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Sample records for bacteria affect serum

  1. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

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    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  3. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  4. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  5. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos; Raquel de Paula Freitas Iório; Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagôa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II) or did not receive any inoculum (control plants). The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native ...

  6. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    -cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolim chloride (CTC)-reducing bacteria explained a major part of the variation in the number of protozoa. High protozoan activity and predation thus coincided with high bacterial activity. In soil with elm leaves, fungal growth is assumed to inhibit bacterial and protozoan......, were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions. Significant differences between soil fractions were shown by all assays. The highest number...... of microorganisms was found in microaggregates of 2-53¿µm and the lowest in the bacteria in the latter fraction was viable, but non-culturable, while a relatively higher number of culturable bacteria was found in the macroaggregates. The number of colony-forming units and 5...

  7. Analysis of human serum from women affected by cervical lesions.

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    Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Briones-Cerecero, Erika P; Chagolla-López, Alicia; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Santos, Leticia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the first causes of death in Mexican women population. The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range concentrations of different protein and their alterations reflect the physiological state of the individual's health. The aim of this study was to characterize the 2D-PAGE serum patterns from healthy women and with different levels of cervical lesions. Changes in haptoglobin, apolipoproteins, and transthyretin, when comparing the serum from healthy women and serum from patients with different levels of cervical lesion were found. The Western blot analysis showed increasing concentrations of metalloproteinases (MMP's), proteins with important biological roles in tumor development and metastasis. Protein profiles in conjunction with MS, bioinformatics, and Western blot analysis, allow us to compile information for the acquisition of results to proposed candidates biomarkers of cervical cancer among Mexican women population.

  8. Do bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection affect serum cytokine level?

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    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serbia is the country with extremely low birth rate and a relatively high percentage of preterm deliveries (8%. With this in mind, discovering new diagnostic methods that could be used for the prediction of preterm delivery is of great importance. In this study we tried to determine whether bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection could provoke preterm delivery by activation of systemic cytokine network. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery and to make correlation between these parameters and the presence of bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection. Method. In the serum of 35 pregnant women, which were divided in groups according to the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection, commercial ELISA tests for proinflammatory cytokines were performed. Results. The serum level of IFN-γ was significantly increased in pregnant women having chlamydial infection, as well as the level of IL-1β in women with bacterial vaginosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were not significantly different between the investigated groups. Conclusion. The preliminary results obtained in this research point out the possibility that not only intrauterine or systemic infections, but also bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection can cause a partial activation of systemic cytokine network and contribute to the occurrence of preterm delivery.

  9. Serum amyloid P component bound to gram-negative bacteria prevents lipopolysaccharide-mediated classical pathway complement activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, CJC; van Leeuwen, EMM; van Bommel, T; Verhoef, J; van Kessel, KPM; van Strijp, JAG

    2000-01-01

    Although serum amyloid P component (SAP) is known to bind many ligands, its biological function is not yet clear. Recently, it was demonstrated that SAP binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), In the present study, SAP was shown to bind to gram-negative bacteria expressing short types of LPS or lipo-olig

  10. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin and Chitosan Coated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity against Oral and Nonoral Bacteria

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    León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents have been developed for drug-resistance infections, which have been rapidly increasing; however, the control of involved microorganisms is still a challenge. In this work, SNP with bovine serum albumin (BSA and chitosan (CS coatings were prepared with an aqueous reduction method, characterized using dispersion light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Antibacterial activity was tested on seven oral and nonoral bacteria by microdilution test and scanning electron microscopy. Six different sizes and shapes of coated SNP were prepared and used. Characterization revealed narrow size and good distribution of particles, spherical and pseudospherical shapes, and the presence of coatings on the SNP surfaces. All samples showed antimicrobial activity, although smaller sizes and CS samples had the best inhibition effects. The highest microbial resistance was shown by Gram-positive bacteria. Although coated SNP action depends on particular bacterium, BSA and CS coated SNP could be used for drug-resistance infections.

  12. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

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    S. Comai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 µg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 µg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  13. Extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels.

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    Nancy Pham

    Full Text Available S100B, established as prevalent protein of the central nervous system, is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and often also a marker of brain injury. However, reports of extracranial sources of S100B, especially from adipose tissue, may confound its interpretation in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue specificity of S100B and assess how extracranial sources of S100B affect serum levels. The extracranial sources of S100B were determined by analyzing nine different types of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, brain and adipose tissue were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. A study of 200 subjects was undertaken to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI and S100B serum levels. We also measured the levels of S100B homo- and heterodimers in serum quantitatively after blood-brain barrier disruption. Analysis of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot revealed variable levels of S100B expression. By ELISA, brain tissue expressed the highest S100B levels. Similarly, Western blot measurements revealed that brain tissue expressed high levels of S100B but comparable levels were found in skeletal muscle. Mass spectrometry of brain and adipose tissue confirmed the presence of S100B but also revealed the presence of S100A1. The analysis of 200 subjects revealed no statistically significant relationship between BMI and S100B levels. The main species of S100B released from the brain was the B-B homodimer. Our results show that extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels. Thus, the diagnostic value of S100B and its negative predictive value in neurological diseases in intact subjects (without traumatic brain or bodily injury from accident or surgery are not compromised in the clinical setting.

  14. First trimester maternal serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 in normal pregnancies and those affected by trisomy 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, KM; Van Lith, JMM; Silman, R; Mantingh, A; Grudzinskas, JG

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 (FA-2), the amino-propeptide of the al chain of collagen type I, were measured in peripheral blood from women with normal (n = 234) and trisomy 21 affected (n = 14) pregnancies between 9 and 11 weeks gestation. Serum FA-2 concentrations were seen to be stable

  15. Intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate the serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigen.

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    Tsuda, Masato; Hosono, Akira; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Kihara-Fujioka, Miran; Hachimura, Satoshi; Itoh, Kikuji; Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2010-08-16

    Colonization of the gut by commensal bacteria modulates the induction of oral tolerance and allergy. However, how these intestinal bacteria modulate antigen-specific T cell responses induced by oral antigens remains unclear. In order to investigate this, we used germ-free (GF) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic (OVA23-3) mice. Conventional (CV) or GF mice were administered an OVA-containing diet. Cytokine production by CD4(+) cells from spleen (SP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) was evaluated by ELISA, as was the peripheral antibody titer. T cell phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry. CD4(+) cells from the SP and MLN of CV and GF mice fed an OVA diet for 3 weeks produced significantly less IL-2 than the corresponding cells from mice receiving a control diet, suggesting that oral tolerance could be induced at the T cell level in the systemic and intestinal immune systems of both bacterial condition of mice. However, we also observed that the T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by dietary antigen was delayed in the systemic immune tissues and was weaker in the intestinal immune tissues of the GF mice. Intestinal MLN and PP CD4(+) T cells from these animals also produced lower levels of IL-10, had less activated/memory type CD45RB(low) cells, and expressed lower levels of CTLA-4 but not Foxp3 compared to their CV counterparts. Furthermore, GF mice produced higher serum levels of OVA-specific antibodies than CV animals. CD40L expression by SP CD4(+) cells from GF mice fed OVA was higher than that of CV mice. These results suggest that intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigens through modulation of the intestinal and systemic T cell phenotype. PMID:20621647

  16. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

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    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  17. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to de...

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa; Takashi eOkubo; Dongyan eLiu; Hirohito eTsurumaru; Seishi eIkeda; Susumu eAsakawa; Takeshi eTokida; Kanako eTago; Masahito eHayatsu; Naohiro eAoki; Ken eIshimaru; Kazuhiro eUjiie; Yasuhiro eUsui; Hirofumi eNakamura; Hidemitsu eSakai

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines) to determine...

  19. Phenols produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice

    OpenAIRE

    IIZUKA, Ryoko; Kawakami, Koji; Izawa, Naoki; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Phenol and p-cresol are metabolites of aromatic amino acid produced by gut bacteria, and are assumed to cause undesirable effects in the body. We aimed to understand how phenol and p-cresol affect the skin of hairless mice. Materials and methods: First, we compared the skin condition of hairless mice fed the basal diet and the skin condition of mice fed the tyrosine-enriched diet. In the next experiment, we administered either phenol or p-cresol intraperitoneally to mice fed the ba...

  20. Inhibitors produced by algae as an ecological factor affecting bacteria in water ecosystems. I. Dependence between phytoplankton and bacteria development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chróst, R J

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the eutrophic Mikołajskie Lake in the Mazurian Lake District. Over the period of investigation three maxima of the development of phytoplankton were observed: in the spring, summer and autumn. During the algal blooms the total number of bacteria in the lake strongly decreased and was between several and a dozen time smaller than between blooms. The decrease in the total number of bacteria in water and the elimination of gram positive bacteria during the algal blooms is most probably caused by the production by the algae of substances inhibiting bacterial development. PMID:810003

  1. Serum IgE reactivity profiling in an asthma affected cohort.

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    Tania Dottorini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that atopic asthma correlates with high serum IgE levels though the contribution of allergen specific IgE to the pathogenesis and the severity of the disease is still unclear. METHODS: We developed a microarray immunoassay containing 103 allergens to study the IgE reactivity profiles of 485 asthmatic and 342 non-asthmatic individuals belonging to families whose members have a documented history of asthma and atopy. We employed k-means clustering, to investigate whether a particular IgE reactivity profile correlated with asthma and other atopic conditions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis and eczema. RESULTS: Both case-control and parent-to-siblings analyses demonstrated that while the presence of specific IgE against individual allergens correlated poorly with pathological conditions, particular reactivity profiles were significantly associated with asthma (p<10E-09. An artificial neural network (ANN-based algorithm, calibrated with the profile reactivity data, correctly classified as asthmatic or non-asthmatic 78% of the individual examined. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the familiar relationships of the study population did not affect the observed correlations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that asthma is a higher-order phenomenon related to patterns of IgE reactivity rather than to single antibody reactions. This notion sheds new light on the pathogenesis of the disease and can be readily employed to distinguish asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals on the basis of their serum reactivity profile.

  2. Assessment of confounding factors affecting the tumor markers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 in serum

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gilbert Weber; Georg Johnen; Dirk Taeger; Anne Weber; Isabelle Mercedes Gross; Beate Pesch; Thomas Kraus; Thomas Brüning; Monika Gube

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate if serum levels of potential tumor markers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are affected by confounding factors in a surveillance cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 concentrations were determined in about 1,700 serum samples from 627 workers formerly exposed to asbestos. The impact of factors that could modify the concentrations of the tumor markers was examined with linear mixed mo...

  3. Factors affecting the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species tree in bacteria

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    González Víctor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identification of orthologous genes, we address the question of whether putative orthologous genes within bacteria really reflect the history of the species. Results We identified a set of 370 orthologous genes from the bacterial order Rhizobiales. Although manifesting strong vertical signal, almost every orthologous gene had a distinct phylogeny, and the most common topology among the orthologous gene trees did not correspond with the best estimate of the species tree. However, each orthologous gene tree shared an average of 70% of its bipartitions with the best estimate of the species tree. Stochastic error related to gene size affected the concordance between the best estimated of the species tree and the orthologous gene trees, although this effect was weak and distributed unevenly among the functional categories. The nodes showing the greatest discordance were those defined by the shortest internal branches in the best estimated of the species tree. Moreover, a clear bias was evident with respect to the function of the orthologous genes, and the degree of divergence among the orthologous genes appeared to be related to their functional classification. Conclusion Orthologous genes do not reflect the history of the species when taken as individual markers, but they do when taken as a whole. Stochastic error affected the concordance of orthologous genes with the species tree, albeit weakly. We conclude that two important biological causes of discordance among

  4. Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

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    Lambeth, Susan P; Hau, Jann; Perlman, Jaine E; Martino, Michele; Schapiro, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.

  5. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  6. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

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    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  7. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW.

  8. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26987674

  9. Coliform and human pathogenic bacteria in tourism affected water bodies in North Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    Microscopic bacteria, which are diverse and preponderant in all ecosystems, sense changes in any environment fast because of their ability to metabolize a variety of chemical substances for their nutrition and growth. In any environment loaded...

  10. Genotype-based changes in serum uric acid affect blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Afshin; Brown, Eric; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of uric acid consistently correlate with hypertension, but the directionality of the association remains debated. To help define this relationship, we used a controlled setting within a homogeneous Amish community and the Mendelian randomization of a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs16890979 (Val253Ile), in the SLC2A9 gene. This gene expresses the GLUT9 transporter that also transports uric acid and is associated with lower serum uric acid levels. We studied the unconfounded association between genotype and blood pressure in 516 Amish adults, each placed for 6 days on standardized diets, first with high sodium, followed by low sodium, with an intervening washout period. Blood pressure, measured using 24-h ambulatory monitoring, during both diet periods was used as the primary outcome. All participants were free of diuretic or other antihypertensive medications and the relationships between GLUT9 genotype and both serum uric acid and blood pressure were assessed. Each copy of the GLUT9 minor Ile allele was found to confer a significant 0.44 mg/dl reduction in serum uric acid and was associated with a significant mean decrease in the systolic blood pressure of 2.2 and 1.5 mm Hg on the high- and low-sodium diet, respectively. Thus, a Mendelian randomization analysis using variants in the GLUT9 gene indicates that a decrease in serum uric acid has a causal effect of lowering blood pressure. PMID:22189840

  11. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden-William Courtland

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD. Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID, in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 16 weeks (adulthood. Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 32 weeks (late adulthood, but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.

  12. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  13. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the 'red-water' phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Belila; B. Abbas; I. Fazaa; N. Saidi; M. Snoussi; A. Hassen; G. Muyzer

    2013-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El Menze

  14. Sulfur bacteria in wastewater stabilization ponds periodically affected by the ‘red-water’ phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; Abbas, B.; Fazaa, I.; Saidi, N.; Snoussi, M.; Hassen, A.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the ‘red-water’ phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El Menze

  15. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds.

  16. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  17. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan;

    2015-01-01

    is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were...... - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds....

  18. Fate of food-associated bacteria in pork as affected by marinade, temperature, and ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Knøchel, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of ultrasound, red wine, and yogurt marination on Brochotrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni on pork meat. Two different marinationand on pork meat. Two different marination procedures...... sensitivity of C. jejuni compared with the other bacteria was confirmed in an experiment with yogurt as a marinade. Ultrasound treatment in combination with red wine enhanced the antibacterial effect compared with ultrasound alone for L. monocytogenes, B. thermosphacta, and C. jejuni and resulted...

  19. Factors affecting population of filamentous bacteria in wastewater treatment plants with nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Witeska, Anna; Muszyński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous population in activated sludge and key operational parameters of full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with bulking problems representative for Poland were investigated with quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Statistical analyses revealed few relationships between operational parameters and biovolume of filamentous bacteria. Sludge age was not only positively correlated with abundance of Chloroflexi (parametric correlation and principal component analysis (PCA)), but also differentiated Microthrix population (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Phylum Chloroflexi and pH presented a negative relation during the study (PCA). ANOVA showed that pH of influent and sludge volume index (SVI) differentiated abundance of types 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi and candidate division TM7. SVI increased along with higher abundance of Microthrix (positive parametric and non-parametric correlations and positive relation in PCA). Biovolumes of morphotypes 0803 and 1851 of Chloroflexi were differentiated by organic matter in influent, also by nutrients in the case of Chloroflexi type 1851. Chemical and biological oxygen demands (COD and BOD5, respectively) were negatively correlated with Microthrix. COD also differentiated the abundance of Haliscomenobacter hydrossis. Results of the study can be used to prevent WWTPs from excessive proliferation of filamentous bacteria and operational problems caused by them--bulking and foaming of activated sludge.

  20. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  1. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  2. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela; Latouche, Melissa Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to study the bacterial load and isolate potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria from kitchen tables, including preparation tables and dining tables. Methods. A total of 53 households gave their consent for participation. The samples were collected by swabbing over an area of 5 cm by 5 cm of the tables and processed for bacterial count which was read as colony forming units (CFU), followed by isolation and identification of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Result. Knowledge about hygiene was not always put into practice. Coliforms, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., and S. aureus were detected from both dining and preparation tables. The mean CFU and presence of potential pathogens were significantly affected by the hygienic practices of the main food handler of the house, materials of kitchen tables, use of plastic covers, time of sample collection, use of multipurpose sponges/towels for cleaning, and the use of preparation tables as chopping boards (p Kitchen tables could be very important source of potential pathogens and food spoilage bacteria causing foodborne diseases. Lack of hygiene was confirmed by presence of coliforms, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. The use of plastic covers, multipurpose sponges, and towels should be discouraged. PMID:27446220

  3. Differences in the sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to season and invertebrates affect leaf litter decomposition in a Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gómez, Juanita; Elosegi, Arturo; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Romaní, Anna M

    2016-08-01

    Microorganisms are key drivers of leaf litter decomposition; however, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of different microbial groups are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation and invertebrates on fungal and bacterial dynamics, and on leaf litter decomposition. We followed the decomposition of Populus nigra litter in a Mediterranean stream through an annual cycle, using fine and coarse mesh bags. Irrespective of the season, microbial decomposition followed two stages. Initially, bacterial contribution to total microbial biomass was higher compared to later stages, and it was related to disaccharide and lignin degradation; in a later stage, bacteria were less important and were associated with hemicellulose and cellulose degradation, while fungi were related to lignin decomposition. The relevance of microbial groups in decomposition differed among seasons: fungi were more important in spring, whereas in summer, water quality changes seemed to favour bacteria and slowed down lignin and hemicellulose degradation. Invertebrates influenced litter-associated microbial assemblages (especially bacteria), stimulated enzyme efficiencies and reduced fungal biomass. We conclude that bacterial and fungal assemblages play distinctive roles in microbial decomposition and differ in their sensitivity to environmental changes, ultimately affecting litter decomposition, which might be particularly relevant in highly seasonal ecosystems, such as intermittent streams. PMID:27288197

  4. Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate...... a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL...... cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, fecal-fat excretion, and body weight were measured. RESULTS: Plasma NEFA was lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P...

  5. Subgingival bacteria in a case of prepubertal periodontitis, before and one year after extractions of the affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, D; Bimstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of children with prepubertal periodontitis (PP), may be complicated by the extent of the lesions and the possibility of tetracycline stain of the developing permanent dentition. Therefore, with the purpose of preventing the infection of permanent teeth during the mixed dentition, it has been recommended that the treatment of children with PP, should include the early extraction of the primary teeth affected with alveolar bone loss (ABL). Still, there is little evidence which confirms that extraction of the affected primary teeth do in fact reduce the periodonto-pathogens load of the subgingival plaque. The present study reports values of colony forming units (CFU) of total anaerobic bacteria, Actinobacillus actynomicetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) from the subgingival plaque from a child with PP, collected immediately before and 1 year after extractions of the primary teeth affected with ABL. CFU of Aa and Pg developed only from the subgingival plaque collected before the extraction of the primary teeth affected with ABL. These findings suggest that in cases of PP, extraction of the affected primary teeth may reduce the possibility of infection of the periodontum of the permanent teeth during the mixed dentition period.

  6. The diversity of coral associated bacteria and the environmental factors affect their community variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ying; Ling, Juan; Yang, Qing-Song; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Hong-Yan; Feng, Jing-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Coral associated bacterial community potentially has functions relating to coral health, nutrition and disease. Culture-free, 16S rRNA based techniques were used to compare the bacterial community of coral tissue, mucus and seawater around coral, and to investigate the relationship between the coral-associated bacterial communities and environmental variables. The diversity of coral associated bacterial communities was very high, and their composition different from seawater. Coral tissue and mucus had a coral associated bacterial community with higher abundances of Gammaproteobacteria. However, bacterial community in seawater had a higher abundance of Cyanobacteria. Different populations were also found in mucus and tissue from the same coral fragment, and the abundant bacterial species associated with coral tissue was very different from those found in coral mucus. The microbial diversity and OTUs of coral tissue were much higher than those of coral mucus. Bacterial communities of corals from more human activities site have higher diversity and evenness; and the structure of bacterial communities were significantly different from the corals collected from other sites. The composition of bacterial communities associated with same coral species varied with season's changes, geographic differences, and coastal pollution. Unique bacterial groups found in the coral samples from more human activities location were significant positively correlated to chemical oxygen demand. These coral specific bacteria lead to coral disease or adjust to form new function structure for the adaption of different surrounding needs further research. PMID:25833806

  7. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  8. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  9. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity, an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew. (author)

  10. Polymorphism in SFTPD gene affects assembly and constitutional serum levels of surfactant protein D in a Lebanese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Chamat, Soulaima; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna;

    2014-01-01

    the distribution profile of serum constitutional SP-D in the Lebanese population and to investigate the genetic influence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs721917 within SP-D gene (SFTPD) on its multimerization and its serum basal level. The C/T alleles at this SNP level lead respectively either...... to a threonine or methionine at position 11 of the SP-D protein. SP-D was measured by ELISA in serum taken from 97 healthy subjects. The p.Met11Thr SNP was genotyped. Different forms of SP-D were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Basal serum SP-D levels varied extensively, over a range of 108.3 ng...

  11. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  12. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study origanum oil (ORO, garlic oil (GAO, and peppermint oil (PEO were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L, on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P≤0.05 in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P≤0.05 correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria.

  13. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  14. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  15. Surface-attached and suspended bacterial community structure as affected by C/N ratios: relationship between bacteria and fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Jinlin; Ako, Harry; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Zhanghe; Liu, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria play crucial roles in the combined system of substrate addition and C/N control, which has been demonstrated to improve aquaculture production. However, the complexity of surface-attached bacteria on substrates and suspended bacteria in the water column hamper further application of this system. This study firstly applied this combined system into the culture of grass carp, and then explored the relationship between microbial complexes from surface-attached and suspended bacteria in this system and the production of grass carp. In addition, this study investigated bacterial community structures as affected by four C/N ratios using Illumina sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the weight gain rate and specific growth rate of grass carp in the CN20 group (C/N ratio 20:1) were the highest (P production of grass carp, and Verrucomicrobiae and Rhodobacter in the surface-attached bacterial community were potential probiotic bacteria that contributed to the enhanced growth of grass carp. PMID:27263011

  16. Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

  17. Polymorphic variant at the IL2 region is associated with type 1 diabetes and may affect serum levels of interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Ziółkowska-Suchanek, Iwona; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic variants at the interleukin-2 (IL2) locus affect the risk of several autoimmune disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the four IL2 polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs6534349, rs2069762 and rs3136534) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Polish population, and to correlate them with the serum interleukin-2 levels. 543 unrelated T1D patients and 706 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The minor T allele at rs6822844 was significantly less frequent in T1D compared to contro...

  18. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  19. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  20. ppGpp negatively impacts ribosome assembly affecting growth and antimicrobial tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Rebecca M; Bellows, Lauren E; Wood, Alison; Gründling, Angelika

    2016-03-22

    The stringent response is a survival mechanism used by bacteria to deal with stress. It is coordinated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which interact with target proteins to promote bacterial survival. Although this response has been well characterized in proteobacteria, very little is known about the effectors of this signaling system in Gram-positive species. Here, we report on the identification of seven target proteins for the stringent response nucleotides in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus We demonstrate that the GTP synthesis enzymes HprT and Gmk bind with a high affinity, leading to an inhibition of GTP production. In addition, we identified five putative GTPases--RsgA, RbgA, Era, HflX, and ObgE--as (p)ppGpp target proteins. We show that RsgA, RbgA, Era, and HflX are functional GTPases and that their activity is promoted in the presence of ribosomes but strongly inhibited by the stringent response nucleotides. By characterizing the function of RsgA in vivo, we ascertain that this protein is involved in ribosome assembly, with an rsgA deletion strain, or a strain inactivated for GTPase activity, displaying decreased growth, a decrease in the amount of mature 70S ribosomes, and an increased level of tolerance to antimicrobials. We additionally demonstrate that the interaction of ppGpp with cellular GTPases is not unique to the staphylococci, as homologs from Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis retain this ability. Taken together, this study reveals ribosome inactivation as a previously unidentified mechanism through which the stringent response functions in Gram-positive bacteria.

  1. Effects of Hemagglutination Activity in the Serum of a Deep-Sea Vent Endemic Crab, Shinkaia Crosnieri, on Non-Symbiotic and Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tateno, Hiroaki; Watsuji, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Daisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Sugimura, Makoto; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Sawayama, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, most invertebrates associate with dense populations of symbiotic microorganisms in order to obtain nutrition. The molecular interactions between deep-sea animals and environmental microbes, including their symbionts, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Hemagglutinins/lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, have recently been reported to play important roles in a wide array of biological processes, including the recognition and control of non-self materials. We herein assessed hemagglutination activity in the serum of a deep-sea vent endemic crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, which harbors chemosynthetic epibionts on its plumose setae. Horse and rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated using this serum (opt. pH 7.5 and opt. temperature 15°C). Agglutinating activity was inhibited by eight kinds of sugars and several divalent cations, did not require any divalent metal ions, and remained detectable even after heating the serum at 100°C for 30 min. By using fluorescently labeled serum, we demonstrated that deep-sea crab serum components bound to the epibionts even in the presence of sugars. This study represents the first immunological assessment of a deep-sea vent endemic crab and demonstrated the possibility of a non-lectin-mediated symbiont-host interaction.

  2. Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Ciliberti, M; Sevi, A

    2012-07-01

    Immune competence of the ewe mammary gland was investigated by monitoring the leukocyte differential count, cytokine pattern, and endogenous proteolytic enzymes in milk samples with different somatic cell counts (SCC) and pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the leukocyte differential count and T-lymphocyte populations were evaluated in ewe blood. A total of 1,500 individual milk samples were randomly selected from the pool of the samples collected during sampling and grouped into 5 classes of 300 samples each, on the basis of SCC. Classes were 2,000,000 cells/mL. Microbiological analyses of ewe milk were conducted to detect mastitis-related pathogens. Sheep whose udders were without clinical abnormalities, and whose milk was apparently normal but with at least 10(3)cfu/mL of the same pathogen were considered to have subclinical mastitis and therefore defined as infected. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) and macrophages increased with SCC, whereas lymphocytes decreased. Milk samples with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL showed differences in leukocyte populations between uninfected and infected ewes, with higher percentages of PMNL and macrophages and lower percentages of lymphocytes in infected animals. Nonviable PMNL levels were the highest in ewe milk samples with SCC 500,000 cells/mL, nonviable PMNL were higher in uninfected ewes than in infected ones. In infected animals giving milk with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL, a higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was observed, suggesting that the presence of pathogens induced an activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-12 were higher in infected than uninfected ewes, irrespective of SCC. Plasmin activity increased along with SCC and was always higher in infected than uninfected animals; cathepsin D increased starting from 1,001,000 cells/mL in milk samples from noninfected ewes and starting from 301,000 cells/mL in milk samples from infected animals. The associations between somatic

  3. A new class of quorum quenching molecules from Staphylococcus species affects communication and growth of gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yun Chu

    Full Text Available The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the 'Staphylococcus intermedius group' of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-ylethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community.

  4. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) transcription in intestinal epithelial cells is significantly affected by bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Bent Borg;

    2012-01-01

    ≤ 0.05) compared with cells without bacteria added. The alteration in cellular GPR120 mRNA was observed with bacteria categorized as either probiotics or bacteria capable of inducing an anti-inflammatory effect. The beneficial effect of these bacteria may very well be mediated by regulation of GPR120...

