identify related epidemiological factors among freshmen of four colleges in Yancheng. Methods: The data, scored positive or negative, were collected on 160 individuals who had been diagnosed by H. pylori Saliva Test Cassette (HPS) during October 2013 to October 2014. H. pylori Saliva Test Cassette (HPS) is to use colloidal gold technique to specifically identify urease in saliva. A standard ques...
Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983, numerous detection methods for the presence of the bacterium have been developed. Each one of them has been associated with advantages and disadvantages. Noninvasive tests such as serology, 13C urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen tests are usually preferred by the clinicians. Serology has its own limitation especially in endemic areas while 13C UBT is technically very demanding. The stool antigen detection method, although s...
Christie, J.M.; McNulty, C A; Shepherd, N A; Valori, R M
BACKGROUND: The Cortecs Diagnostics Helisal Assay test is a quantitative immunoassay for salivary IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori. Saliva can be obtained simply with the kit in the general practitioners surgery. AIMS: To compare the new saliva serological test for H pylori with 'gold standard' evidence of H pylori infection (antral biopsy specimens for histology, culture, and urease test) and a new serum serological test. PATIENTS: Eighty six unselected dyspeptic patients undergoin...
Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983 enormous progress has been made in determining the pathogenesis of this microbe in gastric disease. While the way of transmission is still under dispute, it is generally accepted that H. pylori must reach the stomach via the oral cavity. During this passage it comes into contact with salivary components. However, there are only few studies about interactions of H. pylori with salivary components and no study about the influence of...
Helicobacter pylori infection is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. Infection with this bacterium stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody. Salivary IgG antibody tests to detect H pylori infection offer a convenient and noninvasive method of diagnosis. To evaluate an IgG salivary antibody kit, saliva was collected from 157 out-patients with dyspepsia referred for endoscopy to a tertiary centre. A salivary IgG ELISA antibody assay was performed...
Noninvasive tests can be used for the initial diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to monitor the success of eradication therapy. In populations with a low prevalence of H pylori infection (children living in North America and Europe), a high sensitivity is required to make the test valuable for clinical practice. The 13C-urea breath test has been validated in children of different age groups in a significant number of infected and noninfected children in several countries and, thus...
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral, microaerophilic, Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. Since the isolation of H. pylori, numerous studies have been published addressing the prevalence and epidemiology of the infection, the relationship with disease, the identification and characterization of virulence factors and their role in pathogenesis. Neverth...
Bathe, OF; Rae, AJ; Zetler, P; Cleator, IGM
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recently introduced saliva test measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to Helicobacter pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA has previously been validated against IgG serological tests; however, it is not considered the definitive test for H pylori infection. Using endoscopic antral biopsies as the ’gold standard’ for comparison, the saliva test was validated on 70 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms admitted to St...
Al-Knawy, BA; Ahmed, M-Elbagir K; Mirdad, S; ElMekki, A; Al-Ammari, O
AIM: To study the pattern of Helicobacter pylori infection among family members in the Saudi population.METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based, seroepidemiological study of family members was undertaken in a Saudi population using saliva H pylori immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies (Helisal kit).RESULTS: A total of 42 families comprising 271 children and 84 parents were studied (355 subjects; mean age 23 years, SD 19 years) The overall frequencies of H pylori IgG antibodies in mothers, fat...
Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma,...
Andersen, Leif Percival; Rasmussen, Lone
be detected by PCR in water supplies. There is no substantial evidence for viable H. pylori persisting in water supplies. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental water is a risk factor for H. pylori infection when compared with tap water, and formation of H. pylori biofilm cannot be excluded....... Helicobacter pylori does not seem to take part in biofilm formation in the oral cavity even though the bacterium may be detected....
Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fund...
Vaira, D; Miglioli, M; Mulè, P; Holton, J; M. Menegatti; Vergura, M; Biasco, G.; Conte, R.; Logan, R P; Barbara, L
This study aimed to determine the importance of raised antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population. A total of 128 asymptomatic blood donors who were seropositive for H pylori and consented to endoscopy were investigated. These subjects were from a population of 1010 blood donors screened for antibodies to H pylori. A questionnaire was completed to determine if any subjects had complained of symptoms, and they subsequently had endoscopy. Altogether 121 of 128 were positive...
Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J.; David Y Graham; El-Omar, Emad M.; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter
Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels ...
