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Sample records for bacteria affect serum

  1. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

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    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  3. S. aureus bacteria : a new target of serum calcification activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dy, Diane Jazmin

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are gram- positive bacteria that cause skin and soft tissue infections. The continual incidence of infection is of great concern especially with the advent of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Continued investigation on mechanisms our body uses to fight bacterial infection is vital. Our study suggests that the body takes advantage of a mechanism that mineralizes type-I collagen of bone and tendon to also mineralize bacteria. Serum driven bacterial mineralization ma...

  4. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers; Brenner, B M; Cooper, M E; Parving, Hans-Henrik Dyring; Shahinfar, S; Grobbee, D; de Zeeuw, D

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  5. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  6. Endophytic bacteria affect sugarcane physiology without changing plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Castro Correia Marcos; Raquel de Paula Freitas Iório; Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Eduardo Caruso Machado; Ana Maria Magalhães Andrade Lagôa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate if endophytic bacteria inoculants would be beneficial to the sugarcane varieties IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000, promoting changes in photosynthesis and plant growth. The plants, obtained from mini stalks with one bud, were treated with two bacteria mixtures (inoculum I or II) or did not receive any inoculum (control plants). The inocula did not affect shoot and root dry matter accumulation as compared to the control condition (plants with native ...

  7. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    , were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions. Significant differences between soil fractions were shown by all assays. The highest number of......-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolim chloride (CTC)-reducing bacteria explained a major part of the variation in the number of protozoa. High protozoan activity and predation thus coincided with high bacterial activity. In soil with elm leaves, fungal growth is assumed to inhibit bacterial and protozoan...... activity. In soil with elm leaves and earthworms, earthworm activity led to increased culturability of bacteria, activity of protozoa, number of nematodes, changed metabolic potentials of the bacteria, and decreased differences in metabolic potentials between bacterial populations in the soil fractions...

  8. Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

  9. Do bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection affect serum cytokine level?

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    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serbia is the country with extremely low birth rate and a relatively high percentage of preterm deliveries (8%. With this in mind, discovering new diagnostic methods that could be used for the prediction of preterm delivery is of great importance. In this study we tried to determine whether bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection could provoke preterm delivery by activation of systemic cytokine network. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery and to make correlation between these parameters and the presence of bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection. Method. In the serum of 35 pregnant women, which were divided in groups according to the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection, commercial ELISA tests for proinflammatory cytokines were performed. Results. The serum level of IFN-γ was significantly increased in pregnant women having chlamydial infection, as well as the level of IL-1β in women with bacterial vaginosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were not significantly different between the investigated groups. Conclusion. The preliminary results obtained in this research point out the possibility that not only intrauterine or systemic infections, but also bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection can cause a partial activation of systemic cytokine network and contribute to the occurrence of preterm delivery.

  10. Bovine Serum Albumin and Chitosan Coated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity against Oral and Nonoral Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal; Gabriel Alejandro Martínez-Castañón; Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Nereyda Niño-Martínez; Facundo Ruiz; Norma Verónica Zavala-Alonso; Lara, René H.; Simón Yobanny Reyes-López

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents have been developed for drug-resistance infections, which have been rapidly increasing; however, the control of involved microorganisms is still a challenge. In this work, SNP with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chitosan (CS) coatings were prepared with an aqueous reduction method, characterized using dispersion light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Antibacterial activity was tested on seven oral and nonoral bacteria by microdilution te...

  11. The community structure of endophytic bacteria in different parts of Huanglongbing-affected citrus plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The analyses methods of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), hierarchical cluster analysis and diversity index were used to study the relevance between citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the endophytic bacteria in different branches and leaves as well as roots of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus tr...

  12. Studies on the correlation of TF, SF, Hb in serum affected virus hepatitis with RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TF, SF and Hb in serum of 119 cases affected virus hepatitis are determined by RIA. The result indicates that the TF in serum for the different type of virus hepatitis decreases comparing with the normal and the TF has a tendency to decrease remarkably as the condition of patients get worse. It also shows that the TF has the negative association with the SF, whereas the TF has the positive with Hb. However, they have no significant association (P>0.05) although the correlated coefficients get larger as the condition of the patients get worse

  13. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  14. Bovine Serum Albumin and Chitosan Coated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial Activity against Oral and Nonoral Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents have been developed for drug-resistance infections, which have been rapidly increasing; however, the control of involved microorganisms is still a challenge. In this work, SNP with bovine serum albumin (BSA and chitosan (CS coatings were prepared with an aqueous reduction method, characterized using dispersion light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. Antibacterial activity was tested on seven oral and nonoral bacteria by microdilution test and scanning electron microscopy. Six different sizes and shapes of coated SNP were prepared and used. Characterization revealed narrow size and good distribution of particles, spherical and pseudospherical shapes, and the presence of coatings on the SNP surfaces. All samples showed antimicrobial activity, although smaller sizes and CS samples had the best inhibition effects. The highest microbial resistance was shown by Gram-positive bacteria. Although coated SNP action depends on particular bacterium, BSA and CS coated SNP could be used for drug-resistance infections.

  15. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

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    S. Comai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 µg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 µg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  16. Intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate the serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Masato; Hosono, Akira; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Kihara-Fujioka, Miran; Hachimura, Satoshi; Itoh, Kikuji; Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2010-08-16

    Colonization of the gut by commensal bacteria modulates the induction of oral tolerance and allergy. However, how these intestinal bacteria modulate antigen-specific T cell responses induced by oral antigens remains unclear. In order to investigate this, we used germ-free (GF) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic (OVA23-3) mice. Conventional (CV) or GF mice were administered an OVA-containing diet. Cytokine production by CD4(+) cells from spleen (SP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) was evaluated by ELISA, as was the peripheral antibody titer. T cell phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry. CD4(+) cells from the SP and MLN of CV and GF mice fed an OVA diet for 3 weeks produced significantly less IL-2 than the corresponding cells from mice receiving a control diet, suggesting that oral tolerance could be induced at the T cell level in the systemic and intestinal immune systems of both bacterial condition of mice. However, we also observed that the T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by dietary antigen was delayed in the systemic immune tissues and was weaker in the intestinal immune tissues of the GF mice. Intestinal MLN and PP CD4(+) T cells from these animals also produced lower levels of IL-10, had less activated/memory type CD45RB(low) cells, and expressed lower levels of CTLA-4 but not Foxp3 compared to their CV counterparts. Furthermore, GF mice produced higher serum levels of OVA-specific antibodies than CV animals. CD40L expression by SP CD4(+) cells from GF mice fed OVA was higher than that of CV mice. These results suggest that intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigens through modulation of the intestinal and systemic T cell phenotype. PMID:20621647

  17. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to de...

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa; Takashi eOkubo; Dongyan eLiu; Hirohito eTsurumaru; Seishi eIkeda; Susumu eAsakawa; Takeshi eTokida; Kanako eTago; Masahito eHayatsu; Naohiro eAoki; Ken eIshimaru; Kazuhiro eUjiie; Yasuhiro eUsui; Hirofumi eNakamura; Hidemitsu eSakai

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines) to determine...

  19. Phenols produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice

    OpenAIRE

    IIZUKA, Ryoko; Kawakami, Koji; Izawa, Naoki; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Phenol and p-cresol are metabolites of aromatic amino acid produced by gut bacteria, and are assumed to cause undesirable effects in the body. We aimed to understand how phenol and p-cresol affect the skin of hairless mice. Materials and methods: First, we compared the skin condition of hairless mice fed the basal diet and the skin condition of mice fed the tyrosine-enriched diet. In the next experiment, we administered either phenol or p-cresol intraperitoneally to mice fed the ba...

  20. Serum IgE reactivity profiling in an asthma affected cohort.

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    Tania Dottorini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that atopic asthma correlates with high serum IgE levels though the contribution of allergen specific IgE to the pathogenesis and the severity of the disease is still unclear. METHODS: We developed a microarray immunoassay containing 103 allergens to study the IgE reactivity profiles of 485 asthmatic and 342 non-asthmatic individuals belonging to families whose members have a documented history of asthma and atopy. We employed k-means clustering, to investigate whether a particular IgE reactivity profile correlated with asthma and other atopic conditions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis and eczema. RESULTS: Both case-control and parent-to-siblings analyses demonstrated that while the presence of specific IgE against individual allergens correlated poorly with pathological conditions, particular reactivity profiles were significantly associated with asthma (p<10E-09. An artificial neural network (ANN-based algorithm, calibrated with the profile reactivity data, correctly classified as asthmatic or non-asthmatic 78% of the individual examined. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the familiar relationships of the study population did not affect the observed correlations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that asthma is a higher-order phenomenon related to patterns of IgE reactivity rather than to single antibody reactions. This notion sheds new light on the pathogenesis of the disease and can be readily employed to distinguish asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals on the basis of their serum reactivity profile.

  1. Assessment of confounding factors affecting the tumor markers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 in serum

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gilbert Weber; Georg Johnen; Dirk Taeger; Anne Weber; Isabelle Mercedes Gross; Beate Pesch; Thomas Kraus; Thomas Brüning; Monika Gube

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate if serum levels of potential tumor markers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are affected by confounding factors in a surveillance cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 concentrations were determined in about 1,700 serum samples from 627 workers formerly exposed to asbestos. The impact of factors that could modify the concentrations of the tumor markers was examined with linear mixed mo...

  2. Factors affecting the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species tree in bacteria

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    González Víctor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identification of orthologous genes, we address the question of whether putative orthologous genes within bacteria really reflect the history of the species. Results We identified a set of 370 orthologous genes from the bacterial order Rhizobiales. Although manifesting strong vertical signal, almost every orthologous gene had a distinct phylogeny, and the most common topology among the orthologous gene trees did not correspond with the best estimate of the species tree. However, each orthologous gene tree shared an average of 70% of its bipartitions with the best estimate of the species tree. Stochastic error related to gene size affected the concordance between the best estimated of the species tree and the orthologous gene trees, although this effect was weak and distributed unevenly among the functional categories. The nodes showing the greatest discordance were those defined by the shortest internal branches in the best estimated of the species tree. Moreover, a clear bias was evident with respect to the function of the orthologous genes, and the degree of divergence among the orthologous genes appeared to be related to their functional classification. Conclusion Orthologous genes do not reflect the history of the species when taken as individual markers, but they do when taken as a whole. Stochastic error affected the concordance of orthologous genes with the species tree, albeit weakly. We conclude that two important biological causes of discordance among

  3. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  4. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the biofilm. • Sulfate

  5. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong, E-mail: tong.yu@ualberta.ca; Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H{sub 2}S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. - Graphical abstract: The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within Oil Sands Process-affected Water (OSPW) biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated by Liu and coworkers. Combined microsensor and molecular biology techniques were utilized in this study. Their results demonstrated that multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H{sub 2}S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. - Highlights: • Biofilm in oil sands wastewater was developed on engineered biocarriers. • Bacterial community and in situ activity of SRB were studied in the

  6. Nitrogen fixed by wheat plants as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels and Non-symbiotic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic nitrogen is required for all egyptian soils for wheat. Free living and N 2-fixing microorganisms are able associate closely related with the roots of geraminacae. Pot experiment studies were carried out to examine the response of wheat plants to inoculation with Azospirillum Brasilense and Azotobacter Chroococcum, single or in combination, under various levels of ammonium sulfate interaction between both the inoculants increased straw or grain yield as well as N-uptake by wheat plants with increasing N levels. Results showed that grains of wheat plants derived over 19,24 and 15% of its N content from the atmospheric - N 2 (Ndfa) with application of 25,50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil in the presence of + Azospirillum + azotobacter. The final amount of N 2-fixers. The highest values of N 2-fixed were observed with mixed inoculants followed by inoculation with Azospirillum and then azotobacter. The recovery of applied ammonium sulfate-N was markedly increased by inoculation with combined inoculants, but less in uninoculated treatments. Seeds inoculated with non-symbiotic fixing bacteria could be saved about 25 kg N without much affecting the grain yield. i fig., 4 tabs

  7. Sulfate reducing bacteria and their activities in oil sands process-affected water biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yu, Tong; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm reactors were constructed to grow stratified multispecies biofilm in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) supplemented with growth medium. The development of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) within the biofilm and the biofilm treatment of OSPW were evaluated. The community structure and potential activity of SRB in the biofilm were investigated with H2S microsensor measurements, dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multispecies biofilm with a thickness of 1000 μm was successfully developed on engineered biocarriers. H2S production was observed in the deeper anoxic zone of the biofilm from around 750 μm to 1000 μm below the bulk water-biofilm interface, revealing sulfate reduction in the deeper zone of the stratified biofilm. The biofilm removed chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate, and nitrogen. The study expands current knowledge of biofilm treatment of OSPW and the function of anaerobic SRB in OSPW biofilm, and thus provides information for future bioreactor development in the reclamation of OSPW. PMID:26204047

  8. Isolation and identification of associated bacteria and maggots from myiasis affected wounds of cattle and goats in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Touhidul Islam; Abdullah-Al-Maruf; Md. Abdul Mannan; Hossain Md. Rakibur Rahman; Md. Marofuzzaman Tarafder; Md Abdus Samad; Abdullah Al Noman; Muhammad Belal Hossain; Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the associated maggots and bacteria in myiasis affected wound in animals. Total 37 myiasis affected cattle (n=25) and goats (n=12) were examined in this study, of which 21 samples were collected from the Veterinary clinics of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, and the remaining 16 samples were collected from Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur, Mymensingh. The maggots were collected from the wounds, and were identified under micros...

  9. Growth rate of bacteria is affected by soil texture and extraction procedure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Eva; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2003), s. 217-224. ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil texture * extraction of bacteria * biosynthetic activity of bacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.915, year: 2003

  10. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26987674

  11. Coliform and human pathogenic bacteria in tourism affected water bodies in North Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    Microscopic bacteria, which are diverse and preponderant in all ecosystems, sense changes in any environment fast because of their ability to metabolize a variety of chemical substances for their nutrition and growth. In any environment loaded...

  12. Influence of aeration intensity and medium acidity on phosphate mobilization affected by soil bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. Lavrentyeva; P. I. Kharchenko; N. V. Cherevach; A. I. Vinnikov

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of phosphate solubilisation conducted by two bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Enterobacter dissolvens under conditions of different rates of aeration and рН. Bacterial development was characterized by different media acidity and aeration levels. It was established optimal aeration rates and potential of hydrogen for soil bacteria growth and phosphate solubilisation – 0.5721 mole О2/l per hour and pH ≈ 6.0.

  13. Niche Expansion in Bacteria: Can Infectious Gene Exchange Affect the Rate of Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ralph

    1986-01-01

    Recombination occurs by infectious gene transfer in bacteria, at rates much lower than recombination by sexual reproduction in other organisms. Thus, recombination may accelerate evolution in bacteria only under restricted conditions, such as occur when mutations at several loci are required for the evolution of an expanded ecological niche. Mathematical ("chemostat") models of several such cases—evolution of independence from three limiting essential or "interactive-essential" resources; evo...

  14. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden-William Courtland

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD. Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID, in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 16 weeks (adulthood. Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 32 weeks (late adulthood, but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.

  15. Soil and Waste Matrix Affects Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria Filtration during Unsaturated Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Unc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous flows resulting from discrete natural rain events induce temporal and spatial variability in the transport of bacteria from organic waste through soils in which the degree of saturation varies. Transport and continuity of associated pathways are dependent on structure and stability of the soil under conditions of variable moisture and ionic strength of the soil solution. Lysimeters containing undisturbed monoliths of clay, clay loam or sandy loam soils were used to investigate transport and pathway continuity for bacteria and hydrophobic fluorescent microspheres. Biosolids, to which the microspheres were added, were surface applied and followed by serial irrigation events. Microspheres, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens were enumerated in drainage collected from 64 distinct collection areas through funnels installed in a grid pattern at the lower boundary of the monoliths. Bacteria-dependent filtration coefficients along pathways of increasing water flux were independent of flow volume, suggesting: (1 tracer or colloid dependent retention; and (2 transport depended on the total volume of contiguous pores accessible for bacteria transport. Management decisions, in this case resulting from the form of organic waste, induced changes in tortuosity and continuity of pores and modified the effective capacity of soil to retain bacteria. Surface application of liquid municipal biosolids had a negative impact on transport pathway continuity, relative to the solid municipal biosolids, enhancing retention under less favourable electrostatic conditions consistent with an initial increase in straining within inactive pores and subsequent by limited re-suspension from reactivated pores.

  16. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  17. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan;

    2015-01-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is...... results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the...... studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and...

  18. Size and molecular flexibility affect the binding of ellagitannins to bovine serum albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Dobreva, Marina; Green, R. J.; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Salminen, J.-P.; Howlin, B.J.; Frazier, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Binding to bovine serum albumin of monomeric (vescalagin and pedunculagin) and dimeric ellagitannins (roburin A, oenothein B, and gemin A) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, which indicated two types of binding sites. Stronger and more specific sites exhibited affinity constants, K1, of 104–106 M–1 and stoichiometries, n1, of 2–13 and dominated at low tannin concentrations. Weaker and less-specific binding sites had K2 constants of 103–105 M–1 ...

  19. Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    = 0.044 and P = 0.001). Serum insulin was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (1.04 ± 0.09 mmol/L) than in the 4-MRC diet group (1.44 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.002), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC diet group (1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L). Likewise, homeostasis model assessment of insulin...

  20. Factors affecting the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species tree in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    González Víctor; Castillo-Ramírez Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identificat...

  1. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  2. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Brzezinski; Howard, Michael S.; Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangi...

  3. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet. PMID:20668250

  4. Fate of food-associated bacteria in pork as affected by marinade, temperature, and ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Knøchel, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of ultrasound, red wine, and yogurt marination on Brochotrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni on pork meat. Two different marinationand on pork meat. Two different marination procedures...... sensitivity of C. jejuni compared with the other bacteria was confirmed in an experiment with yogurt as a marinade. Ultrasound treatment in combination with red wine enhanced the antibacterial effect compared with ultrasound alone for L. monocytogenes, B. thermosphacta, and C. jejuni and resulted...

  5. Differences in the sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to season and invertebrates affect leaf litter decomposition in a Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gómez, Juanita; Elosegi, Arturo; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Romaní, Anna M

    2016-08-01

    Microorganisms are key drivers of leaf litter decomposition; however, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of different microbial groups are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation and invertebrates on fungal and bacterial dynamics, and on leaf litter decomposition. We followed the decomposition of Populus nigra litter in a Mediterranean stream through an annual cycle, using fine and coarse mesh bags. Irrespective of the season, microbial decomposition followed two stages. Initially, bacterial contribution to total microbial biomass was higher compared to later stages, and it was related to disaccharide and lignin degradation; in a later stage, bacteria were less important and were associated with hemicellulose and cellulose degradation, while fungi were related to lignin decomposition. The relevance of microbial groups in decomposition differed among seasons: fungi were more important in spring, whereas in summer, water quality changes seemed to favour bacteria and slowed down lignin and hemicellulose degradation. Invertebrates influenced litter-associated microbial assemblages (especially bacteria), stimulated enzyme efficiencies and reduced fungal biomass. We conclude that bacterial and fungal assemblages play distinctive roles in microbial decomposition and differ in their sensitivity to environmental changes, ultimately affecting litter decomposition, which might be particularly relevant in highly seasonal ecosystems, such as intermittent streams. PMID:27288197

  6. Exo-polysaccharides (eps) producing biofilm bacteria in improving physico-chemical characteristics of the salt- affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effect of inoculation of an EPS-producing bacterial strain (isolated from roots of wheat plants grown in a salt-affected soil) on the extent of soil aggregation around roots of wheat plants grown for 15 or 30 days in saline and non-saline soils. The results showed that the association of the inoculated EPS-producing bacterium was higher with roots of the inoculated wheat plants grown in saline than non-saline soil. This higher association of the EPS-producing bacterium with roots of wheat plants could be attributed to the effect of soluble salts content of the salt-affected soil. An increase in soil aggregation around roots of the inoculated wheat plants grown in saline soil over control could be beneficial in terms of improving physico-chemical characteristics of the salt-affected soils. Thus it could be concluded that inoculation of EPS- producing bacteria could help ameliorate fertility and productivity of the salt-affected. An enhanced productivity of the salt-affected soils would lead to improved environmental conditions of surroundings of the salt-affected lands. (author)

  7. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  8. Isolation and identification of associated bacteria and maggots from myiasis affected wounds of cattle and goats in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Touhidul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the associated maggots and bacteria in myiasis affected wound in animals. Total 37 myiasis affected cattle (n=25 and goats (n=12 were examined in this study, of which 21 samples were collected from the Veterinary clinics of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh, and the remaining 16 samples were collected from Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur, Mymensingh. The maggots were collected from the wounds, and were identified under microscope. For microbial identification, samples (n=10 were collected aseptically by using sterile cotton swab. The samples were allowed to grow in media. Colony and staining characteristics were studied. Traumatic, creeping or migratory myiasis wounds were identified in the examined animals. In this study, subcutaneous wound was mostly recorded, of which 43% (n=9/21 was found at the Veterinary Clinics, BAU, and 44% (n=7/16 was found at the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur. The maggots were identified as Chrysomya bezziana, commonly known as Old World screwworm. Occurrence of myiasis due to C. bezziana larvae was recorded as 100%. The associated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus spp. In conclusion, the myiasis wounds are associated with both Staphylococcus spp. and larvae of C. bezziana. Preventive and control measures against the C. bezziana and Staphylococcus spp. can be undertaken to save the livestock from myiasis in Bangladesh.

  9. Size and molecular flexibility affect the binding of ellagitannins to bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina A; Green, Rebecca J; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Howlin, Brendan J; Frazier, Richard A

    2014-09-17

    Binding to bovine serum albumin of monomeric (vescalagin and pedunculagin) and dimeric ellagitannins (roburin A, oenothein B, and gemin A) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, which indicated two types of binding sites. Stronger and more specific sites exhibited affinity constants, K1, of 10(4)-10(6) M(-1) and stoichiometries, n1, of 2-13 and dominated at low tannin concentrations. Weaker and less-specific binding sites had K2 constants of 10(3)-10(5) M(-1) and stoichiometries, n2, of 16-30 and dominated at higher tannin concentrations. Binding to stronger sites appeared to be dependent on tannin flexibility and the presence of free galloyl groups. Positive entropies for all but gemin A indicated that hydrophobic interactions dominated during complexation. This was supported by an exponential relationship between the affinity, K1, and the modeled hydrophobic accessible surface area and by a linear relationship between K1 and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, K(SV). PMID:25162485

  10. The diversity of coral associated bacteria and the environmental factors affect their community variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ying; Ling, Juan; Yang, Qing-Song; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Hong-Yan; Feng, Jing-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Coral associated bacterial community potentially has functions relating to coral health, nutrition and disease. Culture-free, 16S rRNA based techniques were used to compare the bacterial community of coral tissue, mucus and seawater around coral, and to investigate the relationship between the coral-associated bacterial communities and environmental variables. The diversity of coral associated bacterial communities was very high, and their composition different from seawater. Coral tissue and mucus had a coral associated bacterial community with higher abundances of Gammaproteobacteria. However, bacterial community in seawater had a higher abundance of Cyanobacteria. Different populations were also found in mucus and tissue from the same coral fragment, and the abundant bacterial species associated with coral tissue was very different from those found in coral mucus. The microbial diversity and OTUs of coral tissue were much higher than those of coral mucus. Bacterial communities of corals from more human activities site have higher diversity and evenness; and the structure of bacterial communities were significantly different from the corals collected from other sites. The composition of bacterial communities associated with same coral species varied with season's changes, geographic differences, and coastal pollution. Unique bacterial groups found in the coral samples from more human activities location were significant positively correlated to chemical oxygen demand. These coral specific bacteria lead to coral disease or adjust to form new function structure for the adaption of different surrounding needs further research. PMID:25833806

  11. Rosuvastatin therapy does not affect serum MMP-13 or TIMP-1 levels in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Cihan; Nugent, Kenneth; Meyerrose, Gary; Otahbachi, Mohammad; Izgi, Cemil; Lyte, Mark; Fish, R David

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases degrade the collagen content of atherosclerotic plaque and reduce plaque stability. In tissue sections of atherosclerotic plaque, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases is increased. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease the tissue expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2, -3, and -9 in atheromatous plaque by attenuating the inflammatory process that leads to increased expression. However, it is not known whether statins decrease levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13--an enzyme crucial to the initiation of collagen degradation-as part of their plaque-stabilizing effect.We prospectively examined the effect of statin therapy on serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in 14 patients with hypercholesterolemia. All were at low risk for adverse cardiovascular events and were given 20 mg/d of rosuvastatin for 4 weeks. Post-therapy levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were compared with baseline levels. Although low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the 14 patients (mean baseline level, 152 ± 21 mg/dL vs mean post-therapy level, 73 ± 45 mg/dL; P < 0.001), matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels were unchanged (matrix metalloproteinase-13, 0.295 ± 0.06 ng/mL vs 0.323 ± 0.11 ng/mL, P = 0.12; and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, 400.8 ± 43.4 ng/mL vs 395.3 ± 47.5 ng/mL, P = 0.26). We conclude that even though there was a decrease in low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, short-term, high-dose rosuvastatin therapy has no effect on matrix metalloproteinase-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. However, further investigation is warranted. PMID:21720458

  12. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  13. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  14. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity, an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew. (author)

  15. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  16. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study origanum oil (ORO, garlic oil (GAO, and peppermint oil (PEO were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L, on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P≤0.05 in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P≤0.05 correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria.

  17. Surface-attached and suspended bacterial community structure as affected by C/N ratios: relationship between bacteria and fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Jinlin; Ako, Harry; Wang, Guangjun; Chen, Zhanghe; Liu, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria play crucial roles in the combined system of substrate addition and C/N control, which has been demonstrated to improve aquaculture production. However, the complexity of surface-attached bacteria on substrates and suspended bacteria in the water column hamper further application of this system. This study firstly applied this combined system into the culture of grass carp, and then explored the relationship between microbial complexes from surface-attached and suspended bacteria in this system and the production of grass carp. In addition, this study investigated bacterial community structures as affected by four C/N ratios using Illumina sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the weight gain rate and specific growth rate of grass carp in the CN20 group (C/N ratio 20:1) were the highest (P production of grass carp, and Verrucomicrobiae and Rhodobacter in the surface-attached bacterial community were potential probiotic bacteria that contributed to the enhanced growth of grass carp. PMID:27263011

  18. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  19. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic. PMID:25380360

  20. Supplemental leucine and isoleucine affect expression of cationic amino acid transporters and myosin, serum concentration of amino acids, and growth performance of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Ramírez, M; Mendez-Trujillo, V; Araiza-Piña, B A; Barrera-Silva, M A; González-Mendoza, D; Morales-Trejo, A

    2013-01-01

    Leucine (Leu) participates in the activity of cationic amino acid (aa) transporters. Also, branched-chain aa [Leu, isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val)] share intestinal transporters for absorption. We conducted an experiment with 16 young pigs (body weight of about 16 kg) to determine whether Leu and Ile affect expression of aa transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and expression of myosin in muscle, as well as serum concentration of essential aa, and growth performance in pigs. Dietary treatments were: wheat-based diets fortified with Lys, Thr, and Met; basal diet plus 0.50% Leu; basal diet plus 0.50% Ile, and basal diet plus 0.50% Leu and 0.50% Ile. After 28 days, the pigs were sacrificed to collect blood, jejunum, and semitendinosus and longissimus muscle samples. The effects of single and combined addition of Leu and Ile were analyzed. Leu alone or combined with Ile significantly decreased daily weight gain and reduced feed conversion. Leu and Ile, alone or in combination, significantly decreased expression of b(0,+) and significantly increased CAT-1. Ile alone or combined with Leu significantly decreased myosin expression in semitendinosus and significantly decreased it in longissimus muscle. Leu alone significantly decreased Lys, Ile and Thr serum concentrations; Ile significantly decreased Thr serum concentration; combined Leu and Ile significantly decreased Thr and significantly increased Val serum concentration. We conclude that dietary levels of Leu and Ile affect growth performance, expression of aa transporters and myosin, and aa serum concentrations in pigs. PMID:23408397

  1. Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

  2. Mechanisms affecting the transport and retention of bacteria, bacteriophage and microspheres in laboratory-scale saturated fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggewiss, G.; Dickson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important water source due to the ever-increasing demands from agricultural, residential and industrial consumers. In search of more secure sources, wells are routinely finished over large vertical depths in bedrock aquifers, creating new hydraulic pathways and thus increasing the risk of cross contamination. Moreover, hydraulic pathways are also being altered and created by increasing water withdrawal rates from these wells. Currently, it is not well understood how biological contaminants are transported through, and retained in, fractured media thereby making risk assessment and land use decisions difficult. Colloid transport within fractured rock is a complex process with several mechanisms affecting transport and retention, including: advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, diffusion, size exclusion, adsorption, and decay. Several researchers have investigated the transport of bacteria, bacteriophage, and microspheres (both carboxylated and plain) to evaluate the effects of surface properties and size on transport and retention. These studies have suggested that transport is highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the particle, the fracture, and the carrying fluid. However, these studies contain little detail regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for transport beyond speculating about their existence. Further, little work has been done to compare the transport of these particulate materials through the same fracture, allowing for direct observations based on particulate size and surface properties. This research examines the similarities and differences in transport and retention between four different particles through two different laboratory-scale, saturated fractures. This work is designed to explore the effects of particle size, surface properties, ionic strength of the carrying solution, and aperture field characteristics on transport and retention in single, saturated fractures. The particulates

  3. EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DEL POTENCIAL PROBIÓTICO DE BACTERIAS ÁCIDO LÁCTICAS AISLADAS DE SUERO COSTEÑO IN VITRO EVALUATION OF PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL OF LACTIC BACTERIA ACID ISOLATED FROM COASTAL SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Cueto-Vigil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de 53 bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL aisladas del suero costeño, fueron sometidas a estudios preliminares in vitro simulando las condiciones del tracto digestivo, para determinar sus características como potenciales probióticos: se evaluó la tolerancia a pH ácido (MRS pH: 2,0 y sales biliares (MRS con sales biliares al 0,3% y posteriormente se determinó la población sobreviviente como log UFC/ml. A las cepas tolerantes a las condiciones mencionadas, se les determinó la resistencia a 14 antibióticos de uso comercial, se evaluó la adhesión a mucus intestinal y la producción de ácido láctico por cromatografía líquida de alta precisión (HPLC. Se encontró que 54,7% de las BAL evaluadas son tolerantes a las condiciones de pH ácido y 49,1 a 0,3% de sales biliares con una población de 10(6 log UFC/ml en promedio. Siete cepas fueron seleccionadas por presentar sensibilidad a vancomicina antibiótico de importancia epidemiológica y se adhirieron a mucus intestinal, reuniendo las condiciones requeridas para considerarse como potencialmente probióticas. Adicionalmente la cuantificación de ácido láctico para las cepas seleccionadas presentó un rango entre 0,13 ± 0,05 y 1,0 ± 0,08 g/l.A group of 53 lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from costal serum were evaluated with preliminary in vitro studies simulating the conditions of the digestive tract, to determine their characteristics as potential probiotics; acid pH tolerance (MRS pH: 2.0 and bile salts (MRS with 0.3% bile salts and subsequently the surviving population was determined as log CFU/ml. Strains tolerant to such conditions were evaluated for resistance to 14 antibiotics of commercial use; we assessed adherence to intestinal mucus and the production of lactic acid by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. It was shown that 54.7% of the LAB evaluated were tolerant to acid pH conditions and 49.1 to 0.3% bile salts with a population of 10(6 log CFU/ml on

  4. Zearalenone Affects Immune-Related Parameters in Lymphoid Organs and Serum of Rats Vaccinated with Porcine Parvovirus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Byung-Kook; Cho, Joon-Hyung; Jeong, Sang-Hee; Shin, Hyo-Sook; Son, Seong-Wan; Yeo, Young-Keun; KANG, HWAN-GOO

    2012-01-01

    Rats were administered zearalenone (ZEA) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. On treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (Vac) was injected intraperitoneally. Antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of ZEA treatment. Compared to the vaccine alone, ZEA treatment, with or without Vac, decreased the serum level of IgG. The level of IgM decreased in all ZEA groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the me...