  5. Value of serum procalcitonin in early differential diagnosis of different types of bacteria sepsis%血清降钙素原在不同种类细菌脓毒症的早期鉴别诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英其

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨血清降钙素原(PCT)对不同种类医院获得性细菌脓毒症的早期鉴别诊断价值.方法 以医院获得性革兰阴性菌脓毒症、革兰阳性菌脓毒症、全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)患者及健康人群(对照组)各50例为研究对象,于入院第1天晨时采集血清观察PCT、C-反应蛋白(CRP)、白细胞(WBC)、中性粒细胞(PMN)、中性粒细胞比例(N)等指标变化,同时记录当日最高体温.结果 患者入院第1天PCT水平革兰阴性菌脓毒症组为9.56 μg/L、革兰阳性菌脓毒症组为4.64 μg/L、SIRS组为0.36 μg/L及对照组为0.08 μg/L,革兰阴性细菌脓毒症组PCT水平显著高于革兰阳性细菌脓毒症组(P<0.01),革兰阴性菌脓毒症组CRP、WBC、PMN、N水平与革兰阳性细菌脓毒症组相近,PCT受试者特征操作曲线面积(AUC)为0.926,高于CRP的0.747 mg/L、WBC的0.807×109/L、N的0.771,革兰阴性组PCT受试者特征操作AUC 0.926,明显高于革兰阳性菌脓毒症组患者的0.807,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PCT是细菌性脓毒症诊断的一个较好指标,其灵敏度和特异度均高于其他炎性指标,对革兰阴性菌、革兰阳性菌脓毒症的鉴别有一定的作用.%OBJECTIVE To explore the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in early diagnosis of hospital-acquired bacterial sepsis. METHODS The patients with hospital-acquired gram-negative bacteria sepsis, gram-positive bacteria sepsis, SIRS patients, and the healthy controls(the control group), with 50 cases in each group, were selected as the study objects, the levels of serum PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell(WBC), polymorphonuclear neutrophils(PMN) and neutrophil percentage(N) on the first day of enrollment were observed, meanwhile, the maximal body temperature was recorded. RESULTS The serum PCT level of the gram-negative bacteria sepsis group(9. 56μg/L )and gram-positive bacteria sepsis group(4. 64μg/L)on the 1st day was higher than that in the

  6. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  7. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  8. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ling Wang,1,2,* Xue-Min Qiu,1,2,* Yu-Yan Gui,1,2 Ying-Ping Xu,1,2 Hans-Jürgen Gober,3 Da-Jin Li1 1Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IBS, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Wagner Jauregg Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Linz, Austria *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD, a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported.Purpose: We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula.Materials and methods: Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay.Results: BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus.Conclusion: These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. Keywords

  9. Gut bacteria producing phenols disturb keratinocyte differentiation in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, Ryoka; Kawakami, Koji; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our previous study suggested that phenols (phenol and p-cresol) produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice. In the present study we aimed to determine if the same phenomenon is applicable to humans. Methods: First, we analyzed the correlation between serum phenol levels and corneocyte size in 50 healthy female volunteers. Second, we administered a prebiotic beverage (containing galacto-oligosaccharides and polydextrose) to 19 healthy female volunteers and examined th...

  10. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes : a post hoc analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Y.; Dobre, D.; Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Brenner, B. M.; Cooper, M. E.; Parving, H-H.; Shahinfar, S.; Grobbee, D.; de Zeeuw, D.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. We performed a post hoc analysis in patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Reduction of Endpoint

  11. Comparison of serum creatine kinase estimation with short tandem repeats based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive lethal, genetic disorder characterised by progressive weakness of skeletal muscles which is untreatable and transmitted to males by carrier females. Advances in laboratory techniques now focus direct mutational analysis as the most reliable and indirect analysis based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) based linkage analysis as feasible, inexpensive, and efficient method for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic efficiency of Serum Creatine Kinase (SCK) with Short Tandem Repeats (STR based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Methods: The study was carried out from Dec 2006 to Dec 2007 in families having index clinical cases of DMD who were referred from different hospitals for evaluation/workup of DMD. SCK was done as a preliminary investigation in all index cases. The PCR assay with STR based linkage analysis with Intron 44, 45, 49 and 50 of DMD gene were performed in all families. Six families were informative with Intron 44 of DMD gene and one family was non-informative with all four intronic markers of DMD. SCK analyses were done in all the family members and compared with PCR analysis in informative families. SCK was not performed on Chorionic villous sample (CVS) done for prenatal diagnosis of DMD, and CVS and non-informative family members were excluded from the study. Results: In carriers of DMD, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 33.3%, and specificity and positive predictive were 100% with diagnostic efficiency of 50%. In affected cases of DMD the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 100%, and specificity and positive predictive were 91% and 88.8% respectively and diagnostic efficiency of 94.1%. Conclusion: The SCK is an excellent screening test for

  12. Serum procalcitonin elevation in critically ill patients at the onset of bacteremia caused by either gram negative or gram positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prin Sébastien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Methods Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP or Gram negative (GN bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. Results 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52 or GP bacteremia (n = 45 were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.88. Conclusion In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.

  13. Factors affecting the production of folic acid by lactic acid bacteria%乳酸菌发酵代谢合成叶酸的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友群; 周方; 赵宏飞; 展海宁; 张柏林

    2011-01-01

    对嗜酸乳杆菌以及乳酸乳球菌发酵合成叶酸的影响因素进行了研究.结果表明,乳酸菌代谢合成叶酸的产率为17~100μg/L,菌种、培养时间、pH值、对氨基苯甲酸(PABA)质量浓度会影响乳酸菌合成叶酸的产量.与乳酸乳球菌乳酸亚种相比,嗜酸乳杆菌CH-2生成的叶酸产量要高.不同菌株生成叶酸的能力与pH值有关,嗜酸乳杆菌在pH值为4.2叶酸产率明显下降,乳酸乳球菌乳酸亚种产叶酸的能力则不受pH值影响.添加PABA可以显著提高乳酸菌的叶酸产率.选择适宜的乳酸菌菌株,优化发酵工艺参数可以提高乳及相关食品中叶酸的质量浓度,达到生物方式强化叶酸的效果.%The factors affecting the synthesis of folic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp.lactis were studied. Lactic acid bacteria produced folate of 17~100 μg/L by fermentation, depending on strains, fermentation time, pH and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). L. acidophilus strain CH-2 produced more folic acid than L. lactis subsp. lactis did. L. acidophilus CH-2 significantly had a low folate yield as pH in media decreased to 4.2, whereas the level of folic acid produced by L.lactis subsp.lactis might be pH-independent. Addition of PABA to media significantly improved the yields of folic acids formed by two lactic acid bacteria. The present study means that use of folateproducing strains, in combination with good fermentation, can fortify the contents of folic acid from milk or related foods.

  14. Serum procalcitonin levels in patients infected by either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria%革兰阳性与阴性菌感染血清降钙素原水平比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾敏; 包正军; 曾欣荣; 蒋最明; 金今; 彭俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨患者血清降钙素原( procalcitonin,PCT)水平对区分常见革兰阳性(G+)菌和革兰阴性(G-)菌所致感染的价值.方法 通过对血、痰、尿等133份标本细菌培养及患者血清PCT水平测定,分析G+菌及G-菌感染后,患者体内PCT分布水平是否存在差异.结果 当血液中能培养出细菌时,G-菌感染组血清PCT水平[(38.45±60.30) ng/mL]明显高于G+菌感染组[(4.64±7.81) ng/mL],差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);根据受试者工作特征曲线(ROC),血清PCT界值设定为5.61 ng/mL时,其灵敏度为73.70%,特异性为81.80%.痰液及其他标本培养出细菌时,感染者血清PCT水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).血培养阳性组血清PCT水平明显高于其他组(P<0.001).结论 血清PCT水平测定有助于迅速区分G+菌及G-菌所致的血流感染,但对于肺部及其他局灶感染,其鉴别价值有待进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels for differentiating grarn-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Methods 133 samples of blood, sputum, urine, or the others were performed bacterial culture, and serum PCT levels were measured and analyzed to find whether there was difference in PCT levels between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria infected patients. Results When bacteria were isolated from blood culture, serum PCT levels in patients with gram-nagetive bacterial infection were obviously higher than that of gram-positive group ([38. 45 ±60. 30])ng/Ml vs [4. 64± 7. 8l])ng/Ml, P0. 05). PCT level in positive blood culture group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (Pdiscriminate lung and the other local infection need to be further studied.

  15. Distinct Gut-Derived Bacteria Differentially Affect Three Types of Antigen-Presenting Cells and Impact on NK- and T-Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Hansen, Anne Marie Valentin; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Objectives Gut bacteria are assumed essential for development and maintenance of a balanced immune system. Specifically, stimulation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by gut bacteria is important for polarisation of the immune response. This experiment was designed to reveal similarities...... from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells constitute a commonly used model of dendritic cell function. The APCs were cultured for 18 h with four different gut bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus X37, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 12246, E. coli Nissle 1917 or Bifidobacterium longum Q46. Results...... & Discussion To examine the polarising effect of gut bacteria on APCs, surface markers and cytokines were measured. The co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 were induced to a different extent together with CD83. Interleukin-12 (a Th1 cytokine) was only induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Interleukin-10...

  16. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  17. Effect of periodontal treatment on serum C-reactive protein level in obese and normal-weight women affected with chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Zahrani, M.S.; Alghamdi, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of conventional periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and periodontal status in obese and normal-weight chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This is a controlled clinical trial conducted at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentis

  18. Serum Haemolytic Complement Levels in German Dahlem Red Chickens Are Affected by Three Major Genes (Naked, Neck, Dwarf, Frizzled) of Tropical Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorny, P.; Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2005-01-01

    German Dahlem Red chickens with three different major genes of tropical interest: Nana ¿ (naked neck), Ff ¿ (frizzled) and dw ¿ (dwarf), respectively, were tested for serum haemolytic complement, which is essential in innate host defence against infectious agents. Eight different combinations of gen

  19. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  20. Correlation of serum lithium levels and thyroid function tests in subjects of bipolar affective disorder: a prospective hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Manjuprasad

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: As already known, Lithium is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and females are more prone for thyroid function abnormalities. Appropriate monitoring of serum lithium levels will aid in necessary dose adjustment and ensure proper utilization of drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 51-54

  1. Investigating the Effect of HBV Amplification Affected by APRIL Serum and IgD Expression on the B Cells of Liver in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bastani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Host immune responses are considered as an an important factor concerning the progression of HBV infection. B cells population following Hepatitis B infection has received scant attention. A Poroliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL can be introduced as a stimulator of B cell activities. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the proportion of IgD positive B lymphocytes in liver as well as to determine the level of APRIL serum in relation to the clinical findings in chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects suffering from chronic hepatitis B(CHB were selected, who  attended the Hepatitis Clinic of Shariati Hospital. APRIL ELISA kit was used in order to measure the APRIL serum concentration. HBV DNA was quantified by RealArtTM HBV LC PCR. Liver biopsy sections were stained with immunohistochemistry in order to indentify IgD. Results: The mean score of liver fibrosis and inflammation was reported 4.20 according to the modified histologic activity index system. The mean score for patients with liver IgD positive B-cells was 1.9. Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that increasing the score of intrahepatic IgD positive B cells was propotionate to the increase of HBV DNA amplification, whereas it revealed a negative relationship with the APRIL serum level. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that IgD positive B-cells imply the presence of naïve B cells, more within patients who had higher level of HBV DNA. Moreover, higher score of IgD positive B cells population was negatively related with the serum level of APRIL.

  2. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  3. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New......)D and BMC during winter months at Northern latitudes. A carry-over effect may be suspected in the March/April samplings. The OPUS study was supported by a grant from the Nordea Foundation.......Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New.......3-1.1 µg/d) was higher after intervention- than control-period. The NND effect was modified by season, i.e, in November/December and January/February NND resulted in higher 25(OH)D than the control diet, whereas in March/April NND resulted in lower (p

  4. Reduction of serum IGF-I levels in patients affected with Monoclonal Gammopathies of undetermined significance or Multiple Myeloma. Comparison with bFGF, VEGF and K-ras gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum levels of IGF-I in patients affected with multiple myeloma (MM have been scarcely studied. The present study is aimed to explore this point comparing 55 healthy subjects, 71 monoclonal gammopaties of uncertain significance (MGUS and 77 overt MM patients. In the same subjects, basic FGF and VEGF, have been detected. All three mediators were analyzed in function of K-ras mutation and melphalan response. Concerning IGF-I, two representative monitoring examples have also been added. Methods Cytokine determinations were performed by commercially available ELISA kits, while K12-ras mutation was investigated on genomic DNA isolated from bone marrow cell specimens by RFLP-PCR assay. Results Significant reductions of IGF-I levels were observed in MGUS and MM as compared with healthy controls. In addition, MM subjects showed significantly decreased serum IGF-I levels than MGUS. Conversely, increasing levels were observed for bFGF and VEGF, molecules significantly correlated. A multivariate analysis corrected for age and gender confirmed the significant difference only for IGF-I values (P = 0.01. K12-ras mutation was significantly associated with malignancy, response to therapy and with significantly increased serum bFGF levels. Conclusion IGF-I reduction in the transition: Controls→MGUS→MM and changes observed over time suggest that IGF-I should be furtherly studied in future clinical trials as a possible monitoring marker for MM.

  5. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...

  6. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... antiserum that caused serum sickness again in the future, your ... blood vessels Swelling of the face, arms, and legs ( angioedema )

  7. Immune regulation of a chronic bacteria infection and consequences for pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Ashutosh K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of host immunity has been recognized as not only playing a fundamental role in the interaction between the host and pathogen but also in influencing host infectiousness and the ability to shed pathogens. Despite the interest in this area of study, and the development of theoretical work on the immuno-epidemiology of infections, little is known about the immunological processes that influence pathogen shedding patterns. Results We used the respiratory bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and its common natural host, the rabbit, to examine the intensity and duration of oro-nasal bacteria shedding in relation to changes in the level of serum antibodies, blood cells, cytokine expression and number of bacteria colonies in the respiratory tract. Findings show that infected rabbits shed B. bronchiseptica by contact up to 4.5 months post infection. Shedding was positively affected by number of bacteria in the nasal cavity (CFU/g but negatively influenced by serum IgG, which also contributed to the initial reduction of bacteria in the nasal cavity. Three main patterns of shedding were identified: i- bacteria were shed intermittently (46% of individuals, ii- bacteria shedding fell with the progression of the infection (31% and iii- individuals never shed bacteria despite being infected (23%. Differences in the initial number of bacteria shed between the first two groups were associated with differences in the level of serum antibodies and white blood cells. These results suggest that the immunological conditions at the early stage of the infection may play a role in modulating the long term dynamics of B. bronchiseptica shedding. Conclusions We propose that IgG influences the threshold of bacteria in the oro-nasal cavity which then affects the intensity and duration of individual shedding. In addition, we suggest that a threshold level of infection is required for shedding, below this value individuals never shed bacteria

  8. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria;

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...

  9. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio

    2016-06-01

    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation.

  10. Effect of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense on serum iron levels in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Setayesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The Magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1 mineralizes the magnetite (Fe3 O4 crystals and organizes a highly ordered intracellular structure, called the magnetosome. Iron transport system supports the biogenesis of magnetite. Although iron is an essential trace element for many metabolic pathways of the body, increase or decrease in iron will cause many diseases. Mice were infected by MSR-1 to study survival of bacteria in mice when injected by different routes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bacterial magnetite formation could take up Fe2+ ions from the blood an animal model.Materials and Methods: In this study, MSR-1 at a dose lower than LD50 in 200 μl volume of PBS buffer was injected as intravascular (i.v, peritoneal (i.p and subcutaneous (s.c in mice. Number of viable bacterial was determined in organs such as liver, spleen and lymph node by measuring colony-forming unit (CFU. Moreover, serum iron level was evaluated by using commercial kits.Results and Conclusion: According to CFU measurements, after 96 hours, mice can clear MSR-1 from their body with different routes of injection. We have also shown that MSR-1 bacteria can affect the blood iron level in mice. The serum iron level decreased from control level in the first 24 h after i.v injection (P < 0.05. Our research on optimizing the biological magnetic system is still continuing.

  11. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  12. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  13. Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-01-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  14. 感染松萎蔫病的葡萄牙海岸松中内生细菌的分离%Endophytic bacteria isolated from pine wilt-affected Pinus pinaster trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vieira dos Santos M C; Proenca D A N; Fonseca L; Abrantes I M de O; Morais P V

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic rapid death of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, after infection by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, suggests the involvement of other organisms in pine wilt disease (PWD) . Endophytic bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and colonize a broad spectrum of plant species. They colonize plants internally without harming them and although they have been reported to promote plant growth and stimulate plant defence mechanisms. Although such bacteria may be involved in improving plant health, they have also been seen as a potential cause of the low regeneration capacity of mature trees. The bacteria carried out by the PWN throughout pine trees may also contribute to the rapid wilting of the maritime pine trees. This study was made to assess the endophytic microbial community structure of pine wilt affected and non-affected P. pinaster, based on culture isolates, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophorosis (DGGE) profiling, and to relate the results to a possible association between the characteristics and bacteria associated with the PWN. The microbial community from trees and PWNs included strains from Beta and Gammaproteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were only found in the endophytic community whereas Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were only found to be associated with the nematode. ARDRA and DGGE profiles showed differences in the diversity of the endophytic microbial community that may be related to the presence of the PWN. Those differences seem to be associated with the number of strains of the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Luteibacter. Isolates belonging to the species Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum, P. lutea and Dyella yeojuensis were isolated from trees and were associated with the PWN. This research documents the presence of bacteria associated with the PWN by molecular methods and the impact of the nematode in the plant endophytic microbial

  15. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    , the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  16. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Nilita; Kumar, S Nishanth; Challa, Hanumanth R; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P FOS was observed to be more beneficial than L salivarius alone, thereby advocating that such synbiotic combinations could be therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life. PMID:25331262

  17. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)

  18. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  19. Screening of serum uric acid-lowering Lactic acid bacteria and its effect on hyperuricemia in rat models%降血尿酸乳酸菌筛选及其对高尿酸血症模型大鼠作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨殿斌; 袁杰利

    2013-01-01

    目的 提出利用具特殊活性乳酸菌来预防、治疗高尿酸血症方法,筛选具有较高降血尿酸活性的乳酸菌.方法 基于RP-HPLC方法,通过检测培养液培养前后肌苷、鸟苷含量变化,筛选出具有最快核苷分解速率的乳酸菌株作为候选菌株.并将其施用于高尿酸血症模型大鼠,观察对模型大鼠血尿酸含量影响.结果 获得具有最佳核苷分解速率的菌株DM9218.动物实验结果表明DM9218干预组的血尿酸浓度(219.25±21.98) μmol/L明显低于模型组(311.75±27.07) μmol/L(P<0.05).结论 菌株DM9218具有最快的核苷分解速率,对高尿酸血症大鼠具有明显的降血尿酸作用.菌株DM9218为植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum).%Objective To propose a method for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific activity, and screen LAB strains with high serum uric acid-iowering activity. Methods Based on RP-HPLC method, the changes of inosine and guanosine contents in the culture medium before and after cultivation were determined; The LAB strains which presented the fastest rates of decomposition of nucleosides were selected as the candidate strains, and administered to the model rats. The effect of the strains on the serum uric acid level of the rats were observed. Results The strain DM9218 with an optimal decomposition rate of nucleo-side was obtained. Animal experimental results showed that the serum uric acid level of DM9218 intervention group [ (219.25 ± 21.98) μmol/L] was obviously lower than that of the model group [(311.75 ± 27.07) μmol/L] (P<0.05). Conclusion DM9218 has the fastest decomposition rate of nucleosides and obvious effect of lowering serum uric acid in hyperuricemia rats. DM9218 is identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.

  20. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, C.; Mazzola, M.; Cheng, X.; Oetjen, J.; Alexandrov, T.; Dorrestein, P.; Watrous, J.; Voort, van der M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan predation of bacteria can significantly affect soil microbial community composition and ecosystem functioning. Bacteria possess diverse defense strategies to resist or evade protozoan predation. For soil-dwelling Pseudomonas species, several secondary metabolites were proposed to provide p

  1. Survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) serum in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    to cause an immediate (after 3 h incubation) notable reduction in viability of the inoculated cells. After 24 h incubation a more pronounced reduction in the number of viable bacteria was observed in untreated serum as well as in serum heated at 45degrees C. In serum heated at 56degrees C this...

  2. Low Serum Adiponectin Predicts Future Risk for Asthma in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay; Qualls, Clifford; Schuyler, Mark; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Steffes, Michael W.; Smith, Lewis J.; Jacobs, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Our previous cross-sectional study showed that serum adiponectin is inversely associated with asthma among women. However, it is not known if serum adiponectin predicts future development of asthma or if asthma affects subsequent serum adiponectin concentrations among women.

  3. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  4. [Cold sterilization of serums with peracetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:823257

  5. Identification of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human adipose tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, Tomasz; Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Kaska, Lukasz; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Swierczynski, Julian

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids containing a cyclopropane ring in their structure (cyclopropane FA) have been found in a wide variety of bacteria, a number of protozoa, and Myriapoda. Little is known about cyclopropane FA in mammal, especially in human tissues. The present study deals with the identification of cyclopropane FA in adipose tissue and serum of humans and rats. Fatty acids extracted from the adipose tissue and serum obtained from obese women during bariatric surgery were methylated and analyzed on GC-MS. We have identified: cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-octyl, cyclopropanenonanoic acid, and 2-[[2-[(2-ethylcyclopropyl)methyl]cyclopropyl]methyl] acid in human adipose tissue. We confirmed the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl by derivatization of FA extracted from human adipose tissue to picolinyl esters. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was the main cyclopropane FA (approximately 0.4 % of total fatty acids in human adipose tissue, and about 0.2 % of total fatty acids in the serum). In adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was found mainly in triacylglycerols, whereas in serum in phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl has also been found in serum, and adipose tissue of rats in amounts comparable to humans. The content of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl decreased in adipose tissue of rats maintained on a restricted diet for 1 month. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is present in human adipose tissue and serum. Adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is stored mainly in triacylglycerols and the storage of this cyclopropane FA is affected by food restriction.

  6. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  7. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Affecting Factors on QuaI ity of Wine Vinegar%醋酸菌及其酒醋质量的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚国利; 张甜

    2015-01-01

    醋的生产主要是依靠醋酸菌的氧化过程,酒醋作为副产品是生产醋的不完全发酵而产生的,由于其独特的风味使得近年来人们对它的生产工艺的优化有进一步的研究。醋酸菌种决定醋的质量,但是醋的最终质量是工艺方法、木材接触和熟化合并的结果。综述了近年来醋酸菌的研究进展以及酒醋的生产工艺、化学特性和感官品质的影响因素。%The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria.However,the characterization of wine vinegar as a byproduct means that its production is often inadequately performed.Its unique flavor makes further research in recent years to optimize its production process.The acetic acid bacteria determine the quality of vinegar,but the final quality of vinegar is combined result of technological process,wood contact,and aging.This paper reviews the recent research progress of acetic acid bacteria, the production process, chemical properties and sensory quality of wine vinegar.

  8. Antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis are able to feed on large prey items by injecting a dose of toxic bacteria with their bite that, over time, kills the prey by systemic infection. Dragons also suffer bites from other members of their own species during territorial disputes and feeding frenzies. However, they do not suffer the same fate as their prey, suggesting that they have developed a strong immunity to bacterial infections. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo dragon. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Varanus komodoensis and the growth was monitored by optical density at 430 nm. In addition, the serum was treated with protease, chelators of divalent metal ions, or with mild heat to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activities. Treatment of bacterial cultures with serum from Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis resulted in a volume-dependent decrease in bacterial growth. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca exhibited moderate-strong growth inhibition by V. komodoensis serum, while cultures of Streptococcus epidermitis, Salmonella typhimurium, Providencia stuartii, and Shigella flexneri were nearly completely obliterated for 24 h by only 10% (v/v serum. The antibacterial activity of V. komodensis serum occurred very rapidly, as 18% of E. coli growth was inhibited by a five min exposure to serum. Furthermore, 10- and 20-min incubations of E. coli with serum from V. komodoensis resulted in 43 and 68% inhibition of bacterial growth, respectively. The bactericidal capacity of the serum against E. coli was 2,075,000 bacteria/μL serum, and was inhibited by mild heat treatment, pronase, EDTA, and phosphate, indicating that the anti-bacterial action is most probably due to the presence of a potent serum complement protein system.

  9. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  10. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  11. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  12. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes

  13. Vitamin A Affects Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Geese%维生素A对鹅生长性能及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑洁; 王宝维; 葛文华; 张名爱; 李文立

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of vitamin A on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and tissue vitamin A content of Qingnonghui geese. Two hundred Qingnonghui geese at 1 day of age were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 10 geese in each replicate. Five groups were supplemented with 0, 1 500, 3 000, 6 000 and 12 000 IU/kg vitamin A in the basal diets, respectively. The experiment lasted for twelve weeks. The results showed as follows; 1) supplemental vitamin A significantly increased daily weight gain and daily feed intake (P 0. 05). 2) At 4 weeks of age, supplemented 6 000 IU/kg vitamin A significantly decreased serum uric acid content (P 0. 05) ; at 12 weeks of age, supplemented 6 000 IU/kg vitamin A significantly decreased the contents of serum blood glucose and uric acid (P 0. 05). 3) The serum and liver vitamin A content increased significantly with the increase of dietary vitamin A supplemental levels (P <0. 01). In conclusion, consideration from the growth performance, the optimal dietary levels of vitamin A are 8 000 IU/kg at weeks 1 to 4, and 9 000 IU/kg at weeks 5 to 12. While consideration from the serum biochemical parameters, the optimal dietary level of vitamin A is 6 000 IU/kg at weeks 1 to 4 and 5 to 12.%本试验旨在研究不同水平维生素A对青农灰鹅生长性能、血清生化指标及组织中维生素A含量的影响.选用1日龄青农灰鹅200只,随机分为5组,每组4个重复,每个重复10只鹅.各组在玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮中分别添加0、1 500、3 000、6 000和12 000 IU/kg的维生素A.试验期12周.结果表明:1)饲粮添加维生素A能显著提高1~4、5~12周龄青农灰鹅平均日增重和平均日采食量(P<0.05),降低死淘率,但对料重比影响不显著(P>0.05).2)4周龄时,添加6 000 IU/kg维生素A显著降低了血清尿酸含量(P<0.05),添加3 000和6 000 IU/kg维生素A极显著提高了

  14. The Analysis of Different Culture Time Affect Test Results of Coliform Bacteria Primary Fermentation%不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌彦; 盛满钰

    2012-01-01

    为了了解不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响,为大肠菌群检测方法、卫生标准的修订及食源性疾病的预防和控制提供科学依据。在同一品牌快餐店随机采集具有代表性的6大类342件样品进行大肠菌群检测,得到有效样品数为254件。依照国家标准进行检验和结果评价,并将初发酵培养时间为(24±2)h和(48±2)h的检测结果进行比较。结果表明,样品经(48±2)h初发酵培养的大肠菌群检出率及LST肉汤阳性率均高于(24±2)h,其差异均具有统计学意义Co〈o.01)。因此,大肠菌群迟缓发酵现象普遍存在。适当延长初发酵培养时间将有利于提高大肠菌群的检出率,从而更真实的反映食品的卫生质量状况。2010年6月正式实施的GB4789.3—2010,与2003版相比其结果表达发生了变化,而相应的很多产品卫生标准仍未同时更新。%In order to understand what effect on the different culture period of coliform bacteria cause on the test result of coliforms primary fermentation, provide the scientific proof for coliform bacteria detection methods, and revise health standard and prevention and control of food-borne disease, a total of 342 representative samples of six main categories were randomly collected in various chain stores of the same brand fast-food restaurant for coliform bacteria testing. Finally, 254 effective samples were got. In accordance with national standards for testing and evaluation of results, and to compare test results between (24~:2) h and (48~2) h on the coliforms primary fermentation time, according to results of the comparison view, the sample after (48h:k2) h primary fermentation coliform .detection rate and positive rate of LST broth were higher than the (24+2) h, the differences are statistically significant (p〈0.01). Therefore, coliform slow fermentation is widespread and ubiquity. Extend the time of primary

  15. Serum pneumoproteins in firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Burger, Nena; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Serum Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) were measured in a cross-sectional study in 402 firefighters. For the population as a whole, no associations were detected between serum pneumoproteins and smoke exposure. SP-A levels were increased in symptomatic subjects ex

  16. Spectroscopic study of drug-binding characteristics of unmodified and pNPA-based acetylated human serum albumin: Does esterase activity affect microenvironment of drug binding sites on the protein?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Nastaran [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghobadi, Sirous [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahlaei, Mohsen [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodarahmi, Reza, E-mail: rkhodarahmi@mbrc.ac.ir [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most prominent extracellular protein in blood plasma. There are several binding sites on the protein which provide accommodation for structurally-unrelated endogenous and exogenous ligands and a wide variety of drugs. “Esterase-like” activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters) by the protein has been also reported. In the current study, we set out to investigate the interaction of indomethacin and ibuprofen with the unmodified and modified HSA (pNPA-modified HSA) using various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence data showed that 1:1 binding of drug to HSA is associated with quenching of the protein intrinsic fluorescence. Decrease of protein surface hydrophobicity (PSH), alteration in drug binding affinity and change of the protein stability, after esterase-like activity and permanent acetylation of HSA, were also documented. Analysis of the quenching and thermodynamic parameters indicated that forces involved in drug–HSA interactions change upon the protein modification. - Highlights: • Binding propensity of indomethacin extremely decreased upon the protein acetylation. • There is no ibuprofen binding after protein acetylation. • Protein stability changes upon drug binding as well as protein acetylation. • Drug pharmacokinetics may be influenced under co-administration of HSA-modifier drugs.