O'Connor, H J
This review presents a critical evaluation of the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. On current evidence, H. pylori eradication therapy seems likely to emerge as the most rational and cost-effective treatment for duodenal ulcer. The role of H. pylori eradication in the treatment of gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia is unclear and requires further study. The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is of ...
Yu, Guoqin; Murphy, Gwen; Michel, Angelika; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Pawlita, Michael; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z
Helicobacter pylori seropositivity has been inconsistently associated with pancreatic cancer. We, therefore, investigated the association between H. pylori seropositivity and pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) cohort of male Finnish male smokers. Pancreatic cancer cases (n=353) and control subjects (n=353) were matched on date of baseline serum collection, age at randomization, and follow-up time (up to 23.9 y...
屠振兴; 龚燕芳; 丁华; 许国铭; 李兆申; 满晓华
Objective: To study the relationship between nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in human gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. Methods: Gastric mucosa samples were obtained from antrum of 33 patients received gastroendoscopy. H.pylori infection was confirmed by Giems staining and bacteria culture under microaerophilic conditions. Expression of iNOS, eNOS and nitrotyrosine were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1) The positive rate of H. pylori infection was 66.7%(22/33). (2) iNOS positive staining in inflammatory cells was detected in 77.3%(17/22) of samples with H.pylori and 27.3%(3/11) without H.pylori infection (P0.05). (5) Moderate and severe infiltrations of inflammatory cells were found in 86.4%(19/22) of gastric biopsies with H. pylori and 9.1%(1/11) of samples without H. pylori infection (P<0.01). Conclusion: H.pylori infection might promote infiltration of mononuclear cells and macrophages in gastric mucosa and induce iNOS expression in these cells. The accumulated nitric oxide in local area may result in gastric mucosa damage.
Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R
Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity.
Ayşe Feyda Nursa
Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is one of the most common types of cancer across the world. GC carcinogenesis demonstrates a multi-step progression with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. The genetic changes on gene expression, without any change on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequencing, are named as “epigenetic”. DNA methylation is the most commonly studied epigenetic modification in mammalians. Hypermethylation is bserved on CpG (—C—phosphate—G— islands In GC, promoter regions of genes. This is a significant mechanism that causes functional losses in tumor suppressor genes. In gastric cancer, DNA hypermethylation is seen in many genes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are a type of spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacteria. It infects approximately half of the world’s population. H. pylori is an important etiological factor that causes GC in human beings. Chronic H. pylori infection in human is associated with hypermethylation of promoter sequences of different genes. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the relationship between H. pylori infection and DNA hypermethylation in GC. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 187-190
Objective: To determine the percentage agreement between serology and histology for detection of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University and Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2009. Methodology: Fifty subjects were selected by non-probability purposive sampling from laboratory data who had serological testing of H. pylori IgG antibody, prior to histological evaluation of endoscopic gastric or/and duodenal biopsies. Serological Quantification of H. pylori IgG was carried out with HpG screen ELISA kit (Genesis Diagnostics, UK), using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies against H. pylori. Manufacturer's recommended cutoff value was used and results were considered positive when greater than 7 U/ml. For histological diagnosis, an expert histopathologist characterized the presence of spiral bacteria in the mucosal layer or the surface of epithelial cells on microscopic examination, as a positive test. Results: An agreement of 0.72 was found by Kappa statistics between serology and histopathology results and a good diagnostic accuracy (86%) of serological testing was observed for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: A substantial agreement was found between serology and histopathology results to detect the H. pylori infection. Laboratory-based serologic testing using ELISA technology to detect IgG antibodies is inexpensive, noninvasive and convenient method to detect the H. pylori infection in primary care setting. (author)
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium, which is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. It is urgent to discover novel drug targets for appropriate antimicrobial agents against this human pathogen. In bacteria, peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of a formyl group from the N-termini of nascent polypeptides. Due to its essentiality and absence in mammalian cells, PDF has been considered as an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. In this work, a new PDF gene (def) from H. pylori strain SS1 was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli system. Sequence alignment shows that H. pylori PDF (HpPDF) shares about 40% identity to E. coli PDF (EcPDF). The enzymatic properties of HpPDF demonstrate its relatively high activity toward formyl-Met-Ala-Ser, with Kcat of 3.4 s-1, Km of 1.7 mM, and Kcat/Km of 2000 M-1 s-1. HpPDF enzyme appears to be fully active at pH between 8.0 and 9.0, and temperature 50 deg. C. The enzyme activity of Co2+-containing HpPDF is apparently higher than that of Zn2+-containing HpPDF. This present work thereby supplies a potential platform that facilitates the discovery of novel HpPDF inhibitors and further of possible antimicrobial agents against H. pylori