  5. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria;

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  6. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. PMID:18391475

  7. Polymorphic variant at the IL2 region is associated with type 1 diabetes and may affect serum levels of interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Ziółkowska-Suchanek, Iwona; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic variants at the interleukin-2 (IL2) locus affect the risk of several autoimmune disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the four IL2 polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs6534349, rs2069762 and rs3136534) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Polish population, and to correlate them with the serum interleukin-2 levels. 543 unrelated T1D patients and 706 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The minor T allele at rs6822844 was significantly less frequent in T1D compared to contro...

  8. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (p<0.05). No observed effects on Bone Area and Bone Mineral Density. Conclusions Fish-containing NND school meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  9. ppGpp negatively impacts ribosome assembly affecting growth and antimicrobial tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Rebecca M; Bellows, Lauren E; Wood, Alison; Gründling, Angelika

    2016-03-22

    The stringent response is a survival mechanism used by bacteria to deal with stress. It is coordinated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp], which interact with target proteins to promote bacterial survival. Although this response has been well characterized in proteobacteria, very little is known about the effectors of this signaling system in Gram-positive species. Here, we report on the identification of seven target proteins for the stringent response nucleotides in the Gram-positive bacteriumStaphylococcus aureus We demonstrate that the GTP synthesis enzymes HprT and Gmk bind with a high affinity, leading to an inhibition of GTP production. In addition, we identified five putative GTPases-RsgA, RbgA, Era, HflX, and ObgE-as (p)ppGpp target proteins. We show that RsgA, RbgA, Era, and HflX are functional GTPases and that their activity is promoted in the presence of ribosomes but strongly inhibited by the stringent response nucleotides. By characterizing the function of RsgA in vivo, we ascertain that this protein is involved in ribosome assembly, with anrsgAdeletion strain, or a strain inactivated for GTPase activity, displaying decreased growth, a decrease in the amount of mature 70S ribosomes, and an increased level of tolerance to antimicrobials. We additionally demonstrate that the interaction of ppGpp with cellular GTPases is not unique to the staphylococci, as homologs fromBacillus subtilisandEnterococcus faecalisretain this ability. Taken together, this study reveals ribosome inactivation as a previously unidentified mechanism through which the stringent response functions in Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26951678

  10. Effects of Hemagglutination Activity in the Serum of a Deep-Sea Vent Endemic Crab, Shinkaia Crosnieri, on Non-Symbiotic and Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, So; Tateno, Hiroaki; Watsuji, Tomoo; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Daisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Sugimura, Makoto; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Sawayama, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, most invertebrates associate with dense populations of symbiotic microorganisms in order to obtain nutrition. The molecular interactions between deep-sea animals and environmental microbes, including their symbionts, have not yet been elucidated in detail. Hemagglutinins/lectins, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins, have recently been reported to play important roles in a wide array of biological processes, including the recognition and control of non-self materials. We herein assessed hemagglutination activity in the serum of a deep-sea vent endemic crab, Shinkaia crosnieri, which harbors chemosynthetic epibionts on its plumose setae. Horse and rabbit erythrocytes were agglutinated using this serum (opt. pH 7.5 and opt. temperature 15°C). Agglutinating activity was inhibited by eight kinds of sugars and several divalent cations, did not require any divalent metal ions, and remained detectable even after heating the serum at 100°C for 30 min. By using fluorescently labeled serum, we demonstrated that deep-sea crab serum components bound to the epibionts even in the presence of sugars. This study represents the first immunological assessment of a deep-sea vent endemic crab and demonstrated the possibility of a non-lectin-mediated symbiont-host interaction. PMID:26212518

  11. Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Ciliberti, M; Sevi, A

    2012-07-01

    Immune competence of the ewe mammary gland was investigated by monitoring the leukocyte differential count, cytokine pattern, and endogenous proteolytic enzymes in milk samples with different somatic cell counts (SCC) and pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the leukocyte differential count and T-lymphocyte populations were evaluated in ewe blood. A total of 1,500 individual milk samples were randomly selected from the pool of the samples collected during sampling and grouped into 5 classes of 300 samples each, on the basis of SCC. Classes were 2,000,000 cells/mL. Microbiological analyses of ewe milk were conducted to detect mastitis-related pathogens. Sheep whose udders were without clinical abnormalities, and whose milk was apparently normal but with at least 10(3)cfu/mL of the same pathogen were considered to have subclinical mastitis and therefore defined as infected. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) and macrophages increased with SCC, whereas lymphocytes decreased. Milk samples with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL showed differences in leukocyte populations between uninfected and infected ewes, with higher percentages of PMNL and macrophages and lower percentages of lymphocytes in infected animals. Nonviable PMNL levels were the highest in ewe milk samples with SCC 500,000 cells/mL, nonviable PMNL were higher in uninfected ewes than in infected ones. In infected animals giving milk with SCC >1,000,000 cells/mL, a higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was observed, suggesting that the presence of pathogens induced an activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-12 were higher in infected than uninfected ewes, irrespective of SCC. Plasmin activity increased along with SCC and was always higher in infected than uninfected animals; cathepsin D increased starting from 1,001,000 cells/mL in milk samples from noninfected ewes and starting from 301,000 cells/mL in milk samples from infected animals. The associations between somatic

  12. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Lahti; Anne Salonen; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Jarkko Salojärvi; Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen; Airi Palva; Matej Orešič; Willem M. de Vos

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum li...

  13. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) transcription in intestinal epithelial cells is significantly affected by bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Bent Borg;

    2012-01-01

    ≤ 0.05) compared with cells without bacteria added. The alteration in cellular GPR120 mRNA was observed with bacteria categorized as either probiotics or bacteria capable of inducing an anti-inflammatory effect. The beneficial effect of these bacteria may very well be mediated by regulation of GPR120...

  14. The efficiency of the bactericidal action of serum raised by complement and lysozyme against bacteria which avoid the immunological response of higher organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Futoma-Kołoch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some processes of the antibacterial effect of serum, which mainly results from the activities of complement (C and lysozyme (muramidase, LZ. The C system consists of a group of serum proteins and tissue fluids which are activated in a particular order. Complement, operating together with lysozyme, constitutes the main protection from microorganisms entering the body. Pathogenic microorganisms are able to avoid natural protective mechanisms by, among others, molecular mimicry, binding complement control proteins, or secreting proteolytic enzymes. The effectiveness of the cytolytic action of C proteins and LZ also depends on the surface structures of the microorganisms. Imbalance between the activation and deactivation of inflammatory reactions in the presence of pathogens can lead to various pathological states, such as autoimmunological diseases.

  15. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  16. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  17. Gut bacteria producing phenols disturb keratinocyte differentiation in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, Ryoka; Kawakami, Koji; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our previous study suggested that phenols (phenol and p-cresol) produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice. In the present study we aimed to determine if the same phenomenon is applicable to humans. Methods: First, we analyzed the correlation between serum phenol levels and corneocyte size in 50 healthy female volunteers. Second, we administered a prebiotic beverage (containing galacto-oligosaccharides and polydextrose) to 19 healthy female volunteers and examined th...

  18. Distinct Gut-Derived Bacteria Differentially Affect Three Types of Antigen-Presenting Cells and Impact on NK- and T-Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Hansen, Anne Marie Valentin; Frøkiær, Hanne

    previously been examined, but this study revealed that their effect on other kinds of APCs is markedly different. When APCs matured by different bacteria were added to either NK-cells or T-cells, different APCs combined with distinct strains of bacteria caused the production of varying amounts of cytokines...... through these mechanisms. The bacteria examined can potentially be used in tailored probiotic foods exploring their immunomodulatory properties....

  19. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  20. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ling Wang,1,2,* Xue-Min Qiu,1,2,* Yu-Yan Gui,1,2 Ying-Ping Xu,1,2 Hans-Jürgen Gober,3 Da-Jin Li1 1Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IBS, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Wagner Jauregg Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Linz, Austria *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD, a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported.Purpose: We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula.Materials and methods: Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay.Results: BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus.Conclusion: These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. Keywords

  1. Sunlight–derived vitamin D affects interleukin-4 level, T helper 2 serum cytokines, in patients with Graves’ disease: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Purnamasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graves’ disease (GD is the most common autoimmune disease leading to hyperthyroidism. The role of Th1/Th2 pathways balance in GD is still controversial. Vitamin D is reported to have an effect on those pathways. This study aims to examine the effect of sunlight exposure on vitamin D 25(OH level and Th1 and Th2 pathway-derived cytokines in GD patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 32 GD patients to compare the effect of sunlight exposure on vitamin D level and cytokines of Th1 and Th2 pathways between exposed and unexposed groups. Exposed group received sunlight exposure three times a week for 30 minutes each between 9–11 a.m for 1 month. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (fT4, vitamin D 25(OH, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4 serum levels, were investigated before and after one month of sunlight exposure. Paired t-test or Mann Whitney test were used to analyze the difference between exposed and unexposed GD groups before and after sun exposure.Results: One month of sunlight exposure increased vitamin D 25(OH level by 27.90% among exposed GD group (15.34 ng/mL to 19.62 ng/mL, p<0.001. Meanwhile, unexposed GD group’s vitamin D 25(OH level decreased from 20.48 ng/mL to 18.86 ng/mL (p<0.001. Increased vitamin D 25(OH level in exposed group was not accompanied by the increase of IL-4 level after sunlight exposure.Conclusion: Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D 25(OH serum level and may affect the level of IL-4, Th2 pathway-derived cytokine, in patients with GD. However, the role of sunlight-derived vitamin D on IFN-γ in GD patients can not be concluded in this study.

  2. Serum procalcitonin elevation in critically ill patients at the onset of bacteremia caused by either gram negative or gram positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prin Sébastien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Methods Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP or Gram negative (GN bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. Results 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52 or GP bacteremia (n = 45 were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.88. Conclusion In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.

  3. Novel replication-competent circular DNA molecules from healthy cattle serum and milk and multiple sclerosis-affected human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Corinna; Gunst, Karin; Müller, Hermann; Funk, Mathis; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data point to the involvement of a cow milk factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven circular DNA molecules closely related to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 1.76 were isolated from healthy cattle serum, cow milk, and serum and brain tissue from MS patients. PMID:25169859

  4. Comparison of serum creatine kinase estimation with short tandem repeats based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive lethal, genetic disorder characterised by progressive weakness of skeletal muscles which is untreatable and transmitted to males by carrier females. Advances in laboratory techniques now focus direct mutational analysis as the most reliable and indirect analysis based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) based linkage analysis as feasible, inexpensive, and efficient method for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic efficiency of Serum Creatine Kinase (SCK) with Short Tandem Repeats (STR based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Methods: The study was carried out from Dec 2006 to Dec 2007 in families having index clinical cases of DMD who were referred from different hospitals for evaluation/workup of DMD. SCK was done as a preliminary investigation in all index cases. The PCR assay with STR based linkage analysis with Intron 44, 45, 49 and 50 of DMD gene were performed in all families. Six families were informative with Intron 44 of DMD gene and one family was non-informative with all four intronic markers of DMD. SCK analyses were done in all the family members and compared with PCR analysis in informative families. SCK was not performed on Chorionic villous sample (CVS) done for prenatal diagnosis of DMD, and CVS and non-informative family members were excluded from the study. Results: In carriers of DMD, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 33.3%, and specificity and positive predictive were 100% with diagnostic efficiency of 50%. In affected cases of DMD the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 100%, and specificity and positive predictive were 91% and 88.8% respectively and diagnostic efficiency of 94.1%. Conclusion: The SCK is an excellent screening test for

  5. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium ani...

  6. Effect of periodontal treatment on serum C-reactive protein level in obese and normal-weight women affected with chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Zahrani, M.S.; Alghamdi, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of conventional periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and periodontal status in obese and normal-weight chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This is a controlled clinical trial conducted at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentis

  7. Correlation of serum lithium levels and thyroid function tests in subjects of bipolar affective disorder: a prospective hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Manjuprasad

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: As already known, Lithium is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and females are more prone for thyroid function abnormalities. Appropriate monitoring of serum lithium levels will aid in necessary dose adjustment and ensure proper utilization of drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 51-54

  8. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  9. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  10. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature. PMID:12236466

  11. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...

  12. Physiologic cold shock of Moraxella catarrhalis affects the expression of genes involved in the iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. It was previously shown that the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis are greatest in winter. The aim of this study was to investigate how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to upregulate pivotal survival systems in the pharynx that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results A 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes involved in transferrin and lactoferrin acquisition, and enhances binding of these proteins on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to 26°C upregulates the expression of UspA2, a major outer membrane protein involved in serum resistance, leading to improved binding of vitronectin which neutralizes the lethal effect of human complement. In contrast, cold shock decreases the expression of Hemagglutinin, a major adhesin, which mediates B cell response, and reduces immunoglobulin D-binding on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Conclusion Cold shock of M. catarrhalis induces the expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion. Thus, cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that enables the bacterium to target their host cellular receptors or soluble effectors and may contribute to enhanced growth, colonization and virulence.

  13. Reduction of serum IGF-I levels in patients affected with Monoclonal Gammopathies of undetermined significance or Multiple Myeloma. Comparison with bFGF, VEGF and K-ras gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum levels of IGF-I in patients affected with multiple myeloma (MM have been scarcely studied. The present study is aimed to explore this point comparing 55 healthy subjects, 71 monoclonal gammopaties of uncertain significance (MGUS and 77 overt MM patients. In the same subjects, basic FGF and VEGF, have been detected. All three mediators were analyzed in function of K-ras mutation and melphalan response. Concerning IGF-I, two representative monitoring examples have also been added. Methods Cytokine determinations were performed by commercially available ELISA kits, while K12-ras mutation was investigated on genomic DNA isolated from bone marrow cell specimens by RFLP-PCR assay. Results Significant reductions of IGF-I levels were observed in MGUS and MM as compared with healthy controls. In addition, MM subjects showed significantly decreased serum IGF-I levels than MGUS. Conversely, increasing levels were observed for bFGF and VEGF, molecules significantly correlated. A multivariate analysis corrected for age and gender confirmed the significant difference only for IGF-I values (P = 0.01. K12-ras mutation was significantly associated with malignancy, response to therapy and with significantly increased serum bFGF levels. Conclusion IGF-I reduction in the transition: Controls→MGUS→MM and changes observed over time suggest that IGF-I should be furtherly studied in future clinical trials as a possible monitoring marker for MM.

  14. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility and by...... actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria, the...

  15. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  16. Effect of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense on serum iron levels in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Setayesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The Magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1 mineralizes the magnetite (Fe3 O4 crystals and organizes a highly ordered intracellular structure, called the magnetosome. Iron transport system supports the biogenesis of magnetite. Although iron is an essential trace element for many metabolic pathways of the body, increase or decrease in iron will cause many diseases. Mice were infected by MSR-1 to study survival of bacteria in mice when injected by different routes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bacterial magnetite formation could take up Fe2+ ions from the blood an animal model.Materials and Methods: In this study, MSR-1 at a dose lower than LD50 in 200 μl volume of PBS buffer was injected as intravascular (i.v, peritoneal (i.p and subcutaneous (s.c in mice. Number of viable bacterial was determined in organs such as liver, spleen and lymph node by measuring colony-forming unit (CFU. Moreover, serum iron level was evaluated by using commercial kits.Results and Conclusion: According to CFU measurements, after 96 hours, mice can clear MSR-1 from their body with different routes of injection. We have also shown that MSR-1 bacteria can affect the blood iron level in mice. The serum iron level decreased from control level in the first 24 h after i.v injection (P < 0.05. Our research on optimizing the biological magnetic system is still continuing.

  17. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio

    2016-06-01

    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation. PMID:26556312

  18. Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-01-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  19. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  20. Transcription of denitrification genes and kinetics of NO, N2O and N2 by soil bacteria as affected by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Bakken, L. R.; Frostegard, A.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), which is to a large part derived from denitrification in soil, is a major greenhouse gas and was also recently shown to be the single most important ozone-depleting substance. Previous studies demonstrate that the N2O/N2 product ratio of denitrification is strongly dependent on pH, increasing with decreasing soil pH. The mechanisms involved are, however, poorly understood. We here present an investigation of soils from a long-term liming experiment. Since it is difficult to control which pH is actually experienced by bacterial cells in intact soils, we extracted cells on a Nycodenz gradient and exposed them to different pH levels. Bacteria extracted from soils of 3 different pHs (4.0, 6.1 and 8.0) were incubated in minimal medium supplemented with nitrate (2mM) and glutamic acid (5 mM), buffered at three pH levels (5.7, 6.1 and 7.6). Both the pH of the medium and original soil pH showed profound effect on the denitrification activity in terms of gas emission kinetics. N2O reductase (N2OR) activity was only present when cells from the high pH soils (pH 6.1 and 8.0) were exposed to high pH medium (pH 7.6). Functional genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) and their transcripts were quantified in the extracts from pH6.1-soil. A 10-25 fold higher expression of nosZ vs nirS was found when incubated at pH 7.6 compared to pH 6.1 and 5.7. The low but significant transcription of nosZ at pH 6.1 and 5.7 did not result in detectable N2O reduction however. Cells that had been allowed to assemble their proteome while growing in pH7 medium showed N2OR activity which was practically unaffected by pH within the range 5-7. On the contrary, no N2OR activity was detected if the proteome had been formed at pH 6. The cells extracted from acid soils (pH 5.8 and 6.1) showed very low nosZ transcritption and no N2OR activity if exposed to pH 7 during the transition from oxic to anoxic conditions, suggesting an adaptation to low pH in the sense that they do not transcribe the gene

  1. Can Indigenous and Introduced Bacteria Affect the Performance of an Engineered Barrier System in the Designated Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Dias, V.; Carrillo, C.; van Buuren, N.; Horn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been tasked with establishing a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV and assessing the effects of long-term storage of the waste. Studies are being performed to identify the role of microorganisms, both indigenous and introduced during the construction phase, to waste package material corrosion. Some microorganisms produce by-products that may be deleterious to waste package materials, such as bacteria that produce hydrogen and mineral acids, or reduce sulfate, and fungi that produce organic acids. Long-term and accelerated tests in continuous flow reactors were conducted to assess the biogenic effects on waste package materials, and batch tests were implemented to identify corrosion products and biochemical changes to ground water chemistry. Surfacial and gravimetric analyses of the metal samples coupled with water chemistry analysis allow us to determine the overall contribution that organisms may make to waste package corrosion. Metal samples were periodically removed from the reactors and examined with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Effluent samples were also collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Sterile controls were run in parallel to understand abiotic contributions to metals corrosion. In addition, we have characterized the microbial community at Yucca Mountain in order to define the physiological potential of the organisms extant at the site and evaluate the conditions required for growth (we have determined that water availability will be the major limiting factor). Analysis of the fluids from batch tests containing the Alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo alloy) metal suggest the solubilization of Mo, albeit in very low concentrations. Because we did not observe the solubilization of other metal components, it is unclear whether selective solubilization or dealloying is occurring. Endpoint analysis of precipitated particles in the

  2. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and Prebiotic Fructo-oligosaccharide on Serum Lipids, Inflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Gut Bacteria in Healthy Young Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Single-Blind Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Nilita; Kumar, S Nishanth; Challa, Hanumanth R; Nagpal, Ravinder

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of 6-week supplementation of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 with or without prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on serum lipid profiles, immune responses, insulin sensitivity, and gut lactobacilli in 45 healthy young individuals. The patients were divided into 3 groups (15/group), that is, placebo, probiotic, and synbiotic. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction (P FOS was observed to be more beneficial than L salivarius alone, thereby advocating that such synbiotic combinations could be therapeutically exploited for improved health and quality of life. PMID:25331262

  3. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  4. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  5. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)

  6. Assessment of serum antibody patterns and analysis of subgingival microflora of members of a family with a high prevalence of early-onset periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, B L; Ebersole, J. L.; Spektor, M D; Page, R C

    1985-01-01

    In a study of members of a large family with a high prevalence of early-onset periodontitis, we sampled the subgingival microflora and characterized 40 isolates from each sample. We surveyed serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies reacting with any of a panel of 21 periodontal bacteria. The mother and 7 of her 13 children had early-onset periodontitis. Bacteroides gingivalis was not detected in the subgingival flora of any affected or unaffected family member, and Ac...

  7. Bacteria cell properties and grain size impact on bacteria transport and deposition in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongjuan; Cochet, Nelly; Pauss, André; Lamy, Edvina

    2016-03-01

    The simultaneous role of bacteria cell properties and porous media grain size on bacteria transport and deposition behavior was investigated in this study. Transport column experiments and numerical HYDRUS-1D simulations of three bacteria with different cell properties (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Rhodococcus rhodochrous) were carried out on two sandy media with different grain sizes, under saturated steady state flow conditions. Each bacterium was characterized by cell size and shape, cell motility, electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential, hydrophobicity and potential of interaction with the sand surface. Cell characteristics affected bacteria transport behavior in the fine sand, but similar bacteria breakthroughs and retardation factors observed in the coarse sand, indicated that bacteria transport was more depended on grain size than on bacteria cell properties. Retention decreased with increasing hydrophobicity and increased with increasing electrophoretic mobility of bacteria for both sand. The increasing sand grain size resulted in a decrease of bacteria retention, except for the motile E. coli, indicating that retention of this strain was more dependent on cell motility than on the sand grain size. Bacteria deposition coefficients obtained from numerical simulations of the retention profiles indicated that straining was an important mechanism affecting bacteria deposition of E. coli and Klebsiella sp., in the fine sand, but the attachment had the same importance as straining for R. rhodochrous. The results obtained in the coarse sand did not permit to discriminate the predominant mechanism of bacteria deposition and the relative implication of bacteria cell properties of this process. PMID:26705829

  8. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chunxu; Mazzola, M.; Cheng, Xu; Oetjen, Janina; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Watrous, Jeramie; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan predation of bacteria can significantly affect soil microbial community composition and ecosystem functioning. Bacteria possess diverse defense strategies to resist or evade protozoan predation. For soil-dwelling Pseudomonas species, several secondary metabolites were proposed to provide p

  9. Back To Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  10. Survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) serum in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    to cause an immediate (after 3 h incubation) notable reduction in viability of the inoculated cells. After 24 h incubation a more pronounced reduction in the number of viable bacteria was observed in untreated serum as well as in serum heated at 45degrees C. In serum heated at 56degrees C this...

  11. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  12. Low Serum Adiponectin Predicts Future Risk for Asthma in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay; Qualls, Clifford; Schuyler, Mark; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Steffes, Michael W.; Smith, Lewis J.; Jacobs, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Our previous cross-sectional study showed that serum adiponectin is inversely associated with asthma among women. However, it is not known if serum adiponectin predicts future development of asthma or if asthma affects subsequent serum adiponectin concentrations among women.

  13. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XV. Porcine circovirus type 2 infection differentially affects serum IgG levels and antibodies to ORF2 in piglets free from other environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an important pathogen in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and its persistence may be due to dysregulation of systemic immunity. We examined this contention using isolator piglets. We present data on Ig levels in serum and bronchio-alveolar lavage (BA...

  14. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  15. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  16. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  17. Antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis are able to feed on large prey items by injecting a dose of toxic bacteria with their bite that, over time, kills the prey by systemic infection. Dragons also suffer bites from other members of their own species during territorial disputes and feeding frenzies. However, they do not suffer the same fate as their prey, suggesting that they have developed a strong immunity to bacterial infections. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo dragon. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Varanus komodoensis and the growth was monitored by optical density at 430 nm. In addition, the serum was treated with protease, chelators of divalent metal ions, or with mild heat to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activities. Treatment of bacterial cultures with serum from Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis resulted in a volume-dependent decrease in bacterial growth. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca exhibited moderate-strong growth inhibition by V. komodoensis serum, while cultures of Streptococcus epidermitis, Salmonella typhimurium, Providencia stuartii, and Shigella flexneri were nearly completely obliterated for 24 h by only 10% (v/v serum. The antibacterial activity of V. komodensis serum occurred very rapidly, as 18% of E. coli growth was inhibited by a five min exposure to serum. Furthermore, 10- and 20-min incubations of E. coli with serum from V. komodoensis resulted in 43 and 68% inhibition of bacterial growth, respectively. The bactericidal capacity of the serum against E. coli was 2,075,000 bacteria/μL serum, and was inhibited by mild heat treatment, pronase, EDTA, and phosphate, indicating that the anti-bacterial action is most probably due to the presence of a potent serum complement protein system.

  18. Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsikogianni M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces, the factors affecting the adhesion, the techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions and the models that have been developed in order to predict adhesion. The process of bacterial adhesion includes an initial physicochemical interaction phase and a late molecular and cellular one. It is a complicated process influenced by many factors, including the bacterial properties, the material surface characteristics, the environmental factors, such as the presence of serum proteins and the associated flow conditions. Two categories of techniques used in estimating bacteria-material interactions are described: those that utilize fluid flowing against the adhered bacteria and counting the percentage of bacteria that detach, and those that manipulate single bacteria in various configurations which lend themselves to more specific force application and provide the basis for theoretical analysis of the receptor-ligand interactions. The theories that are reviewed are the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO theory, the thermodynamic approach and the extended DLVO theory. Over the years, significant work has been done to investigate the process of bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces, however a lot of questions still remain unanswered.

  19. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  20. Serum Trace Element Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebari, Maryam; Ayati, Razie; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hejazi, Sepideh; Saghafi, Massoud; Saadati, Nayyereh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that is associated with oxidative stress. Serum trace elements and their related transport proteins, e.g., albumin and ceruloplasmin, play an important role in the antioxidant defense. Trace element status may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of RA or be affected by the disease activity of this chronic inflammatory condition. The study participants were 110 patients with RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, zinc, copper, and zinc/copper ratio were measured in all subjects. The relationship between these parameters and disease activity score was also assessed. Lower concentrations of serum Alb, Zn, and Se were independently related to disease activity index. High concentrations of serum copper were associated with the presence of RA. Serum Cu concentrations were positively related to disease activity as assessed by the disease activity score. Low serum concentrations of Zn and Se, and high serum Cu concentrations may be associated with the presence of RA or be a consequence of this condition. Of the trace elements that were investigated in the present study, only serum Cu was positively correlated with disease activity. PMID:26450515

  1. Bilateral lesions of suprachiasmatic nuclei affect circadian rhythms in [3H]-thymidine incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid in mouse intestinal tract, mitotic index of corneal epithelium, and serum corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the coordination of circadian rhythms have presented differing results. Several reports have shown that ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNA) alters the phase and amplitude of rhythms but does not abolish them. The present study investigates the effect of SCNA on the rhythms in cell proliferation in various regions of the intestinal tract as measured by the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid, in the mitotic activity of the corneal epithelium, and in serum corticosterone levels. The study involved mice with verified lesions of the SCN (six to 13 mice per time point) and control groups of both sham-operated and unoperated mice (seven of each per time point). The mice were killed in groups that represented seven time points over a single 24 hr span (3 hr intervals with the 0800 hr sampled both at start and end of the series). The tissues examined were the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, and colon for DNA synthesis, the corneal epithelium for mitotic index, and blood serum for corticosterone level. The most consistent result of SCNA was a phase advance in the rhythms in cell proliferation in the tongue, esophagus, gastric stomach, colon, and corneal epithelium. A reduction in rhythm amplitude occurred in the tongue, esophagus, and corneal epithelium; however, there was an amplitude increase for the stomach, colon, and serum corticosterone. The mesor (rhythm-adjusted mean) was increased by SCNA in all tissues except the corneal epithelium. These findings further support the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclear area in the control of rhythms in cell proliferation and corticosterone production, by acting as a ''phase-resetter'' and as a modulator of rhythm amplitude

  2. Heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water distribution system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2012-10-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water in municipal water distribution systems (WDS) depends on several factors. Free residual chlorine and/or chloramines are typically used to minimize bacterial recontamination and/or regrowth in WDS. Despite such preventive measures, regrowth of heterotrophic (HPC) and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms has yet to be controlled completely. No approach has shown complete success in eliminating biofilms or HPC bacteria from bulk water and pipe surfaces. Biofilms can provide shelter for pathogenic bacteria and protect these bacteria from disinfectants. Some HPC bacteria may be associated with aesthetic and non-life threatening diseases. Research to date has achieved important success in understanding occurrence and regrowth of bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS. To achieve comprehensive understanding and to provide efficient control against bacteria regrowth, future research on bacteria regrowth dynamics and their implications is warranted. In this study, a review was performed on the literature published in this area. The findings and limitations of these papers are summarized. Occurrences of bacteria in WDS, factors affecting bacteria regrowth in bulk water and biofilms, bacteria control strategies, sources of nutrients, human health risks from bacterial exposure, modelling of bacteria regrowth and methods of bacteria sampling and detection and quantification are investigated. Advances to date are noted, and future research needs are identified. Finally, research directions are proposed to effectively control HPC and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS. PMID:22076103

  3. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Lahti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes

  4. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae). These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and

  5. Root Associated Bacteria – Friends or Enemies? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mihalache

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots, due to their exudates, represent important ecological niches for bacteria, which can influence the plant growth by their both beneficial and deleterious effects. The positive effects of bacteria interaction with the plants roots consist in facilitating the nutrient uptake (N, P, producing phytohormones, enhancing their resistance to biotic and abiotic factors such as pathogenic fungi and bacteria, extreme temperatures, heavy metals, salinity. Regarding the harmful effects of bacteria on plants growth, production of phytotoxins, competition for nutrients or inducing diseases or even plants death represents examples of mechanisms by which bacteria can affect in a negative manner the growth of the plants.