  17. Spectroscopic study of drug-binding characteristics of unmodified and pNPA-based acetylated human serum albumin: Does esterase activity affect microenvironment of drug binding sites on the protein?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most prominent extracellular protein in blood plasma. There are several binding sites on the protein which provide accommodation for structurally-unrelated endogenous and exogenous ligands and a wide variety of drugs. “Esterase-like” activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters) by the protein has been also reported. In the current study, we set out to investigate the interaction of indomethacin and ibuprofen with the unmodified and modified HSA (pNPA-modified HSA) using various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence data showed that 1:1 binding of drug to HSA is associated with quenching of the protein intrinsic fluorescence. Decrease of protein surface hydrophobicity (PSH), alteration in drug binding affinity and change of the protein stability, after esterase-like activity and permanent acetylation of HSA, were also documented. Analysis of the quenching and thermodynamic parameters indicated that forces involved in drug–HSA interactions change upon the protein modification. - Highlights: • Binding propensity of indomethacin extremely decreased upon the protein acetylation. • There is no ibuprofen binding after protein acetylation. • Protein stability changes upon drug binding as well as protein acetylation. • Drug pharmacokinetics may be influenced under co-administration of HSA-modifier drugs

  18. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  19. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  20. Root Associated Bacteria – Friends or Enemies? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mihalache

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots, due to their exudates, represent important ecological niches for bacteria, which can influence the plant growth by their both beneficial and deleterious effects. The positive effects of bacteria interaction with the plants roots consist in facilitating the nutrient uptake (N, P, producing phytohormones, enhancing their resistance to biotic and abiotic factors such as pathogenic fungi and bacteria, extreme temperatures, heavy metals, salinity. Regarding the harmful effects of bacteria on plants growth, production of phytotoxins, competition for nutrients or inducing diseases or even plants death represents examples of mechanisms by which bacteria can affect in a negative manner the growth of the plants.

  1. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Merchant; Kate Juneau; Jared Gemillion; Rodolfo Falconi; Aaron Doucet; Shirley, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted cr...

  2. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria t

  3. The binding of MBL to common bacteria in infectious diseases of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Shi-qiang; CHEN Guo-xian; SHEN Jie; YU Xiao-hong; WANG Ke-yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To purify Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) from human serum and detect its binding ability to several kinds of bacteria common in infectious diseases of children. Methods: MBL was purified from human serum by affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose 4B column. Its binding ability to eight species, 97 strains of bacteria was detected by enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Results: MBL has different binding ability to bacteria and shows strong binding ability to Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Escherichia coli, but shows relatively lower binding ability to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. To different isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus,MBL shows quite different binding ability. Conclusions: MBL has different binding ability to different bacteria, and has relatively stronger binding ability to Gram-negative bacteria. Its binding ability to different isolates of certain kinds of bacteria is quite different.

  4. Serum Bilirubin Levels and Developmental Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevlopmental risks associated with neonatal total serum bilirubin levels of 25 mg/dL or higher in 140 affected infants were compared with 419 randomly selected controls from a cohort of term-infants born 1995-1998 in Kaiser Permanente hospitals in northern California.

  5. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiangfeng; (黎向锋); LI; Yaqin; (李雅芹); CAI; Jun; (蔡军); ZHANG; Deyuan; (张德远)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  6. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger;

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the effect of anesthesia and surgery on serum tryptase in the absence of anaphylaxis....

  7. High Calcium Diet Affects Serum Nitric Oxide Concentration and Antioxidant Function of Pullets%高钙饲粮对青年蛋鸡血清一氧化氮浓度和抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小权; 黄克和; 曹华斌; 胡国良; 李浩棠; 张彩英

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究高钙饲粮对青年蛋鸡血清一氧化氮(NO)浓度和抗氧化功能的影响.将35日龄100羽伊沙蛋鸡随机均分为对照组(含钙1.00%)和高钙组(含钙3.78%),每组5个重复,每个重复10羽.每天观察鸡的精神状态、食欲和粪便情况.在饲喂高钙饲粮第0、8、16、24和32天时,分别测定2组鸡的血清中NO浓度和丙二醛含量及抗氧化酶系统的变化.结果表明:1)高钙饲粮能引起青年蛋鸡长期腹泻,在饲喂高钙饲粮的第8天就发生高血钙症.2)与对照组相比,高钙组在饲喂高钙饲粮第8天和第16天血清NO浓度无显著变化(P>0.05),第24天和第32天显著升高(P<0.05);第8天和第24天血清超氧化物歧化酶活性、总抗氧化能力无显著变化(P>0.05),第16天显著升高(P<0.05),第32天显著降低(P<0.05);第8、16、24天血清丙二醛含量无显著变化(P>0.05),第32天显著升高(P<0.05);第24天和第32天黄嘌呤氧化酶活性有升高趋势(P>0.05).结果提示,饲喂高钙饲粮可导致青年蛋鸡发生长期腹泻,引起高血钙症,导致其机体内自由基的产生与清除的动态平衡遭到破坏,使自由基的产生远远超出清除能力.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of high calcium diet on nitric oxide (NO) concentration and antioxidant function of pullets. One hundred healthy pullets aged 35 days were randomly divided into 2 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 10 chickens per replicate. The pullets in different groups were fed normal calcium diet (control group, 1. 00% calcium) and high calcium diet (HC group, 3. 78% calcium) , respectively. Healthy situations of the pullets were inspected daily. NO concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enzymatic antioxidant activity in serum were detected on days 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 after feeding high calcium diet. The results showed as follows: 1) high calcium diet could cause diarrhea. Pullets would be hypercalcemia

  8. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.;

    2005-01-01

    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  9. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  10. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  11. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  12. The fecal bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  13. [Serum sterilization in the cold with peracetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:987107

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  15. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  16. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State

    OpenAIRE

    Hensel, Andreas

    1994-01-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  17. Mycophagous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy&r

  18. Antimicrobial activity, improved cell selectivity and mode of action of short PMAP-36-derived peptides against bacteria and Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yinfeng; Yang, Yang; Lyu, Xiting; Dong, Na; Shan, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as promising antibiotic candidates, but some obstacles such as toxicity and high synthesis cost must be addressed before developing them further. For developing short peptides with improved cell selectivity, we designed a series of modified PMAP-36 analogues. Antimicrobial assays showed that decreasing chain length in a certain range retained the high antimicrobial activity of the parental peptide and reduced hemolysis. The 18-mer peptide RI18 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, and its hemolytic activity was observably lower than PMAP-36 and melittin. The selectivity indexes of RI18 against bacteria and fungi were improved approximately 19-fold and 108-fold, respectively, compared to PMAP-36. In addition, serum did not affect the antibacterial activity of RI18 against E. coli but inhibited the antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy observation revealed that RI18 killed microbial cells primarily by damaging membrane integrity, leading to whole cell lysis. Taken together, these results suggest that RI18 has potential for further therapeutic research against frequently-encountered bacteria and fungi. Meanwhile, modification of AMPs is a promising strategy for developing novel antimicrobials to overcome drug-resistance. PMID:27251456

  19. High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    K.A. Miranda; L.R.S. Vasconcelos; L.C.B.B. Coelho; J.L. Lima Filho; M. S. M. Cavalcanti; Moura, P.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified human spleen ferritin was labelled with 125I. On Sepharose 6-B gel filtration four species of labelled products were separated: a component with a higher molecular weight than ferritin; a component which is eluted in the same volume as unlabelled ferritin; and two labelled compounds with molecular weights lower than ferritin. When these labelled materials were used in a double antibody radioimmunoassay, the higher molecular weight fraction showed variable and high non-specific binding and was poorly displaced by unlabelled ferritin; the fraction behaving like true ferritin gave good standard curves and showed non-specific binding of less than 1%. The remaining two components showed poor binding to rabbit antiferritin. Using labelled material from the second fraction, a double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring 2μg ferritin protein/litre of serum was developed. Inter-and intra-assay variation was between 3% and 8% over a concentration range of 0 to 250 μg ferritin protein/litre. Good agreement between serum ferritin levels assayed by the present method and by an immunoradiometric method was obtained. Labelled ferritin was stable for at least six weeks. The simplicity of the methodology makes it possible to assay serum ferritin in large batches. (author)

  1. Radioimmunoassay for serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development and evaluation of a serum ferritin radioimmunoassay, in which 125I-labeled ferritin and rabbit anti-ferritin antibody are used. Goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin antibody, together with polyethylene glycol, is used as the separating reagent. The assay has a working range up to 500 μg of ferritin per litre, and a sample requirement of 75 μl of serum for assay at two dilutions. The assay requires 24 h. It has a sensitivity of 1.5 μg of ferritin per litre and a long-term precision (CV) of 13%. Reference intervals for a population of men were 18 to 330 μg/litre, with no marked age dependence, while those for a population of women older than 50 years were 18 to 200 μg/litre. Many apparently healthy women in the 20 to 50 year age group have much lower concentrations. Serum ferritin concentrations of <18 μg/litre are indicative of iron deficiency, defined as the absence of stainable iron in an aspirate of bone marrow

  2. DO AUTOCHTHONOUS BACTERIA AFFECT GIARDIA CYST SURVIVAL IN NATURAL WATERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia survives in and is transmitted to susceptible human and animal populations via water, where it is present in an environmentally resistant cyst form. Previous research has highlighted the importance of water temperature in cyst survival, and has also suggested the ...

  3. Low-normal free thyroxine confers decreased serum bilirubin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bilirubin may confer cardiovascular protection because of its strong antioxidative properties. Both thyroid dysfunction and the diabetic state affect bilirubin metabolism. Here we tested whether low-normal thyroid function affects serum bilirubin among euthyroid subjects with and without

  4. 饲粮缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响%Dietary Valine Level Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代腊; 顾林英; 朱巧明; 朱莎; 张爱婷; 邹晓庭; 胡彩虹

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary valine level on the performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in laying hens, and to explore the optimal valine level in the diet of laying hens. A total of 720 Hy-Line variety Brown laying hens aged 40 weeks were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 36 hens per replicate. Valine was added to a basal diet to obtain the valine level at 0. 6% , 0. 7% , 0. 8% , 0. 9% and 1. 0% , respectively, and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) although supplementing the diet with valine did not affect the laying rate, average egg weight and average daily egg weight (P >0. 05) , the average daily feed intake in 1.0% group and the feed/egg ratio in 0. 8% group were significantly lower than those in the other groups (P 0. 05) , but the eggshell strength in 0. 8% group was higher and the protein content in egg white in 1.0% group was lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05 or P<0.10);3) serum glucose content in 0. 8% group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0. 05) , and the contents of urea nitrogen and uric acid in serum were higher and serum total ami-no acid content in 0. 8% group was lower compared with the other group (P<0.10);4) based on the feed/ egg ratio, the eggshell strength and serum albumen content, the optimal valine levels in diets of laying hens in the laying peak period were 0. 78% , 0. 81% and 0. 75% , respectively, when the levels of crude protein, ly-sine and metabolizable energy were set at 15. 81% , 0. 77% and 11. 31 MJ/kg in diets. The results suggest that supplementing the diet with suitable valine level reduces feed/egg ratio, improve eggshell strength and serum glucose content.%本文旨在研究饲粮不同缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响,并探讨蛋鸡饲粮中缬氨酸的最适添加量.试验选用720只体重相近的40周龄的

  5. Rapamycin selectively alters serum chemistry in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Tabatabai-Mir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to explore the effect of rapamycin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. Seven-month-old diabetic db/db mice and their lean littermate non-diabetic controls (db/m were randomized to receive control chow or chow mixed with rapamycin (2.24 mg/kg/day (each group n =20, males and females for 4 months and sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for the measurement of glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and total protein, using the automated dry chemistry analysis. Rapamycin elevated serum glucose in female diabetic mice. Serum creatinine tended to be higher in diabetic mice but was not affected by rapamycin; there was no difference in BUN levels among the groups. Serum ALP was elevated in diabetic mice and rapamycin lowered it only in female diabetic mice; serum ALT levels were increased in female diabetic mice, unaffected by rapamycin. Serum total protein was elevated in diabetic mice of both genders but was not affected by rapamycin. Diabetic mice from both genders had elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides; rapamycin did not affect serum cholesterol but decreased serum total triglycerides in male diabetic mice. We conclude that rapamycin elicits complex metabolic responses in aging diabetic mice, worsening hyperglycemia in females but improving ALP in female diabetic and total triglycerides in male diabetic mice, respectively. The metabolic effects of rapamycin should be considered while performing studies with rapamycin in mice.

  6. Carriage of ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamases) - producing bacteria - knowledge, emotional impact and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, have become a growing public health threat. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore how the increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria affects different groups among the Swedish population. Paper I described the knowledge and understanding of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and of the risk of becoming a carrier of such bacteria, among ninety-five Swedish travelers before travel to high-risk areas. A questionn...

  7. Can bacteria save the planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria might just hold the key to preserving the environment for our great grandchildren. Philip Hunter explores some of the novel ways in which systems biology and biotechnology are harnessing bacteria to produce renewable energy and clean up pollution.

  8. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobac ter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Methods: Serum soluble antigen of H. p ylor i was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H. pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test ( RUT ), histo logi c examination and serology. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive pred ictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46%, 91.07%, 91.67% a nd 76.12 %, respectively. The prevalence rate of serum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergoing endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT met hods ( P>0.05 ). Conclusions: The detection of serum H. pylori solub le antigen( HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate, and convenie nt, not affected by the memorizing reaction of serum antibody; is more sensitive , m ore specific and suitable for clinical diagnosis, and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H. pylori as well as for detection in children and pre gnant women.

  9. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  10. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  11. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  12. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  13. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  14. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    proliferation of the NK cells and induced IFN-gamma production, both to levels comparable to PHA stimulation. The proliferative response was further enhanced when autologous monocytes were present, probably because cytokines secreted by monocytes having engulfed bacteria stimulated the growth of the NK cells...... antigen presenting cells and T-cells. Bacteria translocating across the gastrointestinal mucosa are presumed to gain access to NK cell compartments, as consumption of certain strains of lactic acid bacteria has been shown to increase in vivo NK cytotoxic activity. On-going research in our lab aims...... at describing strain-dependent effects of lactic acid bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon...

  16. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  17. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  18. Mitochondria: a target for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Elodie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Arnould, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells developed strategies to detect and eradicate infections. The innate immune system, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, relies on the recognition of molecular patterns conserved among pathogens. Pathogen associated molecular pattern binding to pattern recognition receptor triggers the activation of several signalling pathways leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state required to control the infection. In addition, pathogens evolved to subvert those responses (with passive and active strategies) allowing their entry and persistence in the host cells and tissues. Indeed, several bacteria actively manipulate immune system or interfere with the cell fate for their own benefit. One can imagine that bacterial effectors can potentially manipulate every single organelle in the cell. However, the multiple functions fulfilled by mitochondria especially their involvement in the regulation of innate immune response, make mitochondria a target of choice for bacterial pathogens as they are not only a key component of the central metabolism through ATP production and synthesis of various biomolecules but they also take part to cell signalling through ROS production and control of calcium homeostasis as well as the control of cell survival/programmed cell death. Furthermore, considering that mitochondria derived from an ancestral bacterial endosymbiosis, it is not surprising that a special connection does exist between this organelle and bacteria. In this review, we will discuss different mitochondrial functions that are affected during bacterial infection as well as different strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to subvert functions related to calcium homeostasis, maintenance of redox status and mitochondrial morphology.

  19. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability <0,01). Four euthyroid patients under estrogen treatment, 9 hypothyroid patients under l-thyroxine treatment, one hyperthyroid patient under antithyroid drugs and one hyperthyroid patient under estrogen treatment, were studied. Total T4 and T3 values were in agreement with the variations of the serum protein transport capacity, and for that reason did not show the real thyroid function state. Clinical decision making analysis (with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves) indicate that FT4 is the best choice for hyperthyroidism diagnosis and T4 for hypothyroidism. Cost/benefit analysis indicates also that FT4 has the best ratio. (author)

  20. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  1. NSAID enteropathy and bacteria: a complicated relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syer, Stephanie D; Blackler, Rory W; Martin, Rebeca; de Palma, Giada; Rossi, Laura; Verdu, Elena; Bercik, Premek; Surette, Michael G; Aucouturier, Anne; Langella, Philippe; Wallace, John L

    2015-04-01

    The clinical significance of small intestinal damage caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remains under-appreciated. It occurs with greater frequency than the damage caused by these drugs in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but is much more difficult to diagnose and treat. Although the pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy remains incompletely understood, it is clear that bacteria, bile, and the enterohepatic circulation of NSAIDs are all important factors. However, they are also interrelated with one another. Bacterial enzymes can affect the cytotoxicity of bile and are essential for enterohepatic circulation of NSAIDs. Gram-negative bacteria appear to be particularly important in the pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy, possibly through release of endotoxin. Inhibitors of gastric acid secretion significantly aggravate NSAID enteropathy, and this effect is due to significant changes in the intestinal microbiome. Treatment with antibiotics can, in some circumstances, reduce the severity of NSAID enteropathy, but published results are inconsistent. Specific antibiotic-induced changes in the microbiota have not been causally linked to prevention of intestinal damage. Treatment with probiotics, particularly Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Faecalibacteriaum prausnitzii, has shown promising effects in animal models. Our studies suggest that these beneficial effects are due to colonization by the bacteria, rather than to products released by the bacteria.

  2. Filariasis and serum specific gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    "nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness.  According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following...

  3. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG in children with primary nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytokine system secreted by osteoblast, osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligand (OPGL regulates osteoclastogenesis. To determine the relation of the serum OPG levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS to the renal disease, we studied 30 patients with NS in comparison with 30 healthy children serving as controls. The study patients were divided into three equal groups: group 1 included newly diagnosed patients who were studied before and after a short course (one month of steroid therapy for the first time, group 2 included frequent relapsers (FR, and group 3 included infrequent relapsers (IFR. In addition to serum OPG (ELISA, osteocalcin (OC, parathormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and 24- hour urinary Ca and proteins were measured. The NS patients revealed a significantly lower serum OPG and parameters of bone formation (ALP and OC and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca than controls. A short course of glucocorticoids therapy for one month resulted in a significant decrease of serum OPG, ALP and OC levels and a significant increase of 24- hour urinary Ca, while serum PTH levels were not significantly affected by this the- rapy; the FR revealed a significantly lower serum level and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca and serum PTH than the IFR. OPG had significant negative correlations with markers of disease activity and severity (ESR, serum cholesterol, 24- hour urinary protein and cumulative steroid dose, PTH and 24- hour urinary Ca. On the other hand, OPG had significant positive correlations with ALP, OC, and serum albumin. Low serum OPG, which is attributed to the renal disease and/or steroid therapy, may be an important factor contributing to bone resorption in NS. Studies of the protective effect of OPG administration against bone loss in NS are warranted.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are compared of the determination of ferritin in the serum using the British made Ferritin RIA kit (Amersham) and the Hungarian 125I-Ferritin IRMA kit (Budapest). Ferritin was determined in the sera of healthy donors with a normal ferritin level and in sera of patients containing high concentrations of ferritin (leukemia, some hemolytic anemias, polytransfusion patients). The obtained results have shown that both kits were sufficiently sensitive for the determination of low ferritin concentrations. The British kit has a wider range than the Hungarian (0 - 1000 ng/ml of ferritin as against 0 - 100 ng/ml), which makes it unnecessary to dilute the examined sera several times as is the case with the Hungarian kit. The possible number of determinations of the British kit is higher than that of the Hungarian kit. (author)

  5. Nitrogen control in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, M J; Edwards, R A

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both utilization of extracellular nitrogen sources and intracellular biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. The control of this expression is determined by the availability of fixed nitrogen to the cell and is effected by complex regulatory networks involving regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. While the most detailed studies to date have been carried out with enteric bacteria, there is a considerable body of evidence to show that the nitrogen regulation (ntr) systems described in the enterics extend to many other genera. Furthermore, as the range of bacteria in which the phenomenon of nitrogen control is examined is being extended, new regulatory mechanisms are also being discovered. In this review, we have attempted to summarize recent research in prokaryotic nitrogen control; to show the ubiquity of the ntr system, at least in gram-negative organisms; and to identify those areas and groups of organisms about which there is much still to learn. PMID:8531888

  6. Chemical communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  7. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  8. 影响降解菌W2修复异噁草酮污染土壤的三种因子的优化%Optimization of three factors affecting clomazone degradation in contaminated soils by degrading bacteria W2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚光; 刘蕊; 唐广顺

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize the conditions for clomazone degradation in contaminated soils by degrading bacteria W2. [Method] Three factors affecting degradation rate were studied, including the soil moisture content,the amount of inoculation and fertilizer used. Based on the bioassay method, the degradation rates of bacteria W2 under different conditions were compared by using orthogonally rotational combination design. [Result] Mathematical regression model for clomazone degradation was established as follows: y= 62. 363 9 + 5. 872 8 × C1 —4.494 1 × C2 C3 — 1.262 1× C12 —4. 076 7 × C22. The results demonstrated that the significance order affecting degradation rate was: the soil moisture content, the amount of fertilize used and the amount of inoculation. [Conclusion] When the amount of inoculation ranged from 8.19 mL/kg to 11.81 mL/kg, soil moisture content ranged from 18.6% to 20.84%, and the amount of fertilizer used ranged from 1.83 g/kg to 2.52 g/kg, the degradation rate was above 60% in air-dried soils containing 500 μg/kg clomazone after 30 days, close to the highest degradation rate 65.56%.%[目的]确定降解菌W2对土壤中异噁草酮的最优生物修复条件.[方法]采用3因素5水平正交旋转组合设计,室外盆栽生物测定方法,研究降解菌W2接种量、土壤含水量和肥料添加量3种田间可控因子对降解菌W2修复异噁草酮污染土壤效果的影响.[结果]确定修复条件的优化数学回归模型为:y=62.3639+5.8728×C1-4.4941×C2C3-1.2621×C(2)1-4.0767×C(2)2,不同因子对土壤修复影响大小顺序依次为土壤含水量、肥料添加量、降解菌W2接种量.[结论]降解菌W2对土壤中异噁草酮的最优生物修复条件为:降解菌W2接种量8.19~11.81mL/㎏(A650=0.4),土壤含水量18.6%~20.84%,肥料添加量1.83~2.52g/㎏.在此范围内降解菌W2对异噁草酮有效成分浓度为500μg/㎏的风干土壤30d后的降解率可达60%以上,可接近

  9. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  10. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a cleanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  11. A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.

  12. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  13. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  14. Comparison of the serum sensitivity of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different diagnostic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vraneš,

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of serum caused by complement system is an important defence mechanism protecting the host organism against infection. The capacity to resist bactericidal activity of normal human serum contributes to the virulence of many gram-negative pathogens. Serum resistance in bacteria has been attributed to their surface components, but exact mechanism of resistance which most likely involves multiple factors is not well understood. In this study, the capacity of Escherichia coli to resist the bactericidal action of serum was examined in 85 clinical isolates obtained from patients with acute pyelonephritis (n=23, acute cystitis (n=22, chronic pyelonephritis (n=22 and asymptomatic bacteriuria (n=18. Serum sensitivity was also examined in relation to the serogroup specificity and expression of the different adhesins of the strains.Bacterial susceptibility to serum killing was measured by assessing regrowth after incubation in serum according to Schiller and Hatch method. The adhesins of E. coli were determined by hemagglutination and inhibition of hemagglutiation, and serotyping was performed on glass slides and confirmed using a mechanized microtechnique.The significant correlation between serum resistance of uropathogenic strains of E. coli and expression of P-fimbriae and O6 serogroup was observed.Theincidence of serum-resistant E. coli strains was significantly higher in strains isolated from urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis, as compared to strains isolated in other diagnostic groups, which is in accordance with higher virulence and invasive potential of these strains.

  15. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  16. Interaction between Chlorella vulgaris and bacteria:interference and resource competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Liang; WANG Renjun; ZHAO Peng; CHEN Ruinan; ZHOU Wenli; TANG Liuqing; TANG Xuexi

    2014-01-01

    Research of interaction mechanism between Chlorella vulgaris and two bacterial strains (Z-QD08 and Z-QS01) were conducted under laboratory conditions. Growth rates of bacteria and C. vulgaris were tested under co-culture conditions to evaluate the effects of concentrations of C. vulgaris and bacteria on their interactions. To test whether the availability of inorganic nutrients, vitamins and trace metals affects the interactions between C. vulgaris and bacteria, experiments were performed with or without the culture medium filtrate of C. vulgaris or bacteria. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was promot-ed at low concentrations of bacteria (5×106 cells/ml), and expressed a positive correlation with the bacteria density, whereas opposite trend was observed for treatments with high bacteria density (10×106 cells/ml and 20×106 cells/ml). The growth rate of bacteria decreased with the increasing concentrations of C. vul-garis. The growth of bacteria Z-QD08 was inhibited by C. vulgaris through interference competition, while the mechanism for interaction between bacteria Z-QS01 and C. vulgaris was resource competition. The influence of cell density on the interaction between microalgae and bacteria was also discussed. These ex-periments confirm some elements of published theory on interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and microalgae and suggest that heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the development of blooms in natural waters.

  17. Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.

    1980-10-01

    Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

  18. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  19. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.

  20. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  1. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  2. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  3. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  5. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger;

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study was to inve...

