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Sample records for bacteremia mimicking vibrio

  1. Incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in Southern Taiwan: vibrio and Salmonella bacteremia as comparators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Hung-Mo; Tseng, Fan-Chen; Shih, Hsin-I; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Chung, Chih-Huan; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the investigation was to describe the incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in a city with a population of about 1.87 million inhabitants, located in southern Taiwan, between 2008 and 2010. Such data were compared with the incidences of Vibrio and Salmonella bacteremia in the same period and the incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia in other countries in the literature. The data revealed the average annual incidences of bacteremia due to Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Salmonella species were 76, 38, and 103 cases/million inhabitants, respectively. The incidence of Aeromonas bacteremia was higher than those in Western countries.

  2. Aeromonas hydrophila Sepsis Mimicking Vibrio vulnificus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Young; Nam, Hyun Min; Park, Kun; Park, Seok Don

    2011-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a facultatively anaerobic, asporogenous gram-negative rod that has often been regarded as an opportunistic pathogen in hosts with impairment of a local or general defense mechanism. A 68-year-old alcoholic woman presented with shock and gangrene on the right arm. At first, her clinical presentations were severe painful erythematous swelling that worsened within a few hours with development of gangrene, edema, and blisters. Bullous fluid and blood cultures yielded A. hydrophila. Histopathological findings of sections obtained from the vesicle revealed subepidermal vesicles; necrosis of the epidermis, papillary dermis, and subcutaneous fat; and massive hemorrhage in the subcutis. Despite all efforts to save the patient, she died 8 hours after admission. Clinical features of A. hydrophila sepsis resemble those of Vibrio vulnificus sepsis. Therefore, in addition to the case report, we compared the cultural, biochemical, and morphological differences between A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus for facilitation of early and accurate identification of the causative agent.

  3. Development of lipopolysaccharide-mimicking peptides and their immunoprotectivity against Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Pour Ghazi, Fatemeh; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi

    2016-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 is the main causative agent of cholera diseases defined by life threatening rice watery diarrhea. Cholera routine vaccination has failed in controlling epidemics in developing countries because of their hard and expensive production. In this study, our aim was to investigate phage displayed mimotopes that could mimic V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although LPS of Vibrio, as an endotoxin, can stimulate the immune system, thereby making it a suitable candidate for cholera vaccine, its toxicity remains as a main problem. Phage particles displaying 12 amino acid peptides were selected from phage library mimicking the antigenic epitopes of LPS from vibrio. The screening was carried out using single-domain antibody fragment VHH against LPS as target through three rounds of selection. Three clones with highest affinity to VHH were selected. To find out a new and efficient vaccine against cholera, these three phage particles containing high-affinity peptides were administered to mice to investigate the active and passive immunity. Out of 20 particles, three showed the highest affinity toward VHH. ELISA was carried out with immunized mice sera using LPS and three selected phages particles individually. ETEC, Shigella sonnei, and clinical isolates were used as bacterial targets. These three selected phages (individually or in combination) could stimulate mice immune system producing active and passive immunity. The mice immunized with phage particles could protect about 14 LD50 of V. cholerae. In conclusion, these peptides are mimicking LPS and can potentially act as vaccine candidates against V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Naturally Occurring IgG Antibodies Provide Innate Protection against Vibrio cholerae Bacteremia by Recognition of the Outer Membrane Protein U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Kyaw Min; Sjöström, Annika E; von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich; Riesbeck, Kristian; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2016-01-01

    Cholera epidemics are caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, whereas strains collectively known as non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae are found in cases of extraintestinal infections and bacteremia. The mechanisms and factors influencing the occurrence of bacteremia and survival of V. cholerae in normal human serum have remained unclear. We found that naturally occurring IgG recognizing V. cholerae outer membrane protein U (OmpU) mediates a serum-killing effect in a complement C1q-dependent manner. Moreover, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) containing OmpU caused enhanced survival of highly serum-sensitive classical V. cholerae in a dose-dependent manner. OMVs from wild-type and ompU mutant V. cholerae thereby provided a novel means to verify by extracellular transcomplementation the involvement of OmpU. Our data conclusively indicate that loss, or reduced expression, of OmpU imparts resistance to V. cholerae towards serum killing. We propose that the difference in OmpU protein levels is a plausible reason for differences in serum resistance and the ability to cause bacteremia observed among V. cholerae biotypes. Our findings provide a new perspective on how naturally occurring antibodies, perhaps induced by members of the microbiome, may play a role in the recognition of pathogens and the provocation of innate immune defense against bacteremia.

  5. Francisella tularensis Bacteremia

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    Haristoy, X.; Lozniewski, A.; Tram, C.; Simeon, D.; Bevanger, L.; Lion, C.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteremia caused by Francisella tularensis is rare and has been reported mainly in the United States and infrequently in Europe. We report herein the first case of bacteremic F. tularensis pneumonia in an immunocompetent individual in southern Europe. PMID:12791928

  6. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...... age of the patients was 65 years. The focal diagnosis of the SPB was pneumonia in 381 (79 %) patients, followed in frequency by meningitis in 33 (7 %) patients. Of the 481 patients, 390 (81 %) had community-acquired SPB. Of these, 23 (6 %) did not have sepsis, 132 (34 %) had sepsis, 224 (57 %) had...

  7. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  8. Lupus mimickers.

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    Calixto, Omar-Javier; Franco, Juan-Sebastian; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multisystem organ involvement, heterogeneity of clinical features, and variety in degree of severity. The differential diagnosis is a crucial aspect in SLE as many other autoimmune diseases portray clinical similarities and autoantibody positivity. Lupus mimickers refer to a group of conditions that exhibit both clinical features and laboratory characteristics, including autoantibody profiles that resemble those present in patients with SLE, and prompt a diagnostic challenge in everyday clinical practice. Thus, lupus mimickers may present as a lupus-like condition (i.e., 2 or 3 criteria) or as one meeting the classification criteria for SLE. Herein we review and classify the current literature on lupus mimickers based on diverse etiologies which include infections, malign and benign neoplasms, medications, and vaccine-related reactions.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

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    Jensen, Allan Garlik

    2003-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is still associated with a high mortality, and knowledge on risk factors and the clinical and the therapeutic aspects of SAB is still limited. This thesis focuses on the clinical aspects of SAB and its metastatic infections. In a study of all patients with bacteremia in Copenhagen County October 1992 through April 1993 (study I) we emphasized previous findings, that S. aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in bacteremia, and in a case control study also in Copenhagen County 1994-95 (study II) we demonstrated, that not only an inserted central venous catheter and nasal S. aureus carriage but also hyponatremia and anemia are important risk factors for hospital-acquired SAB (study II). Studies on the treatment of SAB have pointed out, that the eradication of a primary is important, but there are only limited clinical studies dealing with antibiotic treatment. By logistic regression analysis, we were able to demonstrate that focus eradication is essential, but also that treatment with dicloxacillin 1 g x 4 or 2 g x 3 are superior to 1 g x 3 (studie III), indicating that the time for serum concentration above the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the bacteria plays a role in the outcome of SAB treatment. S. aureus osteomyelitis secondary to SAB is frequently observed. No other countries, however, have a centralized registration, which make it possible to evaluate a large number of these patients. Since 1960, The Staphylococcal Laboratory, Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, has registrated selected clinical informations from nearly all patients with positive blood cultures of S. aureus. Based on this registration, we were able to show an increased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis among older patients and a decreased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis of femur and tibia among younger infants in the period 1980-90 (study IV). By reviewing the records of a large number of patients with vertebral S. aureus

  10. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran...

  11. Actinomyces turicensis Bacteremia Secondary to Pyometra.

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    Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Kan; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. The patient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. A literature review in MEDLINE showed that there have been only 8 previously reported cases of A. turicensis bacteremia. This infection frequently occurs in patients with visceral abscesses, and blood culture examinations usually reveal a polymicrobial pattern. However, the prognosis of such patients has been reported to generally be benign. Due to difficulties in performing bacterial identification and the wide-spectrum clinical pictures associated with this bacteremia, no comprehensive understanding of the clinical features of each Actinomyces species has yet been established.

  12. Bacteremia

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    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  13. Two cases of Ruminococcus gnavus bacteremia associated with diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Grønvall Kjær; Skov, Marianne N; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of bacteremia with the anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus. In both cases, the bacteremia was associated with diverticular disease. Preliminary conventional identification suggested peptostreptococci, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spec...

  14. Triplex PCR assay for the rapid identification of 3 major Vibrio species, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Bhardwaj, Ashima Kushwaha; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar

    2013-08-01

    A triplex PCR assay was developed for the identification of 3 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio fluvialis by targeting their haemolysin, haem-utilizing, and central regulatory genes, respectively. This simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific assay using cell lysates from 227 samples established its usefulness in research and epidemiology.

  15. Extraintestinal Vibrio infections in Mauritius.

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    Issack, Mohammad I; Appiah, Deoraz; Rassoul, Ameen; Unuth, Mahesswaree N; Unuth-Lutchun, Nehma

    2008-10-01

    Few extraintestinal Vibrio infections have been reported in the African region. We report 3 cases from Mauritius: one case of Vibrio alginolyticus otitis externa; one case of soft tissue infection caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus; and one fatal case of non-O1 V. cholerae cellulitis and septicaemia.

  16. Bacteremia is associated with excess long-term mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Gradel, Kim Oren;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about long-term outcomes following bacteremia. We investigated long-term mortality and causes of death among bacteremia patients compared with population controls. METHODS: Population-based cohort study of bacteremia patients and population controls matched on sex, yea...

  17. Antibiotic therapy for Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia.

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    Hung, C C; Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, but it has been rarely reported in Taiwan. We reviewed 13 cases of L. monocytogenes bacteremia at National Taiwan University Hospital over a 12-year period. All of the patients had underlying diseases. Fever was the most common presenting symptom, and neurologic signs were found in 6 patients. Most of the patients received penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin with an aminoglycoside. Corticosteroids were used in 9 of 13 patients. The overall mortality directly due to L. monocytogenes bacteremia was 31%. However, patients treated with cephalosporins or oxacillin had higher mortality than those treated with penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin (p = 0.05). Given the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients in Taiwan, it is likely that more cases will be encountered. Physicians in Taiwan should be aware of L. monocytogenes bacteremia and its treatment.

  18. Raoultella planticola bacteremia of gastrointestinal origin

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    Ramírez-Quintero, Juan David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella planticola, a bacteria found in water and soil, is rarely associated to human disease, mostly bacteremia and gastrointestinal infections. It is usually related with health care procedures or affects patients with malignant biliary disease. If properly treated, this infection is usually benign, but the germ must not be disregarded as an innocent bystander because it has homology with Klebsiella spp., and therefore the potential to acquire antimicrobial resistance mechanisms like bla KPC genes. We report the case of a patient with community-aquired R. planticola bacteremia of gastrointestinal origin.

  19. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    . RESULTS: We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide...... a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains...

  20. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

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    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

  1. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg

    2015-01-01

    for an overall incidence rate of 215.7 per 100,000 person years including 99.0 for community-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. The overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% (95% CI, 17.8%-28.4%) from year 2000 to 2008 (3.3% per year, p... of community-acquired bacteremia (3.7% per year, p nosocomial bacteremia (4.2% per year, p... were cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with population controls, bacteremia patients were at the highest risk of death from genitourinary diseases and infectious diseases within 1 year of bacteremia. Among 1-year survivors of bacteremia, the risk of death was increased for all major causes...

  2. Two case reports of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Wu, Shun-Sheng; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) bacteremia were discovered at the study hospital. The first case was a 66-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde papillotomy, and then A. baumannii bacteremia occurred. The second case was a 70-year-old female who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage due to obstruction of intra-hepatic ducts, and bacteremia occurred due to polymicrobes (Esch...

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Bacteremia: An Unusual Finding

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    De Luca, Concetta; Mancin, Annalisa; Calabrò, Maria; Daleno, Cristina; Ferrario, Antonella; Renzulli, Raffaella; Scuderi, Cristina; Casari, Erminia

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Helicobacter pylori transient bacteremia in a woman with ulcerated antral gastric cancer. The patient was hospitalized for laparoscopy and subtotal gastrectomy. After surgery she developed fever (39°C) and was empirically treated with levofloxacin. Blood cultures, collected and sent immediately to Laboratory, were positive for a spiral Gram-negative bacterium. This isolate was identified as H. pylori and the specific susceptibility test was performed. One day after the fever was decreased but antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin was continued and it was maintained until discharge. In summary, H. pylori transient bacteremia may occur as a rare complication after stomach surgery. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the potential role of Helicobacter pylori presence in blood.

  4. [Shigella bacteremia. Report of three cases].

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    Pérez Trallero, E; López Lopategui, C; Fernández Pérez, F

    1981-03-10

    Shigella bacteremia is very uncommon, although it is known to occur in Shigella infection. Three cases of Shigella flexneri bacteremia are reported, two of them diagnosed at the Residencia Ntra. Sra. de Aránzazu of San Sebastián, and another at the Ciudad Sanitaria Francisco Franco of Barcelona. In spite of the frequency of Shigella infections in Spain, no cases of Shigella bacteriemia had been heretofore reported from our country. One of the patients was an alcoholic woman who died in coma and renal failure. The other two cases were children who had an uneventful recovery. Stool cultures were positive for Shigella flexneri in two of the three patients. In the third the bacillus could not be isolated from the stools in spite of three consecutive cultures.

  5. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  6. Bacteremia during quinsy and elective tonsillectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob; Rusan, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    swabs, core tissue, and pus aspirates were analyzed by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Bacteremia was detected in 73% of patients during elective tonsillectomy compared to 56% during quinsy tonsillectomy (P ¼ .089, Fishers exact test). Significantly more blood culture bottles were positive...... prophylaxis recommendations to patients at high risk of infective endocarditis who are undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 80 patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy and 36 patients undergoing acute tonsillectomy due to peritonsillar abscess. Blood cultures, tonsillar...

  7. Two case reports of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Wu, Shun-Sheng; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-05-14

    Two cases of gastroendoscopy-associated Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) bacteremia were discovered at the study hospital. The first case was a 66-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde papillotomy, and then A. baumannii bacteremia occurred. The second case was a 70-year-old female who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage due to obstruction of intra-hepatic ducts, and bacteremia occurred due to polymicrobes (Escherichia coli, viridans streptococcus, and A. baumannii). After a literature review, we suggest that correct gastroendoscopy technique and skill in drainage procedures, as well as antibiotic prophylaxis, are of paramount importance in minimizing the risk of gastroendoscopy-associated bacteremia.

  8. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  9. E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

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    R. Leistner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.

  10. Clinical implications of species identification in monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia.

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    Chi-Jung Wu

    Full Text Available Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%, A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%, A. caviae (43, 28.1%, and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5% were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1, bla(MOX, or bla(CepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively. A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048. Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.

  11. Bacteremia Caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica in Two Children.

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    Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Yamagishi, Yuka; Miyata, Kenji; Shimomura, Yasuto; Iwata, Atsuko; Hori, Toshinori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Okumura, Akihisa

    2016-04-01

    We encountered 2 immunocompromised children complicated by Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia. One had received methylprednisolone pulse therapy for IgA nephropathy, and the other had leukopenia because of chemotherapy for leukemia. Both children had no specific symptoms, and R. ornithinolytica bacteremia was identified by routine blood culture. Both patients were successfully treated with antibiotic treatment.

  12. Achromobacter xylosoxidans Bacteremia and Cellulitis: A Report of a Case.

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    Dai, Julia; Huen, Auris O; Kestenbaum, Lori A; Sarezky, Margaret D; Coughlin, Carrie C; Yan, Albert C

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare, opportunistic infection most commonly encountered in immunocompromised patients during hospitalization. Primary uncomplicated bacteremia, catheter-associated infections, and pneumonia have been reported as the most common clinical presentations; skin and soft tissue infections from A. xylosoxidans are rare. We describe a case of A. xylosoxidans presenting as cellulitis and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient.

  13. Bacteremia caused by Pseudomonas luteola in pediatric patients.

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    Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Senel, Saliha; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas luteola has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. The clinical manifestations of P. luteola bacteremia and its susceptibility to antibiotics have not been characterized. This retrospective study was conducted at a 382-bed tertiary care center in Turkey. During the 9-year study period, 7 patients (5 females and 2 males) were diagnosed with P. luteola bacteremia. Six of these patients had hospital-acquired bacteremia, whereas 1 patient had community-acquired P. luteola infection. All patients had monomicrobial bacteremia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that all strains of P. luteola were sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and that all strains were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, aztreonam, and colistin. In conclusion, we believe that P. luteola can cause both community- and hospital-acquired bacteremia. Amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem were effective against P. luteola in the present study.

  14. Necrobiosis lipoidica mimicking cellulitis

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    Joshi A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old obese patient presented with a 5 month history of tender, indurated, erythematous plaques with superficial ulceration on the right shin. The lesions closely mimicked cellulitis but were unresponsive to antibiotics. Though the patient was not a known diabetic, on investigations she was found to be a diabetic. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica. This acutely inflammed presentation of necrobiosis lipoidica is extremely rare.

  15. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  16. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  17. Prediction of bacteremia in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Kristine Jessen; Mackenhauer, Julie; Hvass, Anne Mette Sondrup Wulff;

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate a previously published clinical decision rule for predicting a positive blood culture in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected infection on the basis of major and minor criteria and a total score (Shapiro et al., J Emerg Med, 2008......; 35:255–264). Methods This is a retrospective matched cohort study of adult ED patients with blood cultures obtained from 1 January 2011 through to 31 December 2011. ED patients with blood culture-confirmed bacteremia were matched 1 : 3 with patients with negative cultures. The outcome was ‘true...