  6. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  7. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  8. The Analysis of Different Culture Time Affect Test Results of Coliform Bacteria Primary Fermentation%不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昌彦; 盛满钰

    2012-01-01

    为了了解不同培养时间对大肠菌群初发酵检测结果的影响,为大肠菌群检测方法、卫生标准的修订及食源性疾病的预防和控制提供科学依据。在同一品牌快餐店随机采集具有代表性的6大类342件样品进行大肠菌群检测,得到有效样品数为254件。依照国家标准进行检验和结果评价,并将初发酵培养时间为(24±2)h和(48±2)h的检测结果进行比较。结果表明,样品经(48±2)h初发酵培养的大肠菌群检出率及LST肉汤阳性率均高于(24±2)h,其差异均具有统计学意义Co〈o.01)。因此,大肠菌群迟缓发酵现象普遍存在。适当延长初发酵培养时间将有利于提高大肠菌群的检出率,从而更真实的反映食品的卫生质量状况。2010年6月正式实施的GB4789.3—2010,与2003版相比其结果表达发生了变化,而相应的很多产品卫生标准仍未同时更新。%In order to understand what effect on the different culture period of coliform bacteria cause on the test result of coliforms primary fermentation, provide the scientific proof for coliform bacteria detection methods, and revise health standard and prevention and control of food-borne disease, a total of 342 representative samples of six main categories were randomly collected in various chain stores of the same brand fast-food restaurant for coliform bacteria testing. Finally, 254 effective samples were got. In accordance with national standards for testing and evaluation of results, and to compare test results between (24~:2) h and (48~2) h on the coliforms primary fermentation time, according to results of the comparison view, the sample after (48h:k2) h primary fermentation coliform .detection rate and positive rate of LST broth were higher than the (24+2) h, the differences are statistically significant (p〈0.01). Therefore, coliform slow fermentation is widespread and ubiquity. Extend the time of primary

  9. Vitamin A Affects Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Geese%维生素A对鹅生长性能及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑洁; 王宝维; 葛文华; 张名爱; 李文立

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of vitamin A on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and tissue vitamin A content of Qingnonghui geese. Two hundred Qingnonghui geese at 1 day of age were selected and randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 10 geese in each replicate. Five groups were supplemented with 0, 1 500, 3 000, 6 000 and 12 000 IU/kg vitamin A in the basal diets, respectively. The experiment lasted for twelve weeks. The results showed as follows; 1) supplemental vitamin A significantly increased daily weight gain and daily feed intake (P 0. 05). 2) At 4 weeks of age, supplemented 6 000 IU/kg vitamin A significantly decreased serum uric acid content (P 0. 05) ; at 12 weeks of age, supplemented 6 000 IU/kg vitamin A significantly decreased the contents of serum blood glucose and uric acid (P 0. 05). 3) The serum and liver vitamin A content increased significantly with the increase of dietary vitamin A supplemental levels (P <0. 01). In conclusion, consideration from the growth performance, the optimal dietary levels of vitamin A are 8 000 IU/kg at weeks 1 to 4, and 9 000 IU/kg at weeks 5 to 12. While consideration from the serum biochemical parameters, the optimal dietary level of vitamin A is 6 000 IU/kg at weeks 1 to 4 and 5 to 12.%本试验旨在研究不同水平维生素A对青农灰鹅生长性能、血清生化指标及组织中维生素A含量的影响.选用1日龄青农灰鹅200只,随机分为5组,每组4个重复,每个重复10只鹅.各组在玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮中分别添加0、1 500、3 000、6 000和12 000 IU/kg的维生素A.试验期12周.结果表明:1)饲粮添加维生素A能显著提高1~4、5~12周龄青农灰鹅平均日增重和平均日采食量(P<0.05),降低死淘率,但对料重比影响不显著(P>0.05).2)4周龄时,添加6 000 IU/kg维生素A显著降低了血清尿酸含量(P<0.05),添加3 000和6 000 IU/kg维生素A极显著提高了

  10. Serum pneumoproteins in firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Burger, Nena; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Serum Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) were measured in a cross-sectional study in 402 firefighters. For the population as a whole, no associations were detected between serum pneumoproteins and smoke exposure. SP-A levels were increased in symptomatic subjects ex

  11. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S; Heickendorff, Lene; Kreiner, Svend; Waage, Anders; Turesson, Ingemar; Gimsing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    for SRE and at 9 and 24 months for radiographic progression. Elevated serum YKL-40 was seen in 47% of patients and associated with high-risk disease (International Staging System stage III; p < 0.001), increased bone resorption (serum CTX/MMP; p < 0.001) and early radiographic progression at 9 months...

  12. Characterization of serum phospholipase a(2) activity in three diverse species of west african crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Juneau, Kate; Gemillion, Jared; Falconi, Rodolfo; Doucet, Aaron; Shirley, Matthew H

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A(2), an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA(2) inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA(2). Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA(2) activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria. PMID:22110960

  13. Spectroscopic study of drug-binding characteristics of unmodified and pNPA-based acetylated human serum albumin: Does esterase activity affect microenvironment of drug binding sites on the protein?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Nastaran [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghobadi, Sirous [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahlaei, Mohsen [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodarahmi, Reza, E-mail: rkhodarahmi@mbrc.ac.ir [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most prominent extracellular protein in blood plasma. There are several binding sites on the protein which provide accommodation for structurally-unrelated endogenous and exogenous ligands and a wide variety of drugs. “Esterase-like” activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters) by the protein has been also reported. In the current study, we set out to investigate the interaction of indomethacin and ibuprofen with the unmodified and modified HSA (pNPA-modified HSA) using various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence data showed that 1:1 binding of drug to HSA is associated with quenching of the protein intrinsic fluorescence. Decrease of protein surface hydrophobicity (PSH), alteration in drug binding affinity and change of the protein stability, after esterase-like activity and permanent acetylation of HSA, were also documented. Analysis of the quenching and thermodynamic parameters indicated that forces involved in drug–HSA interactions change upon the protein modification. - Highlights: • Binding propensity of indomethacin extremely decreased upon the protein acetylation. • There is no ibuprofen binding after protein acetylation. • Protein stability changes upon drug binding as well as protein acetylation. • Drug pharmacokinetics may be influenced under co-administration of HSA-modifier drugs.

  14. Spectroscopic study of drug-binding characteristics of unmodified and pNPA-based acetylated human serum albumin: Does esterase activity affect microenvironment of drug binding sites on the protein?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most prominent extracellular protein in blood plasma. There are several binding sites on the protein which provide accommodation for structurally-unrelated endogenous and exogenous ligands and a wide variety of drugs. “Esterase-like” activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters) by the protein has been also reported. In the current study, we set out to investigate the interaction of indomethacin and ibuprofen with the unmodified and modified HSA (pNPA-modified HSA) using various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence data showed that 1:1 binding of drug to HSA is associated with quenching of the protein intrinsic fluorescence. Decrease of protein surface hydrophobicity (PSH), alteration in drug binding affinity and change of the protein stability, after esterase-like activity and permanent acetylation of HSA, were also documented. Analysis of the quenching and thermodynamic parameters indicated that forces involved in drug–HSA interactions change upon the protein modification. - Highlights: • Binding propensity of indomethacin extremely decreased upon the protein acetylation. • There is no ibuprofen binding after protein acetylation. • Protein stability changes upon drug binding as well as protein acetylation. • Drug pharmacokinetics may be influenced under co-administration of HSA-modifier drugs

  15. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynt...

  16. The binding of MBL to common bacteria in infectious diseases of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Shi-qiang; CHEN Guo-xian; SHEN Jie; YU Xiao-hong; WANG Ke-yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To purify Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) from human serum and detect its binding ability to several kinds of bacteria common in infectious diseases of children. Methods: MBL was purified from human serum by affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose 4B column. Its binding ability to eight species, 97 strains of bacteria was detected by enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Results: MBL has different binding ability to bacteria and shows strong binding ability to Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Escherichia coli, but shows relatively lower binding ability to Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus epidermidis. To different isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus,MBL shows quite different binding ability. Conclusions: MBL has different binding ability to different bacteria, and has relatively stronger binding ability to Gram-negative bacteria. Its binding ability to different isolates of certain kinds of bacteria is quite different.

  17. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Merchant; Kate Juneau; Jared Gemillion; Rodolfo Falconi; Aaron Doucet; Shirley, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted cr...

  18. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the LPS from S. typhi, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. Bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, DNA, RNA, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble LPS following treatment with the releasing agents. On the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of soluble LPS following treatment, suggesting that certain heatabile endogenous metabolic pathways collaborate with the releasing agents in the release of LPS from the bacteria. It is suggested that some of the beneficial effects of antibiotics on infections with gram-negative bacteria may be the prevention of massive release of endotoxin by leukocyte enzymes in inflammatory sites

  19. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiangfeng; (黎向锋); LI; Yaqin; (李雅芹); CAI; Jun; (蔡军); ZHANG; Deyuan; (张德远)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  20. Serum Bilirubin Levels and Developmental Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevlopmental risks associated with neonatal total serum bilirubin levels of 25 mg/dL or higher in 140 affected infants were compared with 419 randomly selected controls from a cohort of term-infants born 1995-1998 in Kaiser Permanente hospitals in northern California.

  1. Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Uk Park; Jeong-Kwan Yeom; Won Jae Lee; Kyeong-Min Lee

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospi...

  2. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger; Krøigaard, Mogens; Belhage, Bo; Husum, Bent; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study was to...... investigate the effect of anesthesia and surgery on serum tryptase in the absence of anaphylaxis....

  3. Serum free hemoglobin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood hemoglobin; Serum hemoglobin ... Hemoglobin (Hb) is the main component of red blood cells. It is a protein that carries oxygen. ... people may contain up to 5 mg/dL hemoglobin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  4. Serum bactericidal test.

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, C W

    1988-01-01

    The serum bactericidal test represents one of the few in vitro tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory that combines the interaction of the pathogen, the antimicrobial agent, and the patient. Although the use of such a test antedates the antimicrobial era, its performance, results, and interpretation have been subject to question and controversy. Much of the confusion concerning the serum bactericidal test can be avoided by an understanding of the various factors which influen...

  5. High Calcium Diet Affects Serum Nitric Oxide Concentration and Antioxidant Function of Pullets%高钙饲粮对青年蛋鸡血清一氧化氮浓度和抗氧化功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小权; 黄克和; 曹华斌; 胡国良; 李浩棠; 张彩英

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究高钙饲粮对青年蛋鸡血清一氧化氮(NO)浓度和抗氧化功能的影响.将35日龄100羽伊沙蛋鸡随机均分为对照组(含钙1.00%)和高钙组(含钙3.78%),每组5个重复,每个重复10羽.每天观察鸡的精神状态、食欲和粪便情况.在饲喂高钙饲粮第0、8、16、24和32天时,分别测定2组鸡的血清中NO浓度和丙二醛含量及抗氧化酶系统的变化.结果表明:1)高钙饲粮能引起青年蛋鸡长期腹泻,在饲喂高钙饲粮的第8天就发生高血钙症.2)与对照组相比,高钙组在饲喂高钙饲粮第8天和第16天血清NO浓度无显著变化(P>0.05),第24天和第32天显著升高(P<0.05);第8天和第24天血清超氧化物歧化酶活性、总抗氧化能力无显著变化(P>0.05),第16天显著升高(P<0.05),第32天显著降低(P<0.05);第8、16、24天血清丙二醛含量无显著变化(P>0.05),第32天显著升高(P<0.05);第24天和第32天黄嘌呤氧化酶活性有升高趋势(P>0.05).结果提示,饲喂高钙饲粮可导致青年蛋鸡发生长期腹泻,引起高血钙症,导致其机体内自由基的产生与清除的动态平衡遭到破坏,使自由基的产生远远超出清除能力.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of high calcium diet on nitric oxide (NO) concentration and antioxidant function of pullets. One hundred healthy pullets aged 35 days were randomly divided into 2 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 10 chickens per replicate. The pullets in different groups were fed normal calcium diet (control group, 1. 00% calcium) and high calcium diet (HC group, 3. 78% calcium) , respectively. Healthy situations of the pullets were inspected daily. NO concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enzymatic antioxidant activity in serum were detected on days 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 after feeding high calcium diet. The results showed as follows: 1) high calcium diet could cause diarrhea. Pullets would be hypercalcemia

  6. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  7. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air has been established as a source of bacterial contamination in meat processing facilities. Airborne bacteria may affect product shelf life, and have food safety implications. The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in...

  8. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  9. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  10. Serum magnesium and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum magnesium determinations were obtained on 10 dogs and 11 patients undergoing fractionated irradiation to the pelvis and lower abdomen. Five of the dogs received oral prednisone during irradiation. There was no significant change in magnesium concentration in either the control dogs or the patients, but there was a significant increase in stool frequency in both the dogs and patients. A significant increase in magnesium concentration was noted in the dogs receiving prednisone. It is concluded that radiation-induced diarrhea is not caused by reduced serum magnesium concentration

  11. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  12. Assessment of the Levels of Airborne Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacteria, and Fungi in Hospital Lobbies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Uk Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We assessed the levels of airborne bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, and fungi in six hospital lobbies, and investigated the environmental and hospital characteristics that affected the airborne microorganism levels. Methods: An Andersen single-stage sampler equipped with appropriate nutrition plate agar was used to collect the samples. The three types of microorganisms were repeatedly collected at a fixed location in each hospital (assumed to be representative of the entire hospital lobby from 08:00 through 24:00, with a sampling time of less than 5 min. Temperature and relative humidity were simultaneously monitored. Results: Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the major factors affecting microorganism levels. The average levels of bacteria (7.2 × 102 CFU/m3, GNB (1.7 × 10 CFU/m3, and fungi (7.7 × 10 CFU/m3 indicated that all hospital lobbies were generally contaminated. Season was the only factor that significantly affected the levels of all microorganisms (p < 0.0001, where contamination was the highest during the summer, significantly higher than during the winter. Other significant factors varied by microorganism, as follows: airborne bacteria (number of people in the lobby, sampling time, GNB (scale of hospital, and fungi (humidity and air temperature. Conclusions: Hospital lobby air was generally contaminated with microorganisms, including bacteria, GNB, and fungi. Environmental factors that may significantly influence the airborne concentrations of these agents should be managed to minimize airborne levels.

  13. Oil eating bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The article discusses the unusual technology of using oil-eating bacteria to increase oil recovery. The background for the discovery that bacteria injection into the reservoirs may increase the oil recovery is the study of microbial action in breaking down oil pollution. About 20 per cent of the organisms living naturally in the sea can eat oil. But they need water to grow. In the absence of water, the bacteria produce enzymes to make the oil water soluble and allow them to extract nutrients from them. Oil does not vanish upon being eaten, but enzymes from the digestive process act as effective detergents to wash away the oil, which is then easier to recover.

  14. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Follows, George A.; Martin E. Munik

    1992-01-01

    Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  15. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/betaT cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  16. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State

    OpenAIRE

    Hensel, Andreas

    1994-01-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  17. Antimicrobial activity, improved cell selectivity and mode of action of short PMAP-36-derived peptides against bacteria and Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yinfeng; Yang, Yang; Lyu, Xiting; Dong, Na; Shan, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention as promising antibiotic candidates, but some obstacles such as toxicity and high synthesis cost must be addressed before developing them further. For developing short peptides with improved cell selectivity, we designed a series of modified PMAP-36 analogues. Antimicrobial assays showed that decreasing chain length in a certain range retained the high antimicrobial activity of the parental peptide and reduced hemolysis. The 18-mer peptide RI18 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi, and its hemolytic activity was observably lower than PMAP-36 and melittin. The selectivity indexes of RI18 against bacteria and fungi were improved approximately 19-fold and 108-fold, respectively, compared to PMAP-36. In addition, serum did not affect the antibacterial activity of RI18 against E. coli but inhibited the antifungal efficiency against C. albicans. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy observation revealed that RI18 killed microbial cells primarily by damaging membrane integrity, leading to whole cell lysis. Taken together, these results suggest that RI18 has potential for further therapeutic research against frequently-encountered bacteria and fungi. Meanwhile, modification of AMPs is a promising strategy for developing novel antimicrobials to overcome drug-resistance. PMID:27251456

  18. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  19. High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    K.A. Miranda; L.R.S. Vasconcelos; L.C.B.B. Coelho; J.L. Lima Filho; M. S. M. Cavalcanti; Moura, P.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates...

  20. A structural comparison of human serum transferrin and human lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wally, Jeremy; Buchanan, Susan K

    2007-06-01

    The transferrins are a family of proteins that bind free iron in the blood and bodily fluids. Serum transferrins function to deliver iron to cells via a receptor-mediated endocytotic process as well as to remove toxic free iron from the blood and to provide an anti-bacterial, low-iron environment. Lactoferrins (found in bodily secretions such as milk) are only known to have an anti-bacterial function, via their ability to tightly bind free iron even at low pH, and have no known transport function. Though these proteins keep the level of free iron low, pathogenic bacteria are able to thrive by obtaining iron from their host via expression of outer membrane proteins that can bind to and remove iron from host proteins, including both serum transferrin and lactoferrin. Furthermore, even though human serum transferrin and lactoferrin are quite similar in sequence and structure, and coordinate iron in the same manner, they differ in their affinities for iron as well as their receptor binding properties: the human transferrin receptor only binds serum transferrin, and two distinct bacterial transport systems are used to capture iron from serum transferrin and lactoferrin. Comparison of the recently solved crystal structure of iron-free human serum transferrin to that of human lactoferrin provides insight into these differences. PMID:17216400

  1. Carriage of ESBL (extended spectrum beta-lactamases) - producing bacteria - knowledge, emotional impact and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, have become a growing public health threat. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore how the increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria affects different groups among the Swedish population. Paper I described the knowledge and understanding of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and of the risk of becoming a carrier of such bacteria, among ninety-five Swedish travelers before travel to high-risk areas. A questionn...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified human spleen ferritin was labelled with 125I. On Sepharose 6-B gel filtration four species of labelled products were separated: a component with a higher molecular weight than ferritin; a component which is eluted in the same volume as unlabelled ferritin; and two labelled compounds with molecular weights lower than ferritin. When these labelled materials were used in a double antibody radioimmunoassay, the higher molecular weight fraction showed variable and high non-specific binding and was poorly displaced by unlabelled ferritin; the fraction behaving like true ferritin gave good standard curves and showed non-specific binding of less than 1%. The remaining two components showed poor binding to rabbit antiferritin. Using labelled material from the second fraction, a double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring 2μg ferritin protein/litre of serum was developed. Inter-and intra-assay variation was between 3% and 8% over a concentration range of 0 to 250 μg ferritin protein/litre. Good agreement between serum ferritin levels assayed by the present method and by an immunoradiometric method was obtained. Labelled ferritin was stable for at least six weeks. The simplicity of the methodology makes it possible to assay serum ferritin in large batches. (author)

  3. Radioimmunoassay for serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development and evaluation of a serum ferritin radioimmunoassay, in which 125I-labeled ferritin and rabbit anti-ferritin antibody are used. Goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin antibody, together with polyethylene glycol, is used as the separating reagent. The assay has a working range up to 500 μg of ferritin per litre, and a sample requirement of 75 μl of serum for assay at two dilutions. The assay requires 24 h. It has a sensitivity of 1.5 μg of ferritin per litre and a long-term precision (CV) of 13%. Reference intervals for a population of men were 18 to 330 μg/litre, with no marked age dependence, while those for a population of women older than 50 years were 18 to 200 μg/litre. Many apparently healthy women in the 20 to 50 year age group have much lower concentrations. Serum ferritin concentrations of <18 μg/litre are indicative of iron deficiency, defined as the absence of stainable iron in an aspirate of bone marrow

  4. Can bacteria save the planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria might just hold the key to preserving the environment for our great grandchildren. Philip Hunter explores some of the novel ways in which systems biology and biotechnology are harnessing bacteria to produce renewable energy and clean up pollution.

  5. Hyperthyroidism with normal serum total T4, T3, and thyroid binding protein concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, J F; Sloane, N G; Glennon, J A

    1980-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman, free of other disease, with severe clinical hyperthyroidism had normal total serum T4 with elevated free T4 concentration and T3 resin uptake characteristic of hyperthyroidism, with thyroid binding globulin (TBG) deficiency. However, serum TBG concentration as determined by immunoassay was normal, suggesting that the biochemical defect affecting the T4 binding sites did not affect is antigenicity. Her total and free serum T3 levels were low-normal with a markedly elevated...

  6. Low-normal free thyroxine confers decreased serum bilirubin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bilirubin may confer cardiovascular protection because of its strong antioxidative properties. Both thyroid dysfunction and the diabetic state affect bilirubin metabolism. Here we tested whether low-normal thyroid function affects serum bilirubin among euthyroid subjects with and without

  7. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  8. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  9. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  10. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  11. Bacteria, Phages and Septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidelytė, Aušra; Vaara, Martti; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2007-01-01

    The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such ph...

  12. Bacteria, food, and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rooks, Michelle G.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2011-01-01

    Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer...

  13. Lethal Mutagenesis of Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, James J; Wilke, Claus O.

    2008-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, the killing of a microbial pathogen with a chemical mutagen, is a potential broad-spectrum antiviral treatment. It operates by raising the genomic mutation rate to the point that the deleterious load causes the population to decline. Its use has been limited to RNA viruses because of their high intrinsic mutation rates. Microbes with DNA genomes, which include many viruses and bacteria, have not been considered for this type of treatment because their low intrinsic mutatio...

  14. Bacteria are not Lamarckian

    OpenAIRE

    Danchin, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Instructive influence of environment on heredity has been a debated topic for centuries. Darwin's identification of natural selection coupled to chance variation as the driving force for evolution, against a formal interpretation proposed by Lamarck, convinced most scientists that environment does not specifically instruct evolution in an oriented direction. This is true for multicellular organisms. In contrast, bacteria were long thought of as prone to receive oriented influences from their ...

  15. Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

  16. 饲粮缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响%Dietary Valine Level Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代腊; 顾林英; 朱巧明; 朱莎; 张爱婷; 邹晓庭; 胡彩虹

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary valine level on the performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices in laying hens, and to explore the optimal valine level in the diet of laying hens. A total of 720 Hy-Line variety Brown laying hens aged 40 weeks were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 36 hens per replicate. Valine was added to a basal diet to obtain the valine level at 0. 6% , 0. 7% , 0. 8% , 0. 9% and 1. 0% , respectively, and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) although supplementing the diet with valine did not affect the laying rate, average egg weight and average daily egg weight (P >0. 05) , the average daily feed intake in 1.0% group and the feed/egg ratio in 0. 8% group were significantly lower than those in the other groups (P 0. 05) , but the eggshell strength in 0. 8% group was higher and the protein content in egg white in 1.0% group was lower compared with the other groups (P < 0.05 or P<0.10);3) serum glucose content in 0. 8% group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0. 05) , and the contents of urea nitrogen and uric acid in serum were higher and serum total ami-no acid content in 0. 8% group was lower compared with the other group (P<0.10);4) based on the feed/ egg ratio, the eggshell strength and serum albumen content, the optimal valine levels in diets of laying hens in the laying peak period were 0. 78% , 0. 81% and 0. 75% , respectively, when the levels of crude protein, ly-sine and metabolizable energy were set at 15. 81% , 0. 77% and 11. 31 MJ/kg in diets. The results suggest that supplementing the diet with suitable valine level reduces feed/egg ratio, improve eggshell strength and serum glucose content.%本文旨在研究饲粮不同缬氨酸水平对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响,并探讨蛋鸡饲粮中缬氨酸的最适添加量.试验选用720只体重相近的40周龄的

  17. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  18. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobac ter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Methods: Serum soluble antigen of H. p ylor i was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H. pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test ( RUT ), histo logi c examination and serology. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive pred ictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46%, 91.07%, 91.67% a nd 76.12 %, respectively. The prevalence rate of serum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergoing endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT met hods ( P>0.05 ). Conclusions: The detection of serum H. pylori solub le antigen( HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate, and convenie nt, not affected by the memorizing reaction of serum antibody; is more sensitive , m ore specific and suitable for clinical diagnosis, and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H. pylori as well as for detection in children and pre gnant women.

  19. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  20. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gomes da Silva; Péricles Ricardo Lacerda e Silva; Paulo César da Silva; José Jurandir Fagliari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum pro...

  1. Effect of extracellular serum in the stimulation of intracellular killing of streptococci by human monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Leijh, P C; van Zwet, T L; Furth, R. van

    1980-01-01

    This study shows that the intracellular killing of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae by human monocytes is stimulated by the extracellular presence of both heat-stable and heat-labile serum factors. A similar kind of stimulation of monocytes has been described in respect of catalase-positive microorganisms. However, killing of these bacteria is negligible in the absence of extracellular serum factors, whereas a large proportion of the ingested catala...

  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    antigen presenting cells and T-cells. Bacteria translocating across the gastrointestinal mucosa are presumed to gain access to NK cell compartments, as consumption of certain strains of lactic acid bacteria has been shown to increase in vivo NK cytotoxic activity. On-going research in our lab aims at...... describing strain-dependent effects of lactic acid bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon...... bacterial stimulation. Methods: CD3-CD56+ NK cells were isolated from buffy coats by negative isolation using a lineage specific antibody cocktail and magnetic beads binding the labelling antibodies on non-NK cells. NK cells were incubated either with 10 microg/ml UV-inactivated lactic acid bacteria or 10...

  3. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  4. Effect of Neemta 2100 toxicity on acetylcholinesterase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enzymes in serum of fish, Oreochromis mossambicus

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen, M.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enzymes have been used as marker monitoring the effect of neem seed based pesticide Neemta 2100 on the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Fishes exposed to sublethal concentrations of Neemta 2100 for acute periods of 24 and 48 hours were sacrificed to determine enzyme activities in serum affected due to toxicity. Laboratory studies of in vivo exposure of this pesticide showed synergistic inhibitory effect during acute period of to...

  5. Bacteria counting method based on polyaniline/bacteria thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Li; Xuetao, Hu; Jiyong, Shi; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Xucheng, Zhou; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Holmes, Mel; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-07-15

    A simple and rapid bacteria counting method based on polyaniline (PANI)/bacteria thin film was proposed. Since the negative effects of immobilized bacteria on the deposition of PANI on glass carbon electrode (GCE), PANI/bacteria thin films containing decreased amount of PANI would be obtained when increasing the bacteria concentration. The prepared PANI/bacteria film was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique to provide quantitative index for the determination of the bacteria count, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed to further investigate the difference in the PANI/bacteria films. Good linear relationship of the peak currents of the CVs and the log total count of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) could be established using the equation Y=-30.413X+272.560 (R(2)=0.982) over the range of 5.3×10(4) to 5.3×10(8)CFUmL(-1), which also showed acceptable stability, reproducibility and switchable ability. The proposed method was feasible for simple and rapid counting of bacteria. PMID:26921555

  6. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riggio, Marcello P.; Lennon, Alan; Taylor, David J.; Bennett, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of adult dogs, with up to 80% of animals affected. The aetiology of the disease is poorly studied, although bacteria are known to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with canine gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare this with the normal oral flora. Swabs were obtained from the gingival margin of three dogs with gingivitis and three orally healthy controls, and subg...

  7. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability <0,01). Four euthyroid patients under estrogen treatment, 9 hypothyroid patients under l-thyroxine treatment, one hyperthyroid patient under antithyroid drugs and one hyperthyroid patient under estrogen treatment, were studied. Total T4 and T3 values were in agreement with the variations of the serum protein transport capacity, and for that reason did not show the real thyroid function state. Clinical decision making analysis (with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves) indicate that FT4 is the best choice for hyperthyroidism diagnosis and T4 for hypothyroidism. Cost/benefit analysis indicates also that FT4 has the best ratio. (author)

  8. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  9. Filariasis and serum specific gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    "nFilariasis is a problematic tropical vector borne infection. Here, the author proposes an idea on a physical change, serum specific gravity, in serum of filariasis cases and further extrapolates for its clinical usefulness.  According to this study, the finalized estimated serum specificity in filariasis is more than that of normal condition. The change of the specific gravity due to additional content or mass can be demonstrated and might be useful for diagnosis and following...