  6. Determinants of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B.A.A.; Molendijk, M.L.; Penninx, B.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B.M.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and plasticity of neurons in the adult central nervous system. The high correlation between cortical and serum BDNF levels has led to many human studies on BDNF levels i

  7. Determinants of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. J. W. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and plasticity of neurons in the adult central nervous system. The high correlation between cortical and serum BDNF levels has led to many human studies on BDNF levels i

  8. BARIUM SULPHATE ABSORPTION AND THE SERUM DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-02-01

    The so-called syphilitic antibodies can be removed from a serum by means of absorption with barium sulphate. The removal is due either to an adsorption or a mechanical absorption. The activity of the syphilitic antibodies is thereby unimpaired. The readiness with which the absorption is accomplished with barium sulphate varies considerably with different syphilitic sera. That barium sulphate exerts the same absorbing effect upon non-syphilitic serum components is made evident by the interfering property which the latter manifest in the absorption experiment of the syphilitic antibodies. The selective removal of the serum components, other than the syphilitic antibodies, by means of barium sulphate absorption is, therefore, impossible. On the other hand, a partial removal of these components, with but little removal of the syphilitic antibodies, may be effected when the content of a given serum is poor in syphilitic antibodies and comparatively rich in the indifferent serum components. But this is impossible if the conditions are reversed. The main reasons why some negative syphilitic sera may be so modified by the barium sulphate treatment as to give positive reactions, are explained below, but these apply only to those methods in which inactivated serum is employed. The inactivation reduces the antibody content to about one-fourth to one-fifth of the original. When the serum is very rich in antibodies, this does not affect the result of the fixation test. But when the amount of the antibodies is small, the process of inactivation creates conditions quite unexpected. It may produce such a condition that a given amount of the serum contains, after inactivation, only one or two antibody units, while the other serum components remain undiminished. Here one must not lose sight of the vital fact that these apparently indifferent serum constituents are not at all indifferent in the fixation processes. They may possess affinities which are similar to those of complement

  9. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis. Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria.

  10. Serum Survivin Increases in Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Gorar, Suheyla; Ademoglu, Esranur; Candan, Zehra; Bekdemir, Handan; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Kaya, Fatih Oner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolactinoma is the most common adult pituitary adenoma. Survivin is a member of the family of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Its expression is observed in many tumors. Survivin expression has shown in prolactinoma tissue before but no study exists showing serum survivin level. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum survivin levels in patients with prolactinoma and demonstrate its value in diagnosis of the disease. Methods The group of patients consisted of 25 wom...

  11. Serum Ferritin in Thalassemia Intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ravi; Trehan, Amita; Das, Reena; R K Marwaha

    2013-01-01

    Serum ferritin is a useful monitoring tool for iron overload in thalassemia major. In resource poor settings access to modalities for assessment of iron overload are limited. This study was undertaken to assess the efficiency and usefulness of serum ferritin level in thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients. This was a cross sectional observational study. Seventy seven TI patients attending the pediatric hematology clinic were included. Fasting blood sample was taken from each patient in iron fre...

  12. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  13. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  14. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  15. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  16. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Cong eDai; Wei eFu; Ling-Yun eWan; Hong-Hong eCai; Ning eWang; Shanshan eQi; Daolin eDu

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria,...

  17. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  18. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  19. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  20. Antimicrobial Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Common Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammaddoost Chakoosari ( Msc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics are living microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the health of digestive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial ability of acidic and neutral supernatants (culture supernatant of lactic acid bacteria against common bacterial pathogens. Methods: Four species of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC1745, Lactobacillus PTCC1608, Lactobacillus Saki PTCC1712 and Lactobacillus Lactis PTCC1336 were obtained from the microbial collection of Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology in Lyophilized form. The antimicrobial activity of neutral and acidic supernatants against bacterial pathogens was investigated using the Disk and Well Diffusion Agar methods. Results: Lactic acid bacteria showed good antimicrobial ability against six pathogenic bacteria with the highest inhibitory effect observed in Lactococcus lactis against E. coli PTCC1399 through well method with an average diameter of 14 mm inhibition zone. In this study, the well diffusion method was far more sensitive compared to the disk method and acidic supernatants showed higher antimicrobial efficiency compared to neutral types. Conclusion: the Metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria are able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that can be an important and practical solution for the prevention and treatment of infections and ultimately improve human health. Keywords: Lactobacillus; Lactococcus; Probiotic; Antibacterial

  1. Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; Hordijk, C.; Gerards, S.; Boer, de W.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacteri

  2. Screening of aspartate dehydrogenase of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shoko; Okamura, Tokumitsu; Yasumasa, Izumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 12 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NAD^+. Four strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 7 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NADP^+. Seven strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 4 strains of bacteria cultured und...

  3. Hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A

    1991-10-01

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were measured. Sex and age (adult versus juvenile) of rabbit as well as season (June to September versus October to May) and method of capture (trap versus shot) variously affected most hematology and serum chemistry variables. PMID:1758030

  4. Recent advances in maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Geralyn M; Canick, Jacob A

    2002-12-01

    For the past 15 years, addition of serum markers to screening for Down syndrome has enhanced the ability to identify affected pregnancies. During the 1990s, incremental improvements in screening have been tested and implemented, first with the addition of a fourth biochemical marker, inhibin A, to second trimester screening protocols, and second with the development of combined first trimester serum and ultrasound screening. With the new century, we are on the verge of a major breakthrough in the performance of prenatal screening for Down syndrome, with the opportunity to spare almost all pregnant women the risk of amniocentesis and CVS, yet attain levels of detection approaching 90%. PMID:12593353

  5. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  6. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD.

  7. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD. PMID:24598882

  8. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Bacteria and fungi in source and treated drinking water This dataset is associated with the following publication: King , D., S. Pfaller , M. Donohue , S. Vesper ,...

  9. Effect of Selected Polysaccharide-Producing Soil Bacteria on Hyperhydricity Control in Oregano Tissue Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, K.; Shetty, K

    1997-01-01

    Hyperhydricity, or vitrification, is a physiological malformation affecting tissue culture-generated plants. This malformation is associated with excessive hydration and poor lignification and results in poor regeneration of plants. We have tested hyperhydricity prevention in oregano by several nonspecific polysaccharide-producing rhizosphere bacteria. Among these bacteria, Pseudomonas mucidolens and another Pseudomonas sp. prevented hyperhydricity and improved acclimation of oregano clones. ...

  10. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station; Bacteria, unos inquilinos permanentes de la estacion espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, B.

    2015-07-01

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a {sup c}leanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  11. Adherention ability of intestinal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Morgensternová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide positive health benefits. Bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium belong to this group. These bacteria have to meet a number of criteria so that they could be considered for probiotic. These include the ability to survive, grow, and be metabolically active in the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. Probiotics protect the intestinal mucus from the adhesion of pathogenic organisms. The aim of this thesis was to test the ability of different ...

  12. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.;

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  13. A comparative effect of 3 disinfectants on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide, chlorine and their mixture on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in circulating cooling water was studied. The results of the test indicated that high purity chlorine dioxide was the most effective biocide in the 3 disinfectants, and with a dosage of 0.5mg/L, chlorine dioxide could obtain perfect effect. High purity chloride dioxide could have the excellent effect with the pH value of 6 to 10, and could keep it within 72 h. Chlorine and their mixture couldn't reach the effect of chlorine dioxide.

  14. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlage, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Youngblood, T. [Frisby Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States); Lamothe, D. [American Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States). Ordnance/Explosives Environmental Services Div.

    1998-04-01

    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

  15. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  16. Determination Melatonin in Serum of Kurdish Horses by HPLC in Kermanshah Region at Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Arabi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum concentration of melatonin of Kurdish horses Kermanshah region at breeding season (February to June of 2010. Blood samples from jugular vein of 40 Kurdish horses were collected. Serum was harvested from these blood samples by centrifugation. After preparation and derivation of serums for HPLC assay, samples were injected to HPLC column and melatonin was measured by area under curve based on standard curve of melatonin. The mean (±S.E of serum melatonin was determined 63.23±9.51 pg/mL. The concentration of serum melatonin of mares was nearly 2 times than stallions and significantly differed (p = 0.01. Thus serum melatonin related to breed of horses and may affect reproductive activity in different breed and geographical region.

  17. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation with human serum from oxidant-challenged individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Hoffer; T Machamid; A Tabak; Y Baum; A Tamir; Y Lerman

    2003-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that stimulated superoxide production from PMN was inhibited ( < 0.05) by serum from young smokers as compared to that of young nonsmokers, both from the unexposed group. Incubation of PMN with serum from elderly nonsmoking individuals decreased superoxide production as compared to incubation with serum from young nonsmoking individuals, both from the unexposed group. A decrease in superoxide production by incubation with serum of welders as compared to that of unexposed individuals was significant only when the comparison was carried out between the young, non-smoking subgroups. These findings suggest that age, smoking, and exposure to oxidants induce appearance in serum of factors that affect the PMN function.

  18. Effect of sodium valproate on phenobarbital serum levels in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Gatta, M R; Alonso Gonzalez, A C; Garcia Sanchez, M J; Dominguez-Gil Hurle, A; Santos Borbujo, J; Monzon Corral, L

    1986-01-01

    The influence of sodium valproate on serum levels of phenobarbital during combination treatment was studied in 29 children and 50 adults with epilepsy. Steady-state drug levels in serum were determined immediately prior to drug administration using immunoenzymatic analysis. The serum level/dose ratio of phenobarbital increased significantly (p less than 0.001) when sodium valproate was added to the treatment. The increase had a mean value of 50.9% in adults and 112.5% in children, suggesting marked interindividual variability in the intensity of the interaction. Almost half of the patients required a decrease in the dose of phenobarbital prescribed. The interaction was more pronounced in patients with high serum levels of phenobarbital, while the dose of phenobarbital and the serum levels and dose of sodium valproate did not seem to affect the extent of the interaction. Close monitoring of the serum levels of phenobarbital is recommended during simultaneous treatment with sodium valproate. PMID:3103264

  19. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  20. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  1. Isolation and Identification of Concrete Environment Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, J. M.; Anneza, L. H.; Othman, N.; Husnul, T.; Alshalif, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the isolation and molecular method for bacteria identification through PCR and DNA sequencing. Identification of the bacteria species is required in order to fully utilize the bacterium capability for precipitation of calcium carbonate in concrete. This process is to enable the addition of suitable catalyst according to the bacterium enzymatic pathway that is known through the bacteria species used. The objective of this study is to isolate, enriched and identify the bacteria species. The bacteria in this study was isolated from fresh urine and acid mine drainage water, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Enrichment of the isolated bacteria was conducted to ensure the bacteria survivability in concrete. The identification of bacteria species was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rRDNA sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of the bacteria was done successfully. Whereas, the results for bacteria identification showed that the isolated bacteria strains are Bacillus sp and Enterococus faecalis.

  2. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical

  3. 夹层杯集菌离心涂片法检测抗酸杆菌及影响检出率的因素分析%Detection of Acid-fast Bacilli by Sandwich Cup Collecting Bacteria and Smear method and Analysis of Factors Affecting the Detection Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志斌; 张吉波; 雷鸣; 孙庆华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of sandwich cup collecting bacteria and smear method (sandwich cup method) in detecting acid- fast bacilli and to explore the factors affecting the detection rate of the acid - fast bacilli in sputum specimens. Methods Sputum specimens of 735 inpatients with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis were collected. Sputum specimens of each patient included morning sputum, night sputum and random sputum. Each sputum specimen was subjected to sandwich cup method and improved Lowenstein Jensen culture (L - J culture). The positive detection rates of acid - fast bacilli were compared between the two detection methods and among sputum specimens of different natures and collected at different time. Results The positive rates of the sandwich cup method and the L - J culture in 2,205 sputum specimens were 28.9 % and 32.1% respectively, which were significantly different(χ2 =54.744,P<0.001). Having the L-J culture as the standard method, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the sandwich cup method were 89.39 %, 99.53 %, 98.90 % and 95.21 %, respectively. The detection rates of acid - fast bacilli by the sandwich cup method in purulent sputum, bloody sputum, mucous sputum and saliva were 53. 3%,48.5%,9.9% and 3. 7%, respectively. TheL —J culture also had the highest detection rate in purulent sputum(54. 8%), followed by bloody sputum(51. 3%), mucous sputum (13.5%)and saliva (8.8%). For sputum samples collected at different time, the detection rates by both methods were the highest in the morning sputum. Conclusions Sandwich cup collecting bacteria and smear method is simple, time- saving, with high detection rate and more favorable to be standardized. It shows a good coincidence with the L- J culture. It can be used as a valuable detection method for acid- fast bacillus and can be popularized. Both methods have high detection rates in morning sputum, purulent sputum and bloody sputum

  4. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  5. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  6. Sensitivity of ice-nucleating bacteria to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the ice-nucleating activity of the ice-nucleating bacteria was examined. Bacterial suspension was irradiated with UV (254 nm, 6Wx2) for 5 min at a distance of 20 cm from UV source. Although no viable cells were detected, the ice-nucreating activity of the cells was not affected. Furthermore, after UV irradiation for 3 hr, the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae was only slightly decreased, although that of P. viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola was significantly lowered. We succeeded in killing the ice-nucleating bacteria, while retaining their ice-nucleating activity with UV irradiation. (author)

  7. Sensitivity of ice-nucleating bacteria to ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Hitoshi; Tanahashi, Shinji; Kawahara, Hidehisa (Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the ice-nucleating activity of the ice-nucleating bacteria was examined. Bacterial suspension was irradiated with UV (254 nm, 6Wx2) for 5 min at a distance of 20 cm from UV source. Although no viable cells were detected, the ice-nucreating activity of the cells was not affected. Furthermore, after UV irradiation for 3 hr, the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae was only slightly decreased, although that of P. viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola was significantly lowered. We succeeded in killing the ice-nucleating bacteria, while retaining their ice-nucleating activity with UV irradiation. (author).

  8. Obesity and NAFLD: the role of bacteria and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    There are trillions of microorganisms in the human intestine collectively called gut microbiota. Obesity may be affected by the gut microbiota through energy harvesting and fat storage by the bacteria. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is also responsible for endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and its consequences including obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Relationship between gut microbiota and NAFLD is also dependent on altered choline and bile acid metabolism and endogenous alcohol production by gut bacteria. Further evidence linking gut microbiota with obesity and NAFLD comes from studies showing usefulness of probiotics in animals and patients with NAFLD. This article reviews the relationship among gut microbiota, obesity, and NAFLD.

  9. The Relationship between Serum Cotinine Levels and Periodontal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad H. AL-Bayaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Smoking plays a significant role in the development of periodontal disease. Quantitative relation between smoking and increased severity of periodontal disease, by means of biochemical marker has not been described in Malaysian population. The present study was designed to apply serum cotinine measurement as a quantitative method to evaluate smoking levels in Malaysian patients and to correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Approach: The study group consisted of 80 healthy individuals (20-64 year, Current Smokers 26, Non Smokers 27 and Former Smokers 27. The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire including the demographic, socioeconomic status, medical history and history of cigarette smoking. The periodontal variables recorded were amount of Visible Plaque score, gingival bleeding Index and community periodontal index. Samples of blood “10 mL” were obtained in vacutainer tubes containing EDTA for quantitative analysis of serum levels of cotinine. The serum samples were analyzed for cotinine content by means of a competitive-inhibition ELISA technique. Results: Current smokers represent the highest mean cotinine serum level, 95.5 ng mL-1, compared to former smokers, 35.5 ng mL-1 and non smokers, 22.9 ng mL-1. The mean serum cotinine level in periodontally healthy patient showed the highest cotinine level (84 ng mL-1 followed by the gingivitis patients (68 ng mL-1 and (50 ng mL-1 for periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The present observations clearly indicate an association between smoking, periodontal disease clinical parameters “plaque, gingival bleeding scores” and cotinine serum levels in current smokers. Cotinine serum levels doesn’t affected by the existence or the severity of periodontal disease.

  10. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  11. 缺氧缺血脑病足月新生儿禁食时间对血肌酐与血胱抑素水平变化的影响%Affect of fasting time of term neonates With hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of serum creatinine and cystatin levels in the blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文宝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness of fasting time on serum creatinine and serum cystatin levels in the full—term newbo-creatinine and serum cystatin levels of the child were detected. Fasted 3 hours,24 hours,48 hours,one hour before eating and after eating 48 hours of serum creatinine and cystatin levels of cases group were detected,in the meantime,other forms of treatment remained the same,not to choose effect on jidney's drugs. Results Compared serum creatinine levels:cases group and control group( t=7. 72,P0. 05). Conclusion The full—term newborns with hypoxic—ischemic encephalopathy fasting for a long time,might elevate the levels of serum creatinine and serum cysta-tin. In the case of the clinical condition permitted,shorten fasting time.%目的:探究足月新生儿在缺氧缺血脑病状态下,禁食时间长短对血肌酐和血胱抑素水平的影响情况。方法:将所观察的80例足月新生儿依据病史、症状和体征分为病例组与对照组。检测收治6 h内血肌酐和血胱抑素水平。检测病例组禁食3 h、24 h、48 h和进食前1 h及进食后48 h的血肌酐和血胱抑素水平,在此期间,其他治疗方式保持不变,未选用对肾脏有影响的药品。结果:血肌酐水平比较:病例组与对照组(t=7.72,P<0.0001),病例组禁食3 h与禁食24 h、48 h(F=4.09,P=0.0249),病例组进食前1 h与进食后48 h(t=8.50,P<0.0001),差异均有统计学意义。血胱抑素水平比较:病例组与对照组,差异有统计学意义(t=3.37,P=0.0012),病例组进食前1 h与进食后48 h(t=1.98,P=0.0545)与病例组禁食3 h与禁食24 h、48 h(F=2.51,P=0.0949),差异均无统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:缺氧缺血脑病足月新生儿禁食时间过长可能引起血肌酐、血胱抑素水平升高,建议在临床病情容许的情况下,缩短禁食时间。

  12. Effects of molecular structural variants on serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 levels in sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemura Masahiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6, which is classified as human mucin-1 (MUC1, is used as a marker of sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases. However, there remain some limitations due to a lack of information on the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6. This study was designed to investigate the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6 by molecular analysis. Methods Western blot analysis using anti-KL-6 antibody was performed simultaneously on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum obtained from 128 subjects with sarcoidosis. Results KL-6/MUC1 in BALF showed three bands and five band patterns. These band patterns were associated with the MUC1 genotype and the KL-6 levels. KL-6/MUC1 band patterns in serum were dependent on molecular size class in BALF. Significantly increased levels of serum KL-6, serum/BALF KL-6 ratio and serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor were observed in the subjects with influx of high molecular size KL-6/MUC1 from the alveoli to blood circulation. The multivariate linear regression analysis involving potentially relevant variables such as age, gender, smoking status, lung parenchymal involvement based on radiographical stage and molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum showed that the molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum was significant independent determinant of serum KL-6 levels. Conclusions The molecular structural variants of KL-6/MUC1 and its leakage behavior affect serum levels of KL-6 in sarcoidosis. This information may assist in the interpretation of serum KL-6 levels in sarcoidosis.

  13. Role of interleukin-1 in augmenting serum neutralization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Riveau, G R; Novitsky, T J; Roslansky, P F; Dinarello, C A; Warren, H S

    1987-01-01

    We have previously described an assay to quantify the serum neutralization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide which is based on a spectrophotometric Limulus amoebocyte lysate test (T.J. Novitsky, P.F. Roslansky, G.R. Siber, and H.S. Warren, J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:211-216, 1985). Studies since have shown that serum samples drawn from patients with leukemia and fever, gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial infections, or shock caused by gram-negative bacteria neutralize approximately 10-fold mor...

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...

  15. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  16. The interaction pattern of murine serum ficolin-A with microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Ma, Ying Jie; Munthe-Fog, Lea;

    2012-01-01

    microorganisms (N = 45) and compared the binding profile with human serum ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. Ficolin-A was able to bind Gram-positive bacteria strains including E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes and some S. aureus strains, but not to the investigated S. agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) strains. Regarding...... Gram-negative bacteria ficolin-A was able to bind to some E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains, but not to the investigated Salmonella strains. Of particular interest ficolin-A bound strongly to the pathogenic E. coli, O157:H7 and O149 strains, but it did not bind to the non-pathogenic E. coli, ATCC 25922...

  17. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  19. Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition response to bacteria-containing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, J M; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Faye, I

    2008-09-01

    In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae mosquito colony with the focus on spiked breeding sites as a possible means of introducing bacteria to mosquitoes. A Pantoea stewartii strain, previously isolated from An. gambiae, marked with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was introduced to mosquitoes in different life stages. The following life stages or older mosquitoes in the case of adults were screened for bacteria in their guts. In addition to P. stewartii other bacteria were isolated from the guts: these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Bacteria were transferred from larvae to pupae but not from pupae to adults. The mosquitoes were able to take up bacteria from the water they emerged from and transfer the same bacteria to the water they laid eggs in. Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was more often isolated from adult mosquitoes than P. stewartii. A bioassay was used to examine An. gambiae oviposition responses towards bacteria-containing solutions. The volatiles emitted from the solutions were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. P. stewartii but not E. meningoseptica mediated a positive oviposition response. The volatiles emitted by P. stewartii include indole and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which previously have been shown to affect An. gambiae mosquito behaviour. E. meningoseptica emitted indole but not 3-methyl-1-butanol, when suspended in saline. Taken together, this indicates that it may be possible to create attractive breeding sites for distribution of genetically modified bacteria in the

  20. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015

  1. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  2. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  3. Label-free optical detection of bacteria on a 1-D photonic crystal of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Alvarez, Sara D.; Rang, Camilla U.; Chao, Lin; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of a specific, label-free, bacteria biosensor using porous silicon 1-D photonic crystals will be described. Bacteria resident on the surface of porous silicon act as scattering centers for light resonant with the photonic crystal; the diffusely scattered light possesses the optical spectrum of the underlying photonic crystal. Using a spectrometer fitted to a light microscope, the bacteria are imaged without using exogenous dyes or labels and are quantified by measuring the intensity of scattered light. In order to selectively bind and identify bacteria using porous Si, we use surface modifications to reduce nonspecific binding to the surface and to engineer bacteria specificity onto the surface. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed to the porous Si surface to reduce nonspecific binding of bacteria. The coatings were then chemically activated to immobilize polyclonal antibodies specific to Escherichia coli. Two E. coli strains were used in our study, E. coli DH5α and non-pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strain. The nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain was used to test for antibody specificity. Successful attachment of antibodies was measured using fluorescence microscopy and the scattering method was used to test for bacteria binding specificity.

  4. Adaptation, Bacteria and Maxwell's Demons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galajda, Peter; Keymer, Juan E.; Austin, Robert H.

    2007-03-01

    We propose a method to study the adaptation of bacterial populations with an asymmetric wall of Maxwell Demon openings. A Maxwell Demon opening is a funnel which is easier to enter than to leave. The interaction of swimming cells with such a Maxwell Demon Wall results in a population density separation, in apparent (but not real) violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, as we will show. Bacteria can be exposed to spatial challenges in order to move to e. g. higher food levels. The question we address in these experiments is: do the bacteria adapt and overcome the Maxwell Demon Wall?

  5. Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-01-01

    The use of sourdough improves the quality and increases the shelf life of bread. The positive effects are associated with metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation, including organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), and enzymes. EPS formed during sourdough fermentation by glycansucrase activity from sucrose influence the viscoelastic properties of the dough and beneficially affect the texture and shelf life (in particular, starch retrogradation) of bread. Accordingly, EPS have the potential to replace hydrocolloids currently used as bread improvers and meet so the consumer demands for a reduced use of food additives. In this review, the current knowledge about the functional aspects of EPS formation by sourdough LAB especially in baking applications is summarized.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TOFU PRODUCTION METHOD WITH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Zielińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a production method for tofu with probiotic bacteria under laboratory conditions. The works included: selection of a strain and tofu production conditions, and a storage test of the manufactured product. It was concluded that the sensory quality of tofu with the addition of different probiotic cultures did not differ significantly (p>0.01, depending on used strains and their mixtures, and the sample quality was comparable to the commercial product. It was observed that the number of Lactobacillus bacteria in study samples was the factor determining the palatability of tofu (r= 0.75. On the other hand, the sensory quality of products was significantly affected by the production method of tofu with the addition of probiotic bacteria. It was concluded that the formation of curds from soy beverage by the addition of CaSO4, followed by inoculation with Lactobacillus casei ŁOCK 0900 at the amount of 9.26 log CFU/g and incubation at temp. of 37C for 2h as well as for 20h are methods recommended for production tofu with regard to sensory qualities of the final product among all tested methods. The number of lactic acid bacteria in studied tofu samples was maintained at the high level (109-1010 CFU/g, and the number of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis BB-12 bacteria did not exceed 103 CFU/g, whereas the number of Lactobacillus bacteria was equal to 108-109 CFU/g. For the period of 15 days of storage of tofu with probiotic bacteria at the temperature of 4C the number of lactic acid bacteria was maintained at the constant level of approx. 109 CFU/g. It was concluded that it is possible to produce tofu with probiotic bacteria that has acceptable sensory characteristics and a high number of lactic acid bacteria, therefore the product could be considered as a functional one.

  7. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  8. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunov, O., E-mail: lunov@fzu.cz; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Jäger, A.; Dejneka, A. [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague 18221 (Czech Republic); Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K. [St. Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Syková, E. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Kubinová, Š. [Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague 18221 (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic)

    2015-02-02

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  9. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. PMID:26657897

  10. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Jäger, A.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.; Dejneka, A.

    2015-02-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained rat skin sections from plasma-treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy.

  11. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy

  12. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  14. Serum ferritin in liver and bone malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin concentration is increased during iron overload, however, during chronic infection and malignant diseases as well. In 383 patients with proven malignancy or suspicion of a malignant disease liver and/or bone scans were performed and serum ferritin was measured in addition. Although there exists a certain linkage between the tumorous disease and serum ferritin level, a definite correlation does not exist. Furthermore serum ferritin is not a measure to differentiate between infectious and malignant diseases. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  16. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  17. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  18. Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Randall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. Methods We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years and younger men (ages 18 to 35, as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above in our banked specimens. Results We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78, interleukin 7 (IL-7, p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β, platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10. We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon

  19. Cyclosporin A affects the level of anti-myelin basic protein in serum and myelinoclasis after rat brain trauma%环孢素A对大鼠脑损伤后髓鞘碱性蛋白抗体及继发性脱髓鞘病变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚建成; 李卫; 刘灵慧; 李虹; 陈善成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of cyclosporin A(CsA)on the level of anti-myelin basic protein(anti-MBP)in the serum and myelinoclasis in rat models after brain trauma.Methods Seventy-seven SD rats were randomized into blank control group(n=7),model group(n=35)and CsA-treated group(n=35).The 0.9% normal saline(5 mg/kg/d)was intraperitoneally injected into the model group and 5 mg/mL CsA(5 mg/kg/d)was injected into the CsA-treated group.Different time points(1,4,10,20 and 30 d)after the brain trauma,the MBP content and anti-MBP titer in the serum were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and the degree of myelinoclasis in the brain stem slices was assessed with Marchi's method.Results As compared with that in the blank control group,the MBP and Anti-MBP contents in the model group were significantly increased(P0.05).However,lower level of anti-MBP in the serum 1 d after the injury and degree of myelinoclasis in the brain stem 4 daRer the injury in the CsA-treated group were observed as compared with those in the model group(P0.05),而伤后1d开始Anti-MBP含量降低、伤后4 d开始变性髓鞘数量降低.差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Pearson相关分析显示CsA组与模型组大鼠血清Anti-MBP含量与脑干变性髓鞘的数量呈正相关关系(r=0.959,P=0.000).结论 CsA可以干预脑组织损伤后大鼠的免疫系统,在一定程度上可以减少Anti-MBP的产生、减轻大鼠继发性脑干脱髓鞘病变的程度.