  18. Predominant association of Raoultella bacteremia with diseases of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Eefje; Erkens-Hulshof, Sandra; van der Velden, Lieven B J; Voss, Andreas; Bosboom, Ron; Hodiamont, Caspar J; Wever, Peter C; Rentenaar, Rob J; Sturm, Patrick D

    2014-02-01

    A case series of 14 patients with Raoultella bacteremia was compared with 28 Klebsiella oxytoca and 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia cases. Forty-three percent of Raoultella bacteremia cases were associated with biliary tract disease, compared to 32% and 22% of patients with K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae bacteremia, respectively.

  19. Bacteremia in connection with transurethral resection of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P B; Hansen, R I; Madsen, O G;

    1987-01-01

    A bacteriological survey of 50 consecutive patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate was performed. Preoperatively, 28% of the patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria. In the postoperative period, 46% of all the patients developed transient bacteremia. A significantly higher rate...... of bacteremia was found in patients with hypertrophy of the prostate than in those with cancer of the prostate and in patients undergoing long-lasting surgical intervention. Patients who developed bacteremia due to pathogenic bacteria were hospitalized for a significantly longer period of time....

  20. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    per cell was twofold higher. In cultures with Artemia as live chitin model system, S2052 reached up to 108 cells ml-1, produced andrimid and showed attachment to the exoskeleton and chitinous exuviae. The metabolic focus on andrimid production with chitin indicates that the antibiotic could serve......Vibrio coralliilyticus is a putative coral pathogen in tropical oceans, but also possesses antagonistic traits. We previously reported antibacterial activity in Vibrio coralliilyticus strain S2052 based upon the antibiotic andrimid. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether V....... coralliilyticus S2052 produces the antibiotic under conditions mimicking natural habitats of vibrios. S2052 synthesized andrimid with both chitin and macroalgal extracts as sole nutrient source. With chitin, the biosynthesis of metabolites other than andrimid was largely abolished, and the yield of the antibiotic...

  1. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  2. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg

    2015-07-01

    Bacteremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and ranks among the top seven causes of death in Europe and North America. The occurrence of bacteremia has increased for decades while short-term prognosis has remained unchanged or improved only slightly. Consequently, we are facing an increased number of bacteremia survivors for whom we know little about long-term survival and causes of death. Contemporary knowledge on the epidemiology and outcome of bacteremia is important to assess its impact on public health and is a prerequisite for any effective prevention and improvement of prognosis. This thesis is based on data from a bacteremia database (The Danish Observational Registry of Infectious Syndromes) comprising all bacteremias in Funen County, Denmark, between May 1999 and December 2008. Data on bacteremias were cross-linked with various administrative and research healthcare registries and we conducted 3 studies on adult bacteremia patients with the aims: to investigate the occurrence of and trends in first-time bacteremia and distribution of microorganisms in the general population; overall and by place of acquisition (study I), to investigate the overall and daily incidences of bacteremia among hospitalized patients (study II), to investigate and compare long-term mortality and causes of death after bacteremia with the general population (study III). Study I: In a population-based observational study, we identified 7786 residents of Funen County with first-time bacteremia for an overall incidence rate of 215.7 per 100,000 person years including 99.0 for community-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. The overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% (95% CI, 17.8%-28.4%) from year 2000 to 2008 (3.3% per year, prates of community-acquired bacteremia (3.7% per year, p year, pincidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained more or less stable throughout the study period (p=0.17). The crude

  3. Raoultella planticola bacteremia following consumption of seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip W; Salit, Irving E

    2014-07-01

    Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly found in water, soil and aquatic environments. There have only been 16 cases of R planticola infection documented in the literature to date. R planticola possesses the ability to convert histidine to histamine and can produce symptoms of scombroid poisoning when poorly prepared seafood is consumed in large amounts. The present report describes a case involving a 56-year-old woman who presented with R planticola bacteremia and symptoms consistent with cholangitis four days after consuming a seafood salad containing squid and octopus. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Recent chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitor use and altered biliary flow secondary to hepatic metastases may have been contributing factors to the pathogenesis of disease.

  4. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients with pneumoc......OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... on the probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients disease outcome....

  5. Raoultella Planticola Bacteremia Following Consumption of Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W Lam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly found in water, soil and aquatic environments. There have only been 16 cases of R planticola infection documented in the literature to date. R planticola possesses the ability to convert histidine to histamine and can produce symptoms of scombroid poisoning when poorly prepared seafood is consumed in large amounts. The present report describes a case involving a 56-year-old woman who presented with R planticola bacteremia and symptoms consistent with cholangitis four days after consuming a seafood salad containing squid and octopus. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Recent chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitor use and altered biliary flow secondary to hepatic metastases may have been contributing factors to the pathogenesis of disease.

  6. Group G Streptococcus bacteremia in recurrent cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis.

  7. Enterococcus hirae Bacteremia Associated with Acute Pancreatitis and Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.; De Aguirre, Manuel; Divito, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Enterococcus hirae has rarely been reported in humans but is not uncommon in mammals and birds. We describe a case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia associated with acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and septic shock responsive to antibiotic therapy and supportive critical care management. Unique aspects of this case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia are its association with acute pancreatitis and its geographical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia occurring in a patient in the United States. Although human infection with this organism appears to be rare, all cases reported to date describe bacteremia associated with severe and life-threatening illness. Thus, physicians need to be cognizant of the clinical significance of this heretofore little recognized pathogen. PMID:26417465

  8. Enterococcus hirae Bacteremia Associated with Acute Pancreatitis and Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter V. Dicpinigaitis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Enterococcus hirae has rarely been reported in humans but is not uncommon in mammals and birds. We describe a case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia associated with acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and septic shock responsive to antibiotic therapy and supportive critical care management. Unique aspects of this case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia are its association with acute pancreatitis and its geographical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia occurring in a patient in the United States. Although human infection with this organism appears to be rare, all cases reported to date describe bacteremia associated with severe and life-threatening illness. Thus, physicians need to be cognizant of the clinical significance of this heretofore little recognized pathogen.

  9. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg

    2015-01-01

    for an overall incidence rate of 215.7 per 100,000 person years including 99.0 for community-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. The overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% (95% CI, 17.8%-28.4%) from year 2000 to 2008 (3.3% per year, prates...... of community-acquired bacteremia (3.7% per year, p year, pincidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained more or less stable throughout the study period (p=0.17). The crude incidence rates decreased for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus......-time bacteremias per admission for an overall incidence of 14.2 per 1000 admissions and 23.6 per 10,000 bed days; highest for males, elderly individuals (> 65 years), and patients initially admitted to the Departments of Hematology, Nephrology, Internal Medicine, Urology or Oncology. The daily incidence...

  10. OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Causing Bacteremia, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsoo Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OXA-48-producing isolates were identified in approximately 4% and less than 1% of ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing bacteremia at the largest tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi.

  11. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are asso

  12. Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted. PMID:28265207

  13. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  14. Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteremia after ESWL in an immunocompetent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, M; Boel, A; Van Vaerenbergh, K; De Beenhouwer, H

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, especially in young and sexually active women. Presence in blood cultures is rare and often attributed to contamination. When bacteremia is significant, it occurs mostly in patients with hematologic malignancies and is predominantly catheter-related. However, we describe a case of significant bacteremia with S. saprophyticus associated with urinary tract infection after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of an ureterolithiasis in an otherwise healthy patient.

  15. Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

  16. Bacteremias por bacilos gram-negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrelírio J. R. Gonçalves

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita atenção dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos. Os organismos etiológicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqüência foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsáveis por 58% do total das infecções, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi o trato urinário em 61,3% dos casos. A infecção foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prévio de antibióticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esteróides e citostáticos. As principais doenças predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulação do aparelho urinário, com infecção prévia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstrução biliar. As principais manifestações clínicas foram a presença de febre, calafrios e hipotensão arterial. A complicação mais freqüente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente três vêzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficiência renal aguda, superinfecção e infecção pulmonar metastática. Considerações terapêuticas gerais e esquemas de antibióticos são propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infecções por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.

  17. Diabetes does not affect outcome in patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta Galo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information about the effect of diabetes on the prognosis of patients with bacterial infections. We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate possible correlations between diabetes and prognosis in patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Methods We reviewed the medical charts of 1112 patients who were treated at a community teaching hospital for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia from January 1997 through June 2007. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 1112 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 181 (16.3% were diabetic patients; 90 patients (8.1% died while in the hospital. Compared to non-diabetic patients, diabetic patients were older (75.4 ± 11.9 years vs. 70 ± 16.6 years, p p = 0.39]. In a multivariate analysis, the variables associated with in-hospital mortality were age, the origin of the bacteremia, and the presence of immunosuppression. Diabetes was not associated with outcome. Conclusion In this cohort of patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, diabetes was not associated with a poorer prognosis.

  18. Predominant association of Raoultella bacteremia with diseases of the biliary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eefje de; Erkens-Hulshof, S.; Velden, L.B. van der; Voss, A.; Bosboom, R.; Hodiamont, C.J.; Wever, P.C.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2014-01-01

    A case series of 14 patients with Raoultella bacteremia was compared with 28 Klebsiella oxytoca and 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia cases. Forty-three percent of Raoultella bacteremia cases were associated with biliary tract disease, compared to 32% and 22% of patients with K. oxytoca and K. pne

  19. Bacteremia during adenoidectomy: a comparison of suction diathermy adenoid ablation and adenoid curettage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Transient bacteremia is induced by adenoidectomy when the integrity of the nasopharyngeal membrane is broken. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in patients undergoing adenoidectomy, to identify the causative organisms, and to compare the incidences of bacteremia between the two techniques suction diathermy and curettage.

  20. A severe Morganella morganii endophthalmitis; followed by bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur Demiray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii is rarely isolated from nosocomial infections. However, postoperative infections due to Morganella spp. were documented in literature and eye involvements of the infections usually result in severe sequels.  We present a severe case infection, which was caused by M. morganii subsp. morganii, firstly appearing as conjunctivitis and complicated by bacteremia. The infectious agent isolated from both conjunctival and consecutive blood cultures. Identification and anti- microbial susceptibility tests were performed with the Vitek 2® automated system. The isolate was resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems and it had ability to produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin according to susceptibility test results. This is the first report of M. morganii infection detected as a local infection then complicated by bacteremia. Keywords: Morganella morganii, conjunctivitis, bacteremia, ciprofloxacin

  1. Rapid, Culture-Free Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Elliot L.; Flenker, Katie S.; Clark, Karen C.; Miguel, Jeff; Ince, Dilek; Winokur, Patricia; Ford, Bradley; McNamara, James O.

    2016-01-01

    S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB take at least a day, and often longer. Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending. In this proof-of-concept study, we describe an inexpensive assay that detects SAB via the detection of micrococcal nuclease (an enzyme secreted by S. aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. 16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB, which is expected to substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity that result from this condition. PMID:27305148

  2. Bacteremia causes hippocampal apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Leib, S.L.; Rowland, Ian J;

    2010-01-01

    -specific pneumococcal antibodies (n=14), and III. uninfected controls (n=6). RESULTS: Pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis score 0.22 (0.18-0.35) compared to uninfected controls (0.02 (0.00-0.02), Mann Whitney test, P=0.0003). Also, meningitis with an attenuation of bacteremia...... by antibody treatment resulted in significantly reduced apoptosis (0.08 (0.02-0.20), P=0.01) as compared to meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that bacteremia accompanying meningitis plays an important role in the development of hippocampal injury in pneumococcal meningitis....

  3. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in an adult with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, H; Uotani, C; Machi, T; Matsuda, T; Nonomura, A

    1988-03-01

    Bacillus cereus, which used to be considered non-pathogenic, was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute leukemia who was receiving intensive chemotherapy. Fatal bacteremia developed with a clinical syndrome of acute gastroenteritis, followed by both meningoencephalitis with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple liver abscesses probably caused by infective vasculitis. Surveillance stool cultures revealed colonization with the organism prior to the onset of diarrhea, and repetitive blood cultures were found to be positive. Thus, this case suggested some new important clinicopathologic features of true B. cereus bacteremia complicating acute leukemia.

  4. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  5. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of bacteremia.

  6. Bacillus cereus bacteremia outbreak due to contaminated hospital linens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, T; Hayashi, S; Morisawa, Y; Sakihama, T; Yoshimura, A; Hirai, Y

    2011-02-01

    We describe an outbreak of Bacillus cereus bacteremia that occurred at Jichi Medical University Hospital in 2006. This study aimed to identify the source of this outbreak and to implement appropriate control measures. We reviewed the charts of patients with blood cultures positive for B. cereus, and investigated B. cereus contamination within the hospital environment. Genetic relationships among B. cereus isolates were analyzed. Eleven patients developed B. cereus bacteremia between January and August 2006. The hospital linens and the washing machine were highly contaminated with B. cereus, which was also isolated from the intravenous fluid. All of the contaminated linens were autoclaved, the washing machine was cleaned with a detergent, and hand hygiene was promoted among the hospital staff. The number of patients per month that developed new B. cereus bacteremia rapidly decreased after implementing these measures. The source of this outbreak was B. cereus contamination of hospital linens, and B. cereus was transmitted from the linens to patients via catheter infection. Our findings demonstrated that bacterial contamination of hospital linens can cause nosocomial bacteremia. Thus, blood cultures that are positive for B. cereus should not be regarded as false positives in the clinical setting.

  7. Intractable Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita

    2007-04-01

    Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.

  8. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a renal transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health a

  9. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong Duk; Jeong, Woo Yong; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jung, In Young; Ahn, Mi Young; Ann, Hea Won; Ahn, Jin Young; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung; Ku, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for mortality in patients with S. maltophilia bacteremia. Retrospectively, medical records from all patients with S. maltophilia bacteremia between December 2005 and 2014 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea, were reviewed. Analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 28-day mortality. In total, 142 bacteremia patients were enrolled in this study. The overall 28-day mortality rate was 36.6%. Based on the univariate analysis, hematologic malignancy (P = 0.015), Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (P < 0.001) and the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) (P = 0.040) were significantly related to mortality. In the intensive care unit patients, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (P = 0.001) also had significance. Based on the multivariate analysis, the SOFA score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.323; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.159, 1.509; P < 0.001) and removal of the CVC (OR = 0.330; 95% CI: 0.109, 0.996; P = 0.049) were independent factors associated with mortality. Our results suggest that removing a CVC may considerably reduce mortality in patients with S. maltophilia bacteremia. PMID:27495046

  10. Bacteremia caused by Comamonas kerstersii in a patient with diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Ney, Barbara; Zanetti, Giorgio; Jaton, Katia; Greub, Gilbert; Prod'hom, Guy

    2014-03-01

    We report for the first time a case of bacteremia caused by Comamonas kerstersii in a 65-year-old patient with sign of diverticulosis. In addition, we review the isolation of Comamonas sp. and related organisms in our hospital over 25 years.

  11. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types. PMID:20409380

  12. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Sari; Vahakuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjanen, Jaana

    2010-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995-2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

  13. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Sari; Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

  14. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  15. Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia in an infant with visceral heterotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Nicole; Ross, Lawrence A

    2010-05-01

    A case of Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia in an infant with visceral heterotaxy is reported. Physical examination was remarkable for markedly red skin flushing, not unlike that seen during histamine fish poisoning. R. ornithinolytica is a histamine-producing bacterium recently elucidated as a major cause of histamine fish poisoning. Only 2 other cases of human infection by R. ornithinolytica have been reported.

  16. Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia in cancer patients: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, Yoshiro; Tsukahara, Mika; Ito, Kenta; Suzuki, Jun; Kawamura, Ichiro; Kurai, Hanako

    2012-01-01

    Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus reclassified in the new genus from the Klebsiella species based on new genetic approaches; however, human infections caused by R. ornithinolytica are rare. We herein report three cases of R. ornithinolytica bacteremia associated with biliary tract infections in cancer patients. R. ornithinolytica can be a causative pathogen of biliary tract infection in cancer patients.

  17. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  18. Bacteremia caused by viridans streptococci in 71 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Delage, G; Rousseau, D; Cantor, E D

    1981-12-01

    A review of the hospital records of 71 patients from whose blood viridans streptococci were isolated showed that in 13 cases the patient's illness was definitely related to the bacteremia: 4 patients had endocarditis, 3 had pneumonia, 2 had peritonitis and 1 each had meningitis, a scalp wound infection, sinusitis and otitis media. The bacteremia may have contributed to the two deaths among these 13 patients. In 45 cases the viridans streptococci may have contributed to the patient's illness: 15 patients had an infection of the lower respiratory tract and 7 an infection of the upper respiratory tract, 8 were neonates with suspected septicemia, 3 had soft tissue infections, 3 had leukemia and sepsis, and 9 had miscellaneous infections; the bacteremia was unrelated to the two deaths in this group. In another 13 cases the viridans streptococci could not be related to the patient's illness. The species most frequently isolated were Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguis II and S. MG-intermedius. The outcome of the bacteremia was generally good, even among the 11 patients not treated with antibiotics. When viridans streptococci are cultured from a single blood sample, further samples of blood and, if feasible, specimens from the associated focus of infection should be obtained for culture; further blood cultures are especially important in cases of suspected endocarditis.

  19. Bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, P M; Kutscher, A E

    1987-06-01

    We report two cases of bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea. One was a 2.5-yr-old boy with otitis media and pneumonia, who responded to treatment with amoxicillin. The other was a 47-yr-old man with underlying ethanol abuse who developed severe polymicrobial sepsis due to apparent intraabdominal disease. This man died despite extensive antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

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    Amir Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation.