  10. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ToddKlaenhammer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria found in a vast array of environments including dairy products and the human gastrointestinal tract. In both niches, surface proteins play a crucial role in mediating interactions with the surrounding environment. The sortase enzyme is responsible for covalently coupling a subset of surface dependent proteins (SDPs to the cell wall of Gram-positive organisms through recognition of a conserved C-terminal LPXTG motif. Genomic sequencing of LAB and annotation has allowed for the identification of sortase and SDPs. Historically, sortase and SDPs were predominately investigated for their role in mediating pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins in LAB has shed light on their important roles in mediating nutrient acquisition through proteinase P as well as positive probiotic attributes including adhesion, mucus barrier function, and immune signaling. Furthermore, sortase expression signals in LAB have been exploited as a means to develop oral vaccines targeted to the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we examine the collection of studies which evaluate sortase and SDPs in select species of dairy associated and health promoting LAB.

  12. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG in children with primary nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytokine system secreted by osteoblast, osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligand (OPGL regulates osteoclastogenesis. To determine the relation of the serum OPG levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS to the renal disease, we studied 30 patients with NS in comparison with 30 healthy children serving as controls. The study patients were divided into three equal groups: group 1 included newly diagnosed patients who were studied before and after a short course (one month of steroid therapy for the first time, group 2 included frequent relapsers (FR, and group 3 included infrequent relapsers (IFR. In addition to serum OPG (ELISA, osteocalcin (OC, parathormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and 24- hour urinary Ca and proteins were measured. The NS patients revealed a significantly lower serum OPG and parameters of bone formation (ALP and OC and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca than controls. A short course of glucocorticoids therapy for one month resulted in a significant decrease of serum OPG, ALP and OC levels and a significant increase of 24- hour urinary Ca, while serum PTH levels were not significantly affected by this the- rapy; the FR revealed a significantly lower serum level and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca and serum PTH than the IFR. OPG had significant negative correlations with markers of disease activity and severity (ESR, serum cholesterol, 24- hour urinary protein and cumulative steroid dose, PTH and 24- hour urinary Ca. On the other hand, OPG had significant positive correlations with ALP, OC, and serum albumin. Low serum OPG, which is attributed to the renal disease and/or steroid therapy, may be an important factor contributing to bone resorption in NS. Studies of the protective effect of OPG administration against bone loss in NS are warranted.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are compared of the determination of ferritin in the serum using the British made Ferritin RIA kit (Amersham) and the Hungarian 125I-Ferritin IRMA kit (Budapest). Ferritin was determined in the sera of healthy donors with a normal ferritin level and in sera of patients containing high concentrations of ferritin (leukemia, some hemolytic anemias, polytransfusion patients). The obtained results have shown that both kits were sufficiently sensitive for the determination of low ferritin concentrations. The British kit has a wider range than the Hungarian (0 - 1000 ng/ml of ferritin as against 0 - 100 ng/ml), which makes it unnecessary to dilute the examined sera several times as is the case with the Hungarian kit. The possible number of determinations of the British kit is higher than that of the Hungarian kit. (author)

  14. A clinical study of sepsis patients with hypophosphatemia infected by different bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare hypophosphatemia between the sepsis patients and the non-sepsis patients,and between the subgroups of sepsis patients.Methods We collected 312 sepsis cases and 300 non-sepsis cases by stratified random sampling method yearly.In the sepsis cases,the number infected by gram-negative bacteria was 170,and by gram-positive bacteria was 142,containing 4 different bacteria infected cases in each one.Serum phosphorus of cases in each group were collected.

  15. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a cleanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  16. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria is...... cytokines when stimulated with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when...... cultured with blood DC, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the...

  18. A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Seung Min; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeong, Joon Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic. PMID:26921543

  19. Interaction between Chlorella vulgaris and bacteria:interference and resource competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Liang; WANG Renjun; ZHAO Peng; CHEN Ruinan; ZHOU Wenli; TANG Liuqing; TANG Xuexi

    2014-01-01

    Research of interaction mechanism between Chlorella vulgaris and two bacterial strains (Z-QD08 and Z-QS01) were conducted under laboratory conditions. Growth rates of bacteria and C. vulgaris were tested under co-culture conditions to evaluate the effects of concentrations of C. vulgaris and bacteria on their interactions. To test whether the availability of inorganic nutrients, vitamins and trace metals affects the interactions between C. vulgaris and bacteria, experiments were performed with or without the culture medium filtrate of C. vulgaris or bacteria. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was promot-ed at low concentrations of bacteria (5×106 cells/ml), and expressed a positive correlation with the bacteria density, whereas opposite trend was observed for treatments with high bacteria density (10×106 cells/ml and 20×106 cells/ml). The growth rate of bacteria decreased with the increasing concentrations of C. vul-garis. The growth of bacteria Z-QD08 was inhibited by C. vulgaris through interference competition, while the mechanism for interaction between bacteria Z-QS01 and C. vulgaris was resource competition. The influence of cell density on the interaction between microalgae and bacteria was also discussed. These ex-periments confirm some elements of published theory on interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and microalgae and suggest that heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the development of blooms in natural waters.

  20. Interactions between Diatoms and Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Shady A.; Parker, Micaela S.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding hi...

  1. Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the biological and ecological examinations on the radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria (mainly concerning Micrococcus radiodurans). Radiation-resistant asporogenic bacteria were isolated from the irradiated areas of the natural world as well as from the general areas and from the Rn waters in the Misasa hot spring. The acquiring of the tolerance to radiation in bacteria was also examined. In addition, the future problems of microbiological treatment with irradiation were mentioned. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  2. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  3. Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.

    1980-10-01

    Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

  4. Can Pulp Fibroblasts Kill Cariogenic Bacteria? Role of Complement Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, C; Rufas, P; Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Dejou, J; About, I

    2015-12-01

    Complement system activation has been shown to be involved in inflammation and regeneration processes that can be observed within the dental pulp after moderate carious decay. Studies simulating carious injuries in vitro have shown that when human pulp fibroblasts are stimulated by lipoteichoic acid (LTA), they synthetize all complement components. Complement activation leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is known for its bacterial lytic effect. This work was designed to find out whether human pulp fibroblasts can kill Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis via complement activation. First, histological staining of carious tooth sections showed that the presence of S. mutans correlated with an intense MAC staining. Next, to simulate bacterial infection in vitro, human pulp fibroblasts were incubated in serum-free medium with LTA. Quantification by an enzymatic assay showed a significant increase of MAC formation on bacteria grown in this LTA-conditioned medium. To determine whether the MAC produced by pulp fibroblasts was functional, bacteria sensitivity to LTA-conditioned medium was evaluated using agar well diffusion assay and succinyl dehydrogenase (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) assay. Both assays showed that S. mutans and S. sanguinis were sensitive to LTA-conditioned medium. Finally, to evaluate whether MAC formation on cariogenic bacteria, by pulp fibroblasts, can be directly induced by the presence of these bacteria, a specific coculture model of human pulp fibroblasts and bacteria was developed. Immunofluorescence revealed an intense MAC labeling on bacteria after direct contact with pulp fibroblasts. The observed MAC formation and its lethal effects were significantly reduced when CD59, an inhibitor of MAC formation, was added. Our findings demonstrate that the MAC produced by LTA-stimulated pulp fibroblasts is functional and can kill S. mutans and S. sanguinis. Taken together

  5. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kekkonen, Riina A.; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Julkunen, Ilkka; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Orešič, Matej; Korpela, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of three weeks’ intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.

  6. The interaction pattern of murine serum ficolin-A with microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Tina; Ma, Ying Jie; Munthe-Fog, Lea;

    2012-01-01

    microorganisms (N = 45) and compared the binding profile with human serum ficolin-2 and ficolin-3. Ficolin-A was able to bind Gram-positive bacteria strains including E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes and some S. aureus strains, but not to the investigated S. agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) strains. Regarding...

  7. The effects of bacteria on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of evaluation of corrosion life of carbon steel overpack, the experimental studies have been performed on the effects of bacteria on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in compacted bentonite using iron bacteria (IB) as a representative oxidizing bacteria and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) as a representative reducing bacteria. The results of the experimental studies showed that; The activity of SRB was low in compacted bentonite in spite of applying suitable condition for the action of bacteria such as temperature and nutritious solution. Although the corrosion behavior of carbon steel was affected by the existence of bacteria in simple solution, the corrosion rates of carbon steel in compacted bentonite were several μ m/year -10 μ m/year irrespective of coexistence of bacteria and that the corrosion behavior was not affected by the existence of bacteria. According to these results, it was concluded that the bacteria would not affect the corrosion behavior of carbon steel overpack under repository condition. (author)

  8. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤动; 朱永良

    2002-01-01

    Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.

  9. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  10. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  11. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  12. Maternal Serum Vitamin D Levels in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    PEHLİVAN, İsmail

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To measure serum vitamin D levels of pregnant women in the last trimester and to determine factors affecting serum levels. Methods: Seventy-eight pregnant women, 19-39 years old and having their third trimester between March and May 2000, were enrolled. Serum Ca, P and alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in venous blood samples during the third trimester. Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status, number of gravida, nutrition, dressing habits and daily...

  13. Measurement of acetol in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, J P; Fu, J L

    1985-08-01

    A method for the derivatization of acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and for the measurement of the acetol dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative (acetol-DNPH) by high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. The chromatographic separation described here resulted in baseline resolution of the acetol-DNPH peak. Peak integration was proportional to serum acetol concentration over a 5- to 500-nmol/ml range. No other method for the determination of acetol in serum currently exists. Serum from rats in diabetic ketoacidosis was found to contain 11.2 +/- 1.1 nmol acetol/ml serum (N = 3). Serum from a 21-day-fasted human contained 16 nmol/ml acetol. Serum from rats maintained on drinking water containing 1% acetone (v:v) for 6 days contained 152 +/- 31 nmol/ml acetol (N = 5). The presence of acetol in serum under conditions where acetoacetate and acetone are chronically elevated suggests that acetoacetate may be converted to glucose through the conversion of acetone to acetol and L-1,2-propanediol. PMID:3933378

  14. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  15. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  16. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger;

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study was to inve...

  17. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  18. Characterization of Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Three Diverse Species of West African Crocodiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that exhibits substantial immunological activity, was measured in the serum of three species of diverse West African crocodiles. Incubation of different volumes of crocodile serum with bacteria labeled with a fluorescent fatty acid in the sn-2 position of membrane lipids resulted in a volume-dependent liberation of fluorescent probe. Serum from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus exhibited slightly higher activity than that of the slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus and the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis. Product formation was inhibited by BPB, a specific PLA2 inhibitor, confirming that the activity was a direct result of the presence of serum PLA2. Kinetic analysis showed that C. niloticus serum produced product more rapidly than M. cataphractus or O. tetraspis. Serum from all three species exhibited temperature-dependent PLA2 activities but with slightly different thermal profiles. All three crocodilian species showed high levels of activity against eight different species of bacteria.

  19. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Cong eDai; Wei eFu; Ling-Yun eWan; Hong-Hong eCai; Ning eWang; Shanshan eQi; Daolin eDu

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria,...

  20. Effect of ciliates on nitrification and nitrifying bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Prast, M.; Bischof, Adrian A.; Waller, Uwe; Amann, R.; Berninger, U.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification in aquatic sediments is catalyzed by bacteria. While many autecological studies on these bacteria have been published, few have regarded them as part of the benthic microbial food web. Ciliates are important as grazers on bacteria, but also for remineralization of organic matter. We tested the hypothesis that ciliates can affect nitrification. Experiments with Baltic Sea sediments in laboratory flumes, with or without the addition of cultured ciliates, were conducted. We found i...

  1. Investigation and Application Progress of Vero Cell Serum-free Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Chen; Keping Chen

    2009-01-01

    Serum-free culture is now becoming the general trend of biological production. Its application in Vero cell culture issignificant. In the present paper, we reviewed factors affecting Vero cell serum-free culture and several culturetechniques. In light of these reviews, we outlined its extensive application prospect.

  2. Serum Bactericidal Assay: New Role in Salmonella Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Da; Sun, Min; Deng, Mingjun; Cui, Shuhua; Liang, Chengzhu; Geng, Juan; Sun, Tao; Long, Ling; Xiao, Xizhi

    2016-01-01

    While inspecting animal feed for Salmonella contamination, we routinely observed bacterial colonies on selective agars that were similar in appearance to those formed by Salmonella. These were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia fonticola using biochemical and serological techniques. Because the presence of these bacterial species confounds identification of Salmonella, we refer to them as "interference bacteria." Polyvalent antisera against these interference bacteria were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of all three organisms. To minimize or eliminate interference by these bacteria, the polyvalent antisera were introduced between the steps of selective enrichment and Salmonella-selective plating. The antisera raised against the interference bacteria, when combined with neonatal rabbit complement, exhibited specific bactericidal activity against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola. The respective serum bactericidal assay titers were 2(9), 2(8), and 2(10). In selective broth, polyvalent antisera could also kill the target bacterial cells effectively. We tested 526 samples (186 white fishmeal, 97 red fishmeal, and 243 cattle bone powder) using the polyvalent antisera and found that the rates of contamination of each species of the three respective foods decreased by 58.8, 100, and 83%. Our data indicates that polyvalent sera against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola can be used as inhibitors to increase the accuracy of Salmonella detection. PMID:26822285

  3. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  4. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  5. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  6. Serum Survivin Increases in Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dellal, Fatma Dilek; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Gorar, Suheyla; Ademoglu, Esranur; Candan, Zehra; Bekdemir, Handan; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Kaya, Fatih Oner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolactinoma is the most common adult pituitary adenoma. Survivin is a member of the family of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Its expression is observed in many tumors. Survivin expression has shown in prolactinoma tissue before but no study exists showing serum survivin level. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum survivin levels in patients with prolactinoma and demonstrate its value in diagnosis of the disease. Methods The group of patients consisted of 25 wom...

  7. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  8. Serum Calcium Level in Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Hazari, Mohammed Abdul Hannan; Arifuddin, Mehnaaz Sameera; Muzzakar, Syed; Reddy, Vontela Devender

    2012-01-01

    Background: The alterations in extracellular calcium level may influence intracellular calcium level and possibly play a role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Aim: The purpose was to find out the association between serum calcium levels and hypertension; and to compare the serum calcium levels between normotensive controls, hypertensive subjects on calcium channel blockers, and hypertensive subjects on antihypertensive medication other than calcium channel blockers. Materials an...

  9. Serum Ferritin in Thalassemia Intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ravi; Trehan, Amita; Das, Reena; R K Marwaha

    2013-01-01

    Serum ferritin is a useful monitoring tool for iron overload in thalassemia major. In resource poor settings access to modalities for assessment of iron overload are limited. This study was undertaken to assess the efficiency and usefulness of serum ferritin level in thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients. This was a cross sectional observational study. Seventy seven TI patients attending the pediatric hematology clinic were included. Fasting blood sample was taken from each patient in iron fre...

  10. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  11. Screening of aspartate dehydrogenase of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shoko; Okamura, Tokumitsu; Yasumasa, Izumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 12 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NAD^+. Four strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 7 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NADP^+. Seven strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 4 strains of bacteria cultured und...

  12. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD. PMID:24598882

  13. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    increased. It is only recently that sewage from major cities like Panaji, Goa, India is treated before disposing into the estuary. It is therefore of interest to determine what the levels of pollution indicator bacteria due to sewage disposal...

  14. Bacteria, some permanent tenants Space Station; Bacteria, unos inquilinos permanentes de la estacion espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, B.

    2015-07-01

    Vacuum cleaners to operate the vacuum or rags with ethanol they are the products of cleaning of the astronauts. Is there tight spaces fully sterilized? It seems not, even in the Space Station International (ISS). When it comes to bacteria, they are able to travel more than 400 kilometers housed in costumes, bodies and interior of the astronauts themselves and settle in a enclosed space where-unlike in a {sup c}leanroom 'terrestre- the air is not recycled. A NASA study has found an abundance of bacteria 'opportunists' which, although harmless on Earth, they might derivasen cause infections in inflammations or skin irritations. Not forgetting those fungi that could damage or affect the infrastructure equipment space. (Author)

  15. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.;

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The...... TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  16. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  17. Adherention ability of intestinal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Morgensternová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide positive health benefits. Bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium belong to this group. These bacteria have to meet a number of criteria so that they could be considered for probiotic. These include the ability to survive, grow, and be metabolically active in the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. Probiotics protect the intestinal mucus from the adhesion of pathogenic organisms. The aim of this thesis was to test the ability of different ...

  18. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.; Piskur, Jure

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The...... TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  19. A comparative effect of 3 disinfectants on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide, chlorine and their mixture on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in circulating cooling water was studied. The results of the test indicated that high purity chlorine dioxide was the most effective biocide in the 3 disinfectants, and with a dosage of 0.5mg/L, chlorine dioxide could obtain perfect effect. High purity chloride dioxide could have the excellent effect with the pH value of 6 to 10, and could keep it within 72 h. Chlorine and their mixture couldn't reach the effect of chlorine dioxide.

  20. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  1. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  2. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  3. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  4. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlage, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Youngblood, T. [Frisby Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States); Lamothe, D. [American Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States). Ordnance/Explosives Environmental Services Div.

    1998-04-01

    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

  5. Recent advances in maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Geralyn M; Canick, Jacob A

    2002-12-01

    For the past 15 years, addition of serum markers to screening for Down syndrome has enhanced the ability to identify affected pregnancies. During the 1990s, incremental improvements in screening have been tested and implemented, first with the addition of a fourth biochemical marker, inhibin A, to second trimester screening protocols, and second with the development of combined first trimester serum and ultrasound screening. With the new century, we are on the verge of a major breakthrough in the performance of prenatal screening for Down syndrome, with the opportunity to spare almost all pregnant women the risk of amniocentesis and CVS, yet attain levels of detection approaching 90%. PMID:12593353

  6. Hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A

    1991-10-01

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were measured. Sex and age (adult versus juvenile) of rabbit as well as season (June to September versus October to May) and method of capture (trap versus shot) variously affected most hematology and serum chemistry variables. PMID:1758030

  7. Isolation and Identification of Concrete Environment Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, J. M.; Anneza, L. H.; Othman, N.; Husnul, T.; Alshalif, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the isolation and molecular method for bacteria identification through PCR and DNA sequencing. Identification of the bacteria species is required in order to fully utilize the bacterium capability for precipitation of calcium carbonate in concrete. This process is to enable the addition of suitable catalyst according to the bacterium enzymatic pathway that is known through the bacteria species used. The objective of this study is to isolate, enriched and identify the bacteria species. The bacteria in this study was isolated from fresh urine and acid mine drainage water, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Enrichment of the isolated bacteria was conducted to ensure the bacteria survivability in concrete. The identification of bacteria species was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rRDNA sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of the bacteria was done successfully. Whereas, the results for bacteria identification showed that the isolated bacteria strains are Bacillus sp and Enterococus faecalis.

  8. Associations of Europium(III) with gram-negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Migration of radionuclides in the environment is greatly affected by bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and can preferentially bind radionuclides because of the presence of the cell envelop consisting of two membrane bilayers with an intervening thin peptidoglycan layer, where carboxyl and phosphate functional groups are mainly involved in metal cation adsorption. In this study, we investigated the association of Eu(III) with four Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis, Shewanella putrefaciens, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Europium(III) is a good analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III). The association of Eu(III) with the bacteria were determined by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The kinetics study showed that the Eu(III) adsorption on the bacteria proceeded rapidly. The Eu(III) adsorption on P. fluorescens at pH 3, A. faecalis and P. denitrificans at pHs 3, 4, and 5, and S. putrefaciens at pHs 4 and 5 reached a maximum within 5 minutes after contact. For P. denitrificans, the percent adsorption of Eu(III) decreased after the maximum percent adsorption was attained, which suggests the existence of exudates with an affinity with Eu(III). TRLFS showed that the coordination of Eu(III) on these bacteria is multi-dentate through an inner-spherical process. The ligand field of Eu(III) on P. denitrificans was as strong as the ones observed for halo-philic microorganisms, while that of P. fluorescens, A. faecalis, and S. putrefaciens was the typical one observed for non-halo-philic microorganisms. The coordination environment of Eu(III) on the bacteria differed from each other, though they are categorized as Gram-negative bacteria with the similar cell wall components. (authors)

  9. Determination Melatonin in Serum of Kurdish Horses by HPLC in Kermanshah Region at Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Arabi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum concentration of melatonin of Kurdish horses Kermanshah region at breeding season (February to June of 2010. Blood samples from jugular vein of 40 Kurdish horses were collected. Serum was harvested from these blood samples by centrifugation. After preparation and derivation of serums for HPLC assay, samples were injected to HPLC column and melatonin was measured by area under curve based on standard curve of melatonin. The mean (±S.E of serum melatonin was determined 63.23±9.51 pg/mL. The concentration of serum melatonin of mares was nearly 2 times than stallions and significantly differed (p = 0.01. Thus serum melatonin related to breed of horses and may affect reproductive activity in different breed and geographical region.

  10. Effect of sodium valproate on phenobarbital serum levels in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Gatta, M R; Alonso Gonzalez, A C; Garcia Sanchez, M J; Dominguez-Gil Hurle, A; Santos Borbujo, J; Monzon Corral, L

    1986-01-01

    The influence of sodium valproate on serum levels of phenobarbital during combination treatment was studied in 29 children and 50 adults with epilepsy. Steady-state drug levels in serum were determined immediately prior to drug administration using immunoenzymatic analysis. The serum level/dose ratio of phenobarbital increased significantly (p less than 0.001) when sodium valproate was added to the treatment. The increase had a mean value of 50.9% in adults and 112.5% in children, suggesting marked interindividual variability in the intensity of the interaction. Almost half of the patients required a decrease in the dose of phenobarbital prescribed. The interaction was more pronounced in patients with high serum levels of phenobarbital, while the dose of phenobarbital and the serum levels and dose of sodium valproate did not seem to affect the extent of the interaction. Close monitoring of the serum levels of phenobarbital is recommended during simultaneous treatment with sodium valproate. PMID:3103264

  11. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation with human serum from oxidant-challenged individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Hoffer; T Machamid; A Tabak; Y Baum; A Tamir; Y Lerman

    2003-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that stimulated superoxide production from PMN was inhibited ( < 0.05) by serum from young smokers as compared to that of young nonsmokers, both from the unexposed group. Incubation of PMN with serum from elderly nonsmoking individuals decreased superoxide production as compared to incubation with serum from young nonsmoking individuals, both from the unexposed group. A decrease in superoxide production by incubation with serum of welders as compared to that of unexposed individuals was significant only when the comparison was carried out between the young, non-smoking subgroups. These findings suggest that age, smoking, and exposure to oxidants induce appearance in serum of factors that affect the PMN function.

  12. Allelopathic bacteria and their impact on higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazani, O; Friedman, J

    2001-01-01

    The impact of allelopathic, nonpathogenic bacteria on plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems is discussed. In some natural ecosystems, evidence supports the view that in the vicinity of some allelopathically active perennials (e.g., Adenostoma fasciculatum, California), in addition to allelochemicals leached from the shrub's canopy, accumulation of phytotoxic bacteria or other allelopathic microorganisms amplify retardation of annuals. In agricultural ecosystems allelopathic bacteria may evolve in areas where a single crop is grown successively, and the resulting yield decline cannot be restored by application of minerals. Transfer of soils from areas where crop suppression had been recorded into an unaffected area induced crop retardation without readily apparent symptoms of plant disease. Susceptibility of higher plants to deleterious rhizobacteria is often manifested in sandy or so-called skeletal soils. Evaluation of phytotoxic activity under controlled conditions, as well as ways to apply allelopathic bacteria in the field, is approached. The allelopathic effect may occur directly through the release of allelochemicals by a bacterium that affects susceptible plant(s) or indirectly through the suppression of an essential symbiont. The process is affected by nutritional and other environmental conditions, some may control bacterial density and the rate of production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic nonpathogenic bacteria include a wide range of genera and secrete a diverse group of plant growth-mediating allelochemicals. Although a limited number of plant growth-promoting bacterial allelochemicals have been identified, a considerable number of highly diversified growth-inhibiting allelochemicals have been isolated and characterized. Some species may produce more than one allelochemical; for example, three different phyotoxins, geldanamycin, nigericin, and hydanthocidin, were isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Efforts to introduce naturally

  13. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  14. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  15. Sensitivity of ice-nucleating bacteria to ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the ice-nucleating activity of the ice-nucleating bacteria was examined. Bacterial suspension was irradiated with UV (254 nm, 6Wx2) for 5 min at a distance of 20 cm from UV source. Although no viable cells were detected, the ice-nucreating activity of the cells was not affected. Furthermore, after UV irradiation for 3 hr, the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae was only slightly decreased, although that of P. viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola was significantly lowered. We succeeded in killing the ice-nucleating bacteria, while retaining their ice-nucleating activity with UV irradiation. (author)

  16. Sensitivity of ice-nucleating bacteria to ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obata, Hitoshi; Tanahashi, Shinji; Kawahara, Hidehisa (Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the ice-nucleating activity of the ice-nucleating bacteria was examined. Bacterial suspension was irradiated with UV (254 nm, 6Wx2) for 5 min at a distance of 20 cm from UV source. Although no viable cells were detected, the ice-nucreating activity of the cells was not affected. Furthermore, after UV irradiation for 3 hr, the ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae was only slightly decreased, although that of P. viridiflava and Erwinia herbicola was significantly lowered. We succeeded in killing the ice-nucleating bacteria, while retaining their ice-nucleating activity with UV irradiation. (author).

  17. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical

  18. Isoforms of murine and human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hackler, R; Kold, B;

    1998-01-01

    affect their number. When the acute-phase response was analysed in three mouse strains, CBA/J and C3H/HeN initially showed seven SAP isoforms in serum and C57BL/6 J three or four. The responses in all three strains peaked at day 2 and were normalized within 14 days. On days 2 and 4, CBA/J and C3H......Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunofixation of murine serum amyloid P component (SAP), purified and in serum, showed a distinct and strain-dependent isoform pattern with up to seven bands (pI 5.1-5.7). Neuraminidase treatment caused a shift of the isoforms to more basic pI values, but did not...

  19. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  20. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  1. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  3. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic bacteria. Lactococcus lactis, and several other lactic acid bacteria, however respond to the addition of heme in aerobic growth conditions. This response includes increased biomass and robustness. In t...

  4. Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition response to bacteria-containing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, J M; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Faye, I

    2008-09-01

    In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae mosquito colony with the focus on spiked breeding sites as a possible means of introducing bacteria to mosquitoes. A Pantoea stewartii strain, previously isolated from An. gambiae, marked with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was introduced to mosquitoes in different life stages. The following life stages or older mosquitoes in the case of adults were screened for bacteria in their guts. In addition to P. stewartii other bacteria were isolated from the guts: these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Bacteria were transferred from larvae to pupae but not from pupae to adults. The mosquitoes were able to take up bacteria from the water they emerged from and transfer the same bacteria to the water they laid eggs in. Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was more often isolated from adult mosquitoes than P. stewartii. A bioassay was used to examine An. gambiae oviposition responses towards bacteria-containing solutions. The volatiles emitted from the solutions were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. P. stewartii but not E. meningoseptica mediated a positive oviposition response. The volatiles emitted by P. stewartii include indole and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which previously have been shown to affect An. gambiae mosquito behaviour. E. meningoseptica emitted indole but not 3-methyl-1-butanol, when suspended in saline. Taken together, this indicates that it may be possible to create attractive breeding sites for distribution of genetically modified bacteria in the

  5. Role of interleukin-1 in augmenting serum neutralization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Riveau, G R; Novitsky, T J; Roslansky, P F; Dinarello, C A; Warren, H S

    1987-01-01

    We have previously described an assay to quantify the serum neutralization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide which is based on a spectrophotometric Limulus amoebocyte lysate test (T.J. Novitsky, P.F. Roslansky, G.R. Siber, and H.S. Warren, J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:211-216, 1985). Studies since have shown that serum samples drawn from patients with leukemia and fever, gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial infections, or shock caused by gram-negative bacteria neutralize approximately 10-fold mor...

  6. Effects of molecular structural variants on serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 levels in sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemura Masahiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6, which is classified as human mucin-1 (MUC1, is used as a marker of sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases. However, there remain some limitations due to a lack of information on the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6. This study was designed to investigate the factors contributing to increased levels of serum KL-6 by molecular analysis. Methods Western blot analysis using anti-KL-6 antibody was performed simultaneously on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum obtained from 128 subjects with sarcoidosis. Results KL-6/MUC1 in BALF showed three bands and five band patterns. These band patterns were associated with the MUC1 genotype and the KL-6 levels. KL-6/MUC1 band patterns in serum were dependent on molecular size class in BALF. Significantly increased levels of serum KL-6, serum/BALF KL-6 ratio and serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor were observed in the subjects with influx of high molecular size KL-6/MUC1 from the alveoli to blood circulation. The multivariate linear regression analysis involving potentially relevant variables such as age, gender, smoking status, lung parenchymal involvement based on radiographical stage and molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum showed that the molecular size of KL-6/MUC1 in serum was significant independent determinant of serum KL-6 levels. Conclusions The molecular structural variants of KL-6/MUC1 and its leakage behavior affect serum levels of KL-6 in sarcoidosis. This information may assist in the interpretation of serum KL-6 levels in sarcoidosis.