  20. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins: A combined spectroscopic and computational investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Bijan Kumar Paul; Nitin Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the three CDs interact differently on the fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes of the serum albumins. However, fluorescence anisotropy and circular dichroism are not affected. Depending on their size, different CDs bind to the serum albumins in different positions, resulting in changes in the spectral behaviour of the proteins. Docking study suggests the probable binding sites of the three CDs with the proteins. Combined experimental and computational studies imply that sufficiently high concentration of CDs causes loosening of the rigid structures of these transport proteins, although their secondary structures remain intact. Thus, CDs are found to be safe for the serum proteins from the structural point of view.

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Soil Bacteria Richness, Composition, and Function in a Neotropical Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-01-01

    The high diversity of tree species has traditionally been considered an important controller of belowground processes in tropical rainforests. However, soil water availability and resources are also primary regulators of soil bacteria in many ecosystems. Separating the effects of these biotic and abiotic factors in the tropics is challenging because of their high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. To determine the drivers of tropical soil bacteria, we examined tree species effects using experimental tree monocultures and secondary forests at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. A randomized block design captured spatial variation and we sampled at four dates across two years to assess temporal variation. We measured bacteria richness, phylogenetic diversity, community composition, biomass, and functional potential. All bacteria parameters varied significantly across dates. In addition, bacteria richness and phylogenetic diversity were affected by the interaction of vegetation type and date, whereas bacteria community composition was affected by the interaction of vegetation type and block. Shifts in bacteria community richness and composition were unrelated to shifts in enzyme function, suggesting physiological overlap among taxa. Based on the observed temporal and spatial heterogeneity, our understanding of tropical soil bacteria will benefit from additional work to determine the optimal temporal and spatial scales for sampling. Understanding spatial and temporal variation will facilitate prediction of how tropical soil microbes will respond to future environmental change. PMID:27391450

  2. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  3. Genetics of Serum Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: The sac-1 Genetic Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Janne G.; Lee, Terrence J.; Guymon, Lawrence F.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1981-01-01

    A genetic locus affecting susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum has been designated sac-1. This locus was shown to be closely linked to, but not identical with, a second locus (designated nmp-2) that affects protein 1 of the outer membrane. The sac-1 locus could be linked to known antibiotic resistance markers on the gonococcal chromosome by genetic transformation.

  4. Dietary Fat Levels Affect Growth Performance, Body Fat Deposition and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Growing Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus)%饲粮脂肪水平对育成期蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿业业; 张铁涛; 张志强; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮脂肪水平对蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积及血清生化指标的影响.选取(55±5)日龄、体重相近的健康蓝狐64只,随机分成4组,每组8个重复,每个重复2只(公母各占1/2),分别饲喂脂肪水平为12%、26%、40%和54%的试验饲粮.预试期为10 d,正试期为156 d.结果表明,试验狐各阶段日增重随饲粮脂肪水平的增加呈现先升高再降低的趋势,而血脂、血糖及内脏脂肪率则呈逐渐升高的趋势.当脂肪水平达到54%时,试验狐的肝脂率和肝体指数均显著高于其他组(P<0.05).母狐血清生化指标与体脂沉积各性状的相关性比公狐高.血清甘油三酯和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平与肝脂率、肝体指数及内脏脂肪率呈显著正相关(P<0.05).经对蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积、血清生化指标综合分析得出,蓝狐具有较高的脂肪耐受性,但育成期蓝狐饲粮脂肪水平不宜超过40%,公狐以饲粮脂肪水平26%组,母狐以饲粮脂肪水平40%组生长最快.%The trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary fat levels on growth, body fat deposition, and serum biochemical parameters of growing blue foxes (Alopex lagopus). Based on age and initial body weight, a total of 64 blue foxes were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 2 foxes per replicate (half male and half female). Foxes in four groups were fed with experimental diets containing 12% , 26% , 40% or 54% fat, respectively. The experiment included an adaptation period for 10 days and a test period for 156 days. The results showed as follows; with the increasing dietary fat levels, daily gain weight of growing blue foxes was firstly increased and then decreased, while the contents of fat and glucose in serum and visceral fat percentage (VFP) were improved at different stages. When the dietary fat level was 54% , hepatic fat percentage (HFP) and hepatic somatic index (HIS) were significantly

  5. Efficacy of serum samples stored on filter paper for the detection of antibody to Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R M; Romero, E C

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microagglutination test (MAT) results in serum samples dried on filter paper and stored at different temperatures during 1day, 7days, 30days and 1year to determine the stability of sera antibody against leptospires. Serum samples collected onto filter paper for the detection of leptospires antibody was compared with MAT in a study of 300 serum samples from patients with suspected leptospirosis. Among 300 fresh serum samples analyzed by MAT 156 (52%) were positive and 144 (48%) negative. All the negative fresh serum samples were negative when dried on filter paper (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of MAT performed on dried serum samples was 100%. Storage on filter paper at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 and 7days did not affect the MAT titers. For up to 7days, 98.72% of dried serum samples had titers identical to those of the corresponding serum samples, and 1.18% of dried serum samples showed 1 dilution of difference. After a storage period of one month a prozone phenomenon was observed. After a storage period of one year all serum samples were negative. Serum samples collected onto filter paper are a convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:22960422

  6. Physico-chemical factors and bacteria in fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, X.; Xiuzheng, F.; Tongbing, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of pond water and mud samples show that nitrifying bacteria (including ammonifying bacteria, nitrite bacteria, nitrobacteria and denitrifying bacteria) are in general closely correlated with various physico-chemical factors, ammonifying bacteria are mainly correlated with dissolved oxygen; denitrifying bacteria are inversely correlated with phosphorus; nitrite bacteria are closely correlated with nitrites, nitrobacteria are inversely correlated with ammoniac nitrogen. The nitrifying ...

  7. Fast detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Salmo salar serum through MALDI-TOF-MS profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olate, Verónica R; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S; Soto, Alex; Araya, Macarena; Oyanedel, Sandra; Díaz, Verónica; Marchant, Vanessa; Rios-Momberg, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacteria known as the aetiological agent of the salmonid rickettsial syndrome and causes a high mortality in farmed salmonid fishes. Detection of P. salmonis in farmed fishes is based mainly on molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. These techniques are in most of the cases expensive and time consuming. In the search of new alternatives to detect the presence of P. salmonis in salmonid fishes, this work proposed the use of MALDI-TOF-MS to compare serum protein profiles from Salmo salar fish, including experimentally infected and non-infected fishes using principal component analysis (PCA). Samples were obtained from a controlled bioassay where S. salar was challenged with P. salmonis in a cohabitation model and classified according to the presence or absence of the bacteria by real time PCR analysis. MALDI spectra of the fish serum samples showed differences in its serum protein composition. These differences were corroborated with PCA analysis. The results demonstrated that the use of both MALDI-TOF-MS and PCA represents a useful tool to discriminate the fish status through the analysis of salmonid serum samples. PMID:26956387

  8. Development of a serum-free liquid medium for Bartonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria. PMID:26842394

  9. Effect of xylitol on growth of nasopharyngeal bacteria in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontiokari, T; Uhari, M.; Koskela, M.

    1995-01-01

    Xylitol is known to reduce caries by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. We hypothesized that xylitol could also affect the growth of other nasopharyngeal bacterial flora, which could be important when considering respiratory infections caused by these bacteria. We studied this in vitro by adding xylitol to the medium and observed that 1 and 5% xylitol reduced markedly the growth of alpha-hemolytic streptococci, including S. pneumoniae. It reduced slightly the growth of beta-hemoly...

  10. Bacteria and the Aging and Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dennis H.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded fundamental insights into evolutionarily conserved pathways and processes governing the physiology of aging. Recent studies suggest that interactions between C. elegans and its microbial environment may influence the aging and longevity of this simple host organism. Experimental evidence supports a role for bacteria in affecting longevity through distinct mechanisms—as a nutrient source, as a potential pathogen ...

  11. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  12. Serum levels of antimüllerian hormone in early maturing girls before, during, and after suppression with GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Anderson, Richard A;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH.......To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH....

  13. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  14. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer

    1995-01-01

    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

  15. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    CERN Document Server

    Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-01-01

    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

  16. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  17. Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Intrarenal Hemodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uedono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia has been reported to affect renal hemodynamics in rat models. We evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in humans, utilizing the plasma clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH and inulin (Cin. Methods: Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were assessed by simultaneous measurement of CPAH and Cin in 58 subjects. Of these, 19 subjects were planned to provide a kidney for transplantation; 26 had diabetes without proteinuria; and 13 had mild proteinuria. Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were calculated using Gomez`s formulae. Results: Cin was more than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 in all subjects. Serum uric acid levels correlated significantly with vascular resistance at the afferent arteriole (Ra (r = 0.354, p = 0.006 but not with that of the efferent arteriole (Re. Serum uric acid levels (β = 0.581, p = a after adjustment for several confounders (R2 = 0.518, p = Conclusions: These findings suggest, for the first time in humans, that higher serum uric acid levels are associated significantly with Ra in subjects with Cin > 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The increase in Ra in subjects with higher uric acid levels may be related to dysfunction of glomerular perfusion.

  18. Serum interleukin-6 and mean platelet volume in pediatric pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lilisari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In pneumonia, interleukin (IL-6 is released in response to inflammation. Interleukin-6 stimulates megakaryocyte maturation, leading to larger platelets being released into the circulation. Platelet size is measured as mean platelet volume (MPV. The MPV may also be affected by nutritional status and smoking.Objective To assess for a possible relationship between serum IL-6 concentration and MPV, including smoking and nutritional status as confounding factors, in children with pneumonia.Methods An analytic, observational study with cross-sectional design and consecutive sampling of children aged 2 to 59 months with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and two network hospitals. All patients underwent routine complete blood counts including MPV and measurement of serum IL-6 concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Regression linear analysis was used to assess the relationship between MPV and IL-6, passive smoking, and nutritional status.Results There were 67 patients enrolled in the study. Subjects’ mean serum IL-6 concentration was 49.3 (SD 78.3 pg/mL, and mean MPV was 9.2 (SD 0.9 fL. The regression model for MPV was 7.531 + 0.662 (passive smoking + 0.276 (weight per age + 0.009 (IL-6.Conclusion There was a relationship between IL-6 serum concentration and MPV in children with pneumonia.

  19. Serum interleukin-6 and mean platelet volume in pediatric pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lilisari,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In pneumonia, interleukin (IL-6 is released in response to inflammation. Interleukin-6 stimulates megakaryocyte maturation, leading to larger platelets being released into the circulation. Platelet size is measured as mean platelet volume (MPV. The MPV may also be affected by nutritional status and smoking. Objective To assess for a possible relationship between serum IL-6 concentration and MPV, including smoking and nutritional status as confounding factors, in children with pneumonia. Methods An analytic, observational study with cross-sectional design and consecutive sampling of children aged 2 to 59 months with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and two network hospitals. All patients underwent routine complete blood counts including MPV and measurement of serum IL-6 concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Regression linear analysis was used to assess the relationship between MPV and IL-6, passive smoking, and nutritional status. Results There were 67 patients enrolled in the study. Subjects’ mean serum IL-6 concentration was 49.3 (SD 78.3 pg/mL, and mean MPV was 9.2 (SD 0.9 fL. The regression model for MPV was 7.531 + 0.662 (passive smoking + 0.276 (weight per age + 0.009 (IL-6. Conclusion There was a relationship between IL-6 serum concentration and MPV in children with pneumonia.

  20. Serum digoxin concentrations in canine congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, A H; Bland-van den Berg, P; Kruse, M M; Tubbesing, U H; Berry, W L

    1989-03-01

    Digoxin was administered to dogs (n = 10) in congestive heart failure, at an oral dosage rate of 0.01 mg kg-1 lean body mass twice daily. Lean body mass was determined by reducing gross mass by the estimated degree of ascites and body fat. The dose was further adjusted for factors such as renal and hepatic function, the bioavailability of different formulations, and the size of the patient. Trough and peak serum digoxin concentrations were determined after 10 days of digitalisation, or when signs of toxicity became apparent. Serum digoxin concentrations in 6 of the 10 dogs were found to be partially or completely in the toxic or subtherapeutic range. This indicates that an oral digoxin dosage rate of 0.01 mg kg-1 lean body mass administered twice daily, even when adjusted appropriately for factors that affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, provides no more than a rough approximation of the precise dose required to provide serum digoxin concentrations within the therapeutic range. The observations also lend support to a recent recommendation that the digoxin dosage rate should be based on body surface area, although even when administered on this basis, serum digoxin concentrations outside of the therapeutic range could be anticipated. PMID:2724277

  1. Serum Vitamin D in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ahmed Bakry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is a common, recurrent, autoimmune hair disorder. It has been found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with many autoimmune diseases. Aims: The current study aimed to estimate serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in patients with AA. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 60 patients with AA and 60 age, gender, skin phototype, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects as a control group. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D were estimated using ELISA technique. Results: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower in AA cases when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001. The least values were significantly associated with alopecia totalis/universalis compared with patchy AA (P< 0.001 and ophiasis (P = 0.04. Severe AA showed significantly the lowest vitamin D levels compared with cases with mild (P = 0.002 and moderate disease (P = 0.03. A significant inverse correlation was found between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and age of the patients (r = −0.38; P = 0.03. There was no significant association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and gender, disease duration, disease recurrence, nail affection, duration of sun exposure/day, or positive family history of AA. Conclusion: AA patients have lower levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D than healthy subjects. More studies are required to assess the value of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of that disease.

  2. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  3. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, J

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bac...

  5. Impact of chronic kidney disease on serum tumor markers concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Hong-li; DONG Zhen-nan; WEN Xin-yu; GAO Jing; WANG Bo; TIAN Ya-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum tumor markers have always been of clinical importance in the diagnosis,monitoring disease progression and therapy efficacy for patients with malignant diseases.However,elevated serum tumor markers are found in some benign conditions,especially in chronic kidney disease (CKD).The elevation of them in CKD might cause confusion and misuse of these tumor markers.We conducted this retrospective study to investigate which of the five widely used tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (Cyfra21-1),squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) are affected markedly by CKD,in order to use them more effectively.Methods Serum tumor marker concentrations,biochemical,hematological parameters,and urinalysis were measured in CKD patients and healthy controls.The positive rate and median tumor markers' level in CKD patients and controls,and those in CKD patients stratified by CKD grade were compared using nonparametric rank tests.Correlation analysis of serum tumor markers and other parameters in CKD patients were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the important variables that caused elevated serum concentrations of these markers in CKD patients.Results The overall positive rates and serum concentrations of Cyfra21-1,SCC,CEA in CKD group were significantly higher than those in control group.Positive rate and serum concentrations of those tumor markers increased as kidney function decreased.Both univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis showed that the elevations of those tumor markers were not only associated with kidney function,but also with nutritional status.Conclusions Serum concentrations of Cyfra21-1,SCC,CEA are significantly influenced by kidney function,as well as nutritional status.Therefore,in clinical work,the indices of kidney function and nutritional

  6. Influence of the collection tube on metabolomic changes in serum and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bascón, M A; Priego-Capote, F; Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-04-01

    Major threats in metabolomics clinical research are biases in sampling and preparation of biological samples. Bias in sample collection is a frequently forgotten aspect responsible for uncontrolled errors in metabolomics analysis. There is a great diversity of blood collection tubes for sampling serum or plasma, which are widely used in metabolomics analysis. Most of the existing studies dealing with the influence of blood collection on metabolomics analysis have been restricted to comparison between plasma and serum. However, polymeric gel tubes, which are frequently proposed to accelerate the separation of serum and plasma, have not been studied. In the present research, samples of serum or plasma collected in polymeric gel tubes were compared with those taken in conventional tubes from a metabolomics perspective using an untargeted GC-TOF/MS approach. The main differences between serum and plasma collected in conventional tubes affected to critical pathways such as the citric acid cycle, metabolism of amino acids, fructose and mannose metabolism and that of glycerolipids, and pentose and glucuronate interconversion. On the other hand, the polymeric gel only promoted differences at the metabolite level in serum since no critical differences were observed between plasma collected with EDTA tubes and polymeric gel tubes. Thus, the main changes were attributable to serum collected in gel and affected to the metabolism of amino acids such as alanine, proline and threonine, the glycerolipids metabolism, and two primary metabolites such as aconitic acid and lactic acid. Therefore, these metabolite changes should be taken into account in planning an experimental protocol for metabolomics analysis.

  7. Compartmentalization of bacteria in microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Judith; Heunis, Tiaan; Harmzen, Elrika; Dicks, Leon M T; Meuldijk, Jan; Klumperman, Bert

    2014-12-18

    Lactobacillus plantarum strain 423 was encapsulated in hollow poly(organosiloxane) microcapsules by templating water-in-oil Pickering emulsion droplets via the interfacial reaction of alkylchlorosilanes. The bacteria were suspended in growth medium or buffer to protect the cells against pH changes during the interfacial reactions with alkylchlorosilanes. The results of this work open up novel avenues for the encapsulation of microbial cells.

  8. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Raimondi; Alberto Amaretti; Maddalena Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-typ...

  9. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Dennis A. Bazylinski

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aqu...

  10. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  11. Characterization of Mediterranean Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of motile prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and cosmopolitan in distribution. In this study, we collected magnetotactic bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable diversity of morphotypes was observed, including muiticellular types that seemed to differ from those previously found in North and South America. Another interesting organism was one with magnetosomes arranged in a six-stranded bundle which occupied one third of the cell width. The magnetosome bundle was evident even under optic microscopy. These cells were connected together and swam as a linear entire unit. Magnetosomes did not always align up to form a straight linear chain. A chain composed of rectangle magnetosomes bent at a position with an oval crystal. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the crystal at the pivotal position suggested uncompleted formation of the crystal. This is the first report of Mediterranean magnetotactic bacteria, which should be useful for studies of biogeochemical cycling and geohistory of the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Laser-Based Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous in our world. From our homes, to our work environment, to our own bodies, bacteria are the omnipresent although often unobserved companions to human life. Physicists are typically untroubled professionally by the presence of these bacteria, as their study usually falls safely outside the realm of our typical domain. In the…

  13. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in common that

  14. Drosophila lifespan enhancement by exogenous bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brummel, Ted; Ching, Alisa; Seroude, Laurent; Simon, Anne F.; Benzer, Seymour

    2004-01-01

    We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in different ways, indicating an interplay between bacteria and longevity-enhancing genes.

  15. Current strategies for improving food bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, O P; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in micro

  16. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Level Affects Performance, Eggshell Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens%共轭亚油酸对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋壳质量和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪兰; 石天虹; 井庆川; 阎佩佩; 魏祥法; 刘瑞亭

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the supplementation of conjugated linole-ic acid (CLA) on the performance, eggshell quality, and its mechanism. Four hundred and eighty healthy 40-week-old Hy-Line White laying hens with similar body weight and laying rate were divided randomly into 4 groups with 3 replicates per group and 40 birds in each replicate. The control diet had no CLA, and the experimental diets contained 0. 5% , 1.0% and 2.0% CLA, respectively. Eight weeks later, six of each group was slaughtered and the blood was collected to determine the contents of thiothyone ( T3) , tetraiodothyronine (T4) , cortisol, estradiol ( E2) , Ca2 + and Ps + , the alkaline phosphatase activity ( ALP) in serum, and the carnitine palmitoyltransterase (CPT- I ) activity in liver. The results showed as follows: 1) there was no significant difference in performance between the control group and experimental groups (P >0. 05). 2) Compared with the control group, the eggshell strength in experimental groups was significantly improved (P 0. 05). 3) The contents of T3, T4, cortisol and E2 in serum of laying hens in 2. 0% CLA group were significant higher than those in the other groups (P 0. 05) ; compared with the control group, the ALP activity in serum of laying hens in experimental groups was significantly increased (P <0. 05) except for 2.0% CLA group. 4) The CPT- I activity in liver of laying hens was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0. 05). It is concluded that 1.0% CLA can significantly increase serum ALP activity, and improve serum E2 content, so it can significantly improve the eggshell strength, furthermore, it has no bad effect on performance of layers.%为了研究共轭亚油酸(CLA)对蛋鸡生产性能和蛋壳质量的影响及机理,试验选用40周龄健康、体重和产蛋率相近的海兰白蛋鸡480只,采用单因素试验设计,随机分为4组,每组3个重复,每个重复40只,试验组分别添加0.5

  17. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-speciifc antigen (PSA) level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheryl K Lau; Maggie Guo; Jeannine A Viczko; Christopher T Naugler

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations(DREs), biopsies and serum prostate‑speciifc antigen(PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services(CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01January 2010 and 31March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  18. [Spectroscopic studies on the binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Chen, Chang-Yun; Xie, An-Jian

    2007-09-01

    The binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin under physiological conditions was studied by spectroscopic method. The quenching mechanism of the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by phenazopyridine hydrochloride was studied with fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The binding constant Kb and the number of binding sites n were determined at different temperatures according to Scatchard equation, and the main binding force was discussed by thermodynamic equations. The effect of the drug on bovine serum albumin conformation was also studied by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is static quenching and non-radiation energy transfer. The binding constants Kb at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C are 2.47 x 10(7), 9.15 x 10(6) and 4.36 x 10(6) mol(-1) with one binding site, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction are DeltaH = -71.2 kJ x mol(-1), and DeltaS = 124.8 J x mol(-1) x K(-1). Binding phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is a spontaneous inter-molecular interaction in which entropy increases and Gibbs free energy decreases. The binding distance r between phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin is 1.61 nm according to Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The binding force is electrostatic interaction. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride can be deposited and transported by serum protein in vivo. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride does affect the serum protein conformation. PMID:18051539

  19. The impact of dietary fat composition on serum leptin concentrations in healthy nonobese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Mario; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fobker, Manfred; Buyken, Anette; Posny, Nicole; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2002-11-01

    The recently discovered hormone leptin is primarily secreted by adipose tissue and serves as an internal signal indicating the size of body fat stores. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the dietary fatty acid composition on serum leptin concentrations. Therefore, serum leptin levels were measured by RIA in healthy nonobese men (n = 30) and women (n = 25). First, all participants received a baseline high-fat diet, rich in saturated fat, for 2 wk and were then randomly assigned to one of three high-fat dietary treatments, which contained refined olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, n = 19), rapeseed oil [rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), n = 17], or sunflower oil (rich in n-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids, n = 19) as the principal source of fat for 4 wk. On the rapeseed oil diet, serum leptin concentrations increased slightly in men [+0.25 ng/ml, T(9) = -2.778, P = 0.021], but decreased distinctly in women [-4.70 ng/ml, T(6) = 5.083, P = 0.002]. Both the olive oil and the sunflower oil diet did not affect serum leptin concentrations. Thus, it is proposed that serum leptin levels were affected by the high amount of alpha-linolenic acid in rapeseed oil. However, questions remain as to why this diet differently affected serum leptin in men and women.

  20. Isolation and identification of thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from shrimp paste "Terasi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murwani, R.; Supriyadi, Subagio, Trianto, A.; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Terasi is a traditional product generally made of fermented shrimp. There were many studies regarding lactic acid bacteria of terasi but none regarding proteolitic bacteria. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from terasi. In addition, the effect of different salt concentrations on the growth of the isolated proteolytic bacteria with the greatest proteolytic activity was also studied. Terasi samples were obtained from the Northern coast region of Java island i.e. Jepara, Demak and Batang. The study obtained 34 proteolytic isolates. Four isolates were identified as Sulfidobacillus, three isolates as Vibrio / Alkaligenes / Aeromonas, two isolates as Pseudomonas, 21 isolates as Bacillus, three isolates as Kurthia/ Caryophanon and one isolates as Amphibacillus. The growth of proteolytic bacteria was affected by salt concentration. The largest growth was found at 0 ppm salt concentrations and growth was declined as salt concentration increased. Maximum growth at each salt concentration tested was found at 8 hours incubation.

  1. Variability in the concentration of indicator bacteria in landfill leachate--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2015-03-01

    Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria.

  2. Serum Markers of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a relatively rare type of primary liver cancer that originates in the bile duct epithelium. It is an aggressive malignancy typified by unresponsiveness to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite advances in radiologic techniques and laboratory diagnostic test, the diagnosis of CCA remains highly challenging. Development in molecular techniques has led to go into the possible use of serum markers in diagnosing of cholangiocarcinoma. This review summarizes the principal characteristics of serum markers of cholangiocarcinoma. The tumour markers used frequently such as Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, Carcinogenic Embryonic antigen (CEA, and Cancer Antigen 125 have shown sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect and monitor CCA. In particular, the combination of these tumour markers seems to increase their efficiency in diagnosing of cholangiocarcinoma. New markers such as Soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21-1 Mucins, Tumour Markers2- pyruvate-Kinase (TuM2- PK and metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 have been recently shown to help in the diagnosis of CCA, with in some cases a prognostic value.

  3. 不同填饲量对北京鸭生长性能、血清生化指标和肝脏组织学的影响%Amounts of Force-Feeding Affect Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Liver Histology of Pekin Ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻治国; 侯水生; 谢明; 黄苇; 喻俊英

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different force-feeding amounts on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and liver histology of Pekin ducks. Ninety-six 35-day-old healthy male Pekin ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned into 8 groups with 6 replicates per group and 2 Pekin ducks per replicate. The experimental feeding period lasted for 7 d from 35 to 42 days of age and the corn-soybean diets were provided to ducks in the 8 groups. The control group was fed ad libitum with average daily intake of (259. 55 ±18. 59) g and the other groups were fed by force-feeding. The feed intake of seven force-feeding groups in the first 2 days was the same which was 260 g/bird at 35 days of age and 300 g/bird at 36 days of age, and then the amount of feed provided to the ducks in each group remained unchanging during the other 5 days which was 300, 330, 360, 390, 420, 450 and 480 g/d for a bird, respectively. The results showed as follows; 1) the final average body weight and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly higher in the force-feeding groups except for 300 g/d force-feeding group than those in the control group (P 0. 05). The feed/gain (F/G) was no significantly different between each force-feeding group and the control group (P > 0. 05). Based on the broken-line regression model analysis with ADG data, the optimum force-feeding amount for Pekin ducks was 414. 2 g/d. 2) No significant differences in serum glucose (Glu) concentration, gluta-mate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity were observed among groups (P >0. 05). Serum 7-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activity was significantly higher in 450 g/d force-feeding group than that in the control group, while there was no significant difference between the other force-feeding groups and the control group (P >0.05). Serum triglycerides (TG) , cholesterol (CHO) concentration and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity were significantly increased with the

  4. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Alix M Denoncourt; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  5. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  6. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  7. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I; Mitchell, James G; Stocker, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These "phycospheres" may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean.

  8. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  9. Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamnadar Vaikundavasagom Sunjaiy Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods: A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thinlayer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions: The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  10. Antibacterial and bioiflm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathianeson Satheesh; Nadarajan Viju

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods:A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results:Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thin-layer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions:The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  11. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    impact. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7 day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987......OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...... with higher estrogen content. CONCLUSIONS: OC use seems to be strongly related to serum beta-carotene levels, particularly among women above the age of 35. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this association and its implications for health risks of OC use....

  12. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. PMID:27431015

  13. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  14. Stress responses of subsurface bacteria. Final report, June 1, 1995--February 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesbro, W.