  1. Brucella bacteremia in patients with acute leukemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Anazi Khalid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis may cause serious infections in healthy individuals living in countries that are endemic for the infection. However, reports of brucella infections in immunocompromised hosts are relatively rare. Case Presentations Reported here are two patients with acute leukemia who developed Brucella melitensis bacteremia during their follow up at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh. The first patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia during the transformation of his myelodysplasia into acute myeloid leukemia. The second patient developed B. melitensis bacteremia while his acute lymphoblastic leukemia was under control. Interestingly, he presented with acute cholecystitis during the brucella sepsis. Both brucella infections were associated with a marked reduction in the hematological parameters in addition to other complications. The bacteremic episodes were successfully treated with netilmicin, doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Brucellosis can cause systemic infections, complicated bacteremia and serious morbidity in patients with acute leukemia living in endemic areas. These infections may occur at the presentation of the leukemia or even when the leukemia is in remission. Nevertheless, the early diagnosis of brucellosis and the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for sufficient duration usually improves the outcome in these immunocompromised patients.

  2. Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Using...

  3. Prevalence and detection of mixed-population enterococcal bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Andreacchio, Kathleen A; Edelstein, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-population (heterogeneous) enterococcal bacteremia (MEB) is rarely reported. Based on one occasion in which Vitek2 missed a vancomycin-resistant subpopulation isolated from a patient, we developed a simple method to detect this subpopulation and determined MEB frequency. The four patients presented here had either Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia caused by both vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE). No prior common antibiotic therapy was observed, and bacteremia resolved with daptomycin, gentamicin, and/or linezolid treatment. In two cases, VRE presence was missed by Vitek2. To detect the VRE subpopulation, tryptic soy broth was inoculated from positive blood cultures and a saline suspension was inoculated to a vancomycin (6-μg/ml) (V6) plate. Two isolates from each patient were studied further. Relatedness was assessed by multilocus sequence typing, fitness was evaluated by growth curve and competition assays, and vanA presence was determined by PCR. MEB represented ∼5% of all enterococcal bacteremias. All VRE subpopulations grew on V6 plates but were missed in two instances by Vitek2. VRE and VSE isolates from each patient were closely related and did not differ in overall fitness. All four VRE isolates and 2/4 VSE isolates were vanA positive. MEBs occur regardless of prior antimicrobial therapy, are relatively common in our hospital, and are important to detect. As far as we know, this study is the first to report heterogeneous E. faecalis bacteremia. There is a simple method to detect VRE subpopulations that may be missed by Vitek2.

  4. Bacteremia in Children Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia-Grande, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Pinnock, Elli; Salas, Antonio; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of bacteremia is considered low in children with acute bronchiolitis. However the rate of occult bacteremia in infants with RSV infection is not well established. The aim was to determine the actual rate and predictive factors of bacteremia in children admitted to hospital due to confirmed RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI), using both conventional culture and molecular techniques. Methods A prospective multicenter study (GENDRES-network) was conducted between 2011–2013 in children under the age of two admitted to hospital because of an ARI. Among those RSV-positive, bacterial presence in blood was assessed using PCR for Meningococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to conventional cultures. Results 66 children with positive RSV respiratory illness were included. In 10.6% patients, bacterial presence was detected: H. influenzae (n = 4) and S. pneumoniae (n = 2). In those patients with bacteremia, there was a previous suspicion of bacterial superinfection and had received empirical antibiotic treatment 6 out of 7 (85.7%) patients. There were significant differences in terms of severity between children with positive bacterial PCR and those with negative results: PICU admission (100% vs. 50%, P-value = 0.015); respiratory support necessity (100% vs. 18.6%, P-value < 0.001); Wood-Downes score (mean = 8.7 vs. 4.8 points, P-value < 0.001); GENVIP scale (mean = 17 vs. 10.1, P-value < 0.001); and length of hospitalization (mean = 12.1 vs. 7.5 days, P-value = 0.007). Conclusion Bacteremia is not frequent in infants hospitalized with RSV respiratory infection, however, it should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:26872131

  5. Clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of Morganella morganii bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T-Y; Chan, M-C; Yang, Y-S; Lee, Y; Yeh, K-M; Lin, J-C; Chang, F-Y

    2015-02-01

    Although Morganella morganii causes a variety of clinical infections, there are limited studies on M. morganii bacteremia after the year 2000. A total of 109 patients with M. morganii bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012 were studied. Among them, 30.3 % had polymicrobial bacteremia and 75.2 % had community-acquired infection. The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (62.4 %) and diabetes mellitus (38.5 %). The urinary tract (41.3 %) was the major portal of entry, followed by the hepatobiliary tract (27.5 %), skin and soft tissue (21.1 %), and primary bacteremia (10.1 %). Susceptibility testing of M. morganii isolates showed ubiquitous resistance to first-generation cephalosporins and ampicillin-clavulanate; resistance rates to gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin were 30.3 %, 1.8 %, and 10.1 %, respectively. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 14.7 %. Univariate analysis revealed that elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values [p = 0.0137, odds ratio (OR) 5.26], intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.011, OR 4.4), and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores (p < 0.001, OR 1.62) were significantly associated with mortality. The APACHE II score remained the only significant risk factor for mortality in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0012, OR 1.55). In conclusion, M. morganii bacteremia patients were mostly elderly, with one or more comorbidities. Most of the patients had community-acquired infection via the urinary and hepatobiliary tracts. Furthermore, prognosis can be predicted according to disease severity measured by the APACHE II score.

  6. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-05-08

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer.

  7. Colorimetric Integrated PCR Protocol for Rapid Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewen Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and integrated with the forward primer for molecular detection of Vp. This specific sequence was tested and treated as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP-mimicking DNAzyme and could be amplified during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR process. The products of PCR including the sequence of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme could produce the distinguished color in the presence of catalysis substrates. The optical signal of the catalysis reaction, which is in a linear relationship with the initial template of Vp, could be determined with the naked eye or measured with Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis for qualitative and quantitative detections, respectively. Based on the optical signal intensity, rapid and easy detection of Vp was successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the detection of tdh, trh, tlh and toxR virulence genes of two Vp species (Vp 33847 and Vp 17802 were all performed successfully with this developed colorimetric integrated PCR protocol, which demonstrated potential applicability for the rapid detection of other bacteria.

  8. Colorimetric Integrated PCR Protocol for Rapid Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kewen; Pan, Daodong; Teng, Jun; Yao, Li; Ye, Yingwang; Xue, Feng; Xia, Fan; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of pathogens is of great significance for food safety and disease diagnosis. A new colorimetric method for rapid and easy detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus or Vp) has been developed in this research. A specific sequence was designed and integrated with the forward primer for molecular detection of Vp. This specific sequence was tested and treated as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme and could be amplified during the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The products of PCR including the sequence of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme could produce the distinguished color in the presence of catalysis substrates. The optical signal of the catalysis reaction, which is in a linear relationship with the initial template of Vp, could be determined with the naked eye or measured with Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) for qualitative and quantitative detections, respectively. Based on the optical signal intensity, rapid and easy detection of Vp was successfully achieved with satisfied sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the detection of tdh, trh, tlh and toxR virulence genes of two Vp species (Vp 33847 and Vp 17802) were all performed successfully with this developed colorimetric integrated PCR protocol, which demonstrated potential applicability for the rapid detection of other bacteria. PMID:27690041

  9. The daily risk of bacteremia during hospitalization and associated 30-day mortality evaluated in relation to the traditional classification of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Kolmos, Hans Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS...

  10. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio vulnificus in the Aquacultural Environments of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Yao Hsien; Jong, Koa-Jen; Fen, Shin-Yuan; Wong, Hin-Chung

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae in a total of 72 samples from six aquaculture ponds for groupers, milk fish, and tilapia in southern Taiwan was examined by the membrane filtration and colony hybridization method. The halophilic V. parahaemolyticus was only recovered in seawater ponds, with a high isolation frequency of 86.1% and a mean density of 2.6 log CFU/g. V. cholerae was found in both the seawater and freshwater ponds but preferentially in freshwater ponds, with a frequency of 72.2% and a mean density of 1.65 log CFU/g. V. vulnificus was identified mainly in seawater ponds, with an isolation frequency of 27.8%. The density of V. parahaemolyticus in seawater ponds was positively related to water temperature (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.555) and negatively related to salinity (r = 2 0.333). The density of V. cholerae in all six ponds was positively related to water temperature (r = 0.342) and negatively related to salinity (r = 2 0.432). Two putatively pathogenic tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus isolates (1.4% of the samples) and no ctx(+) V. cholerae isolates were identified. The experimental results may facilitate assessments of the risk posed by these pathogenic Vibrio species in Taiwan, where aquaculture provides a large part of the seafood supply.

  11. Rhodococcus bacteremia in cancer patients is mostly catheter related and associated with biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Al Akhrass

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94% central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI. Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%. Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated.

  12. Multicystic Hepatocarcinoma Mimicking Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC became easier in relation to the improved radiological examinations; however, the neoplasm may occur under atypical presentations mimicking other benign or malignant processes. Multicystic HCC mimicking a liver abscess associated with septic-type fever and leukocytosis is rare, has a poor prognosis, and poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient, who presented with fever, leukocytosis, and large cystic masses involving right and left lobes of the liver initially considered abscesses and finally diagnosed as HCC after open drainage and liver biopsy. Although the patient died on the tenth postoperative day due to pulmonary oedema, the authors emphasize the high index of suspicion needed in the diagnosis of this unusual presentation of HCC.

  13. Elizabethkingia anophelis bacteremia is associated with clinically significant infections and high mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, Ricky H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Cheung, Ingrid Y. Y.; Chau, Sandy K. Y.; Lung, David C.; Lee, Rodney A.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise. PMID:27185741

  14. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infec...

  15. Optimum treatment strategies for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Montero, José; Amaya-Villar, Rosario; Ferrándiz-Millón, Carmen; Díaz-Martín, Ana; López-Sánchez, José María; Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) constitutes an increasing problem worldwide. CRAB bacteremia is associated with a high fatality rate and its optimal treatment has not been established. Early institution of appropriate therapy is shown to improve survival of patients with CRAB bloodstream infection. Regrettably, treatment options are limited. Little information exists about the efficacy of sulbactam for the treatment of CRAB bacteremia. Colistin and tigecycline possess good in vitro activity and represent in many cases the only therapeutic options although clinical data are scarce. The need for a loading dose of colistin has been recently demonstrated to rapidly achieve therapeutic levels. The use of combination therapy is also a matter of debate but current evidence do not support its routine use.

  16. A severe Morganella morganii endophthalmitis; followed by bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Tayfur; Aydemir, Ozlem Akkaya; Koroglu, Mehmet; Ozbek, Ahmet; Altindis, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Morganella morganii is rarely isolated from nosocomial infections. However, postoperative infections due to Morganella spp. were documented in literature and eye involvements of the infections usually result in severe sequels. We present a severe case infection, which was caused by M. morganii subsp. morganii, firstly appearing as conjunctivitis and complicated by bacteremia. The infectious agent isolated from both conjunctival and consecutive blood cultures. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed with the Vitek 2(®) automated system. The isolate was resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems and it had ability to produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Patient was successfully treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin according to susceptibility test results. This is the first report of M. morganii infection detected as a local infection then complicated by bacteremia.

  17. Treatment of occult bacteremia: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, W L; Farrell, M K; Singer, J I; Jackson, M A; Lobel, J S; Lewis, E D

    1983-11-01

    Antibiotic therapy for children without foci of infection and at risk for bacteremia is controversial. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted using expectant antibiotic therapy in children at risk for bacteremia. A total of 96 children (aged 6 to 24 months) with temperature of more than 40 degrees C, no identifiable source of infection, and a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/microL and/or sedimentation rate greater than or equal to 30 were enrolled. The following tests were performed on all children: blood culture, chest roentgenogram, urinalysis, and urine culture. A lumbar puncture was performed if a child was 12 months or less. Patients were randomized to receive either no antibiotic therapy or Bicillin C-R, 50,000 U/kg intramuscularly, followed by penicillin V, 100 mg/kg/d, orally four times a day for three days. Patients were examined at 24 and 72 hours. Fifty patients were treated expectantly and 46 received no antimicrobial therapy. Ten of the 96 patients were bacteremic (nine had Streptococcus pneumoniae, one had Haemophilus influenzae). Four of the five children treated for bacteremia showed improvement at the first follow-up visit (afebrile and no obvious focus of infection). The five untreated patients showed no improvement; four patients developed focal infections (two had meningitis, two had otitis media) (P less than or equal to .05, Fisher exact test). No complications of expectant therapy were detected. Thus, expectant antibiotic therapy for children who have no obvious source of infection and who meet these criteria associated with occult bacteremia is warranted.

  18. Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Serratia marcescens Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Ann, Hea Won; Choi, Heun; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. Results The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (p<0.001) were significantly different between patients in the fatal and non-fatal groups. In a multivariate analysis, lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were independently associated with 28-day mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.206, 95% confidential interval (CI) 0.044-0.960, p=0.040, and adjusted OR 1.474, 95% CI 1.200-1.810, p<0.001, respectively]. Conclusion Lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were significantly associated with adverse outcomes in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. PMID:25683980

  19. Enterococcus spp. in a single blood culture: bacteremia or contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.

  20. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia in hemodialysis patients: a report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Darwin; Limongi, Gino; Bertullo, Mauricio; Cancela, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a low-virulence gram-negative bacillus that may be associated with infections related to health care and may cause bacteremia. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia is uncommon but is related to the contamination of medical products, mainly in immunodepressed patients. We present two cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis with Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia linked to contamination of the dialysis water. Similar cases have been published with links to intravenous fluid administration, medication ampules, and the use of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes, among other factors. The detection of Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia should provoke suspicion and a search for contaminated medical products, fluids, and/or medications. PMID:27410414

  1. Clinical manifestations of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholera are uncommon. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections. METHODS: The clinical charts of all patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections and who were treated in two hospitals in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections were identified based on the databank of the bacteriology laboratories of two hospitals. The overall mean age was 53.3 years, and men comprised 53 (63.9% of the patients. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus were the two most common underlying diseases, followed by malignancy. The most common type of infection was acute gastroenteritis (n = 45, 54.2%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 12, 14.5% and primary bacteremia (n = 11, 13.3%. Other types of infection, such as peritonitis (n = 5, 6.0%, skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI (n = 5, 6.0%, urinary tract infection (n = 3, 3.6% and pneumonia (2, 2.4%, were rare. July and June were the most common months of occurrence of V. cholera infections. The overall in-hospital mortality of 83 patients with V. cholera infections was 7.2%, but it was significantly higher for patients with primary bacteremia, hemorrhage bullae, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, or admission to an ICU. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with acute respiratory failure (odds ratio, 60.47; 95% CI, 4.79-763.90, P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Non-O1 V. cholera infections can cause protean disease, especially in patients with risk factors and during warm-weather months. The overall mortality of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections was only 7.2%; however, this value varied among different types of infection.

  2. Persistent staphylococcal bacteremia in an intravenous drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, N L; Supena, R B; Fekety, R

    1986-02-01

    A patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia received vancomycin (MIC = 0.8 microgram/ml, MBC = 15 micrograms/ml) and heparin simultaneously through the same intravenous line to treat a septic deep venous thrombosis. Bacteremia persisted for 7 days. Bacteremia terminated when the simultaneous infusion of heparin and vancomycin through the same line was stopped. This suggested that an interaction between vancomycin and heparin may have occurred, which resulted in a reduction in vancomycin activity. To test for such an interaction, mixtures of heparin and vancomycin in various concentrations were made and tested for antimicrobial activity against the organisms in the patient. A precipitate formed at the concentrations achieved in the intravenous lines, and when the vancomycin concentrations were measured by bioassay, a 50 to 60% reduction in activity was noted. In contrast, when these solutions were prepared and mixed at microgram concentrations, a precipitate was no longer observed, and antimicrobial activity was not reduced. Heparin appeared to interact unfavorably with vancomycin at the concentrations in the intravenous lines when these drugs were administered simultaneously to patients. This may be the cause of poor therapeutic responses to vancomycin in some patients, especially those infected with tolerant organisms.

  3. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J.; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae com...

  4. Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae with an internal amplification control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuang; Zhao, Hui; Xian, Yuyin; Hussain, Malik A; Wu, Xiyang

    2014-06-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that can simultaneously detect 4 major Vibrio spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae, in the presence of an internal amplification control (IAC) was developed. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on the gyrB gene for V. alginolyticus, the collagenase gene for V. parahaemolyticus, the vvhA gene for V. vulnificus, and the ompW gene for V. cholerae. Additionally, an IAC primer pair was designed in conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene that is used to indicate false-negative results. A multiplex PCR method was developed after optimization of the reaction conditions. The specificity of the PCR was validated by using 83 Vibrio strains and 10 other non-Vibrio bacterial species. The detection limit of the PCR was 10 CFU per tube for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and 10(5) CFU per tube for V. cholerae in mixed conditions. This method was used to identify 69 suspicious Vibrio isolates, and the results were consistent with physiological and biochemical tests. This multiplex PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, and specific. The existence of IAC could successfully eliminate false-negative results for the detection of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae.

  5. Invasive Vibrio cholerae Infection Following Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    as asymptomatic col- onization, otitis, gastroenteritis , soft-tissue infection, sepsis, or even cerebritis. In contrast, epidemic V. cholerae (O-1 or...review of the available literature is presented in Table 1. CONCLUSION Infection with invasive Vibrio species bacteria (e.g. Vibrio vulnificus

  6. Decidualized Ovarian Mass Mimicking Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufee Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciduosis classically occurs in the context of known endometriosis in the pelvis, most commonly in the ovaries, but also in the peritoneum. However, ovarian deciduosis outside the context of endometriosis is rare and makes diagnosis difficult, especially as the sonographic appearance suggests a malignant process. We report a case of decidualized ovarian mass in a patient without prior history of endometriosis that mimicked an ovarian malignancy. MRI may be a useful imaging modality to monitor these lesions and guide management. Consultation with a multidisciplinary team accustomed to such conditions will help to tailor the management to each individual.