  7. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon and...... nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  8. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015

  9. Parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, A; Korentager, R; Keystone, E; Bohnen, J

    1988-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus remains the pathogen most commonly implicated in acute suppurative parotitis, the pathogenic role of gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria and strict anaerobic organisms in this disease is becoming increasingly recognized. This report describes a case of parotitis due to Bacteroides disiens in an elderly woman with Sjögren's syndrome. Literature reports on seven additional cases of suppurative parotitis due to anaerobic bacteria are reviewed. Initial therapy of acute suppurative parotitis should include coverage for S. aureus and, in a very ill patient, coverage of gram-negative facultative organisms with antibiotics such as cloxacillin and an aminoglycoside. A failure to respond clinically to such a regimen or isolation of anaerobic bacteria should lead to the consideration of the addition of clindamycin or penicillin. PMID:3287567

  10. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and lipemia on serum analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, K.K.; Freni-Titulaer, L.W.J.; Rogers, T.N.; Burse, V.W.; Mueller, P.W.; Stehr, P.A.; Miller, D.T.; Steele, G.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve serum analytes (triglycerides, cholesterol, total and conjugated bilirubin, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) alkaline phosphatase (AP), gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ..beta..-glucoronidase (..beta..-glu), alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'nuc)) were measured to investigate their correlation with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT). The relationship between serum lipids, lipophilic toxicants, and the analytes was also evaluated. The ..beta..-glue, 5'nuc, triglycerides, cholesterol, and total bilirubin correlated positively and significantly with log concentrations of serum total PCBs and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of DDT. The more highly chlorinated PCBs had significant, positive correlations with several serum analytes, but the less chlorinated PCBs correlated significantly and negatively only with HDL-cholesterol. Triglyercide- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins were added to serum to determine the effects of lipids on these assays. Several were spuriously elevated. AP and ..beta..-glu were not affected by lipoprotein addition with the methods used in this study. AAP was increased significantly only at triglyceide concentrations exceeding 400 mg/dl.

  11. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (Iranian patients. PMID:26329996

  12. Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, V; Mukherjee, A; Reddy, M S

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study examined the effect of calcite precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (Bp M-3) on parameters affecting the durability of concrete or mortar. An inexpensive industrial waste, corn steep liquor (CSL), from starch industry was used as nutrient source for the growth of bacteria and calcite production, and the results obtained with CSL were compared with those of the standard commercial medium. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in substantial decrease of water uptake, permeability, and chloride penetration compared with control specimens without bacteria. The results obtained with CSL medium were comparable to those obtained with standard medium, indicating the economization of the biocalcification process. The results suggest that calcifying bacteria play an important role in enhancing the durability of concrete structures. PMID:21104104

  13. Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: Guardians of the immune system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IoannisEleftherianos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases.

  14. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TOFU PRODUCTION METHOD WITH PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Zielińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a production method for tofu with probiotic bacteria under laboratory conditions. The works included: selection of a strain and tofu production conditions, and a storage test of the manufactured product. It was concluded that the sensory quality of tofu with the addition of different probiotic cultures did not differ significantly (p>0.01, depending on used strains and their mixtures, and the sample quality was comparable to the commercial product. It was observed that the number of Lactobacillus bacteria in study samples was the factor determining the palatability of tofu (r= 0.75. On the other hand, the sensory quality of products was significantly affected by the production method of tofu with the addition of probiotic bacteria. It was concluded that the formation of curds from soy beverage by the addition of CaSO4, followed by inoculation with Lactobacillus casei ŁOCK 0900 at the amount of 9.26 log CFU/g and incubation at temp. of 37C for 2h as well as for 20h are methods recommended for production tofu with regard to sensory qualities of the final product among all tested methods. The number of lactic acid bacteria in studied tofu samples was maintained at the high level (109-1010 CFU/g, and the number of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis BB-12 bacteria did not exceed 103 CFU/g, whereas the number of Lactobacillus bacteria was equal to 108-109 CFU/g. For the period of 15 days of storage of tofu with probiotic bacteria at the temperature of 4C the number of lactic acid bacteria was maintained at the constant level of approx. 109 CFU/g. It was concluded that it is possible to produce tofu with probiotic bacteria that has acceptable sensory characteristics and a high number of lactic acid bacteria, therefore the product could be considered as a functional one.

  16. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  17. Physics of Bacteria During Osmotic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jordan; Klug, William

    Bacteria combat hypoosmotic shocks by opening mechanosensitive ion channels located within the inner membrane. These channels are believed to act as ``emergency release valves,'' reducing transient pressure during the shock by regulating solute and water flux. Recent experiments have shown that cell survivability depends strongly on channel populations and the rate of osmotic shock. However, the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind osmotic protection remains unclear. We investigate how channel deletions, variations in shock rate, and cell envelope mechanics affect survivability by constructing theoretical elasticity and transport models. We find that reducing the number of channels and applying faster shocks significantly increases the time-dependent stress of the cell membrane and wall. This result provides insight into physical mechanisms that govern cell failure, including membrane rupture and wall fracture.

  18. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of bacteria in clouds may affect their radiation and precipitation properties as some species are able to catalyse the freezing of water at high temperatures (-2C to -10C). Where cloud-borne bacteria originate and the distances they are able to travel in the air remains a mystery. In this study we have attempted to address these issues by comparing metagenomic DNA sequences from air samples with those from other environmental sources. Air samples were collected on 1 July 2009 from a hill top at Thursley Nature Reserve in Surrey, United Kingdom, a rural site, 31 miles from the nearest stretch of coastline, and on 6 July 2009 from the top of a six storey building in Stratford on the East end of London, 38 miles from the nearest coastal area. Samples were collected using the Karcher DS5500 vacuum into a liquid filled collection vessel at an air flow rate of 3.3 m3 min-1 over a 4 hour period. Samples were then concentrated and the bacterial content was investigated by PCR, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. During the collection period on 1 July the Royston Weather Station in the South East of England recorded wind speed of 1.9 miles/hour in an Easterly direction, with no cloud cover, relative humidity of 74% and atmospheric pressure of 1021.6 mB. On 6 July wind speed was 9.8 miles/hour in a South Westerly direction, there was light cloud cover, relative humidity was 73.8% and atmospheric pressure was 1002.8 mB. Twenty cloned 16S PCR products from each air sample were sequenced. The species identification of each clone is shown in Table 1. The diversity of bacteria found at both sites was similar, with Stenotrophomona and Pedobacteria species dominating both samples. When the DNA sequences were blasted against the environmental samples database, all sequences were found to display greatest homology to metagenomic DNA from marine sources. This may suggest that the most numerous bacteria in air samples originate in the oceans. Taking account of the

  19. Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    filtered through a 0.22 μ m sterile nylon filter, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM revealed the presence of viral like particles in the culture exposed to mytomycin C. Together these results suggest an active infection with a lysogenic bacteriophage in the model metal reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp., which could affect metabolic physiology and subsequently metal reduction in environmental systems.

  20. Corrosion of candidate container materials by Yucca Mountain bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several candidate container materials have been studied in modified Yucca Mountain (YM) ground water in the presence or absence of YM bacteria. YM bacteria increased corrosion rates by 5-6 fold in UNS G10200 carbon steel, and nearly 100-fold in UNS NO4400 Ni-Cu alloy. YM bacteria caused microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) through de-alloying or Ni-depletion of Ni-Cu alloy as evidenced by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. MIC rates of more corrosion-resistant alloys such as UNS NO6022 Ni-Cr- MO-W alloy, UN's NO6625 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, and UNS S30400 stainless steel were measured below 0.05 umyr, however YM bacteria affected depletion of Cr and Fe relative to Ni in these materials. The chemical change on the metal surface caused by depletion was characterized in anodic polarization behavior. The anodic polarization behavior of depleted Ni-based alloys was similar to that of pure Ni. Key words: MIC, container materials, YM bacteria, de-alloying, Ni-depletion, Cr-depletion, polarization resistance, anodic polarization,

  1. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy

  2. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. PMID:26657897

  3. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus;

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...

  4. Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Alicia H; Parsonnet, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Although scientific knowledge in viral oncology has exploded in the 20th century, the role of bacteria as mediators of oncogenesis has been less well elucidated. Understanding bacterial carcinogenesis has become increasingly important as a possible means of cancer prevention. This review summarizes clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence as well as possible mechanisms of bacterial induction of or protection from malignancy.

  5. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  6. Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

  7. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of bacterial and hemagglutinins from the serum of the mud crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Jayaraj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A naturally occurring hemagglutinin (HA, with activity against bacteria and yeast cells were detected in the serum of Scylla serrata using mammalian erythrocytes (RBC, various bacteria and yeast as indicator cells. The serum gave highest HA titer with rabbit RBC, tripsinized yeast and Vibrio fluvialis. An analysis of the physico-chemical properties of the HA showed it to be specifically dependent on the presence of Ca2+ for its activity, stable between pH 7 to 9 and showed thermal stability between 10 to 30 °C. Further studies demonstrated that the HA is precipitable by ammonium sulphate and TCA. HA- inhibition assays performed with carbohydrates revealed that the serum HA was specific for non-reducing terminal glucose with 1-2 glucosidic linkages. Thus this agglutinin appears to be unique among all the known crustacean agglutinins.

  9. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  10. Serum ferritin in liver and bone malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin concentration is increased during iron overload, however, during chronic infection and malignant diseases as well. In 383 patients with proven malignancy or suspicion of a malignant disease liver and/or bone scans were performed and serum ferritin was measured in addition. Although there exists a certain linkage between the tumorous disease and serum ferritin level, a definite correlation does not exist. Furthermore serum ferritin is not a measure to differentiate between infectious and malignant diseases. (orig.)

  11. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Kargar; Rouhi Afkari; Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a tota...

  12. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Sharma

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium was studied serially in 94 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. An equal number of age- and sex-matched patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were controls. Seventy patients in the study group were normocalcaemic and 10 were hypercalcaemic. These 10 were on a higher supplement of vitamin D than the 70 normocalcaemic patients. There was a positive correlation between the daily vitamin intake and the degree and duration of hypercalcaemia. None of the controls...

  13. Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Randall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. Methods We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years and younger men (ages 18 to 35, as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above in our banked specimens. Results We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78, interleukin 7 (IL-7, p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β, platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10. We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon

  14. Physico-chemical factors and bacteria in fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, X.; Xiuzheng, F.; Tongbing, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of pond water and mud samples show that nitrifying bacteria (including ammonifying bacteria, nitrite bacteria, nitrobacteria and denitrifying bacteria) are in general closely correlated with various physico-chemical factors, ammonifying bacteria are mainly correlated with dissolved oxygen; denitrifying bacteria are inversely correlated with phosphorus; nitrite bacteria are closely correlated with nitrites, nitrobacteria are inversely correlated with ammoniac nitrogen. The nitrifying ...

  15. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins: A combined spectroscopic and computational investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Bijan Kumar Paul; Nitin Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the three CDs interact differently on the fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes of the serum albumins. However, fluorescence anisotropy and circular dichroism are not affected. Depending on their size, different CDs bind to the serum albumins in different positions, resulting in changes in the spectral behaviour of the proteins. Docking study suggests the probable binding sites of the three CDs with the proteins. Combined experimental and computational studies imply that sufficiently high concentration of CDs causes loosening of the rigid structures of these transport proteins, although their secondary structures remain intact. Thus, CDs are found to be safe for the serum proteins from the structural point of view.

  16. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  17. Killer Pigments in Bacteria: An Ecological Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Saccardi, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Describes an alternative to teaching ecology by using bacteria to test competitor survival. Students observe a time-dependent selective killing of other unrelated bacteria by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (SAH)

  18. Bacteria and the Aging and Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dennis H.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded fundamental insights into evolutionarily conserved pathways and processes governing the physiology of aging. Recent studies suggest that interactions between C. elegans and its microbial environment may influence the aging and longevity of this simple host organism. Experimental evidence supports a role for bacteria in affecting longevity through distinct mechanisms—as a nutrient source, as a potential pathogen ...

  19. Effect of xylitol on growth of nasopharyngeal bacteria in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontiokari, T; Uhari, M.; Koskela, M.

    1995-01-01

    Xylitol is known to reduce caries by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. We hypothesized that xylitol could also affect the growth of other nasopharyngeal bacterial flora, which could be important when considering respiratory infections caused by these bacteria. We studied this in vitro by adding xylitol to the medium and observed that 1 and 5% xylitol reduced markedly the growth of alpha-hemolytic streptococci, including S. pneumoniae. It reduced slightly the growth of beta-hemoly...

  20. Genetics of Serum Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: The sac-1 Genetic Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Janne G.; Lee, Terrence J.; Guymon, Lawrence F.; Sparling, P. Frederick

    1981-01-01

    A genetic locus affecting susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum has been designated sac-1. This locus was shown to be closely linked to, but not identical with, a second locus (designated nmp-2) that affects protein 1 of the outer membrane. The sac-1 locus could be linked to known antibiotic resistance markers on the gonococcal chromosome by genetic transformation.

  1. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN LATEX PAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, J

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bac...

  3. Specific Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Are Present in Serum from Pigs with Osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Koch, Janne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Achilles heel in osteomyelitis is that bacteria, primarily Staphylococcus aureus, grow as a biofilm in the bone lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we explored the serum level of specific antibodies to S. aurues biofilm in porcine models of osteomyelitis. RESULTS......: Significantly increased levels of antibodies towards the specific biofilm antigen SA0688 were measured in serum from pigs with S. aureus-associated acute and chronic osteomyelitis 5-7 and 10-14 days after inoculation, respectively. Simultaneously with raised antibody levels, an increase in serum interleukin 6...... (IL 6) levels was also seen. CONCLUSION: The observed biofilm-specific antibody response represents a T-helper cell 17 (Th17) response and potentially a T-helper cell 1 (Th1) response. This is in agreement with previous studies in mice and rabbits speculating that S. aureus induces a Th1- and Th17...

  4. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).

  5. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer

    1995-01-01

    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

  6. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  7. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    CERN Document Server

    Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-01-01

    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

  8. Development of a serum-free liquid medium for Bartonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria. PMID:26842394

  9. Fast detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Salmo salar serum through MALDI-TOF-MS profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olate, Verónica R; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S; Soto, Alex; Araya, Macarena; Oyanedel, Sandra; Díaz, Verónica; Marchant, Vanessa; Rios-Momberg, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a pathogenic bacteria known as the aetiological agent of the salmonid rickettsial syndrome and causes a high mortality in farmed salmonid fishes. Detection of P. salmonis in farmed fishes is based mainly on molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. These techniques are in most of the cases expensive and time consuming. In the search of new alternatives to detect the presence of P. salmonis in salmonid fishes, this work proposed the use of MALDI-TOF-MS to compare serum protein profiles from Salmo salar fish, including experimentally infected and non-infected fishes using principal component analysis (PCA). Samples were obtained from a controlled bioassay where S. salar was challenged with P. salmonis in a cohabitation model and classified according to the presence or absence of the bacteria by real time PCR analysis. MALDI spectra of the fish serum samples showed differences in its serum protein composition. These differences were corroborated with PCA analysis. The results demonstrated that the use of both MALDI-TOF-MS and PCA represents a useful tool to discriminate the fish status through the analysis of salmonid serum samples. PMID:26956387

  10. Motility Control of Bacteria-Actuated Biodegradable Polymeric Microstructures by Selective Adhesion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jung Yoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacteria have motility and can be made non-toxic, and using them for drug delivery has been proposed. For example, using bacteria with flagella motion in multiple spin actuators in drug delivery microrobots has been suggested. This paper investigates various adhesion enhancement methods for attaching bacteria on preferred surfaces of cubic polymeric microstructures to achieve the directional control of motion. Serratia marcescens which has an excellent swimming behavior and 50-μm sized cubic structures made of biodegradable poly-capro-lactone (PCL are used. Three treatment methods are investigated and compared to the untreated control case. The first method is retarding bacterial attachments by coating certain surfaces with bovine serum albumin (BSA which makes those surfaces anti-adherent to bacteria. The second and third methods are roughening the surfaces with X-ray irradiation and plasma respectively to purposely increase bacterial attachments on the roughened surfaces. The measured motilities of bacteria-tethered PCL microactuators are 1.40 μm/s for the BSA coating method, 0.82 μm/s for the X-ray irradiation, and 3.89 μm/s for the plasma treatment method. Therefore, among the methods investigated in the paper the plasma treatment method achieves the highest directionality control of bacteria motility.

  11. Efficacy of serum samples stored on filter paper for the detection of antibody to Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test (MAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R M; Romero, E C

    2012-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microagglutination test (MAT) results in serum samples dried on filter paper and stored at different temperatures during 1day, 7days, 30days and 1year to determine the stability of sera antibody against leptospires. Serum samples collected onto filter paper for the detection of leptospires antibody was compared with MAT in a study of 300 serum samples from patients with suspected leptospirosis. Among 300 fresh serum samples analyzed by MAT 156 (52%) were positive and 144 (48%) negative. All the negative fresh serum samples were negative when dried on filter paper (specificity 100%). The sensitivity of MAT performed on dried serum samples was 100%. Storage on filter paper at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 and 7days did not affect the MAT titers. For up to 7days, 98.72% of dried serum samples had titers identical to those of the corresponding serum samples, and 1.18% of dried serum samples showed 1 dilution of difference. After a storage period of one month a prozone phenomenon was observed. After a storage period of one year all serum samples were negative. Serum samples collected onto filter paper are a convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. PMID:22960422

  12. Box-shaped halophilic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Javor, B; Requadt, C; Stoeckenius, W

    1982-01-01

    Three morphologically similar strains of halophilic, box-shaped procaryotes have been isolated from brines collected in the Sinai, Baja California (Mexico), and southern California (United States). Although the isolates in their morphology resemble Walsby's square bacteria, which are a dominant morphological type in the Red Sea and Baja California brines, they are probably not identical to them. The cells show the general characteristics of extreme halophiles and archaebacteria. They contain ...

  13. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Raimondi; Alberto Amaretti; Maddalena Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-typ...

  14. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Dennis A. Bazylinski

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aqu...

  15. Cyclosporin A affects the level of anti-myelin basic protein in serum and myelinoclasis after rat brain trauma%环孢素A对大鼠脑损伤后髓鞘碱性蛋白抗体及继发性脱髓鞘病变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚建成; 李卫; 刘灵慧; 李虹; 陈善成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of cyclosporin A(CsA)on the level of anti-myelin basic protein(anti-MBP)in the serum and myelinoclasis in rat models after brain trauma.Methods Seventy-seven SD rats were randomized into blank control group(n=7),model group(n=35)and CsA-treated group(n=35).The 0.9% normal saline(5 mg/kg/d)was intraperitoneally injected into the model group and 5 mg/mL CsA(5 mg/kg/d)was injected into the CsA-treated group.Different time points(1,4,10,20 and 30 d)after the brain trauma,the MBP content and anti-MBP titer in the serum were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and the degree of myelinoclasis in the brain stem slices was assessed with Marchi's method.Results As compared with that in the blank control group,the MBP and Anti-MBP contents in the model group were significantly increased(P0.05).However,lower level of anti-MBP in the serum 1 d after the injury and degree of myelinoclasis in the brain stem 4 daRer the injury in the CsA-treated group were observed as compared with those in the model group(P0.05),而伤后1d开始Anti-MBP含量降低、伤后4 d开始变性髓鞘数量降低.差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Pearson相关分析显示CsA组与模型组大鼠血清Anti-MBP含量与脑干变性髓鞘的数量呈正相关关系(r=0.959,P=0.000).结论 CsA可以干预脑组织损伤后大鼠的免疫系统,在一定程度上可以减少Anti-MBP的产生、减轻大鼠继发性脑干脱髓鞘病变的程度.

  16. Bacteria interfere with A-actinomycetemcomitans colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Teughels, Wim; Haake, S. Kinder; Sliepen, Isabelle; Pauwels, Martine; Van Eldere, Johan; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Quirynen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    It is known that beneficial bacteria can suppress the emergence of pathogenic bacteria, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the potential for a similar suppression of Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans colonization of epithelial cells, due to its potential relevance in periodontal diseases. Seven presumed beneficial bacteria were examined for their ability to interfere, exclude, or displace A. actinomycetemcomitans from epithelial cells...

  17. Laser-Based Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous in our world. From our homes, to our work environment, to our own bodies, bacteria are the omnipresent although often unobserved companions to human life. Physicists are typically untroubled professionally by the presence of these bacteria, as their study usually falls safely outside the realm of our typical domain. In the…

  18. Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author)

  19. Drosophila lifespan enhancement by exogenous bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brummel, Ted; Ching, Alisa; Seroude, Laurent; Simon, Anne F.; Benzer, Seymour

    2004-01-01

    We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in different ways, indicating an interplay between bacteria and longevity-enhancing genes.

  20. Dietary Fat Levels Affect Growth Performance, Body Fat Deposition and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Growing Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus)%饲粮脂肪水平对育成期蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿业业; 张铁涛; 张志强; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮脂肪水平对蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积及血清生化指标的影响.选取(55±5)日龄、体重相近的健康蓝狐64只,随机分成4组,每组8个重复,每个重复2只(公母各占1/2),分别饲喂脂肪水平为12%、26%、40%和54%的试验饲粮.预试期为10 d,正试期为156 d.结果表明,试验狐各阶段日增重随饲粮脂肪水平的增加呈现先升高再降低的趋势,而血脂、血糖及内脏脂肪率则呈逐渐升高的趋势.当脂肪水平达到54%时,试验狐的肝脂率和肝体指数均显著高于其他组(P<0.05).母狐血清生化指标与体脂沉积各性状的相关性比公狐高.血清甘油三酯和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平与肝脂率、肝体指数及内脏脂肪率呈显著正相关(P<0.05).经对蓝狐生长性能、体脂沉积、血清生化指标综合分析得出,蓝狐具有较高的脂肪耐受性,但育成期蓝狐饲粮脂肪水平不宜超过40%,公狐以饲粮脂肪水平26%组,母狐以饲粮脂肪水平40%组生长最快.%The trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary fat levels on growth, body fat deposition, and serum biochemical parameters of growing blue foxes (Alopex lagopus). Based on age and initial body weight, a total of 64 blue foxes were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 2 foxes per replicate (half male and half female). Foxes in four groups were fed with experimental diets containing 12% , 26% , 40% or 54% fat, respectively. The experiment included an adaptation period for 10 days and a test period for 156 days. The results showed as follows; with the increasing dietary fat levels, daily gain weight of growing blue foxes was firstly increased and then decreased, while the contents of fat and glucose in serum and visceral fat percentage (VFP) were improved at different stages. When the dietary fat level was 54% , hepatic fat percentage (HFP) and hepatic somatic index (HIS) were significantly

  1. Serum levels of antimüllerian hormone in early maturing girls before, during, and after suppression with GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Anderson, Richard A;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH.......To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH....

  2. Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Intrarenal Hemodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uedono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia has been reported to affect renal hemodynamics in rat models. We evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in humans, utilizing the plasma clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH and inulin (Cin. Methods: Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were assessed by simultaneous measurement of CPAH and Cin in 58 subjects. Of these, 19 subjects were planned to provide a kidney for transplantation; 26 had diabetes without proteinuria; and 13 had mild proteinuria. Renal and glomerular hemodynamics were calculated using Gomez`s formulae. Results: Cin was more than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 in all subjects. Serum uric acid levels correlated significantly with vascular resistance at the afferent arteriole (Ra (r = 0.354, p = 0.006 but not with that of the efferent arteriole (Re. Serum uric acid levels (β = 0.581, p = a after adjustment for several confounders (R2 = 0.518, p = Conclusions: These findings suggest, for the first time in humans, that higher serum uric acid levels are associated significantly with Ra in subjects with Cin > 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The increase in Ra in subjects with higher uric acid levels may be related to dysfunction of glomerular perfusion.

  3. Serum interleukin-6 and mean platelet volume in pediatric pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lilisari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In pneumonia, interleukin (IL-6 is released in response to inflammation. Interleukin-6 stimulates megakaryocyte maturation, leading to larger platelets being released into the circulation. Platelet size is measured as mean platelet volume (MPV. The MPV may also be affected by nutritional status and smoking.Objective To assess for a possible relationship between serum IL-6 concentration and MPV, including smoking and nutritional status as confounding factors, in children with pneumonia.Methods An analytic, observational study with cross-sectional design and consecutive sampling of children aged 2 to 59 months with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and two network hospitals. All patients underwent routine complete blood counts including MPV and measurement of serum IL-6 concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Regression linear analysis was used to assess the relationship between MPV and IL-6, passive smoking, and nutritional status.Results There were 67 patients enrolled in the study. Subjects’ mean serum IL-6 concentration was 49.3 (SD 78.3 pg/mL, and mean MPV was 9.2 (SD 0.9 fL. The regression model for MPV was 7.531 + 0.662 (passive smoking + 0.276 (weight per age + 0.009 (IL-6.Conclusion There was a relationship between IL-6 serum concentration and MPV in children with pneumonia.

  4. Serum interleukin-6 and mean platelet volume in pediatric pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lilisari,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In pneumonia, interleukin (IL-6 is released in response to inflammation. Interleukin-6 stimulates megakaryocyte maturation, leading to larger platelets being released into the circulation. Platelet size is measured as mean platelet volume (MPV. The MPV may also be affected by nutritional status and smoking. Objective To assess for a possible relationship between serum IL-6 concentration and MPV, including smoking and nutritional status as confounding factors, in children with pneumonia. Methods An analytic, observational study with cross-sectional design and consecutive sampling of children aged 2 to 59 months with a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and two network hospitals. All patients underwent routine complete blood counts including MPV and measurement of serum IL-6 concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Regression linear analysis was used to assess the relationship between MPV and IL-6, passive smoking, and nutritional status. Results There were 67 patients enrolled in the study. Subjects’ mean serum IL-6 concentration was 49.3 (SD 78.3 pg/mL, and mean MPV was 9.2 (SD 0.9 fL. The regression model for MPV was 7.531 + 0.662 (passive smoking + 0.276 (weight per age + 0.009 (IL-6. Conclusion There was a relationship between IL-6 serum concentration and MPV in children with pneumonia.

  5. Etofenamate levels in human serum and synovial fluid following iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, T; Bariska, J; Rojkovich, B; Bálint, G

    2001-01-01

    The absorption of etofenamate (CAS 30544-47-9, Rheumon gel) by iontophoresis in 11 patients with low back pain and in 13 patients with synovitis of the knee was evaluated. During the 5-day treatment period, the test gel in a quantity corresponding to 100 mg etofenamate was applied to affected body regions every day by 20-min iontophoresis sessions. Two hours after the fifth application, the concentration of etofenamate in serum and synovial fluid (in patients who had knee joint iontophoresis) were measured by HPLC. Iontophoresis of etofenamate into the lumbar region as well as to the knee joint resulted in consistent serum levels: 219 +/- 136.3 micrograms/l and 191 +/- 84.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In patients with synovitis of the knee, the synovial level of etofenamate (368 +/- 109.2 micrograms/l) was almost twice as high than the serum concentration. The authors conclude that with topical application of etofenamate by iontophoresis the drug appears not only in the serum but also--with higher levels--in the synovial fluid. PMID:11455681

  6. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p1 and α2 globulin were significantly higher (p1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α1 and α2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  7. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  8. Impact of chronic kidney disease on serum tumor markers concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Hong-li; DONG Zhen-nan; WEN Xin-yu; GAO Jing; WANG Bo; TIAN Ya-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum tumor markers have always been of clinical importance in the diagnosis,monitoring disease progression and therapy efficacy for patients with malignant diseases.However,elevated serum tumor markers are found in some benign conditions,especially in chronic kidney disease (CKD).The elevation of them in CKD might cause confusion and misuse of these tumor markers.We conducted this retrospective study to investigate which of the five widely used tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (Cyfra21-1),squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) are affected markedly by CKD,in order to use them more effectively.Methods Serum tumor marker concentrations,biochemical,hematological parameters,and urinalysis were measured in CKD patients and healthy controls.The positive rate and median tumor markers' level in CKD patients and controls,and those in CKD patients stratified by CKD grade were compared using nonparametric rank tests.Correlation analysis of serum tumor markers and other parameters in CKD patients were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the important variables that caused elevated serum concentrations of these markers in CKD patients.Results The overall positive rates and serum concentrations of Cyfra21-1,SCC,CEA in CKD group were significantly higher than those in control group.Positive rate and serum concentrations of those tumor markers increased as kidney function decreased.Both univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis showed that the elevations of those tumor markers were not only associated with kidney function,but also with nutritional status.Conclusions Serum concentrations of Cyfra21-1,SCC,CEA are significantly influenced by kidney function,as well as nutritional status.Therefore,in clinical work,the indices of kidney function and nutritional

  9. Isolation and identification of thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from shrimp paste "Terasi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murwani, R.; Supriyadi, Subagio, Trianto, A.; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Terasi is a traditional product generally made of fermented shrimp. There were many studies regarding lactic acid bacteria of terasi but none regarding proteolitic bacteria. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from terasi. In addition, the effect of different salt concentrations on the growth of the isolated proteolytic bacteria with the greatest proteolytic activity was also studied. Terasi samples were obtained from the Northern coast region of Java island i.e. Jepara, Demak and Batang. The study obtained 34 proteolytic isolates. Four isolates were identified as Sulfidobacillus, three isolates as Vibrio / Alkaligenes / Aeromonas, two isolates as Pseudomonas, 21 isolates as Bacillus, three isolates as Kurthia/ Caryophanon and one isolates as Amphibacillus. The growth of proteolytic bacteria was affected by salt concentration. The largest growth was found at 0 ppm salt concentrations and growth was declined as salt concentration increased. Maximum growth at each salt concentration tested was found at 8 hours incubation.