    1998-07-01

    Five questions were investigated in this research: (1) can subsurface bacteria and phylogenetically related surface strains be cultured on a single carbon/energy substrate; (2) is the behavior of subsurface bacteria the same as phylogenetically related surface strains when both are subjected to progressive, chronic carbon/energy source starvation; (3) which phyllogenetic groups survive better; (4) do other factors affect survival in the degree that phyllogeny does (5) do dormant forms appear during starvation; (6) is ppGpp present in subsurface bacteria and what is its persistence in carbon/energy starvation?

  15. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 ..mu..U/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum.

  16. Serum pancreatic lipase activity in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Junglee, D; Penketh, A; Katrak, A; Hodson, M.E.; Batten, J C; Dandona, P

    1983-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have been found to have abnormal serum concentrations of immunoreactive trypsin and abnormal activities of pancreatic isoamylase. A study was undertaken to discover whether activity of pancreatic lipase is also altered in cystic fibrosis. Serum from 23 patients with cystic fibrosis was assayed for immunoreactive trypsin and pancreatic lipase. Median serum pancreatic lipase activity was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis than in controls, as was ...

  17. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus;

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...... (geJ). and 2) a nuclease attacking nucleic acids intracellularly. The efficacy of these lethal genes has been assessed in model constructions with a synthetic lac promoter. By combination with the regulatory pathway of the TOL genes. a system was designed which allows bacterial growth in the presence...

  18. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

    2013-09-01

    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. PMID:23916557

  19. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    ?8 September 2002), and post-monsoon (12?15 March 2003). The schedule of observations is given in table 11.1. At each location, water samples were collected every three hours for 24 hours. The eight samples collected over a 24-hour period allowed us to examine..., small (less than 2 mm June 13, 2007 20:6 RPS rpb001ch11 SEWAGE-POLLUTION INDICATOR BACTERIA 117 Table 11.1 Sampling schedule followed for enumeration of bacterial populations during this study. Estuary Sampling dates Sampling strategy Mandovi 28?29 April...

  20. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

    2013-09-01

    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease.

  1. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  2. Algicidal bacteria in the sea and their impact on algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayali, Xavier; Azam, Farooq

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many reports have revealed the existence of bacteria capable of killing phytoplankton. These algicidal bacteria sometimes increase in abundance concurrently with the decline of algal blooms, suggesting that they may affect algal bloom dynamics. Here, we synthesize the existing knowledge on algicidal bacteria interactions with marine eukaryotic microalgae. We discuss the effectiveness of the current methods to characterize the algicidal phenotype in an ecosystem context. We briefly consider the literature on the phylogenetic identification of algicidal bacteria, their interaction with their algal prey, the characterization of algicidal molecules, and the enumeration of algicidal bacteria during algal blooms. We conclude that, due to limitations of current methods, the evidence for algicidal bacteria causing algal bloom decline is circumstantial. New methods and an ecosystem approach are needed to test hypotheses on the impact of algicidal bacteria in algal bloom dynamics. This will require enlarging the scope of inquiry from its current focus on the potential utility of algicidal bacteria in the control of harmful algal blooms. We suggest conceptualizing bacterial algicidy within the general problem of bacterial regulation of algal community structure in the ocean. PMID:15134248

  3. The Short-Term Effect of Mustard Gas on the Serum Immunoglobulin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Keyhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas (MG, as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto antigenic stimulation of the patients’ immune systems.

  4. Mixed Silage of Corncob and Citrus Pulp Affects Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Beef Cattle%玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料对肉牛生长性能和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    志莉; 薛白; 王之盛; 蔡义民; 刘振龙; 邓华

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在研究玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料对肉牛生长性能、养分消化率和血清生化指标的影响.选择24头平均体重(173.13±5.10)kg的健康西门塔尔杂种肉牛,随机分为4个处理,每个处理6个重复,每个重复l头牛,饲养时间为50 d.4个处理分别是:1)对照组(CON),40%精料+60%牛鞭草;2)试验l组(S20),40%精料+40%牛鞭草+20%青贮料(玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料);3)试验2组(S30),40%精料+30%牛鞭草+30%青贮料;4)试验3组(S40),40%精料+20%牛鞭草+40%青贮料.结果表明,S20组平均日增重最高,比CON组提高17.14%(P<0.01),S30组干物质采食量最高,比CON组提高14.51%(P<0.05),S20组肉牛料重比最低(P>0.05).4个处理间干物质、粗蛋白质、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维的表现消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),但是S20组有机物的消化率显著高于CON组(P<0.05).各处理间总蛋白、葡萄糖含量无显著差异(P>0.05),3个试验组尿素氮含量均极显著低于C0N组(P<0.01),分别降低了23.09%、26.10%和30.32%.由此可知,玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料替代部分牛鞭草能提高肉牛生长性能,主要表现在提高肉牛采食量、平均日增重和养分消化率上.玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料的添加量以占饲粮的20%为宜.%This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixed silage with corncob and citrus pulp on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of beef cattle. A total of 24 healthy Simmental cross cattle with initial body weight of (173.13 ±5.10) kg were randomly allocated into 4 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 1 cattle per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 50 days. Four treatments included 1) control group (CON), 40% basal diet ±60% Hemathria sibirica; 2) test group 1 (S20), 40% basal diet ±40% Hemathria sibirica ±20% mixed silage; 3) test group 2 ( S30), 40% basal diet ±30% Hemathria sibirica ±30% mixed

  5. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  6. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  7. DMTB: the magnetotactic bacteria database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Lin, W.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of interest in biogeomagnetism, rock magnetism, microbiology, biomineralization, and advanced magnetic materials because of their ability to synthesize highly ordered intracellular nano-sized magnetic minerals, magnetite or greigite. Great strides for MTB studies have been made in the past few decades. More than 600 articles concerning MTB have been published. These rapidly growing data are stimulating cross disciplinary studies in such field as biogeomagnetism. We have compiled the first online database for MTB, i.e., Database of Magnestotactic Bacteria (DMTB, http://database.biomnsl.com). It contains useful information of 16S rRNA gene sequences, oligonucleotides, and magnetic properties of MTB, and corresponding ecological metadata of sampling sites. The 16S rRNA gene sequences are collected from the GenBank database, while all other data are collected from the scientific literature. Rock magnetic properties for both uncultivated and cultivated MTB species are also included. In the DMTB database, data are accessible through four main interfaces: Site Sort, Phylo Sort, Oligonucleotides, and Magnetic Properties. References in each entry serve as links to specific pages within public databases. The online comprehensive DMTB will provide a very useful data resource for researchers from various disciplines, e.g., microbiology, rock magnetism and paleomagnetism, biogeomagnetism, magnetic material sciences and others.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis and the role of oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodriguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and periodontal disease (PD have shown similar physiopathologic mechanisms such as chronic inflammation with adjacent bone resorption in an immunogenetically susceptible host; however, PD has a well-recognized bacterial etiology while the cause of RA is unclear. Some reports have indicated that an infectious agent in a susceptible host could be one possible trigger factor for RA, and it has been suggested that oral microorganisms, specialty periodontal bacteria could be the infectious agent (mainly Porphyromonas gingivalis. It has been reported that PD is more frequent and more severe in patients with RA, suggesting a positive association between both diseases. There have been reports regarding the detection of antibodies against periodontal bacteria while other studies have identified periodontal bacterial DNA in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients and have explored the possible pathways of transport of periodontal bacterial DNA. In conclusion, there is no question that RA and PD have pathologic features in common and there is strong evidence of an association between both diseases, but further studies, including experimental models, are needed to demonstrate the arthritogenicity of oral microorganisms.

  9. Kinetics of early in vitro development of bovine in vivo- and in vitro-derived zygotes produced and/or cultured in chemically defined or serum-containing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2002-01-01

    development was affected by serum during IVM-IVF and culture. The first and fourth cell cycles were prolonged by 4-5 h in the absence of serum during IVM-IVF, whereas the presence of serum during culture decreased the duration of the fourth cell cycle and triggered premature blastulation. The results...

  10. EFFECT OF ACUTE LAMINITIS ON HEMOGRAM AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY IN MULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hussain, A. Yousaf and M. Athar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was executed to compare the haemogram and serum biochemistry in healthy males and these affected with acute laminitis. A total of 20 mules of either sex and at 19-24 months of age were divided in two equal groups I and II. The group I comprised of healthy mules, while group II comprised of mules affected with acute laminitis. The parameters compared were haematological parameters (RBC count, TLC, haemoglobin and PCV and serum biochemical parameters (biilirubin total, direct and indirect, ALP and ALT, serum creatinine, and serum cholesterol. The results showed a non-significant difference in values of TLC and PCV between groups I and II, while the values of RBC were significantly lower and haemoglobin were higher (P<0.05 in group I as compared to those of group II. The values of bilirubin (total, direct and indirect in group II were significantly higher (P<0.05 as compared to group I. The values of ALP, ALT, serum creatinine and serum cholesterol of diseased mules were significantly higher when compared with those of healthy mules.

  11. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OHD], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OHD and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  12. Serum PBDE levels in exposed rats in relation to effects on thyroxine homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M.; Larsson, L.; Hallgren, S. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is a group of environmental chemicals for which lately both interest and knowledge have increased considerably. Among the BFRs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attained special interest. Much data on environmental and human levels have been presented and several toxicological reviews are now published. Among interesting results is the difference in human PBDE levels that seem to exist between U.S.A. and Europe, results that suggest differences in exposure but without being able to pin-point the exact sources. In experimental studies PBDEs alter serum thyroxin levels, an effect seen both in rats and in mice. The mechanism(s) are still not completely clarified, but are thought to include alterations in serum transport, induced enzymatic degradation and possibly also direct effects on the thyroid gland. As perinatal alterations in thyroid homeostasis could affect brain development, early effects on thyroid hormones may be of special concern. Indeed, PBDEs have been shown to affect behaviour and learning in mice, when given neonatally. The aim of the present study was to relate the serum levels of PBDEs in rats to effects of these compounds on thyroxine homeostasis in these animals. Specifically, the relation between serum PBDE levels and effects on serum thyroxine levels was investigated, after two weeks of daily oral exposure. The result may have consequences for the future risk assessment activities on PBDE and specifically in finding the critical serum PBDE concentration at which the effect on thyroid hormone levels begin to occur.

  13. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  14. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  15. Clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the levels of serum leptin in patients with graves' disease. Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured with IRMA in 51 patients with hyperthyroidism as well as 46 hypothyroid and 50 euthyroid subjects as controls. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 (FT3 and FT4) were also measured. Body fat percentage (% Fat) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with graves' disease (male 2.05 ± 1.54μg/L, female 7.47±5. 08 μg/L), than those in hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Levels in hypothyroid patients were significantly higher than those in controls, however, excluding the body fat factor, there were no obvious difference. Serum leptin levels in all the 3 groups were significantly positively correlated with BMI. The levels were negatively correlated with FT3, FT4 levels and positively correlated with TSH levels but both were not significant. Serum leptin levels were 2-3 times higher in women than in men among all 3 groups. Conclusion: Thyroid functional status affected serum leptin levels indirectly through the amount of body fat. (authors)

  16. Circadian rhythm of serum sulfate levels in man and acetaminophen pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D A; Wallace, S M; Verbeeck, R K

    1990-01-01

    The circadian variation of serum inorganic sulfate levels was studied in healthy volunteers. The effect of subchronic acetaminophen administration (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) on serum inorganic sulfate levels was investigated and the possible role of fluctuating serum inorganic sulfate levels on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was evaluated. During a 24 h cycle, serum inorganic sulfate levels were lowest in the morning (11.00 h) and typically increased in the afternoon to reach a maximum in the early evening (19.00 h). Average 24 h serum concentrations were 360 microM and the difference between minimum and maximum levels was on average 25.8%. Subchronic administration of acetaminophen (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) significantly reduced serum inorganic sulfate levels to a 24 h average of 253 microM. The circadian rhythm, however, was not affected and the difference between minimum (12.00 h) and maximum (18.50 h) serum concentrations was 31.3%. Subchronic acetaminophen administration lead to a significant decrease in the renal excretion (-51%) and renal clearance (-33%) of inorganic sulfate. No significant differences were found in the disposition kinetics of acetaminophen and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates during two consecutive dosing intervals (08.00-14.00 h, 14.00-20.00 h) on Day 4 of the acetaminophen regimen. PMID:2253663

  17. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown.

  18. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative......Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...

  19. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  20. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca;

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  1. Tumor and serum ferritin in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess whether serum ferritin may be considered as a tumoral marker in breast cancer, we have measured in 38 patients the contents of ferritin in the tumor and the pre- and postoperative ferritin concentrations in serum. The study of isoferritins by iso-electric focusing was also performed in tumor extracts and in the corresponding sera

  2. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  3. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  4. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  5. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  6. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  7. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan g

  8. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  9. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [3H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, we found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 ...

  10. Exploitation of host lipids by bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vromman, François; Subtil, Agathe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Bacteria that interact with eukaryotic cells have developed a variety of strategies to divert host lipids, or cellular processes driven by lipids, to their benefit. Host lipids serve as building blocks for bacterial membrane formation and as energy source. They promote the formation of specific microdomains, facilitating interactions with the host. Host lipids are also critical players in the entry of bacteria or toxins into cells, and, for bacteria growing inside para...

  11. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  12. 不同增钙模式对蛋鸡生产性能、胫骨质量和血清生化指标的影响%Different Calcium Supplementation Modes Affect Production Performance, Tibia Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔路欣; 臧素敏; 刘培培; 李泽茹

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同增钙模式对蛋鸡生产性能、胫骨质量以及血清相关生化指标的影响,以确定蛋鸡生产过程中饲粮钙的增加模式以及钙的添加量。选取18周龄海兰灰商品蛋鸡480只,随机分为4组,每组4个重复,每个重复30只。增钙时间点分别为18周龄以及产蛋率为5%、50%和90%时,各时间点增钙方式分别为:Ⅰ组2.00%、2.20%、2.40%和3.75%;Ⅱ组2.00%、2.50%、3.00%和3.75%;Ⅲ组2.00%、3.00%、3.75%和3.75%;Ⅳ组2.00%、3.75%、3.75%和3.75%。试验期9周。结果表明:1)Ⅲ组蛋鸡产蛋率显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅳ组(P0.05);2)Ⅲ组胫骨强度、胫骨重、胫骨钙含量显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组( P0.05);3)蛋鸡产蛋率达50%时,Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组血钙含量显著高于Ⅲ组和Ⅳ组(P0.05)。结果提示:当蛋鸡产蛋率达5%、50%和90%时,饲粮钙水平分别为3.00%、3.75%和3.75%有助于提高蛋鸡产蛋率,改善体况和稳定骨骼质量,同时不造成钙源浪费。%This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different calcium supplementation modes on production performance, tibia quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens, with an aim to determine the optimal supplementation mode and amount of calcium in production. Four hundred and eighty 18-week-old Hy-Line Gray commercial layers were divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates each and 30 hens in each repli-cate. The calcium was supplemented at 18 weeks of age and when the laying rate was 5%, 50% and 90%, re-spectively. The calcium supplementation modes were: 2. 00%, 2. 20%, 2. 40% and 3. 75% for group Ⅰ;2.00%, 2.50%, 3.00% and 3.75% for groupⅡ;2.00%, 3.00%, 3.75% and 3.75% for groupⅢ;2.00%, 3.75%, 3.75% and 3.75% for group Ⅳ. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks. The results showed as follows:1) the laying rate of hens in group Ⅲ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ and group Ⅳ ( P0.05) . 2) The tibia strength, weight and calcium content in

  13. Expanded Cottonseed Meal Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens%膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱婷; 朱巧明; 顾林英; 谢鹏; 朱莎; 代腊; 邹晓庭

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of expanded cottonseed meal on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line laying hens, 40 weeks old, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 18 hens per replicate. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, trial group 1 was used 6% cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal of the control group diet, and trial groups 2,3,4 were used 6% , 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal, respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) different dietary expanded cottonseed had no significant effect on the performance of laying hens (P >0. 05). Compared with the control group, laying rate and average egg weight in trial group 1 were significantly decreased (P 0.05). Albumen height in trial groups 1 and 4 was significantly decreased than that in control group (P 0. 05). In conclusion, diets with 8% expanded cottonseed meal have no negative effect on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Expanding treatment can decrease the harm of free gossypol to laying hens, which can improve the efficiency of cottonseed meal utilization by laying hens.%本试验旨在研究不同比例膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响.选取40周龄海兰褐蛋鸡360羽,随机分成5组,每组4个重复,每个重复18羽.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验1组用6%普通未膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验2、3、4组分别用6%、8%、10%的膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验期8周.结果表明:1)饲粮中不同比例膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能影响不显著(P>0.05),而试验1组产蛋率和平均蛋重显著低于对照组(P<0.05),料蛋比显著高于对照组(P<0.05).2)与对照组相比,各试验组蛋黄颜色均显著加深(P<0.05),而试验1、4

  14. Microbial influenced corrosion by thermophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on stainless steels due to thermophilic bacteria Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. The objective of the study was to measure the extent of corrosion and correlate it with the growth of the biofilm by monitoring the composition of its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The toxic effect of heavy metals on MIC was also observed. For this purpose, stainless steels 304L, 316L and 2205 were subjected to electrochemical polarization and immersion tests in the modified Baar's media, control and inoculated, in anaerobic conditions at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to identify the chemicals present in/outside the pit. The results show maximum corrosive conditions when bacterial activity is highest, which in turn minimizes the amount of carbohydrate and protein along with the increase in the fraction of uronic acid in carbohydrate in EPS of the biofilm. However, although bacterial activity and corrosion rate decreases, the amount of biofilm components continue to increase. It is also observed that the toxicity of metals ions affect the bacterial activity and EPS production. It was observed that Desulfotomaculum sp. has the ability to biodegrade its own EPS.

  15. Do bacteria need to be regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silley, P

    2006-09-01

    Additives for use in animal nutrition are regulated under Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003. The scope of this paper addresses the specific microbiological issues relevant to a microbial feed additive, containing a Bacillus spp. and uses as an example a product with the trade name, Calsporin. Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is the active ingredient in Calsporin and is added to animal feed to favourably affect animal production and performance (growth and feed efficiency), by modulating the gastrointestinal flora. It is not the purpose of this review to present the raw data for Calsporin but rather to use Calsporin as an example of the type of data required by the European regulatory authorities. At the time of preparation of this manuscript Calsporin has yet to be reviewed by the authorities. The regulatory system under the auspices of the EFSA FEEDAP Panel is clearly attempting to move in line with development of scientific opinion and is to be applauded for such efforts. Bacteria do need to be regulated, and the regulations clearly provide adequate and appropriate protection to human health and to environmental considerations.

  16. Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcai Zhang

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1 is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA, a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1 have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2 have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3 have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4 have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5 have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1 markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition.

  17. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  18. Single Bacteria as Turing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Julia; Zang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In Allan Turing's famous 1950 paper on Computing Machinery and Intelligence, he started with the provocative statement: ``I propose to consider the question, `Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms `machine' and `think'.'' In our own work on exploring the way that organisms respond to stress and evolve, it seems at times as if they come to remarkably fast solutions to problems, indicating some sort of very clever computational machinery. I'll discuss how it would appear that bacteria can indeed create a form of a Turing Machine, the first example of a computer, and how they might use this algorithm to do rapid evolution to solve a genomics problem.

  19. Bacillus anthracis Co-Opts Nitric Oxide and Host Serum Albumin for Pathogenicity in Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSt John

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is a dangerous pathogen of humans and many animal species. Its virulence has been mainly attributed to the production of Lethal and Edema toxins as well as the antiphagocytic capsule. Recent data indicate that the nitric oxide (NO synthase (baNOS plays an important pathogenic role at the early stage of disease by protecting bacteria from the host reactive species and S-nytrosylating the mitochondrial proteins in macrophages. In this study we for the first time present evidence that bacteria-derived NO participates in the generation of highly reactive oxidizing species which could be abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, free thiols, and superoxide dismutase but not catalase. The formation of toxicants is likely a result of the simultaneous formation of NO and superoxide leading to a labile peroxynitrite and its stable decomposition product, nitrogen dioxide. The toxicity of bacteria could be potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin. This effect is consistent with the property of serum albumin to serves as a trap of a volatile NO accelerating its reactions. Our data suggest that during infection in the hypoxic environment of pre-mortal host the accumulated NO is expected to have a broad toxic impact on host cell functions.

  20. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; Bonanni, G; Mattarello, M J; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Palermo, M

    2003-09-01

    We have previously found that licorice can reduce serum testosterone in healthy men. These results were not confirmed in another study, where the same amounts of licorice did not decrease salivary testosterone values. In the actual study we treated more cases with the same amount of licorice and reproduced our previous data. The mean testosterone values decreased by 26 % after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in 17-OHP and LH concentrations and a slight, but not significant decrease in free testosterone. Licorice treatment, in addition, did not affect the response of testosterone and 17-OHP to stimulation with beta-HCG. PMID:14520600

  1. Sterol synthesis in diverse bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc, which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from 5 phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult

  2. Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jeremy H; Yin, Xinchi; Welander, Paula V

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from five phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia) and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult. Some bacteria

  3. Sterol Synthesis in Diverse Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jeremy H; Yin, Xinchi; Welander, Paula V

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc), which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from five phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia) and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult. Some bacteria

  4. Low serum sphingolipids in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric condition in childhood. ADHD is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic component. One neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that ADHD is associated with a lag in brain maturation. Sphingolipids are essential for brain development and neuronal functioning, but their role in ADHD pathogenesis is unexplored. We hypothesized that serum sphingolipid levels distinguish ADHD patients from unaffected subjects. Methods: We characterized serum sphingolipid profiles of ADHD patients and two control groups: non-affected relatives and non-affected subjects without a family history of ADHD. Sphingolipids were measured by LC-MS/MS in 77 participants (28 ADHD patients, 28 related controls and 21 unrelated controls. ADHD diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR. Diagnostic criteria were assessed by 2 independent observers. Groups were compared by parametrical statistics. Results: Serum sphingomyelins C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C24:1, ceramide C24:0 and deoxy-ceramide C24:1 were significantly decreased in ADHD patients at 20-30% relative reductions. In our sample, decreased serum sphingomyelin levels distinguished ADHD patients with 79% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Conclusions: Our results showed lower levels of all major serum sphingomyelins in ADHD. These findings may reflect brain maturation and affect neuro-functional pathways characteristic for ADHD.

  5. Serum factors in older individuals change cellular clock properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Lucia; Schmitt, Karen; Meier, Fides; Izakovic, Jan; Roemer, Konstanze; Viola, Antoine; Cajochen, Christian; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Brown, Steven A.; Eckert, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Human aging is accompanied by dramatic changes in daily sleep–wake behavior: Activity shifts to an earlier phase, and the consolidation of sleep and wake is disturbed. Although this daily circadian rhythm is brain-controlled, its mechanism is encoded by cell-autonomous circadian clocks functioning in nearly every cell of the body. In fact, human clock properties measured in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts closely mimic those measured physiologically and behaviorally in the same subjects. To understand better the molecular mechanisms by which human aging affects circadian clocks, we characterized the clock properties of fibroblasts cultivated from dermal biopsies of young and older subjects. Fibroblast period length, amplitude, and phase were identical in the two groups even though behavior was not, thereby suggesting that basic clock properties of peripheral cells do not change during aging. Interestingly, measurement of the same cells in the presence of human serum from older donors shortened period length and advanced the phase of cellular circadian rhythms compared with treatment with serum from young subjects, indicating that a circulating factor might alter human chronotype. Further experiments demonstrated that this effect is caused by a thermolabile factor present in serum of older individuals. Thus, even though the molecular machinery of peripheral circadian clocks does not change with age, some age-related circadian dysfunction observed in vivo might be of hormonal origin and therefore might be pharmacologically remediable. PMID:21482780

  6. Serum thyroglobulin in the monitoring of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) usually have an excellent prognosis. Following surgical and radioiodine treatment to remove the cancer cells and suppressive doses of levothyroxine, long-term follow-up, including measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) using a sensitive assay is required to detect recurrence. To interpret Tg results clinicians need to know the corresponding serum TSH concentration, have an appreciation of the clearance of Tg from patient serum following various interventions and the limitations of its measurement. The limitations of Tg immunoassay are well described and include potential interference from TgAb. For the majority of patients with DTC who are TgAb-negative, Tg measurement remains the most useful method of follow-up. For the TgAb-positive minority, interference and the possibility of producing erroneous results is a concern. Some assays are less badly affected than others and laboratories are advised to choose their assays carefully. Laboratories have sought to identify interferences using measurement of TgAb, lack of concordance between RIAs and immunometric assays and recovery of added Tg. More recently LC-MSMS assays to quantify Tg have been developed. They are not currently as sensitive as Tg immunoassays and it is likely these assays will, like immunoassays, be limited by Tg heterogeneity and standardization issues, although initial evaluations indicate that they may have value in the clinical setting as a second line test in antibody-positive DTC patients in whom Tg is unmeasurable by immunoassay. PMID:27542000

  7. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Laila N.; Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun; Hossain, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3 yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302 μg/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P < 0.01), but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56 g/L, and C4 was 0.29 g/L compared to 1.68 g/L and 0.25 g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3 g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P = 0.014). Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity. PMID:22545044

  8. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila N. Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4±5.3 yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216±211 and 223±302 μg/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P<0.01, but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56 g/L, and C4 was 0.29 g/L compared to 1.68 g/L and 0.25 g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3 g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P<0.001. Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P=0.014. Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity.

  9. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p alkaline...

  10. [Serum iron and serum copper balance in the early diagnosis of metastases of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllgens, P; Kuhne-Velte, H J; Franke-Lompa, C

    1980-02-01

    In a study made in the follow-up clinic on 684 patients with mammary carcinoma it was found that there were 64 cases of local recurrence and 244 cases of distant metastases. In both groups the serum iron and the serum copper balance in blood tests, in relation to the clinical proof of local recurrence and/or distant metastases, was investigated. It was found that there were 43.7% pathological serum iron and serum copper findings with local recurrences and 62.7% with distant metastases. The drift apart tendency of the blood serum values in patients with distant metastases could be proved in 78.7% of the cases and in 77.5% of the cases before any clinical proof. Thus, these observations allow the statement that the blood serum iron and serum copper imbalance in blood tests is of very real value in the early diagnosis of distant metastases.

  11. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We iden

  12. The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms and a novel serum L-amino acid oxidase is isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanghua; Li, Ruijun; Xie, Mingquan; Li, Anxing

    2011-01-01

    The serum of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) has been confirmed previously to have killing effect to Cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine ciliate protozoan that causes a disease referred to as "marine white spot disease". Herein, we find the serum of the rabbitfish also shows antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and has killing effect on two other parasites: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that after treating with rabbitfish serum, the surface of the Staphylococcus aureus was wrinkled and pores were formed on the surface of Escherichia coli. Serum of the rabbitfish possesses a strong killing effect to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in vitro, causing a similar effect as to C. irritans. The serum of rabbitfish also showed strong killing effect to T. b. brucei in vitro, with the minimus trypanocidal titre (MTT) only to be 1.5% in 1 h. Results of laser confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that rabbitfish serum could also induce cell rupture of T. b. brucei. A novel antimicrobial protein (SR-LAAO) was isolated from the serum of rabbitfish by using ultrafiltration, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). Results of gel overlay assay showed that the protein could act alone to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. Results of western blot and automated Edman degradation showed that it was the same as the antiparasitic protein (APP) reported before to have killing effect on C. irritans. Full length cDNA sequence of the SR-LAAO was cloned. BLAST research suggested that the cDNA of SR-LAAO has a close similarity with a number of L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs) and possesses two conserved motifs that exist in LAAOs. Combined, these results demonstrate that this protein which has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms was a novel LAAO found in the serum of

  13. Progress in Research of Bacteria Fertilizer Strengthening Resistance of Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria fertilizer is used most widely among all kinds of microbial fertilizers. We summarize the research headway of bacteria fertilizer. It mainly focuses on bacteria fertilizer improving the stress resistance of plant. Then we can offer basis to research and exploit bacteria fertilizer. These bacteria include azotobacter, photosynthetic bacteria, Bacillus mucilaginosus siliceous, phosphorus bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR), effective microorganism(EM).