  7. The effect of S. pneumoniae bacteremia on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Brandt, Christian T.; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of bacteremia on cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation in a rat model of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Anesthetized rats were divided into five groups (A to E) and inoculated with pneumococci intravenously and normal saline intracisternally...

  8. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  9. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Reed, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.

  10. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A genetic predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has been demonstrated in animals, suggesting that genetic differences might influence susceptibility to S aureus in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a history of S aureus bacteremia in first-degree relatives increases...

  11. Epidemiology, Management, and Risk-Adjusted Mortality of ICU-Acquired Enterococcal Bacteremia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, David S Y; Bonten, Marc J M; Safdari, Khatera; Spitoni, Cristian; Frencken, Jos F; Witteveen, Esther; Horn, Janneke; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Cremer, Olaf L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcal bacteremia has been associated with high case fatality, but it remains unknown to what extent death is caused by these infections. We therefore quantified attributable mortality of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bacteremia caused by enterococci. METHODS: From 2011 to 201

  12. Epidemiology, Management, and Risk-Adjusted Mortality of ICU-Acquired Enterococcal Bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, David S Y; Bonten, Marc J M; Safdari, Khatera; Spitoni, Cristian; Frencken, Jos F; Witteveen, Esther; Horn, Janneke; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Cremer, Olaf L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Enterococcal bacteremia has been associated with high case fatality, but it remains unknown to what extent death is caused by these infections. We therefore quantified attributable mortality of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bacteremia caused by enterococci. METHODS:  From 2011 to 2

  13. Enhanced detection of polymicrobic bacteremia by repeat subculture of previously positive blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, S.L.; Hetmanski, J

    1983-01-01

    Blood subcultures repeated 3 days after the cultures were first identified as positives increased our detection of polymicrobic bacteremia in 9.1 to 27% of clinically significant patient episodes. Reincubation and repeated subculture of previously positive blood cultures had a direct impact on the therapeutic management of patients with polymicrobic bacteremia.

  14. Mild Staphylococcus aureus skin infection improves the course of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and ev

  15. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L;

    2014-01-01

    pneumococci. The study comprised of four experimental groups. I. Uninfected controls (n = 8); II. Meningitis (n = 11); III. Meningitis with early onset bacteremia by additional i.v. injection of live pneumococci (n = 10); IV. Meningitis with attenuated bacteremia by treatment with serotype-specific anti...

  16. Successful treatment of multiresistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia in a child with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, Deniz; Turel, Ozden; Aydogan, Gonul; Akcay, Arzu; Salcioglu, Zafer; Akici, Ferhan; Sen, Hulya; Demirkaya, Metin; Taskin, Necati; Gurler, Nezahat

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus and important cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. We describe a leukemia pediatric patient with severe neutropenia who developed bacteremia with A xylosoxidans resistant to multiple antibiotics, and treated the patient with tigecycline and piperacillin-tazobactam in addition to supportive medications.

  17. Tree-structured survival analysis of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: A multicenter observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Kim, Hyun Ah; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Jieun; Park, Seong Yeon; Yang, Kyung Sook; Kim, Shin Woo

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to construct a prediction algorithm, which is readily applicable in the clinical setting, to determine the mortality rate for patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. A multicenter observational cohort study was performed retrospectively in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Korea from March 2012 to February 2015. In total, 264 adult patients with monomicrobial P. aeruginosa bacteremia were included in the analyses. Among the predictors independently associated with 30-day mortality in the Cox regression model, Pitt bacteremia score >2 and high-risk source of bacteremia were identified as critical nodes in the tree-structured survival analysis. Particularly, the empirical combination therapy was not associated with any survival benefit in the Cox regression model compared to the empirical monotherapy. This study suggests that determining the infection source and evaluating the clinical severity are critical to predict the clinical outcome in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.

  18. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in a hematology unit: molecular epidemiology and analysis of clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Wan-Shik; Kim, Myungshin; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Min, Woo-Sung; Kim, Chun-Choo

    2005-04-01

    An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia in hemato-oncological patients (n=19) in our institution from 2000 through 2001 led us to analyze the molecular epidemiologic patterns and clinical features unique to our cases. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the isolates revealed that the bacteremia was not originated from a single clone but rather showed endemic pattern of diverse clones with small clusters. A different DNA pattern of blood and stool isolates from one patient suggested exogenous rather than endogenous route of infection. Enterococcus faecium carrying vanA gene was the causative pathogen in all cases. Patients with VRE bacteremia showed similar clinical courses compared with those with vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal (VSE) bacteremia. Vancomycin resistance did not seem to be a poor prognostic factor because of similar mortality (5/8, 62.5%) noted in VSE bacteremia. Initial disease severity and neutropenic status may be major determinants of prognosis in patients with VRE bacteraemia.

  19. Anaerobic Bacteremia: Impact of Inappropriate Therapy on Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Myungsook; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation on incidence and mortality of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) is clinically relevant in spite of its infrequent occurrence and not often explored, which report varies according to period and institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incidence and risk factors related to mortality and assess clinical outcomes of AB in current aspect. Materials and Methods Characteristics of AB patients and anaerobic bacteria from blood culture at a university hospital in 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between risk factors and 28-day patient mortality was analyzed. Results A total of 70 non-duplicated anaerobic bacteria were isolated from blood of 70 bacteremia patients in 2012. The history of cardiovascular disease as host's risk factor was statistically significant (P = 0.0344) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Although the inappropriate therapy was not statistically significant in univariate and multivariate analysis, the survival rate of bacteremia was significantly worse in patients who had inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–6.9; P = 0.004). The most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides fragilis (32 isolates, 46%), followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10, 14%), and non-perfringens Clostridium (7, 10%). Conclusion The incidence of AB in 2012 was 2.3% (number of AB patients per 100 positive blood culture patients) and the mortality rate in patients with clinically significant AB was 21.4%. In addition, AB was frequently noted in patients having malignancy and the survival rate of AB was significantly worse in patients who received inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy. PMID:27433379

  20. Chromosome segregation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Jha, Jyoti; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation.

  1. Mycobacterium abscessus complex bacteremia due to prostatitis after prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hua; Lin, Jesun; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Min

    2016-10-01

    We present the case of a 49-year-old man, who developed Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus complex) bacteremia and prostatitis after prostate biopsy. The patient was successfully treated with amikacin with imipenem-cilastatin with clarithromycin. Infections caused by M. abscessus complex have been increasingly described as a complication associated with many invasive procedures. Invasive procedures might have contributed to the occurrence of the M. abscessus complex. Although M. abscessus complex infection is difficult to diagnose and treat, we should pay more attention to this kind of infection, and the correct treatment strategy will be achieved by physicians.

  2. Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH, Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238 were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS (53.3%; n = 129, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22 and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17. Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2. Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4 for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4 for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1 for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9 for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR. Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial

  3. A Case of Liver Abscess with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saho Koyano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desulfovibrio spp. are gram-negative, sulfate-reducing, and anaerobic bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. Because Desulfovibrio spp. are infrequent causative agents of infectious diseases and are difficult to isolate and to identify from clinical specimens, the appropriate antibiotic therapy to infection with Desulfovibrio spp. has not been determined. We report the first case of liver abscess with bacteremia due to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to show the clinical presentation and treatment. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam and oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

  4. Characteristics of patients with community-acquired bacteremia who have low levels of C-reactive protein (≤20 mg/L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudtzen, Fredrikke Christie; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Gradel, Kim Oren;

    2014-01-01

    To characterize patients presenting with community-acquired bacteremia and a low C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma level at date of bacteremia.......To characterize patients presenting with community-acquired bacteremia and a low C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma level at date of bacteremia....

  5. Gout: radiographic findings mimicking infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, I.; Raymond-Tremblay, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada); Cardinal, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada); Beauregard, C.G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal,Que. (Canada); Braunstein, E.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University Hospital (United States); Saint-Pierre, A. [Rheumatology Unit, Centre Hospitalier de l' Univ. de Montreal, Que. (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    Objective: To describe radiographic features of gout that may mimic infection. Design and patients: We report five patients with acute bacterial gout who presented with clinical as well as radiological findings mimicking acute bacterial septic arthritis or osteomyelitis. Three patients had delay in the appropriate treatment with the final diagnosis being established after needle aspiration and identification of urate crystals under polarized light microscopy. Two patients underwent digit amputation for not responding to antibiotic treatment and had histological findings confirming the diagnosis of gout. Conclusion: It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the radiological manifestations of acute gout that can resemble infection in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and delay in adequate treatment. The definitive diagnosis should rely on needle aspiration and a specific search for urate crystals. (orig.)

  6. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  7. Use of rifampin in persistent coagulase negative staphylococcal bacteremia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Frans J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS are the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. A minority of neonates does not respond to vancomycin therapy and develops persistent bacteremia, which may be treated with rifampin. We evaluated the use of rifampin in persistent CoNS bacteremia. Methods Retrospective study of 137 neonates with CoNS bacteremia during admission to a tertiary NICU between July 2006 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were total duration of bacteremia and the adequacy of vancomycin and rifampin therapy. Results 137/1696 (8.0% neonates developed a CoNS bacteremia. Eighteen were treated with rifampin because of persistent bacteremia (3 positive blood cultures at least 48 hours apart with clinical symptoms or (a serious suspicion of an intravascular thrombus. Duration of bacteremia prior to rifampin therapy (8.0 ± 3.6 days was positively correlated (p Conclusion Rifampin may be effective in the treatment of persistent CoNS infections in neonates. Outcome may be improved by adequate monitoring of vancomycin trough levels.

  8. An innovative method for rapid identification and detection of Vibrio alginolyticus in different infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifei eFu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment. The widely employed conventional methods for detection of V. alginolyticus include biochemical identification and a variety of PCR methods. The former is of low specificity and time-consuming (2-3 days, while the latter has improved accuracy and processing time. Despite such advancements, these methods are still complicated, time-consuming, expensive, require expertise and advanced laboratory systems, and are not optimal for field use. With the goal of providing a simple and efficient way to detect V. alginolyticus, we established a rapid diagnostic method based on Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP technology that is feasible to use in both experimental and field environments. Three primer pairs targeting the toxR gene of V. alginolyticus were designed, and amplification was carried out in an ESE tube scanner and Real-Time PCR device. We successfully identified 93 V. alginolyticus strains from a total of 105 different bacterial isolates and confirmed their identity by 16s rDNA sequencing. We also applied this method on infected mouse blood and contaminated scallop samples, and accurate results were both easily and rapidly (20-60min obtained. Therefore, the RT-LAMP assay we developed can be conveniently used to detect the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples. Furthermore, this method will also fulfill the gap for real-time screening of V. alginolyticus

  9. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and hemolytic anemia in a patient with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M; Barrera, E; Martin, R R

    1980-08-01

    A patient with hemoglobin SC disease and cholelithiasis was found to have Bacillus cereus bacteremia. Hemolytic anemia developed, for which common causes of hemolysis were excluded, suggesting a relationship with the bacteremia. Following in vitro incubation, type O erythrocytes were hemolyzed by the culture, but not by a bacteria-free filtrate. This case confirms the association between sickle cell disorders and cholelithiasis with B cereus infections. In addition, it provides evidence for in vivo hemolysis with B cereus bacteremia, an organism not previously associated with hemolytic anemia.

  10. Is nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia a predictive risk factor for mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. Tuon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with nosocomial Escherichia coli bacteremia from January 2009 to January 2011. In a retrospective study the medical records of 88 patients over 18 years with nosocomial bacteremia caused by E. coli were analyzed. In univariate analysis several risk factors, including chronic renal failure, altered mental status, leukocytosis, and higher Charlson index of comorbidities were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis only altered mental status remained independently associated with mortality. Mental confusion can be a risk factor for mortality in patients with E. coli bacteremia.

  11. Acute Hemolysis with Renal Failure due to Clostridium Bacteremia in a Patient with AML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Juarez, R. M.; Sotello, D.; D'Cuhna, L.; Payne, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The high fatality of C. perfringens bacteremia requires that clinicians recognize and rapidly treat patients at risk for this infection. Although other hemolytic processes are in the differential diagnosis of these events, the presence of high fever, chills, and rapidly positive blood cultures may help narrow the diagnosis. Most cases of C. perfringens bacteremia have a concomitant coinfection, which makes broad spectrum empiric therapy essential. There is a high mortality rate of C. perfringens infections associated with leukemia.

  12. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI.

  13. Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides in Vibrios

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    Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are associated with a broad diversity of hosts that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs as part of their defense against microbial infections. In particular, vibrios colonize epithelia, which function as protective barriers and express AMPs as a first line of chemical defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown they can also colonize phagocytes, key components of the animal immune system. Phagocytes infiltrate infected tissues and use AMPs to kill the phagocytosed microorganisms intracellularly, or deliver their antimicrobial content extracellularly to circumvent tissue infection. We review here the mechanisms by which vibrios have evolved the capacity to evade or resist the potent antimicrobial defenses of the immune cells or tissues they colonize. Among their strategies to resist killing by AMPs, primarily vibrios use membrane remodeling mechanisms. In particular, some highly resistant strains substitute hexaacylated Lipid A with a diglycine residue to reduce their negative surface charge, thereby lowering their electrostatic interactions with cationic AMPs. As a response to envelope stress, which can be induced by membrane-active agents including AMPs, vibrios also release outer membrane vesicles to create a protective membranous shield that traps extracellular AMPs and prevents interaction of the peptides with their own membranes. Finally, once AMPs have breached the bacterial membrane barriers, vibrios use RND efflux pumps, similar to those of other species, to transport AMPs out of their cytoplasmic space.

  14. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

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    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  15. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly

    2012-01-01

    importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...... in V. cholerae and the general question concerning bacteria carrying circular chromosomes--by looking at the effect of chromosome size on topological issues. In this article, we show that Dam, RctB, and ParA2/ParB2 are strictly essential for chrII origin maintenance, and we formally demonstrate...

  16. Bacteremias em pacientes internados em hospital universitário Bacteremias at a teaching hospital: etiology, antimicrobial susceptibiliy pattern and risk factors for mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Guilarde

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de bacteremias, seu perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana, e fatores associados ao óbito, em hospital universitário, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2001. MÉTODOS: Coorte retrospectiva. Pacientes maiores de 1 ano de idade, com bacteremia laboratorialmente confirmada e clinicamente significativa foram incluídos no estudo. Realizada análise de sobrevida multivariada, seguindo o modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados 295 episódios de bacteremia. O patógeno mais freqüente foi o Staphylococcus aureus: 118 (40%, com 55,9% de MRSA. A letalidade pela bacteremia foi de 34,5%. Os fatores de risco independentes para o óbito foram terapia inicial inadequada (HR ajustado 2,05 IC 95%: 1,25-3,36 e gravidade da apresentação clínica (HR ajustado 5,52 IC 95%: 3,15-9,69. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso estudo mostrou elevada letalidade associada a bacteremia, com alta freqüência de MRSA. A terapia inicial inadequada e a gravidade da apresentação clínica foram fatores de risco independentes para o óbito pela bacteremia.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and profile of bacteremia, its antimicrobial susceptibility and to analyze predictors of mortality in bloodstream infections (BSI at this Teaching Hospital from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. METHODS: Design: retrospective cohort. Patients over one year old with clinically significant episodes of BSI which were microbiologically documented were included in the study. The Cox proportional hazards risk model was applied to identify prognostic factors related to death by bacteremia. RESULTS: A total of 295 episodes of BSI were detected. The most common pathogen was S. aureus: 118 (40.0%, with 55.9% of MRSA. Mortality associated with bacteremia was 34.5%. Independent predictors of mortality were: inadequate initial therapy (HR adjusted 2.05 IC95%: 1.25-3.36 and severity of the clinical manifestations (HR adjusted 5

  17. Isolation and identification of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus from prawn (Penaeus monodon) seafood: Preservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaashikaa, P R; Saravanan, A; Kumar, P Senthil

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Vibrio sp. are widespread in marine and estuarine environments. The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters. Isolation studies were done by using enrichment and selective plating methods. The different biochemical test was carried out and inferred that the isolated organisms were Vibrio choleraee and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antibiotic study was also performed to find out the resistant and sensitivity of the Vibrio species. From the results, it was observed that this can be able to correlate the growth of vibrio species to a limited condition and other environmental parameters for which it will be able to find the remedial measures to prevent the growth and spreading of the diseases. Also the different preservation method was carried out to suppress the growth rate of Vibrio sp.

  18. Occurrence of virulence genes among Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from treated wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Baccouche, Besma; Croci, Luciana; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2014-10-01

    Pathogenic Vibrio species are an important cause of foodborne illnesses. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant and the risk that they may pose to public health. During the 1-year monitoring, a total of 43 Vibrio strains were isolated: 23 Vibrio alginolyticus, 1 Vibrio cholerae, 4 Vibrio vulnificus, and 15 Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The PCR investigation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae virulence genes (tlh, trh, tdh, toxR, toxS, toxRS, toxT, zot, ctxAB, tcp, ace, vpi, nanH) revealed the presence of some of these genes in a significant number of strains. Intraspecies variability and genetic relationships among the environmental isolates were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). We report the results of the first isolation and characterization of an environmental V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 and of a toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in Tunisia. We suggest that non-pathogenic Vibrio might represent a marine reservoir of virulence genes that can be transmitted between strains by horizontal transfer.