  10. Skin Needling to Enhance Depigmenting Serum Penetration in the Treatment of Melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Cameli, N.; Monfrecola, A.; M. C. Mauriello; Annunziata, M. C.; F. Pastore; Fardella, N.; V. De Vita; G. Fabbrocini

    2011-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the facial area which has a considerable psychological impact on the patient. Managing melasma is a difficult challenge that requires long-term treatment with a number of topical agents, such as rucinol and sophora-alpha. Aims. We aim to compare the combined treatment of skin needling and depigmenting serum with that using depigmenting serum alone in the treatment of melasma, in order to evaluate the use of microneedles as a means to enhan...

  11. Interaction of Water-Soluble CdTe Quantum Dots with Bovine Serum Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) are promising fluorescent markers, but it is very little known about interaction of quantum dots with biological molecules. In this study, interaction of CdTe quantum dots coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA) with bovine serum albumin was investigated. Steady state spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods were used. It was explored how bovine serum albumin affects stability and spectral properties...

  12. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  13. [Spectroscopic studies on the binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Chen, Chang-Yun; Xie, An-Jian

    2007-09-01

    The binding of phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin under physiological conditions was studied by spectroscopic method. The quenching mechanism of the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin by phenazopyridine hydrochloride was studied with fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The binding constant Kb and the number of binding sites n were determined at different temperatures according to Scatchard equation, and the main binding force was discussed by thermodynamic equations. The effect of the drug on bovine serum albumin conformation was also studied by using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching mechanism of phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is static quenching and non-radiation energy transfer. The binding constants Kb at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C are 2.47 x 10(7), 9.15 x 10(6) and 4.36 x 10(6) mol(-1) with one binding site, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the reaction are DeltaH = -71.2 kJ x mol(-1), and DeltaS = 124.8 J x mol(-1) x K(-1). Binding phenazopyridine hydrochloride to bovine serum albumin is a spontaneous inter-molecular interaction in which entropy increases and Gibbs free energy decreases. The binding distance r between phenazopyridine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin is 1.61 nm according to Forster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The binding force is electrostatic interaction. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride can be deposited and transported by serum protein in vivo. Phenazopyridine hydrochloride does affect the serum protein conformation. PMID:18051539

  14. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Alix M Denoncourt; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  15. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone...... alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.8), peak serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.5), or mean serum phosphate (p = 0.2) at term. CONCLUSION:Routine measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are of no use in predicting bone mineralisation outcome in premature infants....

  16. Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activities of bacteria associated with polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellamnadar Vaikundavasagom Sunjaiy Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities expressed by epibiotic bacteria associated with the polychaetes Platynereis dumerilii and Syllis sp. Methods: A total of 32 cultivable bacterial strains were isolated from the two polychaete species. The crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Extracts of the strains which showed strong activity were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and the bacterial strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Extracts of 13 bacterial strains showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic and biofilm-forming bacteria. The crude extracts also affected the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity of the Alteromonas sp. isolated from marine biofilm. The adhesion of Alteromonas sp. on glass surface showed significant variation between surface-associated bacterial crude extract treatment and control groups. Among the 13 bacteria, two strains PA8 and PA19 were further analyzed for bioactive fractions. Thinlayer chromatography indicated the presence of a single active fraction in the crude extract of both the bacterial strains. The epibiotic bacterial strains P8 and P19 were identified as Exiguobacterium sp. and Actinobacterium sp. respectively based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Conclusions: The present study indicates that bacteria associated with marine invertebrates inhabiting the coastal waters could be used as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites.

  17. Corrosion of candidate container materials by Yucca Mountain bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several candidate container materials have been studied in modified Yucca Mountain (YM) ground water in the presence or absence of YM bacteria. YM bacteria increased corrosion rates by 5--6 fold in UNS G10200 carbon steel, and nearly 100-fold in UNS N04400 Ni-Cu alloy. YM bacteria caused microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) through de-alloying or Ni-depletion of Ni-Cu alloy as evidenced by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) analysis. MIC rates of more corrosion-resistant alloys such as UNS N06022 Ni-Cr-Mo- W alloy, UNS N06625 Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, and UNS S30430 stainless steel were measured below 0.05 microm/yr, however YM bacteria affected depletion of Cr and Fe relative to Ni in these materials. The chemical change on the metal surface caused by depletion was characterized in anodic polarization behavior. The anodic polarization behavior of depleted Ni-based alloys was similar to that of pure Ni

  18. Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Defense Responses by Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L Y M; Chen, Z J; Shah, N P; El-Nezami, H

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in food confer numerous health benefits. In previous studies about beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to health, particularly in the fields of intestinal mucosa defense responses, specific probiotics, in a strain-dependent manner, show certain degree of potential to reinforce the integrity of intestinal epithelium and/or regulate some immune components. The mechanism of probiotic action is an area of interest. Among all possible routes of modulation by probiotics of intestinal epithelial cell-mediated defense responses, modulations of intestinal barrier function, innate, and adaptive mucosal immune responses, as well as signaling pathways are considered to play important role in the intestinal defense responses against pathogenic bacteria. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria to intestinal health together with the mechanisms affected by probiotic bacteria: barrier function, innate, and adaptive defense responses such as secretion of mucins, defensins, trefoil factors, immunoglobulin A (IgA), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, gut associated lymphoid tissues, and signaling pathways. PMID:25629818

  19. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  20. Occurrence of Lactic Acid Bacteria During the Different Stages of Vinification and Conservation of Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Carre, E.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1983-01-01

    We showed that the growth of lactic acid bacteria during alcoholic fermentation depends on the composition of the must. We illustrated how the addition of sulfur dioxide to the must before fermentation and the temperature of storage both affect the growth of these bacteria in the wine. Whereas species of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated from grapes and must, Leuconostoc oenos was the only species isolated after alcoholic fermentation. This organism was responsible for...

  1. Bacteria and vampirism in cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C

    2013-09-01

    A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. PMID:23916557

  2. Turning Bacteria Suspensions into Superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Héctor Matías; Gachelin, Jérémie; Douarche, Carine; Auradou, Harold; Clément, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The rheological response under simple shear of an active suspension of Escherichia coli is determined in a large range of shear rates and concentrations. The effective viscosity and the time scales characterizing the bacterial organization under shear are obtained. In the dilute regime, we bring evidence for a low-shear Newtonian plateau characterized by a shear viscosity decreasing with concentration. In the semidilute regime, for particularly active bacteria, the suspension displays a "superfluidlike" transition where the viscous resistance to shear vanishes, thus showing that, macroscopically, the activity of pusher swimmers organized by shear is able to fully overcome the dissipative effects due to viscous loss.

  3. Algicidal bacteria in the sea and their impact on algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayali, Xavier; Azam, Farooq

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many reports have revealed the existence of bacteria capable of killing phytoplankton. These algicidal bacteria sometimes increase in abundance concurrently with the decline of algal blooms, suggesting that they may affect algal bloom dynamics. Here, we synthesize the existing knowledge on algicidal bacteria interactions with marine eukaryotic microalgae. We discuss the effectiveness of the current methods to characterize the algicidal phenotype in an ecosystem context. We briefly consider the literature on the phylogenetic identification of algicidal bacteria, their interaction with their algal prey, the characterization of algicidal molecules, and the enumeration of algicidal bacteria during algal blooms. We conclude that, due to limitations of current methods, the evidence for algicidal bacteria causing algal bloom decline is circumstantial. New methods and an ecosystem approach are needed to test hypotheses on the impact of algicidal bacteria in algal bloom dynamics. This will require enlarging the scope of inquiry from its current focus on the potential utility of algicidal bacteria in the control of harmful algal blooms. We suggest conceptualizing bacterial algicidy within the general problem of bacterial regulation of algal community structure in the ocean. PMID:15134248

  4. The serum lipid peroxide level of civil aircrew members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe serum lipid peroxide level and antioxidant capacity in civil aircrew members who occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation at high altitude. Methods: Serum lipid peroxides (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant activity (TAO) were all determined by chemical colorimetry. The effective doses were estimated in accordance with CARI-6. Results: The three indicators in the aircrew members were all significantly higher than those of ground personnel (P<0.05): their MDA, SOD, TAO levels were (4.09±1.1) nmol/ml, (126.0 ± 17.1)U/ml, (22.01 ± 4.6) U/ml, while those in the ground personnel were (3.79±0.7) nmol/ml, (119.5±10.5) U/ml, (20.02±3.9) U/ml, respectively. The serum MDA levels exhibited a trend of increase with average annual flight hours and average annual effective doses, but were not parallel with total hours service in flying and accumulative effective doses and ages. The MDA showed corresponding dynamic changes with the changes in the flight continuity over a recent period of time. Conclusions: The lipids in the body of aircrew members suffer oxidation damage from cosmic radiation and the antioxidant capacity of the body shows a compensatory increase. The serum lipid peroxide levels are affected obviously by flight burdens and the frequency exposed to cosmic radiation recently. The serum lipid peroxides might be used as a monitoring indicator in cosmic radiation protection for aircrew members

  5. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  6. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  7. Serum creatine phosphokinase in thyroid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ranka, Rashmi; Mathur, Rati

    2003-01-01

    The decreased serum levels of triiodothyroinine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in hypothyroid patients is well established but whether there is any correlation of creatinephosphokinase (CPK) with hypothyroidism is not well established. There is a paucity of reference on this study. Therefore a study of serum CPK and thyroid profile was carried out in thyroid diseases. In hypothyroid patients T3, T4 levels in serum were found to be lowered with an increase level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) a...

  8. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 ..mu..U/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 ..mu..U/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum.

  9. Serum pancreatic lipase activity in cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Junglee, D; Penketh, A; Katrak, A; Hodson, M.E.; Batten, J C; Dandona, P

    1983-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have been found to have abnormal serum concentrations of immunoreactive trypsin and abnormal activities of pancreatic isoamylase. A study was undertaken to discover whether activity of pancreatic lipase is also altered in cystic fibrosis. Serum from 23 patients with cystic fibrosis was assayed for immunoreactive trypsin and pancreatic lipase. Median serum pancreatic lipase activity was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis than in controls, as was ...

  10. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gomes da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8 CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum proteins was determined through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Thirty serum proteins ranging from molecular weight of 24,000 Da to molecular weight of 236,000 Da were detected. Serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin (125,000 Da, haptoglobin (45,000 Da, acid glycoprotein (40,000 Da and a 34,000 Da protein were significantly increased in the experimentally infected calves, when compared with their concentrations in the control animals. Therefore, this study showed that S. Dublin infection could lead to the increase of certain serum proteins in calves.

  11. DMTB: the magnetotactic bacteria database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Lin, W.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of interest in biogeomagnetism, rock magnetism, microbiology, biomineralization, and advanced magnetic materials because of their ability to synthesize highly ordered intracellular nano-sized magnetic minerals, magnetite or greigite. Great strides for MTB studies have been made in the past few decades. More than 600 articles concerning MTB have been published. These rapidly growing data are stimulating cross disciplinary studies in such field as biogeomagnetism. We have compiled the first online database for MTB, i.e., Database of Magnestotactic Bacteria (DMTB, http://database.biomnsl.com). It contains useful information of 16S rRNA gene sequences, oligonucleotides, and magnetic properties of MTB, and corresponding ecological metadata of sampling sites. The 16S rRNA gene sequences are collected from the GenBank database, while all other data are collected from the scientific literature. Rock magnetic properties for both uncultivated and cultivated MTB species are also included. In the DMTB database, data are accessible through four main interfaces: Site Sort, Phylo Sort, Oligonucleotides, and Magnetic Properties. References in each entry serve as links to specific pages within public databases. The online comprehensive DMTB will provide a very useful data resource for researchers from various disciplines, e.g., microbiology, rock magnetism and paleomagnetism, biogeomagnetism, magnetic material sciences and others.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis and the role of oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodriguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and periodontal disease (PD have shown similar physiopathologic mechanisms such as chronic inflammation with adjacent bone resorption in an immunogenetically susceptible host; however, PD has a well-recognized bacterial etiology while the cause of RA is unclear. Some reports have indicated that an infectious agent in a susceptible host could be one possible trigger factor for RA, and it has been suggested that oral microorganisms, specialty periodontal bacteria could be the infectious agent (mainly Porphyromonas gingivalis. It has been reported that PD is more frequent and more severe in patients with RA, suggesting a positive association between both diseases. There have been reports regarding the detection of antibodies against periodontal bacteria while other studies have identified periodontal bacterial DNA in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients and have explored the possible pathways of transport of periodontal bacterial DNA. In conclusion, there is no question that RA and PD have pathologic features in common and there is strong evidence of an association between both diseases, but further studies, including experimental models, are needed to demonstrate the arthritogenicity of oral microorganisms.

  13. Biochemical Characteristics and Viability of Probiotic and Yogurt Bacteria in Yogurt during the Fermentation and Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    F Sarvari; A.M. Mortazavian; M.R. Fazei

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the viability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12) and yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) in yogurt during the fermentation, immediately after fermentation and during refrigerated storage (21 d, 4˚C). Also the biochemical characteristics of milk as affected by the commercial 4-strain mixed starter culture were investigated. Storage time affected the via...

  14. The Short-Term Effect of Mustard Gas on the Serum Immunoglobulin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Keyhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas (MG, as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto antigenic stimulation of the patients’ immune systems.

  15. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  16. Antifouling activities of marine bacteria associated with sponge ( Sigmadocia sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, S.; Soniamby, A. R.; Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V.; Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the antifouling activity of bacteria associated with marine sponges. A total of eight bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of sponge Sigmadocia sp., of them, SS02, SS05 and SS06 showed inhibitory activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The extracts of these 3 strains considerably affected the extracellular polymeric substance producing ability and adhesion of biofilm-forming bacterial strains. In addition to disc diffusion assay, microalgal settlement assay was carried out with the extracts mixed with polyurethane wood polish and coated onto stainless steel coupons. The extract of strain SS05 showed strong microalgal settlement inhibitory activity. Strain SS05 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on its 16S rRNA gene. Metabolites of the bacterial strains associated with marine invertebrates promise to be developed into environment-friendly antifouling agents.

  17. Relative binding affinity of diethylstilbestrol to uterine nuclear estrogen receptor: effect of serum and serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative binding affinity (RBA) of tritium labelled diethylstilbestrol (DES) was determined in nuclear fractions of rat uterus. DES displayed a two- to threefold greater affinity than estradiol for nuclear E receptor. The RBA of DES to nuclear E receptor was lowered significantly in the presence of rat serum (43 +/- 1) or human serum (52 +/- 7). Dilution of human serum resulted in a progressive increase in the RBA of DES which approached that observed in the absence of serum. Addition of purified human serum albumin mimicked the decrease in RBA of DES that was observed with serum. The IC50 of estradiol was not changed in the presence of either rat serum or albumin. These data show that DES possesses a greater affinity for nuclear E receptor than estradiol and that serum albumin can modulate DES binding to uterine E receptor

  18. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone...... mineral content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p < 0.001). Bone mineral content was not associated with mean serum...

  19. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  20. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB). They...... utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms in...... other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative of the...

  1. Modified insulator semiconductor electrode with functionalized nanoparticles for Proteus mirabilis bacteria biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Yosra; Barhoumi, Houcine; Maaref, Abderrazak; Bakhrouf, Amina; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    The development of enzymatic sensors for biological purposes such as biomedicine, pharmacy, food industry, and environmental toxicity requires the purification step of the enzyme. To prevent the loss of the enzyme activity, a new strategy is held in order to immobilize the bacteria. It will constitute the biological sensing element leading to a high operational stability and multiple adaptations to various conditions such as temperature, pH and ionic strength changes. In this work we describe the development of a urea biosensor by immobilizing Proteus mirabilis bacteria onto an insulator-semiconductor electrode on functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), using cationic, Poly (allylamine hydrochloride) then anionic, Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polyelectrolytes, BSA (serum bovin albumin), and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The response of P. mirabilis to urea addition is evaluated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. Before the immobilization step, the activity of urease produced from the P. mirabilis bacteria was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs). Adhesion of the bacteria cells on IS electrodes have been studied using contact angle measurements. After immobilization of the bacteria, on the (Si/SiO2/Si3N4) and (Si/SiO2) substrates, the relationship between the evolution of the flat band potential ∆VFB and the urea concentration is found to be linear for values ranging from 10(-2)M to 10(-5)M. PMID:24094152

  2. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  3. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [3H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, we found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 ...

  4. Utilization of xylooligosaccharides by selected ruminal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta, M A

    1993-01-01

    The ability of ruminal bacteria to utilize xylooligosaccharides was examined. Xylooligosaccharides were prepared by partially hydrolyzing oat spelt xylan in phosphoric acid. This substrate solution was added (0.2%, wt/vol) to a complex medium containing yeast extract and Trypticase that was inoculated with individual species of ruminal bacteria, and growth and utilization were monitored over time. All of the xylanolytic bacteria examined were able to utilize this oligosaccharide mixture as a ...

  5. QUANTATITIVE PCR ASSAY FOR MARINE BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Brunk, Clifford F.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring the bacterial flora in coastal marine waters by conventional techniques has been difficult as most of the bacteria do not readily grow on culture plates and their morphologies are virtually identical in the microscope. Molecular techniques, particularly characterizing bacteria using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of their small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has dramatically improved the ability to identify bacteria from environmental samples. Identificatio...

  6. Selection-Driven Gene Loss in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Koskiniemi, Sanna; Sun, Song; Berg, Otto; Andersson, Dan I.

    2012-01-01

    Gene loss by deletion is a common evolutionary process in bacteria, as exemplified by bacteria with small genomes that have evolved from bacteria with larger genomes by reductive processes. The driving force(s) for genome reduction remains unclear, and here we examined the hypothesis that gene loss is selected because carriage of superfluous genes confers a fitness cost to the bacterium. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica, we measured deletion rates at 11 chromosomal positions and the fitne...

  7. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Anders P.; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, J T; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and...

  8. Mixed Silage of Corncob and Citrus Pulp Affects Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Beef Cattle%玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料对肉牛生长性能和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    志莉; 薛白; 王之盛; 蔡义民; 刘振龙; 邓华

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在研究玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料对肉牛生长性能、养分消化率和血清生化指标的影响.选择24头平均体重(173.13±5.10)kg的健康西门塔尔杂种肉牛,随机分为4个处理,每个处理6个重复,每个重复l头牛,饲养时间为50 d.4个处理分别是:1)对照组(CON),40%精料+60%牛鞭草;2)试验l组(S20),40%精料+40%牛鞭草+20%青贮料(玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料);3)试验2组(S30),40%精料+30%牛鞭草+30%青贮料;4)试验3组(S40),40%精料+20%牛鞭草+40%青贮料.结果表明,S20组平均日增重最高,比CON组提高17.14%(P<0.01),S30组干物质采食量最高,比CON组提高14.51%(P<0.05),S20组肉牛料重比最低(P>0.05).4个处理间干物质、粗蛋白质、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维的表现消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),但是S20组有机物的消化率显著高于CON组(P<0.05).各处理间总蛋白、葡萄糖含量无显著差异(P>0.05),3个试验组尿素氮含量均极显著低于C0N组(P<0.01),分别降低了23.09%、26.10%和30.32%.由此可知,玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料替代部分牛鞭草能提高肉牛生长性能,主要表现在提高肉牛采食量、平均日增重和养分消化率上.玉米芯-柑橘渣混合青贮料的添加量以占饲粮的20%为宜.%This study was conducted to determine the effects of mixed silage with corncob and citrus pulp on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of beef cattle. A total of 24 healthy Simmental cross cattle with initial body weight of (173.13 ±5.10) kg were randomly allocated into 4 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 1 cattle per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 50 days. Four treatments included 1) control group (CON), 40% basal diet ±60% Hemathria sibirica; 2) test group 1 (S20), 40% basal diet ±40% Hemathria sibirica ±20% mixed silage; 3) test group 2 ( S30), 40% basal diet ±30% Hemathria sibirica ±30% mixed

  9. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  10. Role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in Indian men and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. It is considered as a multistep and multifactorial disease. Besides accumulation of genetic mutations, numerous other carcinogens are involved. In this category, viral and chemical carcinogens are well studied and documented. However, in the oral cavity, the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites, and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies, but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways, and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. This review presents possible carcinogenesis pathway involved in bacterial carcinogenesis, commonly implicated bacteria in oral carcinogenesis, and their role in cancer therapeutics as well.

  11. Microbial influenced corrosion by thermophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on stainless steels due to thermophilic bacteria Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. The objective of the study was to measure the extent of corrosion and correlate it with the growth of the biofilm by monitoring the composition of its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The toxic effect of heavy metals on MIC was also observed. For this purpose, stainless steels 304L, 316L and 2205 were subjected to electrochemical polarization and immersion tests in the modified Baar's media, control and inoculated, in anaerobic conditions at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to identify the chemicals present in/outside the pit. The results show maximum corrosive conditions when bacterial activity is highest, which in turn minimizes the amount of carbohydrate and protein along with the increase in the fraction of uronic acid in carbohydrate in EPS of the biofilm. However, although bacterial activity and corrosion rate decreases, the amount of biofilm components continue to increase. It is also observed that the toxicity of metals ions affect the bacterial activity and EPS production. It was observed that Desulfotomaculum sp. has the ability to biodegrade its own EPS.

  12. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community, and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS). Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal...... molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment and...

  13. In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, J A

    1979-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria should be limited to isolates from persistent or recurrent infections that have been treated adequately and appropriately with antimicrobial agents and, in reference centers, to collections of isolates in order to monitor alterations in susceptibility of species to various antimicrobial agents. An agar dilution reference method is being evaluated currently; however, practicality limits sporadic testing of single isolates to disk elution or broth dilution techniques. No single disk diffusion method has yet been found to be acceptable for testing anaerobic bacteria, and the results obtained with standardized procedures for aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria are not applicable to anaerobic bacteria. PMID:288163

  14. Serum PBDE levels in exposed rats in relation to effects on thyroxine homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Aune, M.; Larsson, L.; Hallgren, S. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is a group of environmental chemicals for which lately both interest and knowledge have increased considerably. Among the BFRs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have attained special interest. Much data on environmental and human levels have been presented and several toxicological reviews are now published. Among interesting results is the difference in human PBDE levels that seem to exist between U.S.A. and Europe, results that suggest differences in exposure but without being able to pin-point the exact sources. In experimental studies PBDEs alter serum thyroxin levels, an effect seen both in rats and in mice. The mechanism(s) are still not completely clarified, but are thought to include alterations in serum transport, induced enzymatic degradation and possibly also direct effects on the thyroid gland. As perinatal alterations in thyroid homeostasis could affect brain development, early effects on thyroid hormones may be of special concern. Indeed, PBDEs have been shown to affect behaviour and learning in mice, when given neonatally. The aim of the present study was to relate the serum levels of PBDEs in rats to effects of these compounds on thyroxine homeostasis in these animals. Specifically, the relation between serum PBDE levels and effects on serum thyroxine levels was investigated, after two weeks of daily oral exposure. The result may have consequences for the future risk assessment activities on PBDE and specifically in finding the critical serum PBDE concentration at which the effect on thyroid hormone levels begin to occur.

  15. Clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the levels of serum leptin in patients with graves' disease. Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured with IRMA in 51 patients with hyperthyroidism as well as 46 hypothyroid and 50 euthyroid subjects as controls. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 (FT3 and FT4) were also measured. Body fat percentage (% Fat) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with graves' disease (male 2.05 ± 1.54μg/L, female 7.47±5. 08 μg/L), than those in hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Levels in hypothyroid patients were significantly higher than those in controls, however, excluding the body fat factor, there were no obvious difference. Serum leptin levels in all the 3 groups were significantly positively correlated with BMI. The levels were negatively correlated with FT3, FT4 levels and positively correlated with TSH levels but both were not significant. Serum leptin levels were 2-3 times higher in women than in men among all 3 groups. Conclusion: Thyroid functional status affected serum leptin levels indirectly through the amount of body fat. (authors)

  16. Circadian rhythm of serum sulfate levels in man and acetaminophen pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D A; Wallace, S M; Verbeeck, R K

    1990-01-01

    The circadian variation of serum inorganic sulfate levels was studied in healthy volunteers. The effect of subchronic acetaminophen administration (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) on serum inorganic sulfate levels was investigated and the possible role of fluctuating serum inorganic sulfate levels on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen was evaluated. During a 24 h cycle, serum inorganic sulfate levels were lowest in the morning (11.00 h) and typically increased in the afternoon to reach a maximum in the early evening (19.00 h). Average 24 h serum concentrations were 360 microM and the difference between minimum and maximum levels was on average 25.8%. Subchronic administration of acetaminophen (650 mg q.i.d. for 4 days) significantly reduced serum inorganic sulfate levels to a 24 h average of 253 microM. The circadian rhythm, however, was not affected and the difference between minimum (12.00 h) and maximum (18.50 h) serum concentrations was 31.3%. Subchronic acetaminophen administration lead to a significant decrease in the renal excretion (-51%) and renal clearance (-33%) of inorganic sulfate. No significant differences were found in the disposition kinetics of acetaminophen and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates during two consecutive dosing intervals (08.00-14.00 h, 14.00-20.00 h) on Day 4 of the acetaminophen regimen. PMID:2253663

  17. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  18. Single Bacteria as Turing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Julia; Zang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In Allan Turing's famous 1950 paper on Computing Machinery and Intelligence, he started with the provocative statement: ``I propose to consider the question, `Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms `machine' and `think'.'' In our own work on exploring the way that organisms respond to stress and evolve, it seems at times as if they come to remarkably fast solutions to problems, indicating some sort of very clever computational machinery. I'll discuss how it would appear that bacteria can indeed create a form of a Turing Machine, the first example of a computer, and how they might use this algorithm to do rapid evolution to solve a genomics problem.

  19. Sterol synthesis in diverse bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy H Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterols are essential components of eukaryotic cells whose biosynthesis and function has been studied extensively. Sterols are also recognized as the diagenetic precursors of steranes preserved in sedimentary rocks where they can function as geological proxies for eukaryotic organisms and/or aerobic metabolisms and environments. However, production of these lipids is not restricted to the eukaryotic domain as a few bacterial species also synthesize sterols. Phylogenomic studies have identified genes encoding homologs of sterol biosynthesis proteins in the genomes of several additional species, indicating that sterol production may be more widespread in the bacterial domain than previously thought. Although the occurrence of sterol synthesis genes in a genome indicates the potential for sterol production, it provides neither conclusive evidence of sterol synthesis nor information about the composition and abundance of basic and modified sterols that are actually being produced. Here, we coupled bioinformatics with lipid analyses to investigate the scope of bacterial sterol production. We identified oxidosqualene cyclase (Osc, which catalyzes the initial cyclization of oxidosqualene to the basic sterol structure, in 34 bacterial genomes from 5 phyla (Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and in 176 metagenomes. Our data indicate that bacterial sterol synthesis likely occurs in diverse organisms and environments and also provides evidence that there are as yet uncultured groups of bacterial sterol producers. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and eukaryotic Osc sequences confirmed a complex evolutionary history of sterol synthesis in this domain. Finally, we characterized the lipids produced by Osc-containing bacteria and found that we could generally predict the ability to synthesize sterols. However, predicting the final modified sterol based on our current knowledge of sterol synthesis was difficult

  20. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  1. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca;

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  2. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  3. Serum thyroglobulin in management of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were evaluated before surgery in 36 patients having primary carcinoma of the thyroid and in 603 follow-up patients having differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Serum Tg was elevated in 88.85% of the patients before operation. Amongst the 603 patients analysed, 67 had residual thyroid tissue in the neck region, 259 showed the presence of disease and 277 were free of disease. The false positive rate obtained by serum Tg determination in the disease free group was 14.1% while the false negative rate in the group with disease was 11.7%, making the sensitivity and specificity of serum Tg determination 88.3% and 85.9%, respectively. The median serum Tg levels in patients with metastatic spread in nodes, lungs and bones were 127,581 and 1721 ng/mL, respectively. A comparative analysis of serum Tg determination and whole body radioiodine scanning in 244 patients showed the sensitivity to be 88.5% and 80.7%, respectively. The detection rate was increased to 95.1% by combining both modalities. Serum Tg determination appeared to be more sensitive than whole body scanning. The evaluation of serum Tg determination while patients were on thyroid hormone therapy and in a hypothyroid state indicated that though the sensitivity of detection of cancer increased in the hypothyroid state, this advantage appeared to be marginal in comparison with the morbidity and with the cost effectiveness of whole body radioiodine scanning. (author)

  4. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  5. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan g

  6. Tumor and serum ferritin in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess whether serum ferritin may be considered as a tumoral marker in breast cancer, we have measured in 38 patients the contents of ferritin in the tumor and the pre- and postoperative ferritin concentrations in serum. The study of isoferritins by iso-electric focusing was also performed in tumor extracts and in the corresponding sera

  7. Radioimmunoassay for serum 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified method for evaluating serum 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroids (11-deoxy-17-KS) equivalent to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been developed without solvolysis and chromatography. Blood serum or plasma (5 mu l) was added to 1 ml of ethanol, mixed, and centrifuged, and 10 or 20 mu l of the supernatant was evaporated to dryness and incubated with anti-11-deoxy-17-KS antiserum obtained by immunizing a rabbit with DHEA-3.O. CO-BSA which was prepared from DHEA-3.O.COCl and containing DHEAS-7α3H, pepsin-treated human immune serum globulin and bovine serum albumin. Ammonium sulfate was used to separate free from bound DHEAS-7α3H. The accuracy, precision and sensitivity were satisfactory. The blank values could not be differentiated from zero. As the antiserum reacted not only on DHEAS but also on androsterone sulfate and etiocholanolone sulfate, serum 11-deoxy-17KS obtained by the radioimmunoassay expressed nearly the sum of 100 percent of DHEAS, 45 percent of androsterone sulfate and 35 percent of etiocholanolone sulfate in the serum. A good correlation was found between serum 11-deoxy-17-KS and DHEAS obtained by the radioimmunoassay described in a previous paper. The present radioimmunoassay is the simplest method for the evaluation of the concentrations of C19 steroids in the serum. (auth)

  8. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  9. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  10. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  11. Bacillus anthracis Co-Opts Nitric Oxide and Host Serum Albumin for Pathogenicity in Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSt John

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is a dangerous pathogen of humans and many animal species. Its virulence has been mainly attributed to the production of Lethal and Edema toxins as well as the antiphagocytic capsule. Recent data indicate that the nitric oxide (NO synthase (baNOS plays an important pathogenic role at the early stage of disease by protecting bacteria from the host reactive species and S-nytrosylating the mitochondrial proteins in macrophages. In this study we for the first time present evidence that bacteria-derived NO participates in the generation of highly reactive oxidizing species which could be abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, free thiols, and superoxide dismutase but not catalase. The formation of toxicants is likely a result of the simultaneous formation of NO and superoxide leading to a labile peroxynitrite and its stable decomposition product, nitrogen dioxide. The toxicity of bacteria could be potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin. This effect is consistent with the property of serum albumin to serves as a trap of a volatile NO accelerating its reactions. Our data suggest that during infection in the hypoxic environment of pre-mortal host the accumulated NO is expected to have a broad toxic impact on host cell functions.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent immune response against gram negative bacteria in a crustacean, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Carpio, Yamila; Bolívar, Jorge; Gómez, Leonardo; Estrada, Mario Pablo; Pendón, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived radical generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO is involved in a variety of functions in invertebrates, including host defense. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced for the first time the NOS gene from hemocytes of Panulirus argus, demonstrating the inducibility of this enzyme by lipopolysaccharide in vitro e in vivo. Hyperimmune serum was obtained from rabbits immunized with a P. argus -NOS fragment of 31 kDa produced in Escherichia coli, which specifically detected the recombinant polypeptide and the endogenous NOS from lobster hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. In the present work, we demonstrate that the hyperimmune serum obtained against P. argus NOS also recognizes Litopenaeus vannamei NOS in hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our data also show that while the hemolymph of L. vannamei has a strong antibacterial activity against the Gram negative bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, the administration of the anti NOS serum reduce the natural bacterial clearance. These results strongly suggest that NOS is required for the shrimp immune defense toward Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the monitoring of induction of NOS could be an important tool for testing immunity in shrimp farming. PMID:26804662

  13. Progress in Research of Bacteria Fertilizer Strengthening Resistance of Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria fertilizer is used most widely among all kinds of microbial fertilizers. We summarize the research headway of bacteria fertilizer. It mainly focuses on bacteria fertilizer improving the stress resistance of plant. Then we can offer basis to research and exploit bacteria fertilizer. These bacteria include azotobacter, photosynthetic bacteria, Bacillus mucilaginosus siliceous, phosphorus bacteria, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR), effective microorganism(EM).