  14. The elevation of serum napsin A in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, compared with KL-6, surfactant protein-A and surfactant protein-D

    OpenAIRE

    Samukawa Takuya; Hamada Tsutomu; Uto Hirofumi; Yanagi Masakazu; Tsukuya Go; Nosaki Tsuyoshi; Maeda Masahiro; Hirano Takashi; Tsubouchi Hirohito; Inoue Hiromasa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Napsin A, an aspartic protease, is mainly expressed in alveolar type-II cells and renal proximal tubules and is a putative immunohistochemical marker for pulmonary adenocarcinomas. This study sought to determine whether napsin A could be measured in the serum to evaluate its relationship to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and determine whether renal dysfunction might affect serum napsin A levels. Methods Serum levels of napsin A were measured in 20 patients with IPF, 3...

  15. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  16. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  17. The Effect of Bacteriophage Preparations on Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular killing of bacteria is one of the fundamental mechanisms against invading pathogens. Impaired intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes may be the reason of chronic infections and may be caused by antibiotics or substances that can be produced by some bacteria. Therefore, it was of great practical importance to examine whether phage preparations may influence the process of phagocyte intracellular killing of bacteria. It may be important especially in the case of patients qualified for experimental phage therapy (approximately half of the patients with chronic bacterial infections have their immunity impaired. Our analysis included 51 patients with chronic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections treated with phage preparations at the Phage Therapy Unit in Wroclaw. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of experimental phage therapy on intracellular killing of bacteria by patients’ peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We observed that phage therapy does not reduce patients’ phagocytes’ ability to kill bacteria, and it does not affect the activity of phagocytes in patients with initially reduced ability to kill bacteria intracellularly. Our results suggest that experimental phage therapy has no significant adverse effects on the bactericidal properties of phagocytes, which confirms the safety of the therapy.

  18. Sabine Kacunko. Bacteria, Art and other Bagatelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    This book appears on the occasion of the project INVINCIBLE – a Big Bacteria project for Colosseum, Rome (17.–19.09.2015), which is being granted UNESCO-patronage in the context of the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies 2015. With Sabine Kacunko’s bacteria art in mind, alleged...

  19. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  20. Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolaki, M.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    From all bacterial groups, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are probably the group of bacteria that is most associated with human lifestyle. The term LAB mainly refers to the ability of these organisms to convert sugars to lactic acid. The LAB comprise non-sporing, aerotolerant, coccus or rod-shaped,

  1. Why do bacteria engage in homologous recombination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiologists have long recognized that the uptake and incorporation of homologous DNA from outside the cell is a common feature of bacteria, with important implications for their evolution. However, the exact reasons why bacteria engage in homologous recombination remain elusive. This Opinion art

  2. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  3. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.;

    2004-01-01

    molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  4. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B. T.; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  5. Research Advances in Bacteria-based Microrobot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao-Jie; Sun, Jun-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The concept of bacteria-based microrobot has been well recognized. It has shown great advantages and potentials for the early diagnosis and early treatment of malignant tumor and in reducing chemotherapy toxicities. In this article we review the concept,structure,and potential clinical applications of bacteria-based microrobot. PMID:27594160

  6. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P production (P probiotic in dairy ration. PMID:26821238

  7. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  8. Velocity Condensation for Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Jean-François; Waisbord, Nicolas; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-04-22

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g., active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that Lévy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior. PMID:27152825

  9. 饲粮添加大豆卵磷脂乳化剂对肉鸡生长性能、养分利用率和血清生化指标的影响%Diets Supplemented with Soybean Lecithin Emulsifier Affect Growth Performance, Nutrient Availability and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 曾秋凤; 丁雪梅; 柘丽; 张克英; 吴秀群

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of soybean lecithin emulsifier supplementation in two energy level diets on growth performance, nutrient availability and serum biochemical indices of broilers. A randomized complete block design with 2x2 factors was adopted in the experiment and 960 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 40 birds in each replicate. Chickens were fed the experimental diets composed of two energy levels and two emulsifier supplementation levels. Dietary metabolizable energy levels were 12. 13 and 11. 92 MJ/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 12. 96 and 12.65 MJ/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Meanwhile, the supplementation levels of emulsifier were 0 and 265 mg/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 0 and 400 mg/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Growth performance of chickens, apparent availability of energy, dry matter, crude protein and crude fat, as well as contents of glucose, lipids and bile acid were measured in the experiment. The results showed that the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age fed normal energy diet was significantly higher than that of broilers fed low energy diet {P <0.01} , and the feed/ gain of broilers at 1 to 49 days of age fed low energy diet with emulsifier supplementation could reach that the level of broilers fed normal energy diet. The supplementation of emulsifier in diets could increase the average daily gain and the apparent availability of ether extract and energy of diets, promote bile secretion, and significantly decrease the feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, the decrease of dietary energy can significantly decrease the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age, and increase feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age; the supplementation of emulsifier in diets can improve feed efficiency

  10. Effect of alprostadil combined wih glycyrrhizin in treatment of severe chronic cholestatic hepatitis B and its affect on serum biochemical indexes%前列地尔联合复方甘草酸苷治疗重度慢性乙型肝炎合并淤胆的疗效及对血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 范晖

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨前列地尔联合复方甘草酸苷治疗重度慢性乙型肝炎合并淤胆的临床疗效。方法将92例重度慢性乙型肝炎合并淤胆患者采用数字表法随机分为两组,两组均给予复方甘草酸苷注射液,另外观察组在此基础上加用前列地尔,比较两组临床疗效及血清生化指标变化。结果观察组总有效率为89.13%,显著高于对照组(76.09%)(χ2=7.83,P<0.05);观察组治疗后总胆红素(TBIL)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GT)和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)指标分别为(68.78±7.82)μmol/L、(54.64±6.68)μmol/L、(64.57±8.97)IU/L、(59.62±7.34)IU/L和(60.23±8.22)IU/L,均显著低于治疗前[(265.63±11.78)μmol/L、(138.49±11.29)μmol/L、(557.62±21.23)IU/L、(157.72±10.31)IU/L 和(170.38±11.20)IU/L](t=11.23、10.42、10.63、9.88、10.68,P<0.05)和对照组[(153.68±8.62)μmol/L、(137.44±9.31)μmol/L(、152.02±12.33)IU/L(、114.82±9.21)IU/L和(106.83±9.01)IU/L](t=8.38、8.01、7.92、8.30、7.20,P<0.05)。结论前列地尔联合复方甘草酸苷治疗重度慢性乙型肝炎合并淤胆具有显著疗效。%ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of alprostadil combined wih glycyrrhizin in treatment of severe chronic cholestatic hepatitis B.Methods92 patients with severe chronic cholestatic hepatitis B combined were divided into two groups by using a random number table metod. Two groups were given glycyrrhizin injection while the observation group were treated with alprostadil in addton. The clinical efifcacy and serum biochemical parameters changes were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe observation group's total effective rate was 89.13%, signiifcantly higher than the control group's 76.09% (χ2=7.83,P<0.05);The observation group's indicators of TBIL, DBIL, ALT, γ-GT and AKP after treatment were (68

  11. Phaeobacter inhibens as probiotic bacteria in non-axenic Artemia and algae cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul;

    2016-01-01

    anguillarum that grew to 107 in control samples but to a level 1–2 log lower in samples with background microbiota. The addition of the Roseobacter-clade bacteria, Phaeobacter inhibens, caused a significant reduction in growth of the pathogen that reached levels 3–4 log lower than in the control. In non......The growing aquaculture industry is in need for non-antibiotic based disease control strategies to reduce risk of bacteria developing and spreading antibiotic resistance. We have previously, in axenic model systems of live larval feed, demonstrated that bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can...... antagonize fish pathogens such as Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi and that they can reduce larval mortality in challenge trials. However, in the aquaculture production, a natural microbiota is present at all stages and may affect the efficacy of the probiotic bacteria. The purpose of the present study...

  12. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-03-04

    A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  13. Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Leunert, Franziska;

    2010-01-01

    and nonpathogenic bacteria has shown that direct association with zooplankton has significant influences on the bacteria's physiology and ecology. We used stratified migration columns to study vertical dispersal of hitchhiking bacteria through migrating zooplankton across a density gradient that was otherwise...... impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit quantitative estimation of transport and release of associated bacteria: vertical migration of Daphnia magna yielded an average dispersal rate of 1.3 x 10(5) x cells x...... Daphnia(-1) x migration cycle(-1) for the lake bacterium Brevundimonas sp. Bidirectional vertical dispersal by migrating D. magna was also shown for two other bacterial species, albeit at lower rates. The prediction that diurnally migrating zooplankton acquire different attached bacterial communities from...

  14. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  15. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  16. Chryseobacterium indologenes, novel mannanase-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Rattanasuk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannanase is a mannan degrading enzyme which is produced by microorganisms, including bacteria. This enzyme can be used in many industrial processes as well as for improving the quality of animal feeds. The aim of the present study was toscreen and characterize the mannanase-producing bacteria. Two genera of bacteria were isolated from Thai soil samples,fermented coconut, and fertilizer. Screening was carried out on agar plates containing mannan stained with iodine solution.The bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence, biochemical test and morphology, respectively. The mannanase activity was determined by zymogram and DNS method. Two strains of bacteria with mannanase activity were identified as Bacillus and Chryseobacterium. This is the first report of mannanase-producing Chryseobacterium.

  17. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in mice with intestinal dysbacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-zhong DONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and substance P (SP in mice with dysbacteriosis induced by antibiotics. Methods Forty-eight healthy SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (normal drink, the dysbacteriosis model group (induced by oral administration of 0.5 g/L ceftriaxone sodium, the natural recovery group (oral sterile water to replace antibiotic after reproduction of dysbacteriosis, and Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment group (treated by intragastric administration of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The feces were collected without contamination, and the change in intestinal bacterial number was observed with the plate dilution method. The volatile fatty acid was detected by chromatography. The serum VIP and SP contents were assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the normal control group, the numbers of probiotics, volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly decreased in the model group, while the serum SP markedly increased (P<0.01. Compared with the natural recovery group, the bacteria number, the quantities of volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly increased after the Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment, while the serum SP significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05. Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis mycelium may effectively adjust the proportion of the probiotics in the mice with dysbacteriosis, and the mechanism is apparently related to alteration in the VIP and SP. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.06

  18. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  19. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  20. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); A.P. d' Adamo (Adamo Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  1. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-s

  2. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  3. Investigation of parasitic and bacterial diseases in pigs with analysis of hematological and serum biochemical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, K; Nehete, R S; Ganguly, S; Ganguli, M; Dhanalakshmi, S; Mukhopadhayay, S K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate various disease conditions prevalent in slaughtered pigs and zoonotic importance. The study was conducted on two hundred non-descript pigs slaughtered at an organized slaughter house, Mumbai. The animals included in the study were randomly selected. Post mortem examination of the animals was performed to note various disease conditions and tissues were collected for histopathology. Direct examination of stool was found negative for parasites. Gross and microscopical examination revealed presence of Ascarops strongylina, Sarcocyst, Hydatid cyst, Cysticercus cellulosae, Ascaris suum and Cysticercus tenuicollis, along with bacteria like Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Streptococci, Proteus and Pasteurella spp. were isolated. Indirect ELISA was performed for detection of antibody titer in the pig serum against classical swine fever. Studies on hematological and serum biochemical profile revealed decreased total protein concentration and globulin level with leukocytosis and neutrophilia and in parasitic infections eosinophilia was evident. PMID:23542948

  4. On the swimming motion of spheroidal magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate, via both theoretical and experimental methods, the swimming motion of magnetotactic bacteria having the shape of an elongated prolate spheroid in a viscous liquid under the influence of an imposed magnetic field. A fully three-dimensional Stokes flow, driven by the translation and rotation of a swimming bacterium, exerts a complicated viscous drag/torque on the motion of a non-spherical bacterium. By assuming that the body of the bacterium is non-deformable and that the interaction between different bacteria is weak and hence negligible, we have derived a system of 12 coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that govern both the motion and the orientation of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium. The focus of the study is on how the shape of a non-spherical magnetotactic bacterium, marked by the size of its eccentricity, affects the pattern of its swimming motion. It is revealed that the pattern/speed of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium is highly sensitive not only to the direction of its magnetic moment but also to its shape. We also compare the theoretical pattern obtained from the solutions of the 12 coupled differential equations with that observed in the laboratory experiments using the magnetotactic bacteria found in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China, showing that the observed pattern can be largely reproduced with an appropriate set of parameters in our theoretical model. (paper)

  5. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria detoxify N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Kuberski, Sławomir; Libudzisz, Zdzisława

    2014-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) due to many environmental sources, as well as endogenous formation. The main nitrosamine found in food products and also synthesised in vivo by intestinal microbiota is N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). It can cause cancer of the stomach, kidney and colon. The effect of four probiotic Lactobacillus strains on NDMA was studied under different culture conditions (24 h in MRS, 168 h in modified MRS N, and 168 h in phosphate buffer). HPLC and GC-TEA methods were used for NDMA determination in supernatants. The influence of lactic acid bacteria on NDMA genotoxicity was investigated by means of the comet assay. Additionally, the effect of NDMA (2-100 µg ml⁻¹) on the growth and survival of the probiotic strains was studied. The results indicate that the bacteria decreased NDMA concentration by up to 50%, depending on the culture conditions, time of incubation, NDMA concentration, pH and bacterial strain. Lb. brevis 0945 lowered the concentration and genotoxicity of NDMA most effectively by up to 50%. This could be due to either adsorption or metabolism. The growth and survival of the bacteria was not affected by any of the tested NDMA concentrations. PMID:25010287

  6. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions. PMID:26307771

  7. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eGueimonde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.

  9. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Riitta Korpela

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP,TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.METHODS:We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26)in a substudy of a randomised,double-blind,placebocontrolled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults.RESULTS:A total of 407 lipids were identified,corresponding to 13 different lipid classes.Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho),sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho),while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention.Among the inflammatory variables,IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles,with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4).There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers,TNF-α and CRP.CONCLUSION:This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans.There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles,as reflected in decreased GPCho,LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG.

  10. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  11. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoncourt, Alix M; Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  12. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  13. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  14. Measurement of ferritin in serum by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the measurement of circulating ferritin concentrations by direct radioimmunoassay is presented. The method described is simple to operate, precise, and sensitive and is suitable for the routine diagnostic measurement of ferritin in either plasma or serum. (author)

  15. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  16. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Specific Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Are Present in Serum from Pigs with Osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Koch, Janne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Achilles heel in osteomyelitis is that bacteria, primarily Staphylococcus aureus, grow as a biofilm in the bone lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we explored the serum level of specific antibodies to S. aurues biofilm in porcine models of osteomyelitis. RESULTS...... (IL 6) levels was also seen. CONCLUSION: The observed biofilm-specific antibody response represents a T-helper cell 17 (Th17) response and potentially a T-helper cell 1 (Th1) response. This is in agreement with previous studies in mice and rabbits speculating that S. aureus induces a Th1- and Th17...

  18. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  19. Serum ferritin concentration in sickle cell crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brownell, A; Lowson, S; Brozović, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) were studied during 21 vaso-occlusive crises in 12 adults with sickle cell disease (11 SS, 1 S beta degrees). The patients comprised three groups: those who had been untransfused (4), those who had received occasional exchange transfusion in crisis (3), and those who had been multiply transfused (5). Serum ferritin concentrations in crisis were compared with those of the steady state...

  20. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  1. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM).Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations ...

  2. Serum proteins analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Uji, Yoshinori; Okabe, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multi-capillary electrophoresis instrument in clinical laboratory. An automated clinical capillary electrophoresis system was evaluated for performing serum proteins electrophoresis and immuno-fixation electrophoresis by subtraction. In this study the performance of capillary electrophoresis was compared with the cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel immunofixation electrophoresis for serum proteins. The results of...

  3. Serum leptin in renal transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a small peptide hormone that is mainly produced in adipose tissues. Leptin plays animportant role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure and may be involved in modulatingbone mineralization. This study was designed to test the association of serum leptin kidneyfunction in renal transplant recipients. We studied 72 kidney transplanted recipients. In thisstudy a significant difference of serum leptin between males and females with higher values infemales was seen (p>0.05). Ther...

  4. Improved sectioning and ultrastructure of bacteria and animal cells embedded in Lowicryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, J C; Fréhel, C; Ryter, A

    1990-04-01

    Lowicryl K4M-embedded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have a tendency to separate between the cell surface and the resin. This often leads to distortion of bacteria and more especially of mycobacteria. We describe attempts made to overcome this technical problem. Different assays were made on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium avium: 1) Modification of the bacterial surface by coating of bacteria with proteinic compounds; 2) treatment of bacteria with metallic salts known to modify cell wall polysaccharides; and 3) comparison between Lowicryl K4M and HM20. Conditions have been found in which the separation of all bacterial species from the resin is abolished. The most important factor appeared to be the treatment of bacteria before dehydration, with 0.5% uranyl acetate for 30 min. The second most important factor, especially for M. avium and to a lower extent for Gram-negative bacteria, was the use of Lowicryl HM20. No differences were observed with Gram-positive bacteria between K4M and HM20. Pre-embedding in gelatin instead of agar improved sectioning of M. avium, but had no effects on the other bacterial species. These conditions applied to macrophages infected with Shigella dysenteriae or M. avium also gave excellent results. In addition to sectioning improvement of bacteria, uranyl acetate improved the ultrastructure of bacteria and macrophages. All organelles were more clearly delineated and, hence, more easily identified. Finally, it was shown that UA treatment did not affect immunogold labeling of a variety of antigens. PMID:2110246

  5. Serum Fatty Acids Are Correlated with Inflammatory Cytokines in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Wiese

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is associated with increased dietary intake of fat and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Modification of fat metabolism may alter inflammation and disease severity. Our aim was to assess differences in dietary and serum fatty acid levels between control and UC subjects and associations with disease activity and inflammatory cytokines.Dietary histories, serum, and colonic tissue samples were prospectively collected from 137 UC subjects and 38 controls. Both histologic injury and the Mayo Disease Activity Index were assessed. Serum and tissue cytokines were measured by Luminex assay. Serum fatty acids were obtained by gas chromatography.UC subjects had increased total fat and oleic acid (OA intake, but decreased arachidonic acid (AA intake vs controls. In serum, there was less percent saturated fatty acid (SFA and AA, with higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, linoleic acid, OA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA in UC. Tissue cytokine levels were directly correlated with SFA and inversely correlated with PUFA, EPA, and DPA in UC subjects, but not controls. 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy blunted these associations.In summary, we found differences in serum fatty acids in UC subjects that correlated with pro-inflammatory tissue cytokines. We propose that fatty acids may affect cytokine production and thus be immunomodulatory in UC.

  6. Higher serum aldosterone correlates with lower hearing thresholds: a possible protective hormone against presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Sherif F; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Frisina, D Robert; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-11-01

    Aldosterone hormone is a mineralocorticoid secreted by adrenal gland cortex and controls serum sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) levels. Aldosterone has a stimulatory effect on expression of sodium-potassium ATPase (Na, K-ATPase) and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in cell membranes. In the present investigation, the relation between serum aldosterone levels and age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and the correlation between these levels versus the degree of presbycusis in humans were examined. Serum aldosterone concentrations were compared between normal hearing and presbycusic groups. Pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), hearing in noise test (HINT) and gap detection were tested for each subject and compared to the serum aldosterone levels. A highly significant difference between groups in serum aldosterone concentrations was found (p = 0.0003, t = 3.95, df = 45). Highly significant correlations between pure-tone thresholds in both right and left ears, and HINT scores versus serum aldosterone levels were also discovered. On the contrary, no significant correlations were seen in the case of TEOAEs and gap detection. We conclude that aldosterone hormone may have a protective effect on hearing in old age. This effect is more peripheral than central, appearing to affect inner hair cells more than outer hair cells.

  7. Dietary exposure to benzoxazinoids enhances bacteria-induced monokine responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Palarasah, Yaseelan;

    2015-01-01

    with LPS. No effect was observed on T-cell cytokines or proliferation. BX levels in serum after a single meal did not modify cytokine responses. CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of BXs enhances bacteria-induced production of pro-inflammatory monokines by PBMCs, but not T-cell responses; presumably due......-out, the groups switched diets. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tetanus toxoid (TT). PBMCs from a healthy donor received the same stimuli in presence of serum from each participant receiving BXs. The production...... of monokines, T-cell cytokines and T-helper cell proliferation were assessed. A 3-wk diet with high BX content enhanced IL-1β responses against LPS and P. gingivalis, as well as TNF-α response against P. gingivalis, after 24 h of stimulation. Moreover, IL-6 was found to be increased after 7 days of stimulation...

  8. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  9. Immobilisation of arsenic by iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Winkler, E.; Muehe, M.; Morin, G.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is an environmental problem that affects about 1-2% of the world's population. As arsenic-contaminated water is also used for irrigating rice fields, the uptake of arsenic via rice is in some cases even higher than via drinking water. Arsenic is often of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Microbial iron(III) reduction leads to dissolution of Fe(III) minerals and thus the arsenic bound to these minerals is released to the environment. In turn, iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation followed by iron(III) mineral formation. Here, we present work on arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic and aerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent, phototrophic, and microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state are determined by X- ray diffraction and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption methods (EXAFS, XANES). Microcosm experiments are set-up either with liquid media or with rice paddy soil amended with arsenic. Rice paddy soil from arsenic contaminated rice fields in China that include a natural population of Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms is used as inoculum. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified, Arsenic speciation is determined and the iron minerals are identified. Additionally, Arsenic uptake into the rice plant is quantified and a gene expression pattern in rice (Oryza sativa cv Gladia) is determined by microarrays as a response to the presence of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria.

  10. Comparison of Different Measures of Fat Mass and Their Association with Serum Cystatin C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Wee Teo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystatin C (CysC is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR marker affected by GFR and obesity. Because percentage body fat (%BF distribution is affected by ethnicity, different measures of %BF may improve CysC prediction. This study aims to create multivariate models that predict serum CysC and determine which %BF metric gives the best prediction. Methods. Serum CysC was measured by nephelometric assay. We estimated %BF by considering weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, triceps skin fold, bioimpedance, and Deurenberg and Yap %BF equations. A base multivariate model for CysC was created with a %BF metric added in turn. The best model is considered by comparing P values, R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Results. There were 335 participants. Mean serum CysC and creatinine were 1.27 mg/L and 1.44 mg/dL, respectively. Variables for the base model were age, gender, ethnicity, creatinine, serum urea, c-reactive protein, log GFR, and serum albumin. %BF had a positive correlation with CysC. The best model for predicting CysC included bioimpedance-derived %BF (P=0.0011, with the highest R2 (0.917 and the lowest AIC and BIC (−371, −323. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with CysC, and the best predictive model for CysC includes bioimpedance-derived %BF.

  11. Neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and serum BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Lobina, Monia; Piras, Maria Grazia; Mulas, Antonella; Cannas, Alessandra; Meirelles, Osorio; Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B; Uda, Manuela; Crisponi, Laura; Schlessinger, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective Animal models and clinical studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We test whether serum and plasma levels of BDNF are associated with trait Neuroticism and its facets, and with state measure of depressive symptoms. Method In a community-based cohort (N = 2099) we measured serum and plasma BDNF concentration, administered the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Covariates included age, sex, cigarette smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. Results Serum BDNF concentrations were inversely related to Neuroticism (r = −0.074, P < 0.001), in particular the Depression facet (r = −0.08, P < 0.001). Lower BDNF concentrations were also associated with severe depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 28; OR = 0.906; 95%CI = 0.851–0.965). The association of serum BDNF with Neuroticism was independent of depressive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF might represent a biological correlate of Neuroticism and not just of transient depressive states. Plasma BDNF was not associated with measures of depression. Conclusions Our study suggests that lower serum BDNF is associated with both a dispositional vulnerability to depression and acute depressive states in the general population. PMID:21949427

  12. Serum Prolactin Level of Subfertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwary, S A; Fatima, P; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Rahman, M M; Bari, N

    2016-01-01

    Subfertility is a major reproductive health problem all over the world as well as Bangladesh, and the problem is increasing day by day. This study was done to estimate the serum prolactin concentration in primary and secondary subfertile women. Laboratory investigation included serum prolactin level, as well as LH, FSH, TSH blood glucose (2 hours after 75 gm glucose load) of 50 women who attended infertility unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2009 and February 2010. In most cases, common age group 26-30 years (52%), primary subfertility (74%), duration of marriage >5 years (60%), trying to conceive duration ≤5 years (54%), BMI >25 kg/m² (60%), menstrual cycle regular (58%), history of abortion absent (90%), and history of menstrual regulation absent (94%). Common investigation findings was normal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 82%, normal serum luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.0-10.0 mIU/ml in 50%, normal serum prolactin 1.9-25.0 ng/ml in 36%, normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.4-4.0 μIU/ml in 56%, and normal blood glucose level (2 hours after breakfast) (prolactin concentration may have role to play in subfertility of women.

  13. Study of serum fucose and serum sialic acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinomia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikanth M; Rao B

    1994-01-01

    Serum fucose and sialic acid levels were determined in 50 oral cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A statistically significant increase was noted in the study group. The increase in serum fucose level correlated well with the clinical staging in the study group whereas sialic acid did not. These values were independent of age, sex and histopathological grading. The result suggest that the serum fucose level is a better biochemical tumor marker than sialic acid level. However its usefulne...

  14. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Serum Adiponectin Level: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bon-Jeong Ku; Seul-Young Kim; Tae-Yong Lee; Kang-Seo Park

    2009-01-01

    Background: The serum concentrations of ferritin and adiponectin are associated with several metabolic disorders and have been used as predictors of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. But there have been no reports demonstrating a direct correlation between serum ferritin and adiponectin levels. We performed this study to evaluate the association between serum ferritin and adiponectin concentrations. Subjects and methods: We evaluated a total of 995 subjects from the Korea Rural Genom...

  15. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  16. Efficacy of the Ryu nonstaining KOH technique for rapidly determining gram reactions of food-borne and waterborne bacteria and yeasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid (< 60 s) nonstaining technique with 3% potassium hydroxide to determine Gram reactions was tested with 495 food-borne and waterborne bacteria and yeasts. In KOH, suspensions of gram-negative bacteria become viscous and string out. Gram-positive bacteria are not affected. There was 100% correlation between the KOH string test results and gram-positive and gram-negative strains.

  17. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    L.E. Makarova; L.V. Dudareva; I.G. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC) and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine) in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. ) at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content ...