Full Text Available In the model organism Escherichia coli, Min proteins are involved in regulating the division of septa formation. The computational genome analysis of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium causing gastritis and peptic ulceration, also identified MinC, MinD, and MinE. However, MinC (HP1053 shares a low identity with those of other bacteria and its function in H. pylori remains unclear. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to examine the molecular role of MinC. The results were shown that an H. pylori mutant lacking MinC forms filamentous cells, while the wild-type strain retains the shape of short rods. In addition, a minC mutant regains the short rods when complemented with an intact minCHp gene. The overexpression of MinCHp in E. coli did not affect the growth and cell morphology. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MinCHp forms helix-form structures in H. pylori, whereas MinCHp localizes at cell poles and pole of new daughter cell in E. coli. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation showed MinC can interact with MinD but not with FtsZ during mid-exponential stage of H. pylori. Altogether, our results show that MinCHp plays a key role in maintaining proper cell morphology and its function differs from those of MinCEc.
Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R
Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:24104691
Claude A. Solari
Full Text Available Using different bacteriological (urease test, Gram staining and culture and histological (Steiner staining and modified Giemsa staining techniques, we searched for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric antrum of 200 dyspeptic Brazilian patients (106 females and 94 males aged 19 days to 81 years. The presence of bacteria was then correlated with the endoscopic and histological findings. H. pylori was present in 59.5 of the population studied. In Brazil, colonization occurs early, involving 37 of the dyspeptic population by 20 years of age. The presence of H. pylori in the gastric antrum was strongly associated with duodenal ulcer (P < 0.001 and a normal endoscopic examination did not exclude the possibility of colonization of the gastric antrum by H. pylori. The most sensitive test was the preformed urease test (89. We conclude that more than one diagnostic method should preferably be used for the detection of H. pylori and that the presence of H. pylori is closely correlated with active chronic gastritis (P < 0.001.
Cwikla, C; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E
The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems. PMID:19653313
Isabelle Baumgaertner; Christiane Copie-Bergman; Michael Levy; Corinne Haioun; Antoine Charachon; Maryse Baia; Iradj Sobhani; Jean-Charles Delchier
Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly aggressive non- Hodgkin lymphoma, often presenting in extra-nodal sites. It generally has a poor spontaneous outcome and needs aggressive treatment with systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Occurrence at the gastric site is rare. We report the case of a 39-year old woman who presented with a prominent ulcerated lesion of the antrum corresponding histologically to a Burkitt's lymphoma associated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated c-MYC gene rearrangement in tumour cells without BCL2 or BCL6 gene translocations.Ulcer healing and tumour regression with a complete histological response were obtained 8 wk after H pylor ieradication. In spite of this complete remission, taking into account the high risk of recurrence, the patient received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Two years later, the patient remained in complete remission.This is the first report of a gastric Burkitt's lymphoma responding to H pylori eradication. These findings raise the question of the potential role of H pylori in the pathogenesis of some gastric Burkitt's lymphomas, and show the importance of searching for and eradicating the bacteria in combination with conventional chemotherapy regimens.
Kotani, Satoshi; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Ogawa, Sayaka; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu
A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination and for treatment of gastric neoplasia located on the posterior wall of the antrum of the stomach, as revealed by screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The patient had no history of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Her serum H. pylori antibody and urea breath test results were negative, histopathological findings revealed no H. pylori bacteria, and endoscopic findings revealed no chronic gastritis. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Histological examination of the resected tissues revealed the tumor to be composed of a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a tubular-type adenoma confined to the mucosa. This adenocarcinoma exhibited immunohistochemical expression of CD10, MUC2, and Cdx2, but not MUC5AC or MUC6. This is an extremely rare case of H. pylori infection-negative, intestinal-type, differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by detailed immunohistochemical examination that was treated with ESD. The patient has had no recurrence of adenocarcinoma after ESD. PMID:27259702
Simone Ulrich Picoli
Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.
Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)
Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.