  19. Mortalities of eastern and pacific oyster larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio cora...

  20. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  1. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons.

  2. Nosocomial bacteremia and catheter infection by Bacillus cereus in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.

  3. Nosocomial Gram-negative bacteremia in intensive care: epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Irene Sligl

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: ICU-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia is associated with high mortality. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and carbapenems was common. Coronary artery disease, immune suppression, and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with increased mortality.

  4. Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day) mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thønnings, Sara; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    Optimal antibiotic treatment strategies of Haemophilus infections are still needed. Therefore, 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) of Haemophilus bacteremia and efficacy of various antibiotic treatment regimes were studied....

  5. Bacteremia Due to Arthrobacter creatinolyticus in an Elderly Diabetic Man with Acute Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagamatsu, Maki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Tamura, Saeko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-03-24

    An 87-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetic mellitus presented with fever, bedsores, and elevated hepatobiliary enzyme levels. He was diagnosed with bacteremia with acute cholangitis due to Arthrobacter species, which are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family Microbacteriaceae. Doripenem and subsequencial sulbactam/ampicillin treatment were used for the acute cholangitis, and the bacteremia was treated with a 2-week course of vancomycin. The bacteremia was misidentified by the phenotyping assay (API Coryne test), but was identified as Arthrobacter creatinolyticus by 16S rRNA and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human case of A. creatinolyticus bacteremia.

  6. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  7. Shigella sonnei Bacteremia Presenting with Profound Hepatic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Abdulkareem, Abdullateef

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration. He reports similar diarrhea illness in two close contacts in preceding days. On examination, he was fully oriented but dehydrated, icteric, and febrile. Laboratory data revealed WBC of 2200/μL, elevated AST and ALT (201 IU/L, 73 IU/L resp.), normal alkaline phosphatase, elevated total and direct bilirubin of 8.2 mg/dL and 4.4 mg/dL, albumin of 3.2 g/dL, INR of 2.9, prothrombin time of 31.7, and platelet of 96,000/μL. Workup for infectious, autoimmune and medication-induced hepatitis, Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis was negative. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatic steatosis and right-sided colitis. Stool and blood cultures were positive for Shigella sonnei. He was treated with ciprofloxacin with improvement in liver function. Follow-up blood test 4 months later was within normal limits. PMID:28326205

  8. Thymic abscess with bacteremia and manubriosternal pyarthrosis in a geriatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstien, E; Slavin, J

    1993-03-01

    We describe a geriatric patient with acute substernal chest pain thought to be due to coronary heart disease, who was subsequently found to have Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia associated with infection of the thymus and manubriosternal joint. To our knowledge, this is the first report of (1) a thymic abscess in a geriatric patient, (2) a thymic abscess associated with bacteremia, (3) extra-articular extension of manubriosternal pyarthrosis, and (4) manubriosternal pyarthrosis in the geriatric age group.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis versus bacteremia strains: Subtle genetic differences at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Coralie; Moreau, Karen; Devillard, Sébastien; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Mosnier, Amandine; Geissmann, Tom; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Lina, Gérard; Laurent, Frédéric; Piroth, Lionel; Aissa, Nejla; Duval, Xavier; Le Moing, Vincent; Vandenesch, François

    2015-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE)((1)) is a severe condition complicating 10-25% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Although host-related IE risk factors have been identified, the involvement of bacterial features in IE complication is still unclear. We characterized strictly defined IE and bacteremia isolates and searched for discriminant features. S. aureus isolates causing community-acquired, definite native-valve IE (n=72) and bacteremia (n=54) were collected prospectively as part of a French multicenter cohort. Phenotypic traits previously reported or hypothesized to be involved in staphylococcal IE pathogenesis were tested. In parallel, the genotypic profiles of all isolates, obtained by microarray, were analyzed by discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC)((2)). No significant difference was observed between IE and bacteremia strains, regarding either phenotypic or genotypic univariate analyses. However, the multivariate statistical tool DAPC, applied on microarray data, segregated IE and bacteremia isolates: IE isolates were correctly reassigned as such in 80.6% of the cases (C-statistic 0.83, P<0.001). The performance of this model was confirmed with an independent French collection IE and bacteremia isolates (78.8% reassignment, C-statistic 0.65, P<0.01). Finally, a simple linear discriminant function based on a subset of 8 genetic markers retained valuable performance both in study collection (86.1%, P<0.001) and in the independent validation collection (81.8%, P<0.01). We here show that community-acquired IE and bacteremia S. aureus isolates are genetically distinct based on subtle combinations of genetic markers. This finding provides the proof of concept that bacterial characteristics may contribute to the occurrence of IE in patients with S. aureus bacteremia.

  10. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with bacteremia among patients with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryota; Shindo, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Kimura, Kouji; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-03-01

    Some important virulence factors have been elucidated in Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. We investigated the relationship between virulence factors and multilocus sequence types (STs) and assessed the risk factors for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae. From April 2004 through April 2012, a total of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumonia (23 with bacteremia and 97 without bacteremia) were collected from 10 medical institutions in Japan. Additionally, 10 strains of K. pneumoniae serotype K2 that were isolated >30 years ago were included in this study. These isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the characteristics of their virulence factors, such as hypermucoviscosity phenotype and RmpA and aerobactin production between patients with and without bacteremia, were examined. MLST analysis was performed on the 120 isolates from patients with pneumonia, and some sequence type groups were defined as genetic lineages (GLs). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia (21.7%) than in those without bacteremia (7.2%). The majority of the strains with serotype K2 were classified into GL14 or GL65, and rmpA and the gene for aerobactin were present in all GL65-K2 strains but absent in all GL14-K2 strains. In a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for bacteremia included GL65 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81 to 49.31), as well as neoplastic disease (AOR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.61 to 37.92), immunosuppression (AOR, 17.85; 95% CI, 1.49 to 214.17), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.29 to 17.61). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia and was associated with the virulence factors of K. pneumoniae.

  11. Population-based surveillance for hypermucoviscosity Klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-acquired bacteremia in Calgary, Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Peirano; Johann DD. Pitout; Laupland, Kevin B.; Bonnie Meatherall; Daniel B Gregson

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of hypermucoviscosity isolates among Klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-acquired bacteremia were investigated. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was present in 8.2% of K pneumoniae isolates, and was associated with rmpA and the K2 serotype; liver abscesses were the most common clinical presentation. The present analysis represents the first population-based surveillance study of hypermucoviscosity among K pneumoniae causing bacteremia.

  12. Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire localized by gallium scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, G.S.; Calubiran, O.; Cunha, B.A. (Winthrop-Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan.

  13. Evaluation of the incidence of occult bacteremia among children with fever of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Naaman Berezin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the incidence of occult bacteremia, to identify the most frequent etiological agents of bacteremias in otherwise healthy children from one month to 10 years old, who had fever of unknown origin attended at the emergency ward of an urban, university-affiliated pediatric referral center. This was a retrospective medical record review, evaluating children with fever. Data were collected from the initial visit, when blood cultures, hematological properties and hemosedimentation rates were examined. Fever was considered as the highest temperature assessed in the hospital or reported by the responsible adult. Occult bacteremia was discovered in 1.4% of the 1,051 children evaluated, and the most common etiologic agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Total leukocyte count and blood sedimentation rates greater than 30 mm³ were not predictive factors for occult bacteremia. Fever greater than 39ºC was the most important factor for predicting occult bacteremia (P<0.001. The presence of occult bacteremia was significantly correlated with patient hospitalization.

  14. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  15. Evaluation of bacteremias in a Turkish university hospital: 3-year outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdal, Tuna; Demirturk, Nese; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Tufan, Gulnihal

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (17.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio...

  17. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  18. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia in four renal transplant patients: clinical features and an important suggestion regarding the route of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imafuku, A; Araoka, H; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi can cause bacteremia mainly in immunocompromised patients. We present the clinical characteristics of H. cinaedi bacteremia in 4 renal transplant patients. Interestingly, all cases showed triggers of bacterial translocation: 2 cases developed after colonic perforation caused by diverticulitis, 1 case developed post cholecystectomy, and the remaining patient had chronic diarrhea. Accordingly, bacterial translocation caused by severe gastrointestinal complication could be a cause of H. cinaedi bacteremia.

  19. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  20. Early changes of procalcitonin predict bacteremia in patients with intensive care unit-acquired new fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan; DU Bin; XU Ying-chun; RUI Xi; DU Wei; WANG Yao

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of bacteremia is important for critically ill patients.Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a marker of sepsis,but its characterization for predicting bacteremia is still unclear.This study aimed to investigate the role of change of PCT within 6 to 12 hours after new fever in predicting bacteremia.Methods An observational study was conducted in the ICU of our hospital from January 2009 to March 2010.Adult patients with new fever were included and grouped as bacteremia and non bacteremia group.Serum PCT concentration was measured at admission and within 6 to12 hours after new fever (designated PCT0 and PCT1).Other results of laboratory tests and therapeutic interventions were recorded.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors of bacteremia.The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was constructed to evaluate the discriminative power of variables to predict bacteremia.Results Totally 106 patients were enrolled,60 of whom had bacteremia and 46 did not have bacteremia,.The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were 13.1±7.8 and 5.0±2.2 at admission,respectively.There was no significant difference in PCT0 between the bacteremia group and nonbacteremia group; 1.27μg/L (range,0.10-33.3) vs.0.98μg/L (range,0.08-25.7),(P=-0.157).However,the PCT1 and the rate of change of PCT were significantly higher in bacteremia group; PCT1 was 6.73μg/L (1.13-120.10)vs.1.17μg/L (0.10-12.10) (P=0.001),and the rate of change was 5.62 times (1.05-120.6) vs.0.07 times (-0.03-0.18)(P<0.001).The area under the ROC curve (AUC; 95% confidence interval) of the rate of change of PCT was better for predicting bacteremia than that of PCT1; 0.864 (range,0.801-0.927) vs.0.715 (range,0.628-0.801),(P<0.05).The AUCs of PCT0 and other parameters (such as WBC count,granulocyte percentage and temperature) were not significantly different (all P>0

  1. Risk factors for pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and the adequacy of antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. Tuon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for acquiring carbapenemresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (CR-PA and factors associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: Seventy-seven cases of bacteremia caused by P. aeruginosa were evaluated in a hospital with high incidence of CR-PA. Clinical and laboratorial factors, and previous use of antibiotics were also evaluated. In one analysis, CR-PA and carbapenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (CS-PA bacteremia were compared. A second analysis compared patients who died with survivors. RESULTS: Among 77 P. aeruginosa bacteremia, 29 were caused by CR-PA. Admission to the intensive care unit, higher number of total leukocytes, and previous use of carbapenem were statistically associated with CR-PA. In the multivariate analysis, only previous use of carbapenem (including ertapenem turned out to be a risk factor for CR-PA (p = 0.014. The 30-day mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection was 44.8% for CS-PA and 54.2% for patients with CR-PA (p = 0.288. Chronic renal failure, admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and central venous catheter were risk factors for mortality. Incorrect treatment increased mortality of patients with bacteremia caused by CS-PA, but not for CR-SA. The odd ratio of mortality associated with incorrect therapy in patients with CS-PA was 3.30 (1.01-10.82; p = 0.043. The mortality of patients with bacteremia caused by CR-PA was unexpectedly similar regardless of antimicrobial treatment adequacy. CONCLUSION: Appropriate treatment for CS-PA bacteremia initiated within the first 24 hours was associated with lower mortality, but this cannot be extrapolated for CR-PA.

  2. [Enteropathogenicity of hemolysing El Tor Vibrios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, L F; Sviatoĭ, V I; Zotova, R S

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied the enteropathogenic properties of 11 strains of hemolysing E1 Tor vibrios, of which 8 in enteric administration to suckling rabbits caused no death of the animals, and 3 caused the animal death with the phenomena of diarrhea, but without any typical cholerogenicity syndrome. In case of administration with mucine the pathogenic properties were revealed in 6 strains more. Use of strains grown on media with starch for the infection led, in individual cases, to the manifestation of enteropathogenic properties. Consequently, the strains of hemolysing E1 for vibrios under study should be regarded as weakly virulent, and some--as avirulent ones.

  3. Recurrent epiploic appendagitis mimicking appendicitis and cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Christopher B.; Taboada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain caused by inflammation of an epiploic appendage. It has a nonspecific clinical presentation that may mimic other acute abdominal pathologies on physical exam, such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, or cholecystitis. However, EA is usually benign and self-limiting and can be treated conservatively. We present the case of a patient with two episodes of EA, the first mimicking acute appendicitis and the second mimicking acute cholecystitis. Although recurrence of EA is rare, it should be part of the differential diagnosis of acute, localized abdominal pain. A correct diagnosis of EA will prevent unnecessary hospitalization, antibiotic use, and surgical procedures. PMID:28127129

  4. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  5. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  6. Quorum sensing-disrupting brominated furanones protect the gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

  7. Detection and Quantification of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus in Coastal Waters of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A

    2016-06-01

    V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus are recognized human pathogens. Although several studies are available worldwide, both on environmental and clinical contexts, little is known about the ecology of these vibrios in African coastal waters. In this study, their co-occurrence and relationships to key environmental constraints in the coastal waters of Guinea-Bissau were examined using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) approach. All Vibrio species were universally detected showing higher concentrations by the end of the wet season. The abundance of V. cholerae (ISR 16S-23S rRNA) ranged 0-1.2 × 10(4) MPN/L, whereas V. parahaemolyticus (toxR) varied from 47.9 to 1.2 × 10(5) MPN/L. Although the presence of genotypes associated with virulence was found in environmental V. cholerae isolates, ctxA+ V. cholerae was detected, by MPN-PCR, only on two occasions. Enteropathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) V. parahaemolyticus were detected at concentrations up to 1.2 × 10(3) MPN/L. V. vulnificus (vvhA) was detected simultaneously in all surveyed sites only at the end of the wet season, with maximum concentrations of 1.2 × 10(5) MPN/L. Our results suggest that sea surface water temperature and salinity were the major environmental controls to all Vibrio species. This study represents the first detection and quantification of co-occurring Vibrio species in West African coastal waters, highlighting the potential health risk associated with the persistence of human pathogenic Vibrio species.

  8. Appropriate empirical antibiotic use and 30-d mortality in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun; Jang, Ki Jun; Jang, Won; Park, Sang Hoon; Park, Ji Young; Jeon, Tae Joo; Oh, Tae Hoon; Shin, Won Chang; Choi, Won-Choong; Sinn, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze whether prompt and appropriate empirical antibiotic (AEA) use is associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. METHODS: A total of 102 episodes of bacteremia in 72 patients with cirrhosis were analyzed. AEA was defined as a using or starting an antibiotic appropriate to the isolated pathogen at the time of bacteremia. The primary endpoint was 30-d mortality. RESULTS: The mortality rate at 30 d was 30.4% (31/102 episodes). Use of AEA was associated with better survival at 30 d (76.5% vs 46.9%, P = 0.05), and inappropriate empirical antibiotic (IEA) use was an independent factor associated with increased mortality (OR = 3.24; 95%CI: 1.50-7.00; P = 0.003, adjusted for age, sex, Child-Pugh Class, gastrointestinal bleeding, presence of septic shock). IEA use was more frequent when the isolated pathogen was a multiresistant pathogen, and when infection was healthcare-related or hospital-acquired. CONCLUSION: AEA use was associated with increased survival of cirrhotic patients who developed bacteremia. Strategies for AEA use, tailored according to the local epidemiological patterns, are needed to improve survival of cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. PMID:25834324

  9. Recent changes in bacteremia in patients with cancer: a systematic review of epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, E; Batard, E; Gastinne, T; Potel, G; de La Cochetière, M F

    2013-07-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complication in patients with cancer. Significant changes in the spectrum of microorganisms isolated from blood culture have been reported in cancer patients over the past years. The aim of our systematic review was to inventory the recent trends in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms causing bacteremia in cancer patients. Data for this review was identified by searches of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library for indexed articles and abstracts published in English since 2008. The principal search terms were: "antimicrobial resistance", "bacteremia", "bacterial epidemiology", "bloodstream infection", "cancer patients", "carbapenem resistance", "Escherichia coli resistance", "extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli", "febrile neutropenia", "fluoroquinolone resistance", "neutropenic cancer patient", "vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus", and "multidrug resistance". Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) were also used in succession to narrow and widen the search. Altogether, 27 articles were selected to be analyzed in the review. We found that Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen isolated, particularly in studies with minimal use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important trend is the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality and cost. This increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in Gram-negative bacteria as well as in Gram-positive bacteria. This exhaustive review, reporting the recent findings in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteremia in cancer patients, highlights the necessity of local continuous surveillance of bacteremia and stringent enforcement of antibiotic stewardship programs in cancer patients.

  10. Are there standardized cutoff values for neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios in bacteremia or sepsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürol, Gölnül; Çiftci, İhsan Hakki; Terizi, Huseyin Agah; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Ozbek, Ahmet; Köroğlu, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Bacteremia and sepsis are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with incorrect or delayed diagnoses being associated with increased mortality. New tests or markers that allow a more rapid and less costly detection of bacteremia and sepsis have been investigated. The aim of this study was to clarify the cutoff value of the neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR) according to procalcitonin (PCT) level in the decision-making processes for bacteremia and sepsis. In addition, other white blood cell subgroup parameters, which are assessed in all hospitals, for bacteremia and sepsis were explored. This retrospective study included 1,468 patients with suspected bacteremia and sepsis. Patients were grouped according to the following PCT criteria: levels sepsis group), and >10 ng/ml (sepsis shock group). One important finding of this study, which will serve as a baseline to measure future progress, is the presence of many gaps in the information on pathogens that constitute a major health risk. In addition, clinical decisions are generally not coordinated, compromising the ability to assess and monitor a situation. This report represents the first study to determine the limits of the use of NLR in the diagnosis of infection or sepsis using a cutoff value of <5 when sufficient exclusion criteria are used.