  14. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D; Bonanni, G; Mattarello, M J; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Palermo, M

    2003-09-01

    We have previously found that licorice can reduce serum testosterone in healthy men. These results were not confirmed in another study, where the same amounts of licorice did not decrease salivary testosterone values. In the actual study we treated more cases with the same amount of licorice and reproduced our previous data. The mean testosterone values decreased by 26 % after one week of treatment (p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in 17-OHP and LH concentrations and a slight, but not significant decrease in free testosterone. Licorice treatment, in addition, did not affect the response of testosterone and 17-OHP to stimulation with beta-HCG. PMID:14520600

  15. Low serum sphingolipids in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric condition in childhood. ADHD is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic component. One neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that ADHD is associated with a lag in brain maturation. Sphingolipids are essential for brain development and neuronal functioning, but their role in ADHD pathogenesis is unexplored. We hypothesized that serum sphingolipid levels distinguish ADHD patients from unaffected subjects. Methods: We characterized serum sphingolipid profiles of ADHD patients and two control groups: non-affected relatives and non-affected subjects without a family history of ADHD. Sphingolipids were measured by LC-MS/MS in 77 participants (28 ADHD patients, 28 related controls and 21 unrelated controls. ADHD diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR. Diagnostic criteria were assessed by 2 independent observers. Groups were compared by parametrical statistics. Results: Serum sphingomyelins C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C24:1, ceramide C24:0 and deoxy-ceramide C24:1 were significantly decreased in ADHD patients at 20-30% relative reductions. In our sample, decreased serum sphingomyelin levels distinguished ADHD patients with 79% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Conclusions: Our results showed lower levels of all major serum sphingomyelins in ADHD. These findings may reflect brain maturation and affect neuro-functional pathways characteristic for ADHD.

  16. Sponge-associated bacteria: general overview and special aspects of bacteria associated with Halichondria panicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, J F; Stöhr, R

    2003-01-01

    Increasing evidence is accumulating that highlights the important role of bacteria in bacteria-sponge associations. It appears to be equally important to analyse the specific association of bacteria with sponges, to realise the biological function of biologically active substances produced by sponge-associated bacteria, and to consider the relationship between bacteria and sponges in the search for new pharmaceutical products. In this chapter the current knowledge on bacteria-sponge associations is briefly reviewed. Results are summarised that were obtained by three major methodological approaches: (1) classical microscope observations, (2) investigations attempting to characterise sponge-associated bacteria by describing pure culture isolates, and (3) the rapidly growing evidence from genetic analyses of sponge-associated bacteria. Special emphasis is given to the evidence of possible symbiotic interactions between bacteria and sponges and to the synthesis of natural products by bacteria isolated from or associated with marine sponges. Case studies including morphological and genetic studies together with results from pure culture studies have been performed with bacteria from the sponges Rhodopaloeides odorabile, Aplysina cavernicola, and Halichondria panicea. In addition, new results on bacteria associated with Halichondria panicea are also presented. PMID:15825639

  17. Expanded Cottonseed Meal Affects Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Laying Hens%膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱婷; 朱巧明; 顾林英; 谢鹏; 朱莎; 代腊; 邹晓庭

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of expanded cottonseed meal on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line laying hens, 40 weeks old, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates per group and 18 hens per replicate. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, trial group 1 was used 6% cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal of the control group diet, and trial groups 2,3,4 were used 6% , 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal, respectively. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) different dietary expanded cottonseed had no significant effect on the performance of laying hens (P >0. 05). Compared with the control group, laying rate and average egg weight in trial group 1 were significantly decreased (P 0.05). Albumen height in trial groups 1 and 4 was significantly decreased than that in control group (P 0. 05). In conclusion, diets with 8% expanded cottonseed meal have no negative effect on performance, egg quality and serum biochemical indices of laying hens. Expanding treatment can decrease the harm of free gossypol to laying hens, which can improve the efficiency of cottonseed meal utilization by laying hens.%本试验旨在研究不同比例膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋品质及血清生化指标的影响.选取40周龄海兰褐蛋鸡360羽,随机分成5组,每组4个重复,每个重复18羽.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验1组用6%普通未膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验2、3、4组分别用6%、8%、10%的膨化棉籽粕替代豆粕,试验期8周.结果表明:1)饲粮中不同比例膨化棉籽粕对蛋鸡生产性能影响不显著(P>0.05),而试验1组产蛋率和平均蛋重显著低于对照组(P<0.05),料蛋比显著高于对照组(P<0.05).2)与对照组相比,各试验组蛋黄颜色均显著加深(P<0.05),而试验1、4

  18. Effect of alcohols and selected solvents on serum osmolality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M E; Banner, W; Finley, P R; Burnham, L; Dye, J A

    1983-04-01

    The method by which serum osmolality is measured can significantly affect the result if certain volatiles or solvents are present in the specimen. Commonly available solvents and alcohols were added to aliquots of pooled human serum to produce toxicologically relevant concentrations. Increasing concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, mono-n-butyl ether (butyl cellosolve), 1, 1,1 trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylene did not change vapor pressure (VP) or freezing point depression (FPD) osmolality. Acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in increasing concentrations produced a linear increase in FPD osmolality, but no change in VP osmolality. Only ethylene glycol produced a linear increase in VP and FPD osmolality across the range of concentrations studied. Despite the excellent correlation between osmolality and ethanol concentration in prepared serum samples, this relationship could not accurately predict patient ethanol concentrations from FPD osmolality. The osmolal gap, "delta" osmolality, (measured FPD minus calculated osmolality) did not correlate with the difference between measured FPD and VP osmolalities. Patient ethanol levels could not be predicted with accuracy using an equation based on the osmolal gap or "delta" osmolality. PMID:6887306

  19. Serum factors in older individuals change cellular clock properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Lucia; Schmitt, Karen; Meier, Fides; Izakovic, Jan; Roemer, Konstanze; Viola, Antoine; Cajochen, Christian; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Brown, Steven A.; Eckert, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Human aging is accompanied by dramatic changes in daily sleep–wake behavior: Activity shifts to an earlier phase, and the consolidation of sleep and wake is disturbed. Although this daily circadian rhythm is brain-controlled, its mechanism is encoded by cell-autonomous circadian clocks functioning in nearly every cell of the body. In fact, human clock properties measured in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts closely mimic those measured physiologically and behaviorally in the same subjects. To understand better the molecular mechanisms by which human aging affects circadian clocks, we characterized the clock properties of fibroblasts cultivated from dermal biopsies of young and older subjects. Fibroblast period length, amplitude, and phase were identical in the two groups even though behavior was not, thereby suggesting that basic clock properties of peripheral cells do not change during aging. Interestingly, measurement of the same cells in the presence of human serum from older donors shortened period length and advanced the phase of cellular circadian rhythms compared with treatment with serum from young subjects, indicating that a circulating factor might alter human chronotype. Further experiments demonstrated that this effect is caused by a thermolabile factor present in serum of older individuals. Thus, even though the molecular machinery of peripheral circadian clocks does not change with age, some age-related circadian dysfunction observed in vivo might be of hormonal origin and therefore might be pharmacologically remediable. PMID:21482780

  20. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    andits derivatives has wide biological activity spectrum as antifungal, anticoagulation, anti infl amation and it can be an additive in certain food or cosmetic additive. This study aimed to isolate endophytic bacteria frompurwoceng, to assess the growth of endophytic bacteria within coumarin containing medium and to reveal the affect of endophytic bacteria to the coumarin content of the medium.Methods: Endophytic bacteria were isolated from purwoceng roots and leaves. Pure culture of endophytic bacteria was selected by growing the bacteria in the ammonium salt sugar medium containing purwoceng herbalinfusion. The effect of the bacteria to coumarin content in the medium was assessed through the cultivation of chosen bacteria in medium that was similar with the medium used in the selection step. Coumarin content inthe medium was detected by using thin layer chromatography (TLC.Results: Nine isolates obtained from purwoceng roots and leaves could be alive in the basic medium containing purwoceng herbal infusion and had generation time (g 2.7-5.7 hours and specifi c growth rate (μ 0,14-0,26/hour. Cultivation of chosen isolate showed that BAP5 could grow in the medium containing 1072 arbitrary unit (AU of coumarin. The TLC exhibited Rf 0.27 of the compound that was assumed as coumarin.Conclusion: Endophytic bacteria were successfully isolated from purwoceng and prevented the coumarin loss from the medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6 

  1. The Effect of Bacteriophage Preparations on Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular killing of bacteria is one of the fundamental mechanisms against invading pathogens. Impaired intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes may be the reason of chronic infections and may be caused by antibiotics or substances that can be produced by some bacteria. Therefore, it was of great practical importance to examine whether phage preparations may influence the process of phagocyte intracellular killing of bacteria. It may be important especially in the case of patients qualified for experimental phage therapy (approximately half of the patients with chronic bacterial infections have their immunity impaired. Our analysis included 51 patients with chronic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections treated with phage preparations at the Phage Therapy Unit in Wroclaw. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of experimental phage therapy on intracellular killing of bacteria by patients’ peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We observed that phage therapy does not reduce patients’ phagocytes’ ability to kill bacteria, and it does not affect the activity of phagocytes in patients with initially reduced ability to kill bacteria intracellularly. Our results suggest that experimental phage therapy has no significant adverse effects on the bactericidal properties of phagocytes, which confirms the safety of the therapy.

  2. Occurrence of nitrifying bacteria and nitrification in Finnish drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipponen, Mari T T; Suutari, Merja H; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2002-10-01

    Microbiological nitrification process may lead to chemical, microbiological and technical problems in drinking water distribution systems. Nitrification activity is regulated by several physical, and chemical, and operational factors. However, the factors affecting nitrification in the distribution systems in boreal region, having its specific environmental characteristics, are poorly known. We studied the occurrence and activity of nitrifying bacteria in 15 drinking water networks distributing water with very different origin and treatment practices. The waters included chloraminated surface water, chlorinated surface water, and non-disinfected groundwater. The networks were located in eight towns in different parts of Finland. Our results showed that nitrifying bacteria are common in boreal drinking water distribution systems despite their low temperature. Surprisingly high numbers and activities of nitrifiers were detected in pipeline sediment samples. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and their oxidation potentials were highest in chloraminated drinking water delivering networks, whereas the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were present in the greatest numbers in those networks that used non-disinfected groundwater. The occurrence of nitrifying bacteria in drinking water samples correlated positively with the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria and turbidity, and negatively with the content of total chlorine. Although nitrifying bacteria grew well in drinking water distribution systems, the problems with nitrite accumulation are rare in Finland. PMID:12420937

  3. Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2015-02-01

    The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

  4. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  5. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.; Ursin, C.; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolaki, M.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    From all bacterial groups, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are probably the group of bacteria that is most associated with human lifestyle. The term LAB mainly refers to the ability of these organisms to convert sugars to lactic acid. The LAB comprise non-sporing, aerotolerant, coccus or rod-shaped,

  7. Sabine Kacunko. Bacteria, Art and other Bagatelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    This book appears on the occasion of the project INVINCIBLE – a Big Bacteria project for Colosseum, Rome (17.–19.09.2015), which is being granted UNESCO-patronage in the context of the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies 2015. With Sabine Kacunko’s bacteria art in mind, alleged...

  8. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  9. Metabolismo de isoflavonas por bacterias intestinales

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Susana; Guadamuro, Lucía; Flórez García, Ana Belén; Mayo Pérez, Baltasar

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo presentado en la 8ª Reunión de la Red Temática BAL (Red Española de Bacterias Lácticas), "Participación de las Bacterias Lácticas en la Salud Humana y en la Calidad Alimentaria", celebrada en San Adrián (Navarra) el 25 de junio de 2014.

  10. Bacteria dispersal by hitchhiking on zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Leunert, Franziska;

    2010-01-01

    impenetrable for bacteria in both upward and downward directions (conveyor-belt hypothesis). The strength of our experiments is to permit quantitative estimation of transport and release of associated bacteria: vertical migration of Daphnia magna yielded an average dispersal rate of 1.3 x 10(5) x cells x...

  11. Research Advances in Bacteria-based Microrobot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao-Jie; Sun, Jun-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The concept of bacteria-based microrobot has been well recognized. It has shown great advantages and potentials for the early diagnosis and early treatment of malignant tumor and in reducing chemotherapy toxicities. In this article we review the concept,structure,and potential clinical applications of bacteria-based microrobot. PMID:27594160

  12. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacter...

  13. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  14. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P production (P probiotic in dairy ration. PMID:26821238

  15. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone;

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum as...... solidifying agents, and enumerated bacteria from seawater and algal exudates. We tested if culturability could be influenced by addition of quorum sensing signals (AHLs). All plates were incubated at 15°C. Bacterial counts (CFU/g) from algal exudates from brown algae were highest on media containing algal...... polymers. In general, bacteria isolated from algal exudates preferred more rich media than bacteria isolated from seawater. Overall, culturability ranged from 0.01 to 0.8% as compared to total cell count. Substitution of agar with gellan gum increased the culturability of seawater bacteria approximately...

  16. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  17. Chryseobacterium indologenes, novel mannanase-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Rattanasuk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannanase is a mannan degrading enzyme which is produced by microorganisms, including bacteria. This enzyme can be used in many industrial processes as well as for improving the quality of animal feeds. The aim of the present study was toscreen and characterize the mannanase-producing bacteria. Two genera of bacteria were isolated from Thai soil samples,fermented coconut, and fertilizer. Screening was carried out on agar plates containing mannan stained with iodine solution.The bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence, biochemical test and morphology, respectively. The mannanase activity was determined by zymogram and DNS method. Two strains of bacteria with mannanase activity were identified as Bacillus and Chryseobacterium. This is the first report of mannanase-producing Chryseobacterium.

  18. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  19. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  20. Velocity Condensation for Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Jean-François; Waisbord, Nicolas; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-04-22

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g., active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that Lévy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior. PMID:27152825

  1. Velocity Condensation for Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Jean-François; Waisbord, Nicolas; Ybert, Christophe; Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-04-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g., active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that Lévy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  2. The elevation of serum napsin A in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, compared with KL-6, surfactant protein-A and surfactant protein-D

    OpenAIRE

    Samukawa Takuya; Hamada Tsutomu; Uto Hirofumi; Yanagi Masakazu; Tsukuya Go; Nosaki Tsuyoshi; Maeda Masahiro; Hirano Takashi; Tsubouchi Hirohito; Inoue Hiromasa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Napsin A, an aspartic protease, is mainly expressed in alveolar type-II cells and renal proximal tubules and is a putative immunohistochemical marker for pulmonary adenocarcinomas. This study sought to determine whether napsin A could be measured in the serum to evaluate its relationship to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and determine whether renal dysfunction might affect serum napsin A levels. Methods Serum levels of napsin A were measured in 20 patients with IPF, 3...

  3. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...... surfaces were the muscle proteins troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, and the lipid binding protein apolipoprotein. The quantity, viscoelasticity, and hydration of the protein adlayers varied greatly on the different substrates, but this variation did not affect the bacterial repelling properties. Our...

  4. Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10 mg/kg METH groups (n = 6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5 mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10 mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5 mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10 mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5 mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10 mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that

  5. CHANGES IN SERUM ENZYMES LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH LIVER FUNCTIONS IN STRESSED MARWARI GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum enzyme levels were determined in goats of Marwari breed belonging to farmers’ stock of arid tract of Rajasthan state, India. The animals were grouped into healthy and stressed comprising of gastrointestinal parasiticised, pneumonia affected, and drought affected. The serum enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gamma-glutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. In stressed group the mean values of all the enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 as compared to respective healthy mean value. All the enzymes showed highest values in the gastrointestinal parasiticised animals and least values in the animals having pneumonia. In gastrointestinal parasiticised animals maximum change was observed in G-6-Pase activity and minimum change was observed in malate dehydrogenase mean value. It was concluded that Increased activity of all the serum enzymes was due to modulation of liver functions directly or indirectly.

  6. Impact of serum nm23-H1 level on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective To discuss the impact of serum nm23-H1 level on the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment. Methods: By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum nm23-H1 levels were measured in randomly-selected 60 patients with HCC who received TACE. The results were compared with that of 12 healthy subjects. All patients' clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Serum nm23-H1 levels were correlated with clinical data of the HCC patients. The patients' survival rates were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared by the log-rank test. The prognostic significance of serum nm23-H1 levels and factors related to survival rate were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results: The mean serum nm23-H1 level in HCC patients was (126.4±51.3) ng /ml, which was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (228.3±38.9) ng /ml (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation existed between serum nm23-H1 level and serum albumin level (r=-0.256, P=0.048). The serum nm23-H1 level carried no significant correlations with the patient's age or with the levels of serum AFP, ALT, AST, GGT and bilirubin. A follow-up for one week to 83 months (median time of 17.5 months) was conducted. Single factor analysis showed that extra-hepatic metastasis, portal vein tumor thrombus,arterio-venous fistula formation and high serum AFP levels were unfavorable prognosis factors. By multivariate analysis, serum nm23-H1 level was proved to be one of the potential prognostic factors affecting the survival rate. Conclusion: Serum nm23-H1 level may be used as an important reference for evaluating the therapeutic effect and judging the prognosis in patients with HCC after TACE treatment. (authors)

  7. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

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    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  8. STUDY OF SERUM TRANSAMINASES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

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    Manjula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones regulate Basal Metabolic Rate (BM R and calorigenesis in tissues, including hepatocytes and thereby modulate hepatic function. The liver in turn metabolizes the thyroid hormones and regula tes their systemic endocrine effect. Raised serum transaminase activities in absence of any ove rt liver dysfunction can therefore be attributed to primary thyroid dysfunction. The aim o f this study is to assess the impairment in liver function by estimating serum Aspartate Transam inase (AST and Alanine Transaminase (ALT in patients with hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 patients diagnosed with thyroid disorders irrespective of duration of t he disease and treatment were taken as cases and 50 healthy adults were taken as control. Estim ation of T3, T4, TSH, serum AST and serum ALT were carried out. RESULTS: Serum AST and serum ALT were within reference rang e in both cases and controls. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of abnormal serum transaminases lev els in hypothyroid patients is minimal. Early detection and better management of the thyroid diseases in recent times might be attributed as one of the factors for the same

  9. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions. PMID:26307771

  10. Switching behaviour of two-phenotype bacteria in varying environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G.; Gurevich, P.; McCarthy, S.; Rachinskii, D.

    2015-02-01

    An increasing interest in multi-phenotype species has stimulated both experimental and mathematical research. One example is bacteria which have two phenotypes and can make transitions from one phenotype to the other in response to variations in environmental conditions. We model a population of such bacteria subjected to a stochastic environmental input, which fluctuates between two conditions preferred by the phenotypes. Our interest in this model is how the average growth rate of the total population is affected by alterations to the environmental thresholds at which the transitions between phenotypes are allowed. Under certain conditions, we find that the bacteria achieve a maximum growth rate by adjusting their behavior to act in a similar manner to a non-ideal relay. In this scenario, memory helps to increase fitness. We then extend the model to include multiple competing species with different thresholds and examine the limit of distribution of population among these species and phenotypes as time increases. For this purpose, we formulate a reaction-diffusion model which involves non-ideal relays describing the evolution of the state of different species; and, a Preisach operator with time-dependent density function to account for the integral effect of the species on the environment. Formation of patterns and multiple stationary limits are shown numerically in the multi-species model.

  11. On the swimming motion of spheroidal magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate, via both theoretical and experimental methods, the swimming motion of magnetotactic bacteria having the shape of an elongated prolate spheroid in a viscous liquid under the influence of an imposed magnetic field. A fully three-dimensional Stokes flow, driven by the translation and rotation of a swimming bacterium, exerts a complicated viscous drag/torque on the motion of a non-spherical bacterium. By assuming that the body of the bacterium is non-deformable and that the interaction between different bacteria is weak and hence negligible, we have derived a system of 12 coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that govern both the motion and the orientation of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium. The focus of the study is on how the shape of a non-spherical magnetotactic bacterium, marked by the size of its eccentricity, affects the pattern of its swimming motion. It is revealed that the pattern/speed of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium is highly sensitive not only to the direction of its magnetic moment but also to its shape. We also compare the theoretical pattern obtained from the solutions of the 12 coupled differential equations with that observed in the laboratory experiments using the magnetotactic bacteria found in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China, showing that the observed pattern can be largely reproduced with an appropriate set of parameters in our theoretical model. (paper)

  12. Therapeutic Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its long history, public consciousness of probiotics has shifted dramatically in recent years. This is due to a number of factors, including an increased concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to widespread antibacterial use, and also to the spreading realization that one`s health can be, not simply maintained, but actually improved with proper nutrition. Combined, these factors have stimulated a surge in probiotic research in the past decade, resulting in increasingly refined studies. Indeed, after Elie Metchnikov first printed his work suggesting a positive correlation between human longevity and the consumption of fermented milk, information on probiotics is leaving the realm of the anecdotal as recent, double-blind, placebo controlled randomized tests support beneficial probiotic activity. Concurrently, more is being learned about their activities in vivo. While much work remains to be done before a detailed understanding of probiotics can be achieved, there is mounting evidence that probiotics, when used in proper conditions, may indeed have prophylactic or preventative effects on a broad array of human and animal diseases. This article briefly surveys probiotic history and discusses recent research with a special emphasis on lactic acid bacteria probiotics. Finally, it discusses the inherent difficulties of their study and suggestions for standards for future work.

  13. Mycelial bacteria of saline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Zenova, G. M.; Oborotov, G. V.

    2008-10-01

    The actinomycetal complexes of saline soils comprise the representatives of the Streptomyces and Micromonospora genera, the number of which are hundreds and thousands of CFU/g soil. Complexes of mycelial bacteria in saline soils are poorer in terms of number (by 1-3 orders of magnitude) and taxonomic composition than the complexes of the zonal soil types. A specific feature of the actinomycetal complexes of saline soils is the predominance of halophilic, alkaliphilic, and haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes that well grow at pH 8-9 and concentrations of NaCl close to 5%. Actinomycetes in saline soils grow actively, and the length of their mycelium reaches 140 m in 1 gram of soil. The haloalkaliphilic streptomycetes grow fast and inhibit the formation of spores at pH 9 and high concentrations of salts (Na2SO4 and MgCl2, 5%) as compared to their behavior on a neutral medium with a salt concentration of 0.02%. They are characterized by the maximal radial growth rate of colonies on an alkaline medium with 5% NaCl.

  14. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species

  15. H2 from hot bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that a surprisingly large number of bacteria either oxidize or evolve molecular hydrogen (H2) in their natural environments. In such organisms, the reversible activation of H2 is catalyzed by an enzyme turned hydrogenase that can cause electrons provided by an electron donor with protons to evolve H2. The enzyme may oxidize H2 in the presence of a suitable electron acceptor. Hydrogenase will also catalyze an isotope exchange reaction between deuterium (D2) or tritium (T2) gas and water. Few enzymes have as many potential biotechnological applications as hydrogenase. H2 is a versatile and efficient energy carrier, considered the fuel of the future by some, and is an important intermediate in a variety of chemical and petrochemical processes. Hydrogenase has also been proposed to replace platinum in H/D and H/T separations in the nuclear power industry and to activate H2 for electrode-based processes. Indeed, H2 is considered one of the most abundant substrates for the future chemical synthesis industry and the enzyme-catalyzed production of organic chemicals from H2 and CO2 has been described. a complete understanding of how hydrogenases catalyze the reversible activation of H2 might therefore have farreaching consequences in both applied and basic research

  16. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  17. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in mice with intestinal dysbacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-zhong DONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and substance P (SP in mice with dysbacteriosis induced by antibiotics. Methods Forty-eight healthy SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (normal drink, the dysbacteriosis model group (induced by oral administration of 0.5 g/L ceftriaxone sodium, the natural recovery group (oral sterile water to replace antibiotic after reproduction of dysbacteriosis, and Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment group (treated by intragastric administration of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The feces were collected without contamination, and the change in intestinal bacterial number was observed with the plate dilution method. The volatile fatty acid was detected by chromatography. The serum VIP and SP contents were assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the normal control group, the numbers of probiotics, volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly decreased in the model group, while the serum SP markedly increased (P<0.01. Compared with the natural recovery group, the bacteria number, the quantities of volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly increased after the Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment, while the serum SP significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05. Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis mycelium may effectively adjust the proportion of the probiotics in the mice with dysbacteriosis, and the mechanism is apparently related to alteration in the VIP and SP. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.06

  18. Improved sectioning and ultrastructure of bacteria and animal cells embedded in Lowicryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, J C; Fréhel, C; Ryter, A

    1990-04-01

    Lowicryl K4M-embedded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have a tendency to separate between the cell surface and the resin. This often leads to distortion of bacteria and more especially of mycobacteria. We describe attempts made to overcome this technical problem. Different assays were made on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium avium: 1) Modification of the bacterial surface by coating of bacteria with proteinic compounds; 2) treatment of bacteria with metallic salts known to modify cell wall polysaccharides; and 3) comparison between Lowicryl K4M and HM20. Conditions have been found in which the separation of all bacterial species from the resin is abolished. The most important factor appeared to be the treatment of bacteria before dehydration, with 0.5% uranyl acetate for 30 min. The second most important factor, especially for M. avium and to a lower extent for Gram-negative bacteria, was the use of Lowicryl HM20. No differences were observed with Gram-positive bacteria between K4M and HM20. Pre-embedding in gelatin instead of agar improved sectioning of M. avium, but had no effects on the other bacterial species. These conditions applied to macrophages infected with Shigella dysenteriae or M. avium also gave excellent results. In addition to sectioning improvement of bacteria, uranyl acetate improved the ultrastructure of bacteria and macrophages. All organelles were more clearly delineated and, hence, more easily identified. Finally, it was shown that UA treatment did not affect immunogold labeling of a variety of antigens. PMID:2110246

  19. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-s

  20. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); A.P. d' Adamo (Adamo Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  1. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF l...

  2. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  3. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention on global serum lipidomic profiles in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Riitta Korpela

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP,TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.METHODS:We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26)in a substudy of a randomised,double-blind,placebocontrolled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults.RESULTS:A total of 407 lipids were identified,corresponding to 13 different lipid classes.Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho),sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho),while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention.Among the inflammatory variables,IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles,with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4).There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers,TNF-α and CRP.CONCLUSION:This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans.There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles,as reflected in decreased GPCho,LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG.

  4. Natural Killer Cells Are Activated by Lactic Acid Bacteria-Matured Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    of certain lactic acid bacteria has been shown to increase in vivo NK cytotoxicity. Here, we investigated how human gut flora-derived lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. Human peripheral blood NK...... encounter of NK cells with lactic acid bacteria will affect NK cell activation. Such activation of NK cells may potentially skew an on-going or subsequent immune response towards a Th1 response.......Natural killer (NK) cells are cells of the non-specific immune system lysing altered self-cells. A non-cytolytic subset of NK cells may serve a regulatory role by secreting cytokines. Bacteria translocating across the gastrointestinal mucosa are presumed to gain access to NK cells, as consumption...