  18. Investigating the presence of predatory bacteria on algal bloom samples using a T6SS gene marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, J.; Sison-Mangus, M.; Mehic, S.; McMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Predation is considered to be a major driving force in evolution and ecology, which has been observed affecting individual organisms, communities, and entire ecosystems. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an intermembranal protein complex identified in certain bacteria, which appears to have evolved strictly as a mechanism of predation. The effects of bacteria on phytoplankton physiology are still understudied, however, studies have shown that the interactions between bacteria that inhabit the phycosphere of phytoplankton can possibly result in coevolution of native host and microbiota. It is unclear if bacteria can prey upon other bacteria to gain advantages during periods of high phytoplankton density. Here, we investigate the predatory interactions between bacteria and analyze environmental samples for the presence of predatory bacterial genes in an effort to understand bacteria-bacteria and phytoplankton interactions during algal blooms. DNA were extracted from bacterial samples collected weekly from size-fractionated samples using 3.0 um and 0.2 um membrane filters at the Santa Cruz wharf. PCR amplification and gel visualization for the presence of T6SS gene was carried out on bloom and non-bloom samples. Moreover, we carried out a lab- based experiment to observe bacteria-bacteria interaction that may hint for the presence of predatory behavior between bacterial taxa. We observed what appeared to be a predatory biofilm formation between certain bacterial species. These bacteria, however, did not contain the T6SS genes. On the contrary the T6SS gene was discovered in some of the bloom samples gathered from the Santa Cruz wharf. It is still unclear if the predatory mechanisms facilitate the abundance of certain groups of bacteria that contain the T6SS genes during algal blooms, but our evidence suggest that bacterial predation through T6SS mechanism is present during bloom events.

  19. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefère, Christopher T.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  20. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  1. R-body-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-03-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. PMID:2651865

  2. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  3. Folate production by probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Maddalena; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia. PMID:22254078

  4. A rapid phospholipase A2 bioassay using 14C-oleate-labelled E. coli bacterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; von Wichert, P; Weins, D

    1989-02-01

    Two methods of phospholipase A2 determination using 14C-labelled E. coli bacterias as substrate were compared. One method works with a filter membrane for separation of cleaved 14C-oleate from remaining phospholipids, the other uses the well-known thin-layer chromatography for lipid analysis. Some features of human serum phospholipase A2 regarding pH and Ca2+ dependency were investigated. Possible sources of errors were discussed. It was shown that either method can differentiate between normal and pathologically elevated phospholipase A2 levels, but that the filter method is superior in terms of sensitivity and workload.

  5. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam; Nastaran Safavi Ardabili; Nasrollah Maleki; Maedeh Soflaee

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  6. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nikanfar; Ali Akbar Taheri-Aghdam; Maria Yazdani; Sheida Shaafi; Nooshin Masoudian; Hossein Akbari; Parisa Youhanaee; Hamzeh Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels ...

  7. Complexation of serum albumins and triton X-100: Quenching of tryptophan fluorescence and analysis of the rotational diffusion of complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Vlasov, A. A.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The polarized and nonpolarized fluorescence of bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin in Triton X-100 solutions is studied at different pH values. Analysis of the constants of fluorescence quenching for BSA and HSA after adding Triton X-100 and the hydrodynamic radii of BSA/HSA-detergent complexes show that the most effective complexation between both serum albumins and Triton X-100 occurs at pH 5.0, which lies near the isoelectric points of the proteins. Complexation between albumin and Triton X-100 affects the fluorescence of the Trp-214 residing in the hydrophobic pockets of both BSA and HSA.

  8. Effect of ochratoxin and aflatoxin on serum proteins, complement activity, and antibody production to Brucella abortus in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J L; Thurston, J R; Deyoe, B L; Booth, G D

    1975-01-01

    The effect of ochratoxin alone and in combination with aflatoxin and Brucella abortus antigen on complement activity, serum proteins, and antibody response in guinea pigs was investigated. Ochratoxin did not affect complement activity or antibody response and there was no interaction between ochratoxin and aflatoxin on any of the responses tested. Ochratoxin significantly lowered the level of beta-globulin in serum of guinea pigs. There was no significant interaction between aflatoxin and antigen on lowering of the serum albumin levels of guinea pigs. PMID:45955

  9. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1995-01-01

    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse...... metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples....

  10. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Spread of Superbugs Help Fight Drug-Resistant Bacteria For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make us sick. But in recent ...

  11. Birefringence Determination of Magnetic Moments of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblatt, Charles; de Araujo, F. Flavio Torres; Frankel, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    A birefringence technique is used to determine the average magnetic moments of magnetotactic bacteria in culture. Differences in are noted between live and dead bacteria, as well as between normal density and high density samples of live bacteria.

  12. Clinical Usefulness of Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sook Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate renal function measurements are important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In contrast to creatinine, the production of serum cystatin C has been extensively reported to be unaffected by body muscle mass, age, gender, and nutritional status.MethodsOur study included 37 samples from diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients for whom serum creatinine tests had been requested and 40 samples from a healthy populations in Dong-A University Hospital between May 2010 and June 2010. The assay precision (i.e., the coefficient of variation and the reference range of the serum cystatin C test were evaluated. We compared the estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs based on cystatin C with those based on creatinine. Moreover, we investigated the influences of age, gender, weight, and muscle mass on serum creatinine and serum cystatin C.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between GFR based on creatinine and that based on cystatin C (r=0.79, P<0.0001 among the diabetic CKD patients. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly correlated with body weight and muscle mass, but the strengths of these correlations were greater for serum creatinine. The precision study revealed excellent results for both the high and low controls. The 95% reference interval of cystatin C in the healthy population was 0.371 to 1.236 mg/L.ConclusionBased on these results, we conclude that, despite the strong correlation between serum creatinine and cystatin C, cystatin C is less affected by weight and muscle mass and might represent a better alternative for the assessment of renal function.

  13. Synthetic teichoic acid conjugate vaccine against nosocomial Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  15. Serum hyaluronan levels in oral cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Hyaluronan(HA)is most likely associated with tumor invasion and metastasis.Studies have shown that HA levels are often increased in serum of patients with various malignant tumors.The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of serum hyaluronan in patients with oral cancer and evaluate the value of serum HA in adjuvant diagnosis,staging and monitoring treatment response in these patients.Methods Eighty-four hospitalized patients with oral cancer,65 patients with benign tumors in the oral and maxillofacial region and 67 healthy individuals were included in this investigation.Venous blood was collected from these patients and the healthy individuals before therapy.One week after therapy,venous blood was collected once again in 43 patients with oral cancer.Serum samples were obtained and serum HA levels examined.Results The serum HA concentration was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in patients with benign tumors and in healthy controls(P<0.05).The serum HA level in patients with stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ disease was higher than in patients with stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ disease,but there was no significant difference in the HA level between stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ nor between stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ(P>0.05).After a complete treatment the HA levels in patients with oral cancer became lower than before treatment,but the difference was not significant(P>0.05).Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the determination of HA levels may provide additional information in diagnosis of oral cancer,but its usefulness as an adjunct in clinical staging and in monitoring treatment response was limited.

  16. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  17. The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is used in medicine. However, its administration can have negative side effects, disturb the water-electrolyte equilibrium and affect the level of essential elements. For these reasons the influence of oral lithium intoxication at the dose of 150 mg Li dm(-3) on magnesium and calcium levels in serum and tissues of rats was investigated. The concentration of Mg and Ca in serum increased throughout the experiment. The concentration of magnesium in tissues decreased after three weeks in liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle. The trend of the changes of calcium tissue concentration was opposite to the one observed in the case of magnesium.

  18. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  19. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  20. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  1. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  2. Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong; SONG Zhijun; Niels HФIBY; Michael GIVSKOV

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community,and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS).Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal molecules.Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread.These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment and particularly higher organisms,covering a variety of functions ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic interactions.The detailed knowledge of these bacterial communication systems has opened completely new perspectives for controlling undesired microbial activities.

  3. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.

  4. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...

  6. The affect structure revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Elefant-Yanni, Véronique Rica; Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia

    2005-01-01

    In affective psychology, there is a persistent controversy about the number, the nature and the definition of the affect structure dimensions. Responding to the methodological criticisms addressed to the preceding studies, we conciliated the principal theories regarding the affect structure with the same experimental setting. In particular, using the semantic items all around the circumplex we found three bipolar independent dimensions and using only the PANAS semantic items, we found two uni...

  7. Microgravity effects on pathogenicity of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity is one of the important environmental conditions during spaceflight. A series of studies have shown that many kinds of bacteria could be detected in space station and space shuttle. Space environment or simulated microgravity may throw a certain influence on those opportunistic pathogens and lead to some changes on their virulence, biofilm formation and drug tolerance. The mechanism of bacteria response to space environment or simulated microgravity has not been defined. However,...

  8. Keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikx, F H; De Jong, M H

    1987-01-01

    A test was developed to measure the keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria. Keratin, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was used in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) with 1 mM dithiothreitol. The degradation of keratin was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of the degradation products in the supernatant of the reaction mixtures in a luminescence spectrometer. Several oral and cutaneous bacteria were investigated: Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Treponema d...

  9. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal associations and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Marupakula, Srisailam

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forest podzol soils have vertically stratified horizons with different physico-chemical characteristics and high microbial diversity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play key roles in accessing nutrients from both organic and mineral substrates. The role of associated bacteria in these processes is still poorly understood. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to improve understanding of the distribution, diversity and community structure of fungi and bacteria on roots and in soil ...

  10. How Bacteria Turn Fiber into Food

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Eric C.; Lowe, Elisabeth C.; Chiang, Herbert; Nicholas A Pudlo; Wu, Meng; McNulty, Nathan P.; Abbott, D Wade; Henrissat, Bernard; Gilbert, Harry J.; Bolam, David N.; Jeffrey I Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria inhabiting the human gut have evolved under intense pressure to utilize complex carbohydrates, primarily plant cell wall glycans in our diets. These polysaccharides are not digested by human enzymes, but are processed to absorbable short chain fatty acids by gut bacteria. The Bacteroidetes, one of two dominant bacterial phyla in the adult gut, possess broad glycan-degrading abilities. These species use a series of membrane protein complexes, termed Sus-like systems, for cat...

  11. Bacteria in goat meat: Biological danger

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Pavlović I.; Žujović M.; Tomić Z.; Memiši N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world, especially in China, India, Pаkistаn and Nigeria goat meat represents an important foodstuff in nutrition of people. Goat meat is being increasingly consumed in Serbia owing to its distinctive taste and desirable chemical composition. As many other types of meat, goat meat can be the source of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can find their way into meat of healthy goats or goats with no clinical symptoms premortally (infection) or postmortally (...

  12. Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nowroozi; Mirzaii, M; M. Norouzi

    2004-01-01

    Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot, well diffusion and blank disk method. Enzyme sensitivity of supernatant fluid and...

  13. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  14. Manganese Oxidation by Bacteria: Biogeochemical Aspects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    and protection against oxidative stress in bacteria (Christianson 1997 and Spiro et al. 2010). It is important for general metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and for both anabolic and catabolic functions in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis (Crowley et al. 2000... in biochemical processes in rivers must be great but require further investigations to know about their nutritional needs, metabolism and enzymatic systems. Knowing the importance of Mn 2+ oxidation by bacteria Johnson and Stokes (1966) readily stated...

  15. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  16. Quorum sensing mechanism in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yılmaz - Yıldıran

    2015-04-01

    and detection occurs as a consecution it is hard to understand their QS mechanism. In this review, connection between QS mechanism and some characteristics of lactic acid bacteria are evaluated such as concordance with its host, inhibition of pathogen development and colonization in gastrointestinal system, bacteriocin production, acid and bile resistance, adhesion to epithelium cells. Understanding QS mechanism of lactic acid bacteria will be useful to design metabiotics which is defined as novel probiotics.

  17. Correlation between serum reactivity to Demodex-associated Bacillus oleronius proteins, and altered sebum levels and Demodex populations in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuda, Stanislaw; McMahon, Fred; Zaba, Ryszard; O'Reilly, Niamh; Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Holland, Ashling; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the skin of the face and the eyes. The aetiology of rosacea is not clearly established but increasing evidence suggests a potential role for bacteria in the induction of the condition. A role for Bacillus oleronius, originally isolated from within a Demodex folliculorum mite, in the aetiology of the condition has been suggested. The aim of the study was to determine whether a correlation existed between the level of sebum and the density of D. folliculorum in the skin of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients, and the reactivity of these patients' sera to proteins of B. oleronius. Serum reactivity to the 62 and 83 kDa B. oleronius proteins was found in 82.6 % (62/75) of the rosacea patients and in 26.9 % (14/52) of controls (P = 0.0016). In the group of rosacea patients whose sera reacted to B. oleronius proteins, the level of sebum was statistically lower than in controls (P = 0.01). The density of D. folliculorum on the face of Bacillus positive rosacea patients was statistically higher than controls (P = 0.0001). Rosacea patients demonstrated increased Demodex populations on their faces and reduced sebum levels. Their sera also showed reactivity to B. oleronius proteins, suggesting a potential role for this bacterium in the aetiology of rosacea.

  18. Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nowroozi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot, well diffusion and blank disk method. Enzyme sensitivity of supernatant fluid and concentrated cell free culture after treatment with α-amylase, lysozyme and trypsin was determined. The isolated bacteria were Lacto. plantarum, Lacto delbruekii, Lacto. acidophilus, Lacto. brevis. The isolated bacteria had strong activity against indicator strains. The antibacterial activity was stable at 100ºC for 10 min and at 56ºC for 30 min, but activity was lost after autoclaving. The maximum production of plantaricin was obtained at 25 - 30ºC at pH 6.5. Because, lactobacilli that used to process sausage fermentation are producing antimicrobial activity with heat stability bacteriocin, so, these bacteria may be considered to be a healthy probiotic diet. Lactobacilli originally isolated from meat products are the best condidates as probiotic bacteria to improve the microbiological safety of these foods.

  19. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone;

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum as solidif......Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... as solidifying agents, and enumerated bacteria from seawater and algal exudates. We tested if culturability could be influenced by addition of quorum sensing signals (AHLs). All plates were incubated at 15°C. Bacterial counts (CFU/g) from algal exudates from brown algae were highest on media containing algal...... polymers. In general, bacteria isolated from algal exudates preferred more rich media than bacteria isolated from seawater. Overall, culturability ranged from 0.01 to 0.8% as compared to total cell count. Substitution of agar with gellan gum increased the culturability of seawater bacteria approximately...

  20. Denitrifying Bacteria in Paddy Soils of Taihu Lake Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-Yong; LI Zhen-Gao; PAN Ying-Hua; LI Liang-Mo

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the characteristics of the communities, the ecological factors, and the denitrifying enzyme activity for denitrifying bacteria found in the paddy soils of the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Samples of the six main soil types of the basin were taken from paddy fields with different fertilities. The total numbers of bacteria and denitrifying bacteria in the high fertility soils were much more than those in low fertility soils, and the number of denitrifying bacteria accounted for 49% to 80% of the total number of bacteria. The O2 content was an important ecological factor that affected denitrification. Of test the strains isolated from the paddy soils in the Taihu Lake Basin, some (e.g., Pseudomonas spp.)grew well under low oxygen partial pressure, while others (e.g., Bacillus spp.) had no strict predilection with O2 content.Another critical ecological factor was the nitrogen concentration. Three selected denitrifying bacteria grew better in a culture medium with 135 instead of 276 mg L-1 nitrogen. At the same time 67% of the test strains were able to reduce NO-3 to NO-2 and 56% had N2O reductase.

  1. Competition for hydrogen by human faecal bacteria: evidence for the predominance of methane producing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Strocchi, A; Furne, J K; Ellis, C J; Levitt, M D

    1991-01-01

    Studies of sludge have shown that some species of sulphate reducing bacteria outcompete methane producing bacteria for the common substrate H2. A similar competition may exist in human faeces where the methane (CH4) producing status of an individual depends on the faecal concentration of sulphate reducing bacteria. To determine if non-methanogenic faeces outcompete CH4 producing faeces for H2, aliquots of each type of faeces were incubated alone or mixed together, with or without addition of ...

  2. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compar

  3. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  4. Serum bleomycin-detectable iron in patients with thalassemia major with normal range of serum iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han,Khin Ei

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available "Free" iron, a potentially radical-generating low mass iron, and not found in normal human blood, was increased in the serum of blood-transfused thalassemia major patients seen in the Yangon General Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar (Burma. The low mass iron was detected by the bleomycin assay. Fifty-one blood samples were analyzed (from 28 males and 23 females. High "free" iron was detected in 47 sera samples from thalassemia patients. Serum ferritin, which reflects the body store iron, was higher than the normal range (10-200 ng/ml in 49 patients. On the other hand, serum iron of 39 sera samples fell within the normal range (50-150 micrograms/dl. Four were less than 50 micrograms/dl and eight were more than 150 micrograms/dl. Almost all the patients' sera of normal or higher serum iron level contained "free" iron. Thus, almost all the sera from thalassemic patients from Myanmar contain bleomycin-detectable iron, even when serum iron is within the normal range. In developing countries where undernutrition is prevalent (serum albumin in these patients was 3.6 +/- 0.4 g/dl, P < 0.0001 vs. control value of 4.0 - 4.8 g/dl, normal serum iron does not preclude the presence of free iron in the serum.

  5. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  6. Biochemical indicators of vitamin A deficiency: Serum retinol and serum retinol binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pee, de S.; Dary, O.

    2002-01-01

    Two biochemical indicators are currently recommended for determining whether vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem: serum retinol and serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). After consideration of 40 data sets and the original rationale for previously proposed cut-offs, a cut-off for se

  7. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh;

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  8. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaradia Elisabetta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.

  9. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  10. Maternal serum levels of adiponectin in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the serum levels of adiponectin in pre eclamptic patients are conflicting. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess serum levels of adiponectin in women with pre eclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The case group consisted of women with pre eclampsia (n=30). The control group consisted of 30 matched normal pregnant women. Serum levels of adiponectin were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the pre eclamptic group than those in the normal control group. In the pre eclamptic patients serum levels of adiponectin showed a significant negative correlation with body mass index while no correlation was found in the normal pregnant women. In women with pre eclampsia, levels of adiponectin were decreased significantly in the overweight women compared with normal weight women, while in the control group no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, elevation of adiponectin levels might be a physiological feedback response to minimize endothelial dysfunction in pre eclamptic patients. (author)

  11. Peptidomic Identification of Serum Peptides Diagnosing Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Wen

    Full Text Available We sought to identify serological markers capable of diagnosing preeclampsia (PE. We performed serum peptide analysis (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of 62 unique samples from 31 PE patients and 31 healthy pregnant controls, with two-thirds used as a training set and the other third as a testing set. Differential serum peptide profiling identified 52 significant serum peptides, and a 19-peptide panel collectively discriminating PE in training sets (n = 21 PE, n = 21 control; specificity = 85.7% and sensitivity = 100% and testing sets (n = 10 PE, n = 10 control; specificity = 80% and sensitivity = 100%. The panel peptides were derived from 6 different protein precursors: 13 from fibrinogen alpha (FGA, 1 from alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT, 1 from apolipoprotein L1 (APO-L1, 1 from inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4, 2 from kininogen-1 (KNG1, and 1 from thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4. We concluded that serum peptides can accurately discriminate active PE. Measurement of a 19-peptide panel could be performed quickly and in a quantitative mass spectrometric platform available in clinical laboratories. This serum peptide panel quantification could provide clinical utility in predicting PE or differential diagnosis of PE from confounding chronic hypertension.

  12. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  13. Crocodylus siamensis serum and macrophage phagocytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aree, Kalaya; Siruntawineti, Jindawan; Chaeychomsri, Win

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial activity of sera from many crocodilian species has been recognized. This activity was proposed to be mediated, at least in part, by complement. Due to the fact that complement proteins have different functions in the immune system, they may be involved in phagocytic process of phagocytes. In the present study, the effects of Siamese crocodile serum on phagocytic activity of macrophages as well as the possible involvement of complement in this process were examined. The results showed increases in the phagocytosis of both Escherichia coli and to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus upon incubation of murine macrophage cell line with fresh crocodile serum (FS). Similar to FS, other crocodile blood products, including freeze dried serum (DS) and freeze dried whole blood (DWB) exhibited phagocytosis-enhancing property. However the ability of DWB to enhance phagocytosis was less efficient than that of FS and DS, suggesting that serum factors were involved in this process. Treatment of FS with heat at 56 degrees C for 30 min deteriorated the effect of FS on bacterial uptake of macrophages, suggesting that complement proteins play a role in the modulation of the phagocytic process. Collectively, the results of the present study suggested that crocodile serum enhances the macrophage phagocytic activity through complement activity and, therefore, may be taken as an alternative medicine for supporting the human immune responses. PMID:22619919

  14. Serum tryptase levels in adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoqui, E; Zubeldia, J M; Aranzábal, A; Rubio, M; Herrero, T; Tornero, P; Rodríguez, V M; Prieto, A; Baeza, M L

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of individual tryptase levels and variations after adverse drug reactions in 64 patients. Our aim was to find a tool for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Thirty-seven subjects were confirmed to have drug allergy, 12 had nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions, five had negative controlled drug challenges (NAAR), and 10 had symptoms after placebo intake (PLA). Serum tryptase levels greatly increased after anaphylactic shocks (2242%) and anaphylaxis (710.5%). Patients with allergic urticaria and those with idiosyncratic responses to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exhibited a small increase in serum tryptase (49.5% and 38.2%, respectively). In the other two groups (NAAR and PLA), no variation in this serum protease was observed. The time of appearance of the serum tryptase peak differed considerably among patients with similar clinical reactions (from 30 min to 6 h) and was independent of the latent period, severity of symptoms, or the amount of tryptase released. We conclude that serum tryptase determinations are helpful in the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock and anaphylaxis, but serial measurements may be needed to confirm mast-cell participation in milder reactions.

  15. In serum veritas—in serum sanitas? Cell non-autonomous aging compromises differentiation and survival of mesenchymal stromal cells via the oxidative stress pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Geißler, S; Textor, M; K Schmidt-Bleek; Klein, O; Thiele, M; Ellinghaus, A; Jacobi, D.; Ode, A; Perka, C; Dienelt, A; Klose, J.; Kasper, G; Duda, G. N.; Strube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Even tissues capable of complete regeneration, such as bone, show an age-related reduction in their healing capacity. Here, we hypothesized that this decline is primarily due to cell non-autonomous (extrinsic) aging mediated by the systemic environment. We demonstrate that culture of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in serum from aged Sprague–Dawley rats negatively affects their survival and differentiation ability. Proteome analysis and further cellular investigations strongly suggest that s...

  16. Effect of fermented broth from lactic acid bacteria on pathogenic bacteria proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, S; Martínez-Blanco, H; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Ferrero, M A

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect that 5 fermented broths of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have on the viability or proliferation and adhesion of 7 potentially pathogenic microorganisms was tested. The fermented broth from Lactococcus lactis C660 had a growth inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli K92 that reached of 31%, 19% to Pseudomonas fluorescens, and 76% to Staphylococcus epidermidis. The growth of Staph. epidermidis was negatively affected to 90% by Lc. lactis 11454 broth, whereas the growth of P. fluorescens (25%) and both species of Staphylococcus (35% to Staphylococcus aureus and 76% to Staph. epidermidis) were inhibited when they were incubated in the presence of Lactobacillus casei 393 broth. Finally, the fermented broth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed an inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli K92, Listeria innocua, and Staph. epidermidis reached values of 12, 28, and 76%, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most affected strain because the effect was detected from the early stages of growth and it was completely abolished. The results of bacterial adhesion revealed that broths from Lc. lactis strains, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lb. rhamnosus caused a loss of E. coli K92 adhesion. Bacillus cereus showed a decreased of adhesion in the presence of the broths of Lc. lactis strains and Lb. paracasei. Listeria innocua adhesion inhibition was observed in the presence of Lb. paracasei broth, and the greatest inhibitory effect was registered when this pathogenic bacterium was incubated in presence of Lc. lactis 11454 broth. With respect to the 2 Pseudomonas, we observed a slight adhesion inhibition showed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus broth against Pseudomonas putida. These results confirm that the effect caused by the different LAB assayed is also broth- and species-specific and reveal that the broth from LAB tested can be used as functional bioactive compounds to regulate the adhesion and biofilm synthesis and ultimately lead to preventing food and

  17. Gadagi Magani Tea Is Detrimental Affects Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gadagi Magani tae is a herbal tea composed of many different herbs roots extracts shrubs and leaves prepared locally in form of tea consumed by many labourers youths tailors tricyclists and high way drivers in order to get extraordinary strength to endure hardship and overcome heavy duty within short period of time. The following biochemical parameters were routinely determined among consumers serum level of Aspartate aminotransaminases AST Alanine aminotransferase ALT activities were pragmatically higher than that of control increase in serum creatinine level lower sera urea and glucose levels and the sera levels of lipoproteins were also lower compared to controls. Hence Gadagi affects negatively the liver enzymes blood sugar level serum urea creatinine and carbonate positively as it lowers lipid profile.

  18. The Impact of Diabetes on Serum Osteocalcin in Egyptian Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Lack of diagnosis and treatment of alterations of the bone tissue metabolism in type1diabetes (T1D) may lead to osteoporosis.T1D most often starts before achieving peak bone mass.Recent studies have revealed that, in T1D fracture risk is increased more than expected from the degree of decrease in bone mineral density (BMD).Osteocalcin (OC) is considered a useful biochemical marker of bone formation. As in T1D, there is absolute insulin deficiency but insulin sensitivity remains generally intact. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between OC levels in relation the degree of residual β-cell function and other metabolic parameters in T1D In the present study, the impact of diabetes on serum OC in Egyptian children and adolescents was evaluated by comparing serum level of OC in T1D (30 subjects) and age-matched non-diabetic control (15 subjects). The present study showed that, patients with T1D had lower OC serum levels compared to the controls (7.67 ± 3.55, 21.82 ± 4.96 μg/ml respectively, p < 0.001) with a lower OC levels in diabetic females than in diabetic males (5.92 ± 3.12, 8.74 ± 2.84 μg/ml respectively, p < 0.001) and lower OC levels in pre-pubertal than pubertal diabetic patients in both genders with p < 0.05. Serum OC levels in T1D correlated with HbAIc (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.05), durations of T1D (p < 0.05) and total daily insulin dose (p < 0.05)and did not correlate with C-peptide levels . It may be concluded that serum OC levels in patients with T1D are regulated by a variety of developmental and metabolic pathways. Since OC levels correlated with exogenous insulin(daily insulin dose) and did not correlate with endogenous insulin (C-peptide levels), therefore, it is presumed that OC was regulated by insulin-mediated events, in presence of aggressive autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cell. These results proposed that

  19. Association of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegari Ebrahim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have shown that leptin is cleared principally by the kidney. Objectives: To examine whether and how in patients on hemodialysis the level of C-reactive protein level correlate with serum leptin. Patients and Methods: The total patients were 36. The mean patients’ age were 46 (16 years. The median length of the time patients were on hemodialysis were 19 months. Results: The mean serum C-reactive protein was 8.7 (6.6 mg/l (median: 8 mg/l. The mean serum leptin was 9.4 (14 ng/ml (median: 5.75 ng/ml. In this study we found a significant inverse correlation of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein (r= -0.57, p= 0.041 was seen. Conclusion: Our data supports, the positive effect of leptin on nutrition and support the theory of protective effects (reverse epidemiology of leptin in hemodialysis patients.

  20. Correlation between Serum T3 Resin Uptake and Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinarvand, GH. ( MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: T3 resin uptake test indicates the availability of thyroxin binding globulin (TBG, which is the carrier of a large amount of T3 and T4 in blood. We aimed to study the relationship between serum T3 Resin Uptake and serum lipids profile. Material and Methods: The participants aged 14.80 ± 38.29 were both males (59; 29.5% and females (141; 70.5 %. T3 Resin Uptake was measured by Immunoassay method and serum lipid profile components (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL were measured by the kit. Results: Significant negative correlation was observed between serum T3 Resin Uptake and cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C (P≤ 0.05, but that was not the case for HDL-C and VLDL. Conclusion: Serum T3 Resin Uptake can be evaluated to assess the risk factors related to cardiovascular disorders