  11. Gram-negative bacteremia as a clinical marker of occult malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine K; Farkas, Dóra K; Søgaard, Mette;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gram-negative bacteremia may be a harbinger of occult cancer. We examined the risk of cancer following hospitalization with bacteremia. METHODS: Using medical databases, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all Danes with a discharge diagnosis of Gram-negative ba...... of follow-up, the SIR declined to 1.13 (95% CI: 1.05-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Gram-negative bacteremia is a clinical marker of occult cancer.......OBJECTIVES: Gram-negative bacteremia may be a harbinger of occult cancer. We examined the risk of cancer following hospitalization with bacteremia. METHODS: Using medical databases, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all Danes with a discharge diagnosis of Gram...... of gastrointestinal cancer (3- to 13-fold higher), genitourinary cancer (4- to 10-fold higher), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5-fold higher), non-specified metastatic cancer (5-fold higher), and breast and lung cancer (2-fold higher). The 6-12 months SIR for any cancer was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.22-1.72), and beyond 1 year...

  12. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin P Predicts Bacteremia in Hospitalized Patients Colonized With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Michael S.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakoulas, George; Nicol, Robert; DuBois, Andrea; Delaney, Mary L.; Kleinman, Ken; Cosimi, Lisa A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Birren, Bruce W.; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization predicts later infection, with both host and pathogen determinants of invasive disease. Methods. This nested case-control study evaluates predictors of MRSA bacteremia in an 8–intensive care unit (ICU) prospective adult cohort from 1 September 2003 through 30 April 2005 with active MRSA surveillance and collection of ICU, post-ICU, and readmission MRSA isolates. We selected MRSA carriers who did (cases) and those who did not (controls) develop MRSA bacteremia. Generating assembled genome sequences, we evaluated 30 MRSA genes potentially associated with virulence and invasion. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed the association of these genes with MRSA bacteremia, controlling for host risk factors. Results. We collected 1578 MRSA isolates from 520 patients. We analyzed host and pathogen factors for 33 cases and 121 controls. Predictors of MRSA bacteremia included a diagnosis of cancer, presence of a central venous catheter, hyperglycemia (glucose level, >200 mg/dL), and infection with a MRSA strain carrying the gene for staphylococcal enterotoxin P (sep). Receipt of an anti-MRSA medication had a significant protective effect. Conclusions. In an analysis controlling for host factors, colonization with MRSA carrying sep increased the risk of MRSA bacteremia. Identification of risk-adjusted genetic determinants of virulence may help to improve prediction of invasive disease and suggest new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24041793

  13. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  14. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  15. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  16. Interaction between Vibrio mimicus and Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Hadi; Valeru, Soni Priya; Sami, Susan Marouf; Saeed, Amir; Raychaudhuri, Saumya; Sandström, Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a Gram-negative bacterium, which causes gastroenteritis and is closely related to Vibrio cholerae. The environmental reservoir of this bacterium is far from defined. Acanthamoeba as well as Vibrio species are found in diverse aquatic environments. The present study was aimed to investigate the ability of A. castellanii to host V. mimicus, the role of bacterial protease on interaction with A. castellanii and to disclose the ability of cysts to protect intracellular V. mimicus. Co-cultivation, viable counts, gentamicin assay, electron microscopy and statistical analysis showed that co-cultivation of wild type and luxO mutant of V. mimicus strains with A. castellanii did not inhibit growth of the amoeba. On the other hand co-cultivation enhanced growth and survival of V. mimicus strains. Vibrio mimicus showed intracellular behaviour because bacteria were found to be localized in the cytoplasm of amoeba trophozoites and remain viable for 14 days. The cysts protected intracellular V. mimicus from high level of gentamicin. The intracellular growth of V. mimicus in A. castellanii suggests a role of A. castellanii as a host for V. mimicus.

  17. Ovarian Heterotopic Pregnancy Clinically Mimicking Endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ONAK KANDEMİR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy is a very uncommon entity with a difficult preoperative diagnosis. In the present study, we presented an ovarian heterotopic pregnancy case, clinically mimicking endometrioma developed in a 33-year-old female following an in vitro fertilization procedure. The importance of clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations in the diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy are emphasized.

  18. An adult intussusception mimicking early appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Chun Tseng; Cheng-Ting Hsiao; Yu-Cheng Hung

    2012-01-01

    Adult intussusception is rare with variable clinical presentation. We reported a case of adult intussusception presenting with symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. The patient presented as an abdominal pain from epigastric area with shifting gradually to RLQ. The atypical presentation of adult intussusception remains a diagnostic challenge to the emergency physician.

  19. Acute dystonia mimicking angioedema of the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Pallesen, Kristine A U; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acute dystonia of the face, jaw and tongue caused by metoclopramide and mimicking angioedema. The patient had attacks for several years before the correct diagnosis was made and we present the first ever published video footage of an attack. This adverse drug reaction is known...

  20. Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality after bacteremia in working-age patients. A danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality.......To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality....

  1. Comparison of the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of patients with Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteremia: a prospective observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Hee; Park, Ki-Ho; Jang, Eun-Young; Lee, Eun Jung; Chong, Yong Pil; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2010-04-01

    We compared the characteristics and outcomes of 172 Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia and 67 Enterobacter aerogenes bacteremia (EAB) cases. Antimicrobial resistance rates to E. cloacae were higher than those to E. aerogenes. However, EAB more frequently presented as septic shock and was associated with poorer outcomes.

  2. Bacteremia in a Long-Term -Care Facility: a Five-Year Prospective Study of 163 Consecutive Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. Muder; C. Brennen; M.M. Wagener (Marilyn); A.M. Geotz

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical features, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. The rate of nosocomial bacteremia increased from 0.20 to 0.36 cases/1,000 patient-days from 1985 to 1989; there was a parallel increas

  3. Distinguishing Complicated from Uncomplicated Bacteremia Caused by Staphylococcus aureus: The Value of "New" and "Old" Serological Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); M.F. Michel; R. Peters (Roel)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAntibody responses to staphylococcal α-toxin, cell wall teichoic acid, and cell wall peptodoglycan were measured in 259 serum samples from 74 consecutive patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. All patients with complicated bacteremia were seropositive in at least one of three te

  4. Toward restrictions on boson stars as black hole mimickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, F S, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-09-22

    The status of boson stars as black hole mimickers is presented among other mimickers. We focus on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. We describe the free parameters that allow a boson star to become a black hole mimicker and present an example of a particular astrophysical case.

  5. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains.

  6. Postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery, with and without prophylactic antibiotic administration: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asi Kanwarjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many a times in clinical periodontology, the decision whether to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics or not , is perplexing.The present study was conducted to compare the bacteremias induced after periodontal flap surgeries with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Materials and Methods: The occurrence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery was studied in 30 patients. On these patients, 30 quadrant wise flap surgeries were carried out without any preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and 30 surgeries carried out after prophylactic administration of amoxycillin preoperatively. A blood sample was taken from each patient at the time of maximum surgical trauma and was cultured for micro-organisms and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: 18 out of 60 blood samples were positive for micro-organisms. There was a significant reduction in post operative bacteremia after amoxycillin prophylaxis (x - 7.96 with P< 0.01 as post operative bacteremia was found in 14 of the non medicated patients as compared to only 4 of the pre medicated patients. The micro-organisms encountered in the study are as follows:- 1 Staphylococcus albus coagulase negative, 2 Klebsiella, 3 Psedomonas aerugenosa, 4 Streptococcus viridans, 5 Alpha hemolytic streptococcus, 6 Neisseria catarrhalis Conclusion: On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the incidence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery is not as high as previously reported. The clinical results show that Amoxicillin is highly effective in reducing postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery and thus in preventing the possible sequelae (Infective Endocarditis and other systemic maladies in susceptible patients. However, cefotaxime and cephalexin may prove to be more effective in preventing the same.

  7. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  8. Bacteremia in previously healthy children in emergency departments: clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, B; Hernandez-Bou, S; Garcia-Garcia, J J; Mintegi, S

    2015-03-01

    A blood culture (BC) is frequently requested in both patients with a suspected occult bacteremia/invasive infection as well as those with certain focal infections. Few data are available on the characteristics of patients in whom a bacteremia is identified in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). A prospective multicenter registry was established by the Spanish Pediatric Emergency Society. Epidemiological data, complementary test results, clinical management, and final outcome were recorded. Data from the first three years of the registry were analyzed. A true bacterial pathogen grew in 932 of 65,169 BCs collected [1.43 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.34-1.51 %], with 711 of them collected in patients without previously known bacteremia risk factors. Among them, 335 (47.1 %) were younger than 1 year old and 467 (65.7 %) had a normal Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT) on admission. Overall, the most frequently isolated bacterial species was Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.3 %; 47.6 % among patients with an altered PAT). The main pathogens were Escherichia coli (40.3 %) and S. agalactiae (35.7 %) among patients younger than 3 months, S. pneumoniae among patients 3-60 months old (40.0 %), and S. aureus (31.9 %) among patients over 60 months of age. Neisseria meningitidis was the leading cause of sepsis in patients older than 3 months. Eight patients died; none of them had a pneumococcal bacteremia and all had abnormal PAT findings on admission. S. pneumoniae is the main cause of bacteremia in patients without bacteremia risk factors who attended Spanish PEDs. Age and general appearance influence the frequency of each bacterial species. General appearance also influences the associated mortality.

  9. [Alcaligenes xylosoxidans bacteremia in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Zeynep Alp; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celik, Nigar; Celkan, Tiraje

    2009-07-01

    Alcaligenes xylosoxidans which is an aerobic, non-fermentative gram-negative bacillus found in aqueous environments and human flora, can lead to opportunistic infections. It causes infections in elderly, immunocompromised patients, patients with chronic disorders or premature infants. In this report, a case of A. xylosoxidans bacteremia that developed in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was presented. Four-years-old male patient under ALL induction therapy was admitted with symptoms of lethargy, headache, somnolence, and fever (39 degrees C). Cerebrospinal fluid, blood, throat and urine cultures were taken from the patient and empirical treatment with sulbactam cefoperazon and amikacin was initiated. Blood cultures in BacT Alert 3D (Bio Merieux, France) revealed the growth of a gram-negative coccobacillus. The agent which was non-fermentative, indol and H2S negative, was identified as A. xylosoxidans by API 20 NE (Bio Merieux, France). Since fever continued under the current antibiotic treatment, the therapy was switched to imipenem (90 mg/kg 3x/day) and the patient's condition improved markedly after 24 hours. Disc diffusion susceptibility testing of the isolate revealed that it was resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, amikacin, netilmicin and gentamicin; susceptible to amoxicillin clavulanate, piperacillin tazobactam, seftazidime, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Following 14 days of imipenem therapy, the patient recovered and discharged from the hospital on routine follow-up. It is important to consider A. xylosoxidans as a possible causative agent particularly in the infections that develop in high risk patients at oncology, dialysis and neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Clinical and Microbiologic Analysis of the Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Heterogeneous Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) phenotype among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) blood isolates can reach 38%. hVISA bacteremia is known to be associated with vancomycin treatment failure, including persistent bacteremia. We conducted this study to evaluate risk factors for 12-week mortality in patients with hVISA bacteremia through a detailed clinical and microbiological analysis of a prospective cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteremia. All isolates were collected on the first day of bacteremia and subjected to population analysis profiling for hVISA detection, genotyping, and PCR analysis for 39 virulence factors. Of 382 patient with MRSA bacteremia, 121 (32%) had hVISA bacteremia. Deceased patients were more likely to have hematologic malignancy (P = 0.033), ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (P = 0.007), and a higher Pitt bacteremia score (P = 0.010) than surviving patients. The sequence type 239 (ST239) clonal type and definitive linezolid treatment were associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.061 and 0.072, respectively), but a high vancomycin MIC (≥2 mg/liter) was not associated with increased mortality (P = 0.368). In a multivariate analysis, ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 6.85) and a high Pitt bacteremia score (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.48) were independent risk factors for mortality. Hematologic malignancy was associated with a trend toward increased mortality (P = 0.094), and ST239 was associated with a trend toward reduced mortality (P = 0.095). Our study suggests that ST239 hVISA is a possible predictor of survival in hVISA bacteremia. PMID:25845875

  11. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  12. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  13. Brevundimonas vesicularis bacteremia: A rare case report in a female infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Bhatawadekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brevundimonas vesicularis has rarely been isolated from clinical specimens. We report here a case of B. vesicularis bacteremia in a female infant who presented with fever, vomiting and altered sensorium. USG abdomen showed mild hepatomegaly, moderate ascitis with bilateral mild basal pleural effusion. Blood culture was processed by BACTEC BD. Isolate was identified as B. vesicularis, by API ID 32 GN automated system. We have come across only one report of neonatal sepsis caused by B. vesicularis from India. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the rare case reports of B. vesicularis bacteremia in a female infant.

  14. A case of disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Baldeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia is currently one of the infections with the highest mortality in hospitals [1]. Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are gram-negative bacteria and both represent opportunistic pathogens. In certain cases, the management can be challenging since these organisms can be highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Clinical illnesses associated with Acinetobacter include pneumonia, meningitis, peritonitis, endocarditis and infections of the urinary tract and skin [1]. Acinetobacter bacteremia represents a serious and ever increasing problem because of the high associated morbidity and mortality.

  15. Sepsis associated with Lactobacillus bacteremia in a patient with ischemic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishikesh S Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species is a known commensal of the mouth, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tract. However, its isolation on blood cultures is often overlooked and attributed to bench contamination. We present a case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent male who initially presented with altered mental status, but developed sepsis from Lactobacillus bacteremia during his hospital course, while on mechanical ventilation. He was found to have ischemic colitis on colonoscopy. His condition improved with antibiotics and supportive management. Using this example of ischemic colitis, we stress that in the right clinical setting, Lactobacillus bacteremia is a harbinger for a serious underlying pathology and should not be ignored.

  16. Megalocytic interstitial nephritis following acute pyelonephritis with Escherichia coli bacteremia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Yoo, Kwai Han; Kim, In Young; Lee, Seulkee; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Kwon, Ghee Young

    2015-01-01

    Megalocytic interstitial nephritis is a rare form of kidney disease caused by chronic inflammation. We report a case of megalocytic interstitial nephritis occurring in a 45-yrold woman who presented with oliguric acute kidney injury and acute pyelonephritis accompanied by Escherichia coli bacteremia. Her renal function was not recovered despite adequate duration of susceptible antibiotic treatment, accompanied by negative conversion of bacteremia and bacteriuria. Kidney biopsy revealed an infiltration of numerous histiocytes without Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. The patient's renal function was markedly improved after short-term treatment with high-dose steroid.

  17. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  18. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  19. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  20. Spherical Boson Stars as Black Hole mimickers

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, F S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084023

    2010-01-01

    We present spherically symmetric boson stars as black hole mimickers based on the power spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. The free parameters of the boson star are the mass of the boson and the fourth order self-interaction coefficient in the scalar field potential. We show that even if the mass of the boson is the only free parameter it is possible to find a configuration that mimics the power spectrum of the disk due to a black hole of the same mass. We also show that for each value of the self-interaction a single boson star configuration can mimic a black hole at very different astrophysical scales in terms of the mass of the object and the accretion rate. In order to show that it is possible to distinguish one of our mimickers from a black hole we also study the deflection of light.

  1. Cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Jun; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Shimoo, Kazutoshi; Katsume, Asako; Mani, Hiroki; Kobara, Miyuki; Shirayama, Takeshi; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    A 59-year-old woman with skin sarcoidosis was admitted to hospital for assessment of complete atrioventricular block. Cross-sectional echocardiography showed that the apical free wall of the right ventricle was thin and dyskinetic with dilation of the right ventricle. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging revealed a normal distribution. Both gallium-67 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy revealed no abnormal uptake in the myocardium. Right ventriculography showed chamber dilation and dyskinesis of the apical free wall, whereas left ventriculography showed normokinesis, mimicking right ventricular dysplasia. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed on examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen from the right ventricle. A permanent pacemaker was implanted to manage the complete atrioventricular block. After steroid treatment, electrocardiography showed first-degree atrioventricular block and echocardiography revealed an improvement in the right ventricular chamber dilation. Reports of cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia are extremely rare and as this case shows, right ventricular involvement may be one of its manifestations.

  2. [Morgagni hernia mimicking intrathoracic lipomatous tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos Silva; Bernardo, João; Eugénio, Luís; Antunes, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is the rarest type of diaphragmatic hernia, accounting for 2% of all cases. It consists in the thoracic protrusion of fat and/or abdominal viscera through a congenital defect in a retro or parasternal position. The clinical importance of this pathological entity is associated with the fact that it can be asymptomatic, mimicking other diseases, such as a large intrathoracic lipoma, as it happened in the case presented here. Incorrect diagnosis can cause catastrophic complications during surgery.

  3. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2005-04-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  4. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ekrem; Olgar, Şeref; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Garipardıç, Mesut; Karabiber, Hamza

    2011-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is ...

  5. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Güler; Şeref Olgar; Mehmet Davutoğlu; Mesut Garipardıç; Hamza Karabiber

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is...

  6. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozek Erdinc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an 18 year old woman with an intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma located in the thoracic region. The patient was operated via thoracic laminoplasty and tumor was totally resected. On the follow-up examination the magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the total excision of the tumor. Here we describe a case of intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord as a complication of tuberculosis meningitis in a previously healthy young female.