  5. 饲粮添加大豆卵磷脂乳化剂对肉鸡生长性能、养分利用率和血清生化指标的影响%Diets Supplemented with Soybean Lecithin Emulsifier Affect Growth Performance, Nutrient Availability and Serum Biochemical Indices of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲; 曾秋凤; 丁雪梅; 柘丽; 张克英; 吴秀群

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of soybean lecithin emulsifier supplementation in two energy level diets on growth performance, nutrient availability and serum biochemical indices of broilers. A randomized complete block design with 2x2 factors was adopted in the experiment and 960 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 40 birds in each replicate. Chickens were fed the experimental diets composed of two energy levels and two emulsifier supplementation levels. Dietary metabolizable energy levels were 12. 13 and 11. 92 MJ/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 12. 96 and 12.65 MJ/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Meanwhile, the supplementation levels of emulsifier were 0 and 265 mg/kg for chickens at 1 to 21 days of age, and were 0 and 400 mg/kg for chickens at 22 to 49 days of age. Growth performance of chickens, apparent availability of energy, dry matter, crude protein and crude fat, as well as contents of glucose, lipids and bile acid were measured in the experiment. The results showed that the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age fed normal energy diet was significantly higher than that of broilers fed low energy diet {P <0.01} , and the feed/ gain of broilers at 1 to 49 days of age fed low energy diet with emulsifier supplementation could reach that the level of broilers fed normal energy diet. The supplementation of emulsifier in diets could increase the average daily gain and the apparent availability of ether extract and energy of diets, promote bile secretion, and significantly decrease the feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age (P < 0. 05). In conclusion, the decrease of dietary energy can significantly decrease the average daily gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days of age, and increase feed/gain of broilers at 1 to 21 days and 1 to 49 days of age; the supplementation of emulsifier in diets can improve feed efficiency

  6. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    L.E. Makarova; L.V. Dudareva; I.G. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC) and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine) in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. ) at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content ...

  7. Research of the changes of serum level of estradiol and progesterone in patients with postpartum depression by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of the changes of hormone in patients with postpartum depressive disorder on 28-32 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 weeks postpartum was studied. Depress affection and anxious affections were measured in 200 postpartum women by self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in postpartum women were measured by RIA with control group. Results showed that the prevalence rate of depress affection was 11% and that of anxious affection was 14%. The serum levels of P on the 1 week postpartum, E2 in antepartum were showed higher in the depressed group compared with control group. There was a significant difference in the changes of serum E2 before and after delivery between the depressed group and control group (P2 and P levels in the patients with postpartum depression after delivery. (authors)

  8. Investigating the presence of predatory bacteria on algal bloom samples using a T6SS gene marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, J.; Sison-Mangus, M.; Mehic, S.; McMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Predation is considered to be a major driving force in evolution and ecology, which has been observed affecting individual organisms, communities, and entire ecosystems. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an intermembranal protein complex identified in certain bacteria, which appears to have evolved strictly as a mechanism of predation. The effects of bacteria on phytoplankton physiology are still understudied, however, studies have shown that the interactions between bacteria that inhabit the phycosphere of phytoplankton can possibly result in coevolution of native host and microbiota. It is unclear if bacteria can prey upon other bacteria to gain advantages during periods of high phytoplankton density. Here, we investigate the predatory interactions between bacteria and analyze environmental samples for the presence of predatory bacterial genes in an effort to understand bacteria-bacteria and phytoplankton interactions during algal blooms. DNA were extracted from bacterial samples collected weekly from size-fractionated samples using 3.0 um and 0.2 um membrane filters at the Santa Cruz wharf. PCR amplification and gel visualization for the presence of T6SS gene was carried out on bloom and non-bloom samples. Moreover, we carried out a lab- based experiment to observe bacteria-bacteria interaction that may hint for the presence of predatory behavior between bacterial taxa. We observed what appeared to be a predatory biofilm formation between certain bacterial species. These bacteria, however, did not contain the T6SS genes. On the contrary the T6SS gene was discovered in some of the bloom samples gathered from the Santa Cruz wharf. It is still unclear if the predatory mechanisms facilitate the abundance of certain groups of bacteria that contain the T6SS genes during algal blooms, but our evidence suggest that bacterial predation through T6SS mechanism is present during bloom events.

  9. Bacteria classification using Cyranose 320 electronic nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Julian W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An electronic nose (e-nose, the Cyrano Sciences' Cyranose 320, comprising an array of thirty-two polymer carbon black composite sensors has been used to identify six species of bacteria responsible for eye infections when present at a range of concentrations in saline solutions. Readings were taken from the headspace of the samples by manually introducing the portable e-nose system into a sterile glass containing a fixed volume of bacteria in suspension. Gathered data were a very complex mixture of different chemical compounds. Method Linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA method was able to classify four classes of bacteria out of six classes though in reality other two classes were not better evident from PCA analysis and we got 74% classification accuracy from PCA. An innovative data clustering approach was investigated for these bacteria data by combining the 3-dimensional scatter plot, Fuzzy C Means (FCM and Self Organizing Map (SOM network. Using these three data clustering algorithms simultaneously better 'classification' of six eye bacteria classes were represented. Then three supervised classifiers, namely Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, Probabilistic Neural network (PNN and Radial basis function network (RBF, were used to classify the six bacteria classes. Results A [6 × 1] SOM network gave 96% accuracy for bacteria classification which was best accuracy. A comparative evaluation of the classifiers was conducted for this application. The best results suggest that we are able to predict six classes of bacteria with up to 98% accuracy with the application of the RBF network. Conclusion This type of bacteria data analysis and feature extraction is very difficult. But we can conclude that this combined use of three nonlinear methods can solve the feature extraction problem with very complex data and enhance the performance of Cyranose 320.

  10. Antibacterial activity of aquatic gliding bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangnoi, Yutthapong; Anantapong, Theerasak; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to screen and isolate strains of freshwater aquatic gliding bacteria, and to investigate their antibacterial activity against seven common pathogenic bacteria. Submerged specimens were collected and isolated for aquatic gliding bacteria using four different isolation media (DW, MA, SAP2, and Vy/2). Gliding bacteria identification was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Crude extracts were obtained by methanol extraction. Antibacterial activity against seven pathogenic bacteria was examined by agar-well diffusion assay. Five strains of aquatic gliding bacteria including RPD001, RPD008, RPD018, RPD027 and RPD049 were isolated. Each submerged biofilm and plastic specimen provided two isolates of gliding bacteria, whereas plant debris gave only one isolate. Two strains of gliding bacteria were obtained from each DW and Vy/2 isolation medium, while one strain was obtained from the SAP2 medium. Gliding bacteria strains RPD001, RPD008 and RPD018 were identified as Flavobacterium anhuiense with 96, 82 and 96 % similarity, respectively. Strains RPD049 and RPD027 were identified as F. johnsoniae and Lysobacter brunescens, respectively, with similarity equal to 96 %. Only crude extract obtained from RPD001 inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes (MIC 150 µg/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 75 µg/ml) and Vibrio cholerae (MIC 300 µg/ml), but showed weak inhibitory effect on Salmonella typhimurium (MIC > 300 µg/ml). Gliding bacterium strain RPD008 should be considered to a novel genus separate from Flavobacterium due to its low similarity value. Crude extract produced by RPD001 showed potential for development as a broad antibiotic agent. PMID:26885469

  11. Oxalate-Degrading Capacities of Gastrointestinal Lactic Acid Bacteria and Urinary Tract Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium oxalate is one the most significant causes of human kidney stones. Increasing oxalate uptake results in increased urinary oxalate. Elevated urinary oxalate is one the most important causes of kidney stone formation. This study aims to evaluate oxalate-degrading capacity of lactic acid bacteria and its impact on incidence of kidney stone.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on serum, urinary, and fecal samples. The research population included a total of 200 subjects divided in two equal groups. They were selected from the patients with urinary tract stones, visiting urologist, and also normal people. The level of calcium, oxalate, and citrate in the urinary samples, parathyroid and calcium in the serum samples, and degrading activity of fecal lactobacillus strains of all the subjects were evaluated. Then, data analysis was carried out using SPSS-11.5, χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that the patients had higher urinary level of oxalate and calcium, as well as higher serum level of parathyroid hormone than normal people. In contrast, urinary level of citrate was higher in normal people. In addition, there was a significant difference between the oxalate-degrading capacities of lactobacillus isolated from the patients and their normal peers.Conclusion: Reduction of digestive lactobacillus-related oxalate-degrading capacity and increased serum level of parathyroid hormone can cause elevated urinary level of oxalate and calcium in people with kidney stone.

  12. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Spread of Superbugs Help Fight Drug-Resistant Bacteria For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make us sick. But in recent ...

  13. Birefringence Determination of Magnetic Moments of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblatt, Charles; de Araujo, F. Flavio Torres; Frankel, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    A birefringence technique is used to determine the average magnetic moments of magnetotactic bacteria in culture. Differences in are noted between live and dead bacteria, as well as between normal density and high density samples of live bacteria.

  14. Activity of difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620 against clinical anaerobic bacteria in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, M B; Thadepalli, H

    1987-01-01

    We determined the MICs of difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620 against anaerobic bacteria and assessed the effects of alterations in pH, size of inoculum, addition of human serum, and repeated exposure to subinhibitory levels of antibiotics. We tested for synergism of these drugs with cefoxitin against Bacteroides spp. We found that difloxacin and A-56620 were as active as ciprofloxacin, inhibiting about 90% of B. fragilis (4 micrograms/ml) and other Bacteroides spp. (8 micrograms/ml), A-56620 be...

  15. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Measurement of ferritin in serum by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the measurement of circulating ferritin concentrations by direct radioimmunoassay is presented. The method described is simple to operate, precise, and sensitive and is suitable for the routine diagnostic measurement of ferritin in either plasma or serum. (author)

  17. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  18. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefèvre, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0. PMID:25369742

  19. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefère, Christopher T.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  20. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  1. Effects of thermoradiation on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60Co source was used to determine the effects of thermoradiation on Achromobacter aquamarinus, Staphylococcus aureus, and vegetative and spore cells of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii. The rate of inactivation of these cultures, except vegetative-cell populations of B. subtilis, was exponential and in direct proportion to temperature. The D10 (dose that inactivates 90 percent of the microbial population) value for A. aquamarinus was 8.0 Krad at 25 degrees C and 4.9 Krad at 35 degrees C. For S. aureus, D10 was 9.8 and 5.3 Krad at 35 and 45 degrees C, respectively. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis demonstrated a rapid initial inactivation followed by a steady but decreased exponential rate. The D10 at 25 degrees C was 10.3 Krad, but at 35 and 45 degrees C this value was 6.2 and 3.8 Krad, respectively. Between 0 and 95 Krad, survival curves for B. subtilis spores at 75 degrees C showed slight inactivation, increasing in rat at and above 85 degrees C. The D10 values for spores at 85 and 90 degrees C were 129 and 92 Krad, respectively. Significant synergism between heat and irradiation was noted at 35 degrees C for A. aquamarinus and 45 degrees C for S. aureus. The presence of 0.1 mM cysteine in suspending media afforded protection to both cultures at these critical temperatures. On the other hand, cysteine sensitized B. subtilis spores at radiation doses greater than 100 Krad. The combined effect of heat and irradiation was more destructive to bacteria than either method alone

  2. Clustering of Marine Bacteria in Seawater Enrichments

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, J.G.; Pearson, L; Dillon, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seawater enrichments of marine bacteria clustered in 20- to 50-(mu)m-wide bands near air-water interfaces. The cells within the band travelled at up to 212 (mu)m s(sup-1) and at an average speed of 163 (mu)m s(sup-1). Mean cell speeds peaked mid-run at 187 (mu)m s(sup-1). At the end of the run, bacteria reversed direction rather than randomly reorienting. The duration of the stops during reversal was estimated at 18 ms, six to seven times shorter than that found in enteric bacteria. Cells hun...

  3. The Microworld of Marine-Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB

    1995-01-01

    Microsensor studies show that the marine environment in the size scale of bacteria is physically and chemically very different from the macroenvironment. The microbial world of the sediment-water interface is thus dominated by water viscosity and steep diffusion gradients. Because of the diverse...... metabolism types, bacteria in the mostly anoxic sea floor play an important role in the major element cycles of the ocean. The communities of giant, filamentous sulfur bacteria that live in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents or along the Pacific coast of South America are presented here as examples....

  4. Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria of Acidic Mine Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

    1981-01-01

    Obligately acidophilic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated both from enrichment cultures developed with acidic mine water and from natural mine drainage. The bacteria were grouped by the ability to utilize a number of organic acids as sole carbon sources. None of the strains were capable of chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic reduced iron and sulfur compounds. All bacteria were rod shaped, gram negative, nonencapsulated, motile, capable of growth at pH 2.6 but not at pH 6.0, catalase and ...

  5. Effects of Synthetic Serum Supplementation in Sperm Preparation Media on Sperm Capacitation and Function Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fu Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Albumin supplementation of culture media induces sperm capacitation in assisted reproduction technique cycles. Synthetic serum supplementation is clinically used to replace albumin for preventing transmission of infectious agents. However, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation have rarely been investigated. Spermatozoa from 30 men with normal basic semen analysis results were collected, divided into five aliquots, and cultured in capacitating conditions in four combinations of two synthetic serum supplements, serum substitute supplement (SSS and serum protein substitute (SPS, and two fertilization media, Quinns Advantage™ Fertilization (QF and human tubular fluid (HTF media. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in spermatozoa were measured through chemiluminescence. Furthermore, acrosome reaction and western blotting for tyrosine phosphorylation were used to evaluate sperm capacitation. HTF+SSS had significantly higher ROS levels than QF+SPS did (11,725 ± 1,172 versus 6,278 ± 864 relative light units. In addition, the spermatozoa cultured in QF+SPS had lower motility, acrosome reaction rates, and tyrosine phosphorylation levels compared with those cultured in HTF+SSS. In conclusion, the effects of synthetic serum supplementation on sperm capacitation varied according to the combination of media. These differences may lead to variations in spermatozoon ROS levels, thus affecting sperm function test results.

  6. Serum S100B levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfer Öztürk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSASwhich is characterized by recurrent pharyngeal narrowingand breathing disturbances, can affect central neuralsystem (CNS. S100B, which exerts neurotrophic andgliotrophic features, is a calcium binding protein. The aimof this study was to evaluate serum levels of S100B inpatients with OSAS.Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory assessmentwere performed in 26 patients (5 women and 21men with OSAS and 28 (8 women and 20 men age-,body mass index (BMI- and sex- matched healthy subjectsserved as controls . The patients included in thestudy had whole-night polysomnography (PSG performedin the sleep laboratory. Measurements of S100Bwere done using the commercially available ELISA kit.Results: Patients and controls were well matched withregard to demographic characteristics. Serum S100Bconcentrations were 149.4±84.5 ng/L and 139.2±70.7ng/L for patients with OSAS and control subject, respectively.There was no statistically significant difference inserum S100B concentrations between OSAS and controlgroups (p>0.05.Conclusions: Serum S100B protein level in serum didnot significantly higher in patients with OSAS comparedto the healthy subjects. However, further investigationsare required, particularly in the area of biochemical markersof mild cerebral damage in patients with OSAS. J ClinExp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 345-349Key words: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, serumS100B, brain, polysomnography

  7. Kadar Asam Urat Serum sebagai Biomarker Preeklamsi

    OpenAIRE

    Neli Sumanti; Noormartany; Muhammad Alamsyah; Tiene Rostini

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia remains a health problem that becomes one of the causes of maternal deaths besides bleeding and infection. The etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia are unclear. Increased serum uric acid levels is seen simultaneously with the increase of blood pressure and occurred before the onset of proteinuria. Therefore, the uric acid can be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum uric acid levels between normal and preeclampsia pregnancies. The study was cond...

  8. Serum leptin in renal transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a small peptide hormone that is mainly produced in adipose tissues. Leptin plays animportant role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure and may be involved in modulatingbone mineralization. This study was designed to test the association of serum leptin kidneyfunction in renal transplant recipients. We studied 72 kidney transplanted recipients. In thisstudy a significant difference of serum leptin between males and females with higher values infemales was seen (p>0.05). Ther...

  9. Serum proteins analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Uji, Yoshinori; Okabe, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multi-capillary electrophoresis instrument in clinical laboratory. An automated clinical capillary electrophoresis system was evaluated for performing serum proteins electrophoresis and immuno-fixation electrophoresis by subtraction. In this study the performance of capillary electrophoresis was compared with the cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel immunofixation electrophoresis for serum proteins. The results of...

  10. Clinical value of serum immunoreactive trypsin concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddell, W S J

    1982-01-01

    The clinical value of estimation of serum concentrations of immunoreactive trypsin was evaluated by studying 46 healthy controls, 23 controls in hospital, 44 patients with chronic pancreatic disease, and 184 patients with non-pancreatic conditions in which pancreatic disease commonly enters into the differential diagnosis. Serum trypsin concentration had a log normal distribution in the controls, and the calculated normal range was considerably wider than that previously reported. The concent...

  11. Serum ferritin concentration in sickle cell crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brownell, A; Lowson, S; Brozović, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD) were studied during 21 vaso-occlusive crises in 12 adults with sickle cell disease (11 SS, 1 S beta degrees). The patients comprised three groups: those who had been untransfused (4), those who had received occasional exchange transfusion in crisis (3), and those who had been multiply transfused (5). Serum ferritin concentrations in crisis were compared with those of the steady state...

  12. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  13. Hypoxemia increases serum interleukin-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, T D; Richalet, J P; Pedersen, B K

    1997-01-01

    level to 3.10 (1.65), 4.71 (2.81), and 3,54 (2.17) pg x ml(-1) during the first three days at altitude, and to 9.96 (8.90) pg x ml(-1) on the fourth day at altitude (ANOVA p = 0.002). No changes occurred in serum concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, TNF alpha, or CRP. The serum IL-6 were related to SaO2...

  14. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM).Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations ...

  15. Comparison of Different Measures of Fat Mass and Their Association with Serum Cystatin C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Wee Teo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystatin C (CysC is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR marker affected by GFR and obesity. Because percentage body fat (%BF distribution is affected by ethnicity, different measures of %BF may improve CysC prediction. This study aims to create multivariate models that predict serum CysC and determine which %BF metric gives the best prediction. Methods. Serum CysC was measured by nephelometric assay. We estimated %BF by considering weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, triceps skin fold, bioimpedance, and Deurenberg and Yap %BF equations. A base multivariate model for CysC was created with a %BF metric added in turn. The best model is considered by comparing P values, R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Results. There were 335 participants. Mean serum CysC and creatinine were 1.27 mg/L and 1.44 mg/dL, respectively. Variables for the base model were age, gender, ethnicity, creatinine, serum urea, c-reactive protein, log GFR, and serum albumin. %BF had a positive correlation with CysC. The best model for predicting CysC included bioimpedance-derived %BF (P=0.0011, with the highest R2 (0.917 and the lowest AIC and BIC (−371, −323. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with CysC, and the best predictive model for CysC includes bioimpedance-derived %BF.

  16. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  17. Neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and serum BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Lobina, Monia; Piras, Maria Grazia; Mulas, Antonella; Cannas, Alessandra; Meirelles, Osorio; Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B; Uda, Manuela; Crisponi, Laura; Schlessinger, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective Animal models and clinical studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We test whether serum and plasma levels of BDNF are associated with trait Neuroticism and its facets, and with state measure of depressive symptoms. Method In a community-based cohort (N = 2099) we measured serum and plasma BDNF concentration, administered the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Covariates included age, sex, cigarette smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. Results Serum BDNF concentrations were inversely related to Neuroticism (r = −0.074, P < 0.001), in particular the Depression facet (r = −0.08, P < 0.001). Lower BDNF concentrations were also associated with severe depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 28; OR = 0.906; 95%CI = 0.851–0.965). The association of serum BDNF with Neuroticism was independent of depressive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF might represent a biological correlate of Neuroticism and not just of transient depressive states. Plasma BDNF was not associated with measures of depression. Conclusions Our study suggests that lower serum BDNF is associated with both a dispositional vulnerability to depression and acute depressive states in the general population. PMID:21949427

  18. Immobilisation of living bacteria for AFM imaging under physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louise Meyer, Rikke, E-mail: rikke.meyer@inano.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Zhou, Xingfei [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Tang, Lone [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Kingshott, Peter [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) holds great potential for studying the nanoscale surface structures of living cells, and to measure their interactions with abiotic surfaces, other cells, or specific biomolecules. However, the application of AFM in microbiology is challenging due to the difficulty of immobilising bacterial cells to a flat surface without changing the cell surface properties or cell viability. We have performed an extensive and thorough study of how to functionalise surfaces in order to immobilise living bacteria for AFM studies in liquid environments. Our aim was to develop a scheme which allows bacterial cells to be immobilised to a flat surface with sufficient strength to avoid detachment during the AFM scanning, and without affecting cell surface chemistry, structure, and viability. We compare and evaluate published methods, and present a new, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising bacteria cells for an AFM imaging. Bacterial cells were immobilised to modified glass surfaces by physical confinement of cells in microwells, physisorption to positively charged surfaces, covalent binding to amine- or carboxyl-terminated surfaces, and adsorption to surfaces coated with highly adhesive polyphenolic proteins originating from the mussel Mytilus edulis. Living cells could be immobilised with all of these approaches, but many cells detached when immobilised by electrostatic interactions and imaged in buffers like PBS or MOPS. Cells were more firmly attached when immobilised by covalent binding, although some cells still detached during AFM imaging. The most successful method revealed was immobilisation by polyphenolic proteins, which facilitated firm immobilisation of the cells. Furthermore, the cell viability was not affected by this immobilisation scheme, and adhesive proteins thus provide a fast, reproducible, and generally applicable scheme for immobilising living bacteria for an AFM imaging.

  19. Gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in fetal serum, maternal serum, and amniotic fluid during gestation.

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, C; Nicolaides, K H; Keys, D.; Rodeck, C H

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was measured in fetal serum, maternal serum, and amniotic fluid in 173 pregnancies from 15 to 40 weeks' gestation. Fetal serum was obtained in the second trimester by fetoscopy and in the third trimester by umbilical cord puncture at caesarian section or vaginal delivery. Enzyme activities in maternal blood (10 IU/1, SD 2) and fetal blood (88 IU/1, SD 20) remained relatively constant throughout gestation, whereas in the amniotic fluid there was a significan...

  20. Study of serum fucose and serum sialic acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinomia.

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikanth M; Rao B

    1994-01-01

    Serum fucose and sialic acid levels were determined in 50 oral cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A statistically significant increase was noted in the study group. The increase in serum fucose level correlated well with the clinical staging in the study group whereas sialic acid did not. These values were independent of age, sex and histopathological grading. The result suggest that the serum fucose level is a better biochemical tumor marker than sialic acid level. However its usefulne...

  1. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Serum Adiponectin Level: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bon-Jeong Ku; Seul-Young Kim; Tae-Yong Lee; Kang-Seo Park

    2009-01-01

    Background: The serum concentrations of ferritin and adiponectin are associated with several metabolic disorders and have been used as predictors of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. But there have been no reports demonstrating a direct correlation between serum ferritin and adiponectin levels. We performed this study to evaluate the association between serum ferritin and adiponectin concentrations. Subjects and methods: We evaluated a total of 995 subjects from the Korea Rural Genom...

  2. Adherent bacterial populations on the bovine rumen wall: distribution patterns of adherent bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, R P; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen tissue sites from the bovine reticulo-rumen were examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine the distribution patterns of bacterial populations adhering to the epithelium. Although diet variations did not appear to influence the total number of tissue-adherent bacteria present in adult Herefords, diet affected their distribution. It appeared that the distribution of the bacterial populations may be directly affected by the physical state of the digesta. The digesta may be m...

  3. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels is not associated with disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Nikanfar; Ali Akbar Taheri-Aghdam; Maria Yazdani; Sheida Shaafi; Nooshin Masoudian; Hossein Akbari; Parisa Youhanaee; Hamzeh Abbaszadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems that serum vitamin D levels are one of the potential environmental factors affecting the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in MS patients and healthy subjects and assess the relationship between vitamin D level and disability. Methods: In this case-control study, 168 rapid relapsing MS patients and 168 matched healthy controls were randomly included in this study. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels ...

  4. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam; Nastaran Safavi Ardabili; Nasrollah Maleki; Maedeh Soflaee

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  5. Effect of zinc therapy in patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis on some trace elements in serum and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of zinc therapy on some trace elements in serum and skin had been studied in forty patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis with age range between 20-65 years. Patients were treated with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 week. Significant increases in both serum and skin copper levels were detected. Also, serum and skin calcium and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients were significantly decreased, while iron level was significantly increased in psoriasis and significantly decreased in a topic patients. It could be conclude that zinc therapy could affect copper, calcium, iron and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients

  6. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille;

    2001-01-01

    Harare, Zimbabwe, who were receiving prenatal care. The statistical effects of age, season, gestational age, gravidity, HIV-1 infection, malaria parasitemia, and serum alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) on serum folate, serum ferritin (log10 transformed), and hemoglobin were estimated by using multiple linear...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Serum folate (x: 11.4 micromol/L) was 0.52-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.04, 1.0) lower in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women and 0.65-nmol/L (0.014, 1.28) lower in weeks 25-35 than in weeks 22-25. Serum ferritin (geometric x: 11.6 microg/L) was 0.93 times (0.86, 0.99) lower in HIV...... predictor of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. HIV infection was associated with a 12.9-g/L (8.9, 16.8) lower hemoglobin concentration in women with nondepleted iron stores but low serum retinol and a 7-8-g/L lower hemoglobin concentration in women with other combinations of serum ferritin and...

  7. Clinical Usefulness of Serum Cystatin C as a Marker of Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sook Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate renal function measurements are important in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. In contrast to creatinine, the production of serum cystatin C has been extensively reported to be unaffected by body muscle mass, age, gender, and nutritional status.MethodsOur study included 37 samples from diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients for whom serum creatinine tests had been requested and 40 samples from a healthy populations in Dong-A University Hospital between May 2010 and June 2010. The assay precision (i.e., the coefficient of variation and the reference range of the serum cystatin C test were evaluated. We compared the estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs based on cystatin C with those based on creatinine. Moreover, we investigated the influences of age, gender, weight, and muscle mass on serum creatinine and serum cystatin C.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between GFR based on creatinine and that based on cystatin C (r=0.79, P<0.0001 among the diabetic CKD patients. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were significantly correlated with body weight and muscle mass, but the strengths of these correlations were greater for serum creatinine. The precision study revealed excellent results for both the high and low controls. The 95% reference interval of cystatin C in the healthy population was 0.371 to 1.236 mg/L.ConclusionBased on these results, we conclude that, despite the strong correlation between serum creatinine and cystatin C, cystatin C is less affected by weight and muscle mass and might represent a better alternative for the assessment of renal function.

  8. Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong; SONG Zhijun; Niels HФIBY; Michael GIVSKOV

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community,and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS).Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal molecules.Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread.These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment and particularly higher organisms,covering a variety of functions ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic interactions.The detailed knowledge of these bacterial communication systems has opened completely new perspectives for controlling undesired microbial activities.

  9. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  10. DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment. ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

  11. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  12. Protection of probiotic bacteria in synbiotic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics, like Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, when encapsulated with prebiotic fibers such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin (I) and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS), formed a synbiotic matrix system that protected the bacteria ...

  13. STUDY OF SERUM AMINOTRANSFERASE LEVELS IN DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jnaneshwari

    2014-03-01

    aspartate aminotransferase was significantly raised compared to alanine aminotransferase levels in all forms of dengue infection. The degree of affection of serum albumin and prothrombin time which are absolute indicators of liver cell function correlated with severity of dengue infection.

  14. Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottomof the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron ‘carpet’, trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottomof the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron ‘carpet’, trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  15. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  16. Microgravity effects on pathogenicity of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity is one of the important environmental conditions during spaceflight. A series of studies have shown that many kinds of bacteria could be detected in space station and space shuttle. Space environment or simulated microgravity may throw a certain influence on those opportunistic pathogens and lead to some changes on their virulence, biofilm formation and drug tolerance. The mechanism of bacteria response to space environment or simulated microgravity has not been defined. However,...

  17. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal associations and bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Marupakula, Srisailam

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forest podzol soils have vertically stratified horizons with different physico-chemical characteristics and high microbial diversity. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play key roles in accessing nutrients from both organic and mineral substrates. The role of associated bacteria in these processes is still poorly understood. The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to improve understanding of the distribution, diversity and community structure of fungi and bacteria on roots and in soil ...

  18. Magnetization processes in magnetotactic bacteria systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polyakova, T.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 293, - (2005), s. 365-370. ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on Scientific and Clinical Aplications of Magnetic Carriers. Lyon, 20.05.04-22.05.04] Grant ostatní: MCF: Nanomag-Lab(XE) N 2004-003177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetotactic bacteria * magnetization process * chemotaxis * bacteria * magnetosomes * chain formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.985, year: 2005

  19. Bacteria in goat meat: Biological danger

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Pavlović I.; Žujović M.; Tomić Z.; Memiši N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world, especially in China, India, Pаkistаn and Nigeria goat meat represents an important foodstuff in nutrition of people. Goat meat is being increasingly consumed in Serbia owing to its distinctive taste and desirable chemical composition. As many other types of meat, goat meat can be the source of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can find their way into meat of healthy goats or goats with no clinical symptoms premortally (infection) or postmortally (...

  20. Study of Lactobacillus as Probiotic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nowroozi; Mirzaii, M; M. Norouzi

    2004-01-01

    Because of inhibitory effect, selected probiotic lactobacilli may be used as biological preservative, so, the aim of this study was to present some data on lactobacillus as probiotic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sausage. Each isolate of lactobacillus species was identified by biochemical tests and comparing their sugar fermentation pattern. Antibacterial activities were done by an agar spot, well diffusion and blank disk method. Enzyme sensitivity of supernatant fluid and...