  7. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75% was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n=42, cross-resistance to β-lactams (n=20 and multiple resistance (n=13. Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n=11, penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1, penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1, and ampicillin (n = 1. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n=86 was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  8. Towards a phylogeny of the genus Vibrio based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, M; Lane, D; Stackebrandt, E

    1992-01-01

    The inter- and intrageneric relationships of the genus Vibrio were investigated by performing a comparative analysis of the 16S rRNAs of 10 species, including four pathogenic representatives. The results of immunological and 5S rRNA studies were confirmed in that the genus is a neighboring taxon of the family Enterobacteriaceae. With regard to the intrageneric structure, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio proteolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus form the core of the genus, while Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, Vibrio diazotrophicus, and Vibrio hollisae are placed on the outskirts of the genus. Variable regions around positions 80, 180, and 450 could be used as target sites for genus- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes and polymerase chain reaction primers to be used in molecular identification.

  9. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K Y; Ma, L; Wong, S S; Ng, W F

    1993-01-01

    A patient who succumbed to fulminant necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela after injury by a rabbitfish is described. Despite the absence of any known underlying illness, he did not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and radical surgical intervention. This represents the first documented case of necrotizing fasciitis due to this organism, and is also the first reported case in Southeast Asia inflicted by rabbitfish.

  10. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-01-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V....

  11. Role of Ectoine in Vibrio cholerae Osmoadaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Kierek, Katharine; Paula I Watnick

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is both an intestinal pathogen and a microbe in the estuarine community. To persist in the estuarine environment, V. cholerae must adjust to changes in ionic composition and osmolarity. These changes in the aquatic environment have been correlated with cholera epidemics. In this work, we study the response of V. cholerae to increases in environmental osmolarity. Optimal growth of V. cholerae in minimal medium requires supplementation with 200 mM NaCl and KCl. However, when the...

  12. Magnitude of enterococcal bacteremia in trauma patients admitted for intensive trauma care: A tertiary care experience from South Asian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI and bacteremias due to Enterococcus spp. are increasing worldwide with the current need to understand its causes among hospitalized trauma patients. Hence, the study was conducted. Methodology: A 3-year retrospective laboratory cum clinical based study was performed at a level I trauma center in India. Patients with health care associated enterococcal bacteremia were identified using the hospital database, their episodes of BSI/bacteremia calculated and their clinical records and treatment were noted. Results: A total of 104 nonrepetitive Enterococcus spp. was isolated of which Enterococcus faecium was the most common (52%. High-level resistance to gentamicin high-level aminoglycoside resistance was seen in all the Enterococcus spp. causing bacteremia, whereas a low resistance to vancomycin and teichoplanin was observed. Overall mortality was more in patients infected with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (5/11, 46% compared to those with vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus (9/93, 10%; though no significant association of mortality with Enterococcus spp. bacteremia ( P > 0.05 was seen. The rate of bacteremia due to Enterococcus spp. was 25.4 episodes/1,000 admissions (104/4,094 during the study period. Conclusion: Enterococcal bacteremia is much prevalent in trauma care facilities. Here, a microbiologist can act as a sentinel and help in preventing such infections.

  13. Red blood cell distribution width is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Hye-Won; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Ahn, Jin Young; Kim, Sun Bean; Jeong, Su Jin; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Jun Yong

    2012-08-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is known to be a predictor of severe morbidity and mortality in some chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure. However, to our knowledge, little is known about RDW as a predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia, a major nosocomial cause of intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, and primary bacteremia. Therefore, we investigated whether RDW is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, and outcomes of 161 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia from November 2010 to March 2011 diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. The main outcome measure was 28-day all-cause mortality. The 28-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the increased RDW group compared with the normal RDW group (P blood cell distribution width at the onset of bacteremia was an independent predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Also, 72-h RDW could be a predictor for all-cause mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.

  14. [Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Crohn's disease with multiple ileal stricture on maintenance azathioprine therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizawa, Kazuoki; Nagata, Yuko; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nakamori, Mari; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of 36-year-old Japanese man with Crohn's disease, complicated by Bacillus cereus bacteremia on maintenance azathioprine therapy. Although anti-microbial agents were ineffective, the patient became well immediately after a partial resection of the ileum with multiple severe stenosis.

  15. Bacillus cereus meningitis and bacteremia associated with an Ommaya reservoir in a patient with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P

    1984-07-01

    After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients.

  16. Nonspecific Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Bacteremia in a Patient with Subclinical Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ahmed Kichloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a pleomorphic gram-positive bacillus, is found widely in nature or as a commensal pathogen. It infects domestic animals such as swine, which may be the major reservoir of the organism. E. rhusiopathiae is primarily an occupational illness; 89% of the cases are linked to high-risk epidemiological situations. Humans that are infected by this bacillus typically present with one or a combination of the following symptoms: localized skin lesion (erysipeloid, diffuse cutaneous eruptions with systemic symptoms, or bacteremia, which is often followed by endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia that was present without severe clinical illness such as endocarditis, arthritis, or skin lesions. The patient was a 64-year-old male with a complicated past medical history including subclinical alcoholic liver disease. Penicillin-G therapy completely resolved the patients bacteremia. The case presented has exceptional clinical merit due to 2 key factors: the patient does not fit the occupational demographic typically affected by this bacterium, and the patient presented with subclinical septicemia, which has a high correlation with fatal endocarditis. This case brings a new prospective to E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia.

  17. Hemolytic uremic syndrome due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia after a dog bite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobe, TJM; Franssen, CFM; Zijlstra, JG; de Jong, PE; Stegeman, CA

    1999-01-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is known to have several causes, including infectious diseases, drugs, pregnancy, and malignant disease. We report a patient who developed acute renal failure attributable to HUS in the course of Capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteremia. Acute tubular necrosis as well

  18. Catheter-Related Bacteremia Due to Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaglia, G.; Carretto, E.; Barbarini, D.; Moras, L.; Scalone, S.; Marone, P.; De Paoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the first case of a catheter-related recurrent bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, in a 51-year-old woman with ovarian cancer. This unusual pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases. PMID:11773142

  19. Evaluating antibiotic stewardship programs in patients with bacteremia using administrative data: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas Bredtoft; Søgaard, Mette; Andreasen, Viggo;

    2015-01-01

    treatment. We categorized 2,008 adult patients diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2012 according to whether they received cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (old regimen) or not (new regimen). We used administrative data to extract individual level data on mortality, readmission, and appropriateness...

  20. Course and Outcome of Bacteremia Due to Staphylococcus Aureus: Evaluation of Different Clinical Case Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lautenschlager; C. Herzog; W. Zimmerli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn a retrospective survey of patients hospitalized in the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, the course and outcome of 281 cases of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus over a 7-year period were analyzed. The main purpose was to evaluate different case definitions. In 78%

  1. Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea, a pink bacterium associated with bacteremia: the first case in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srifuengfung, Somporn; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Pumprueg, Satchana; Tribuddharat, Chanwit

    2007-09-01

    Roseomonas is a pink-pigmented, non-fermentative, gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium. Human infections caused by Roseomonas are very rare. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with Roseomonas gilardii subsp rosea in Thailand. The bacterium was isolated from blood culture and identified by cellular morphology, characteristics of colonies on blood agar, extensive biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.

  2. Meningitis and Bacteremia Due to Neisseria cinerea following a Percutaneous Rhizotomy of the Trigeminal Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kietzell, M; Richter, H; Bruderer, T; Goldenberger, D; Emonet, S; Strahm, C

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.

  3. Meningitis and Bacteremia Due to Neisseria cinerea following a Percutaneous Rhizotomy of the Trigeminal Ganglion

    OpenAIRE

    von Kietzell, M.; Richter, H.; Bruderer, T.; Goldenberger, D.; Emonet, S; Strahm, C.

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.

  4. First clinical description of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia in a patient with dental abscess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordjian, Hayarpi H; Schultz, Joyce D J H; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia originating from a dental abscess and imitating necrotizing fasciitis in a previously healthy adult. The isolates were easily identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The clinical course, surgical and antibiotic treatment as well as the successful outcome...

  5. Incidence of bacteremia after chewing, tooth brushing and scaling in individuals with periodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Larsen, Tove; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS...

  6. Incidence of bacteremia after chewing, tooth brushing and scaling in individuals with periodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, F.L.; Kilian, Mogens; Holmstrup, P.

    2006-01-01

    higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. Practical implications...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: comparison of two periods and a predictive model of mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni de Oliveira Conterno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen causing bacteremia, primarily affecting hospitalized patients. We studied the epidemiology of S. aureus bacteremia, comparing two periods (early and mid 1990s and developed a predictive model of mortality. A nested case-control was done. All 251 patients over 14 years old with positive blood cultures for S. aureus were selected. MRSA (methicillin resistant S. aureus was isolated in 63% of the cases. When comparing the two periods MRSA community-acquired bacteremia increased from 4% to 16% (p=0.01. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the two periods (39% and 33%, p=0.40. Intravascular catheters provoked 24% of the cases of bacteremia and were associated with the lowest rate of mortality. In a logistic regression analysis, three variables were associated with death: septic shock, source of bacteraemia and resistance to methicillin. The probability of dying among patients with MRSA and those with methicillin sensitive S. aureus bacteraemia ranged from 10% to 90% and from 4% to 76%, respectively, depending on the source of the bacteraemia and the occurrence of septic shock. The MRSA found in Brazil may be a particularly virulent strain.

  8. Does the empiric use of vancomycin in pediatrics increase the risk for Gram-negative bacteremia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuno, SPMU; Heesen, GJM; Arends, JP; Kimpen, JLL; van Houten, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Background, Gram-negative bacteremia in children, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, may in part be induced by intensive treatment procedures and nonspecific use of antibiotics. Our primary objective was to study the causal relationship between the use of vancomycin and Gram-negative bacterem

  9. Use of Glucocorticoids and Risk of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Kaasch, Achim J; Søgaard, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of systemic glucocorticoids is a risk factor for community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used population-based medical registries in Northern Denmark to conduct a case-control study including all adults...

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.

  11. Changing epidemiology of pediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Denmark from 1971 through 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marianne Sjølin; Espersen, Frank; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is known to be a leading cause of bacteremia in childhood, and is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. To determine developments in incidence and mortality rates, as well as risk factors associated with outcome, we analyzed data from 1971...

  12. Risk and prognosis of bacteremia and fungemia among first-time kidney transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Dalgaard, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Povlsen, Johan Vestergaard;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are common complications in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Little is known about incidence rates of bacteremia and fungemia (BAF) in KTRs. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we used medical and administrative registries to identify episodes of BAF...

  13. Predicting abscesses in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: microorganisms matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Lee, Ching-Chi; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae is a leading pathogen of community-onset bacteremia. This study aims to establish a predictive scoring algorithm to identify adults with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia who are at risk for abscesses. Of the total 1262 adults, 152 (12.0%) with abscess occurrence were noted. The 6 risk factors significantly associated with abscess occurrence-liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, thrombocytopenia and high C-reactive protein (>100 mg/L) at bacteremic onset, delayed defervescence, and bacteremia-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae-were each assigned +1 point to form the scoring algorithm. In contrast, the elderly, fatal comorbidity (McCabe classification), and bacteremia-causing Escherichia coli were each assigned -1 point, owing to their negative associations with abscess occurrence. Using the proposed scoring algorithm, a cut-off value of +1 yielded a high sensitivity (85.5%) and an acceptable specificity (60.4%). Although the proposed predictive model needs further validation, this simple scoring algorithm may be useful for the early identification of abscesses by clinicians.

  14. Clinical importance and cost of bacteremia caused by nosocomial multi drug resistant acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Arslan Gulen

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the occurrence of MDR A.baumannii bacteremia was related with the usage of the wide spectrum antibiotics, and mortality rates were increased in patients that high SAPS II scores, long term hospitalization. Infection control procedures and limited antibiotic usage are very important for prevent nosocomial infections.

  15. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Yun-Liang Cui; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis ofbacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia.The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis ofbacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed.Patients (n =241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels.The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors.Patients' BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups.Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed.The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia.The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups.The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent.Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia.Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China.And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin

  16. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of hemolysins produced by Vibrio hollisae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoh, M; Honda, T.; Miwatani, T; Tsunasawa, S; Sakiyama, F

    1989-01-01

    Vibrio hollisae produces a hemolysin (Vh-rTDH) that is related to the thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp-TDH). Although both hemolysins are essentially similar biologically and immunologically, they differ markedly in heat stability; Vp-TDH is heat stable, whereas Vh-rTDH is heat labile. To elucidate the relationships between their characteristics and molecular structures, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of Vh-rTDH and compared it with that of Vp-TDH. Vh-rTDH con...

  17. Effects of Intertidal Harvest Practices on Levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria in Oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, T. P.; Johnson, L. W.; Porso, R.; Friedman, B.; Curtis, M.; Wesighan, P.; Schuster, R.; Bowers, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient air conditions, such as during intertidal exposure. In this study, levels of total and pathogenic (tdh+ and/or trh+) V. parahaemolyticus and total V. vulnificus were determined in oysters collected from two study locations where intertidal harvest practices are common. Samples were collected directly off intertidal flats, after exposure (ambient air [Washington State] or refrigerated [New Jersey]), and after reimmersion by natural tidal cycles. Samples were processed using a most-probable-number (MPN) real-time PCR method for total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. In Washington State, the mean levels of V. parahaemolyticus increased 1.38 log MPN/g following intertidal exposure and dropped 1.41 log MPN/g after reimmersion for 1 day, but the levels were dependent upon the container type utilized. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels followed a similar trend. However, V. vulnificus levels increased 0.10 log MPN/g during intertidal exposure in Washington but decreased by >1 log MPN/g after reimmersion. In New Jersey, initial levels of all vibrios studied were not significantly altered during the refrigerated sorting and containerizing process. However, there was an increase in levels after the first day of reimmersion by 0.79, 0.72, 0.92, and 0.71 log MPN/g for total, tdh+ and trh+ V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. The levels of all targets decreased to those similar to background after a second day of reimmersion. These data indicate that the intertidal harvest and handling practices for oysters that were studied in Washington and New Jersey do not increase the risk of illness from V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. IMPORTANCE Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood-associated infectious morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vibrio spp. can grow rapidly in shellfish

  18. Cost Attributable to Nosocomial Bacteremia. Analysis According to Microorganism and Antimicrobial Sensitivity in a University Hospital in Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Aim To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score) and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive. Results A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733). Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859). Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210). Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency. Conclusions Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve

  19. National Automated Surveillance of Hospital-Acquired Bacteremia in Denmark Using a Computer Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, Jens; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kristensen, Brian; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Engberg, Jørgen H; Møller, Jens K; Østergaard, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre

    2017-03-09

    BACKGROUND In 2015, Denmark launched an automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, the Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA). OBJECTIVE To describe the algorithm used in HAIBA, to determine its concordance with point prevalence surveys (PPSs), and to present trends for hospital-acquired bacteremia SETTING Private and public hospitals in Denmark METHODS A hospital-acquired bacteremia case was defined as at least 1 positive blood culture with at least 1 pathogen (bacterium or fungus) taken between 48 hours after admission and 48 hours after discharge, using the Danish Microbiology Database and the Danish National Patient Registry. PPSs performed in 2012 and 2013 were used for comparison. RESULTS National trends showed an increase in HA bacteremia cases between 2010 and 2014. Incidence was higher for men than women (9.6 vs 5.4 per 10,000 risk days) and was highest for those aged 61-80 years (9.5 per 10,000 risk days). The median daily prevalence was 3.1% (range, 2.1%-4.7%). Regional incidence varied from 6.1 to 8.1 per 10,000 risk days. The microorganisms identified were typical for HA bacteremia. Comparison of HAIBA with PPS showed a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 99%. HAIBA was less sensitive for patients in hematology departments and intensive care units. Excluding these departments improved the sensitivity of HAIBA to 44%. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated sensitivity of HAIBA compared with PPS is low, a PPS is not a gold standard. Given the many advantages of automated surveillance, HAIBA allows monitoring of HA bacteremia across the healthcare system, supports prioritizing preventive measures, and holds promise for evaluating interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-8.

  20. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorena Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.

  1. Mar Piccolo of Taranto: Vibrio biodiversity in ecotoxicology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narracci, M; Acquaviva, M I; Cavallo, R A

    2014-02-01

    Microorganisms play an indispensable role in the ecological functioning of marine environment. Some species are sensitive while others are insensitive for a specific pollutant. The aim of this work is a preliminary study of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of cultivable vibrios in sediments and water samples characterized by different toxicity levels. For 1 year, in three suitably selected sampling stations of Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy), we have evaluated the toxicity level by Microtox® system, vibrios, total, and fecal coliform densities. The results of the Microtox® tests showed sediments characterized by an elevated level of toxicity, while the interstitial water of the same sites always showed biostimulatory phenomenon. The quantitative results show that vibrios and coliforms are more abundant in water than in sediment samples. The most often isolated strains were: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mediterranei, Vibrio metschinkovii, and Vibrio splendidus II. This work is the first example of study on the distribution of Vibrio species related to toxicity evaluation conducted by the Microtox® bioassay. The results show the different distribution of Vibrionaceae in two environmental matrices analyzed and characterized by different levels of toxicity.

  2. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (10e7 cfu/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 10e2 – 10e4...

  3. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Banerjee; Mei Chen Ooi; Mohamed Shariff; Helena Khatoon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  4. [THE IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF BACTERIOPHAGES OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC VIBRIO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevskaia, N E; Kudriakova, T A; Makedonova, L D; Kachkina, G V

    2015-04-01

    The issue of identification and differentiation of large group of bacteriophages of human pathogenic vibrio is still unresolved. In research and practical applied purposes it is important to consider characteristics of bacteriophages for establishing similarity and differences between them. The actual study was carried out to analyze specimens of DNA-containing bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio. The overwhelming majority of them characterized by complicated type of symmetry--phages with double-helical DNA and also phages with mono-helical DNA structure discovered recently in vibrio. For the first time, the general framework of identification and differentiation of bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio was developed. This achievement increases possibility to establish species assignment of phages and to compare with phages registered in the database. "The collection of bacteriophages and test-strains of human pathogenic vibrio" (No2010620549 of 24.09.210).

  5. Pertinence of indicator organisms and sampling variables to Vibrio concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E G; Huyn, J H; LaRock, P A

    1994-10-01

    Vibrio-indicator relationships and effects of day, depth, and tidal levels on the density of vibrios enumerated by the most probable number technique were investigated. Counts of vibrios taken monthly from Apalachicola Bay, Fla., were either negatively correlated or showed no correlation with counts of indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, enterococci, fecal coliforms, and total coliforms). Water samples collected on two days from the surface and bottom over a complete tidal cycle on each day were analyzed for differences in vibrio concentrations. Concentrations of vibrios in samples taken on different days, in those taken at different depths, and in those taken at different tidal levels were significantly different, indicating that these factors need to be taken into account in health-related studies.

  6. [Molecular genetic makers for Vibrio parahaemolyticus--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haihong; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang

    2015-01-04

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen, of which the 03:K6 serotype caused many outbreaks in different countries since 1996. Based on the 10 years data (1992-2001) from China, gastroenteritis caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus accounted for 31.1% of foodborne disease outbreaks that were resulted from microorganisms. Most environmental strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are non-pathogenic strains. However, clinical strains can producethermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin, and other virulence factors. Here we reviewed three commonly used molecular markers for Vibrio parahaemolyticus, including species-specific genes, the virulence genes and pandemic group-specific genes, so that to provide references for the rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the identification of its pathogenic factor.

  7. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from 110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens.

  8. Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Stockley, Louise; Rangdale, Rachel; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found naturally in marine and estuarine waters, and are a leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial illness. These pathogens are commonly reported in the USA and in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan; however, there is growing concern that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus may represent an important and increasing clinical problem in Europe. Several factors underlie the need for a greater understanding of these non-cholera vibrios within a European context. First, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus infections are increasing, and tend to follow regional climatic trends, with outbreaks typically following episodes of unusually warm weather. Such findings are especially alarming given current predictions regarding warming of marine waters as a result of global climatic change. Second, a myriad of epidemiological factors may greatly increase the incidence as well as clinical burden of these pathogens - including increasing global consumption and trade of seafood produce coupled to an increase in the number of susceptible individuals consuming seafood produce. Finally, there is currently a lack of detailed surveillance information regarding non-cholerae Vibrio infections in Europe, as these pathogens are not notifiable in many countries, which probably masks the true clinical burden of many human infections. This review will present a pertinent overview of both the environmental occurrence and clinical impact of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in Europe.

  9. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia mimicking hydropneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Wadhwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia (TDH is generally a consequence of thoraco-abdominal trauma. Anaesthetic problems arise due to herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity causing diaphragmatic dysfunction, lung collapse, mediastinal shift and haemodynamic instability. Diagnosis depends on history, clinical signs and radiological investigations. Sometimes, it may be misdiagnosed as hydropneumothorax due to the presence of air and fluid in the viscera lying in the pleural cavity. We report a case of TDH mimicking hydropneumothorax on radiological investigations and subsequent surgical management, which led to serious complications.

  10. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  11. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease Mimicking Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin (Ig G4-related disease (also known as ‘IgG4-related sclerosing disease’, ‘IgG4-related systemic disease’ or ‘hyper-IgG4-disease’ is a recently recognized systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with IgG4-positive plasma cells in tissue lesions. IgG4-related disease was initially described as autoimmune pancreatitis, but it is now known to affect virtually any organ. The authors describe a patient presenting with multi-organ manifestations, including airway inflammation mimicking asthma, pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates, intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, submandibular gland swelling and a kidney mass.

  12. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  13. Brucellosis in spondyloarthritis mimicking an exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y; Eser, F; Erten, S; Yilmaz, O; Yildirim, P

    2014-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect the axial skeleton, entheses and peripheral joints and may have extraarticular manifestations such as uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease, endemic in Middle East, Latin America, and Mediterranean countries, which may present manifestations that resemble other diseases posing serious problems of differential diagnosis. Some hallmarks of Brucellosis may mimic a spondyloarthritis flare. In this paper, authors present a clinical case of brucellosis occurring in a patient with spondyloarthritis. Clinical symptoms initially mimicked exacerbation of spondyloarthritis.

  14. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval İzdeş

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to discuss the approach to distinguish an acute coronary syndrome from myopericarditis. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:68-70

  15. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  16. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Two Independent Cases of Bacteremia Display Increased Bacterial Fitness and Novel Immune Evasion Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, R L; Haigh, R. D.; Pascoe, B.; Sheppard, S.K.; Price, F.; Jenkins, D.; Rajakumar, K; Morrissey, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent in...

  17. Mimicked Web Page Detection over Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narasimha Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is process of steeling valuable information such as ATM pins, Credit card details over internet. Where the attacker creates mimicked web pages from the legitimate web pages to fool users. In this paper, we propose an effective anti-phishing solution, by combining image based visual similarity based approach to detect plagiarized web pages. We used effective algorithms for our detection mechanism, speeded up Robust Features (SURF algorithm in order to generate signature based on extracting stable key points from the screen shot of the web page. When a legitimate web page is registered with our system, this algorithm applied on that web page in order to generate signatures, and these signatures are stored in the database for our trained system. When there is a suspected web page, this algorithm is applied to generate both the signatures of the suspected page and is verified against our database of corresponding legitimate web pages. Our results verified that our proposed system is very effective to detect the mimicked web pages with minimal false positives

  18. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum as solidif......Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... as solidifying agents, and enumerated bacteria from seawater and algal exudates. We tested if culturability could be influenced by addition of quorum sensing signals (AHLs). All plates were incubated at 15°C. Bacterial counts (CFU/g) from algal exudates from brown algae were highest on media containing algal...... polymers. In general, bacteria isolated from algal exudates preferred more rich media than bacteria isolated from seawater. Overall, culturability ranged from 0.01 to 0.8% as compared to total cell count. Substitution of agar with gellan gum increased the culturability of seawater bacteria approximately...

  19. Vibrio marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2011-03-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated WH134(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected at a depth of 10 m near the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), 3 ° 59.970' N 12 ° 0.157' E, PR China. Cells of strain WH134(T) were slightly curved rods, motile by means of a polar flagellum and positive for poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation. The strain was able to grow in 1-6 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 5-10 and 16-37 °C but not at 4 or 40 °C. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 C₁₆:₁ω7c and/or iso-C₁₅:₀ 2-OH, C₁₆:₀, C₁₈:₁ω7c, C₁₈:₀ and C₁₄:₀. The DNA G+C content was 42.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, topA, recA, ftsZ, mreB, gapA and rpoA gene sequences revealed that strain WH134(T) belongs to the genus Vibrio and showed gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 75.7, 74.6, 83.6, 78.9, 82.9, 86.0 and 89.4  % , respectively, to Vibrio rumoiensis S-1(T). The possession of a flagellum, activity of arginine dihydrolase and lysine decarboxylase and inability to utilize citrate, however, differentiated strain WH134(T) from V. rumoiensis DSM 19141(T). On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, strain WH134(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WH134(T) (=CGMCC 1.8994(T) =LMG 25284(T) =DSM 23086(T)).

  20. Ecological study of bacteriophages of Vibrio natriegens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary, A.

    1978-03-01

    Effects of temperature and anaerobic conditions on the replication of two bacteriophages, nt-1 and nt-6, of the estuarine bacterium Vibrio natriegens were studied. Reduction in temperature resulted in longer latent periods and reduced burst sizes for both phages. Replication under anaerobic conditions resulted in longer latent periods; however, phage nt-6 had a reduced burst size, whereas phage nt-1 had an increased burst size, resulting in a rate of phage production nearly equal to that observed under aerobic conditions. Therefore the distribution of the phages in marsh areas could be influenced by temperature and anaerobiosis.

  1. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Shelley M; Mey, Alexandra R; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats.

  2. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria.

  3. Correlation of American Burn Association Sepsis Criteria With the Presence of Bacteremia in Burned Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    documentation by the physi- cians and nurses who took care of the patients. There was also no clear guidance on ventilator modes such as HFPV and how their...Presence of Bacteremia in Burned Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit Brian K. Hogan, MD,*†‡ Steven E. Wolf, MD,*‡§ Duane R. Hospenthal, MD...criteria’s correlation with bacteremia because bacteremia is not associated with inherent issues of diagnosis as occurs with pneumonia or soft tissue

  4. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia: Prediction of survival by soluble CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; K. Moestrup, Søren; Wejse, Christian

    2006-01-01

    with pneumococcal bacteremia. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Five university hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 133 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (positive blood culture) and 133 age- and gender-matched controls. INTERVENTIONS: Samples were collected for biochemical......OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... were observed in patients who needed intensive care (hemodialysis, p = .0011; hypotension, p = .0014; mechanical ventilation, p = .0019). Significantly lower levels of sCD163, ferritin, transcobalamin, and suPAR (but not C-reactive protein) were measured in patients > or =75 yrs. In patients

  5. Roseomonas bacteremia in a recipient of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, K A; AlHashmi, H; Abdalhamid, B; AlSelwi, W; AlSayegh, M; Alzayed, A; Alshibani, Z; AlGarni, A; Al-Ghanem, A; Hassan, H; AlSagheir, A

    2013-08-01

    Roseomonas are pink-pigmented, oxidative, slowly growing, nonfermentative, gram-negative coccobacilli whose identification may require extensive biochemical testing and molecular profiling. Roseomonas infections vary in severity and clinical presentation, and they predominantly occur in immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. The organism is generally susceptible to carbapenems and aminoglycosides, but resistant to most of the cephalosporins and broad-spectrum penicillins. Reported here is a patient with lymphoblastic lymphoma who developed Roseomonas mucosa bacteremia after receiving her hematopoietic stem cell allograft. The bacteremic episode was successfully treated with imipenem and amikacin in addition to removal of the central venous catheter. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Roseomonas bacteremia in a stem cell transplantation recipient.

  6. [Bacteremia due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a febrile neutropenic pediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, H; Mastroianni, A; Casimir, L

    2007-01-01

    The presence of Granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas Abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. The aim of this study is to describe a case of A.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 degrees C) neutropenic (200 GB/mm3) boy. A.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples. Although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as the possible cause of fever, A. defectiva was considered a significant finding because this species is not part of the commensal skin flora. This case suggests that both A. defectiva and Granulicatella spp. should be regarded as possible causes of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Complication of Salmonella Bacteremia in a Case of Treated Fungal Endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is to report a case of bacteremia caused by Salmonella typhi in a treated unilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in an 18-year-old male from one of the South Asian countries. Microbiological and molecular investigations were carried out on the eviscerated material and routine blood culture was carried out. Direct examination of eviscerated material revealed the presence of fungal filaments. However, Salmonella typhi was isolated from both specimens, which was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16SrRNA gene, sequencing, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA showed that they belonged to the same clone. The presence of Salmonella bacteremia in a treated unilateral fungal endophthalmitis, among young adult patients is rare and systemic symptoms should be investigated.

  8. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miller

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0. Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12% yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was 16%, specificity 88%, and positive predictive value 13%. There was no statistically significant difference in performance of the test among patients who had fever greater than 39°C and/or shock. The low sensitivity and specificity of the test makes it unsuitable as a means of rapid screening for adults with suspected bacteremia.

  9. Chromosome-specific families in Vibrio genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eLukjancenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown. Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different `Molecular Function` GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many 'housekeeping systems' encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising.

  10. Neurological complications after neonatal bacteremia: the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ming Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonates with bacteremia are at risk of neurologic complications. Relevant information warrants further elucidation. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of neonates with bacteremia-related neurologic complications (BNCs in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. A systemic chart review was performed conducted to identify clinical characteristics and outcomes. A cohort of related conditions was constructed as the control group. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for BNC. RESULTS: Of 1037 bacteremia episodes, 36 (3.5% had BNCs. Twenty-four cases of BNCs were related to meningitis, five were presumed meningitis, and seven occurred after septic shock. The most common causative pathogens were Group B streptococcus (41.7% and E. coli (16.7%. The major BNCs consisted of seizures (28, hydrocephalus (20, encephalomalacia (11, cerebral infarction (7, subdural empyema (6, ventriculitis (8, and abscess (4. Eight (22.8% neonates died and six (16.7% were discharged in critical condition when the family withdrew life-sustaining treatment. Among the 22 survivors, eight had neurologic sequelae upon discharge. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, neonates with meningitis caused by Group B streptococcus (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 8.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.20-36.08; p = 0.002 and combined meningitis and septic shock (OR, 5.94; 95% CI: 1.53-23.15; p = 0.010 were independently associated with BNCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates with bacteremia-related neurologic complications are associated with adverse outcomes or sequelae. Better strategies aimed at early detection and reducing the emergence of neurologic complications and aggressive treatment of Group B streptococcus sepsis are needed in neonates with meningitis and septic shock.

  11. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users

    OpenAIRE

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Linda MN Hoang; Romney, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A...

  12. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Deniz Aygun; Fatih Aygun; Halit Cam

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case ...

  13. Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Bacteremia Complicating Pregnancy in the Third Trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krunal; Gittens-Williams, Lisa; Apuzzio, Joseph J.; Martimucci, Kristina; Williams, Shauna F.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28203469

  14. Mortality attributable to carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Xiao-Li; Huang, Ai-Wei; Liu, Su-Ling; Liu, Wei-Jiang; Zhang, Ni; Lu, Xu-Zai

    2016-01-01

    Whether carbapenem resistance is associated with mortality in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia is controversial. To address this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis based on cohort studies. We searched PubMed and Embase databases to identify articles (up to April 2015). The DerSimonian and Laird random-effect model was used to generate a summary estimate of effect. Associations were evaluated in subgroups based on different patient characteristics and study quality criteria. Seven studies with a total of 1613 patients were finally included, of which 1 study had a prospective design, and the other 6 were retrospective. Our meta-analysis showed patients with carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia were at a higher risk of death compared with those with carbapenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections (pooled odds ratio (OR) from three studies reporting adjusted ORs: 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60–5.89; pooled OR from 4 studies only reporting crude ORs: 1.46, 95% CI, 1.10–1.94). The results were robust across a number of stratified analyses and a sensitivity analysis. We also calculated that 8%–18.4% of deaths were attributable to carbapenem resistance in four studies assessing the outcome with 30-day mortality, and these were 3% and 14.6%, respectively, in two studies using 7-day mortality or mortality during bacteremia as an outcome of interest. Carbapenem resistance had a deleterious impact on the mortality of P. aeruginosa bacteremia; however, the results should be interpreted cautiously because only three studies reporting adjusted ORs were included. More large-scale, well-designed prospective cohorts, as well as mechanistic studies, are urgently needed in the future. PMID:27004762

  15. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL)-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases) and non-ESBL (30 cases) RESULTS: Risk factors associated ...

  16. Infections in hemodialysis: a concise review - Part 1: bacteremia and respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are particularly predisposed to infections. It seems that the HD procedure per se as well as disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity significantly contribute to this susceptibility. Infections are the major cause of morbidity and the second cause of death following cardiovascular events in HD patients. Episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia account for the majority of severe infections in this population. In addition to these bacterial infections another com...

  17. Catheter-related bacteremia due to Roseomonas species in pediatric hematology/oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas W; Rouster-Stevens, Kelly; Woods, Charles R; Shetty, Avinash K

    2006-04-01

    Roseomonas is a newly described genus of pink-pigmented, gram-negative bacteria. Human infections caused by Roseomonas species are very rare. We report two cases of central venous catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas species (one case with R. gilardii and one with R. fauriae), and review the clinical spectrum of previously reported cases in the literature. Clinicals should be aware that Roseomonas species may cause serious infections in children.

  18. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine.

  19. Infectious Spondylitis with Bacteremia Caused by Roseomonas mucosa in an Immunocompetent Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty f...

  20. A case of disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Candice Baldeo; Carmen Isache; Cherisse Baldeo; Abubakr Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Bacteremia is currently one of the infections with the highest mortality in hospitals [1]. Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are gram-negative bacteria and both represent opportunistic pathogens. In certain cases, the management can be challenging since these organisms can be highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Clinical illnesses associated with Acinetobacter include pneumonia, meningitis, peritonitis, endocarditis and infections of the urinary tract and skin [1]. Acinet...

  1. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  2. Post-ERCP bacteremia caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with pancreas cancer

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    Akcay Korhan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, nonfermentative Gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been isolated from intestine of humans and from various hospital or environmental water sources. A.xylosoxidans is both waterborne and results from the poor-hygienic conditions healthcare workers are in. In this case report, the bacteremia which appeared in a patient with pancreas cancer after ERCP was described.

  3. Bacteremic complications of intravascular catheter tip colonization with Gram-negative micro-organisms in patients without preceding bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, A; Oosterheert, J J; Ekkelenkamp, M B; Hoepelman, I M; Peters, Edgar J G

    2012-06-01

    Although Gram-negative micro-organisms are frequently associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections, the prognostic value and clinical implication of a positive catheter tip culture with Gram-negative micro-organisms without preceding bacteremia remains unclear. We determined the outcomes of patients with intravascular catheters colonized with these micro-organisms, without preceding positive blood cultures, and identified risk factors for the development of subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia. All patients with positive intravascular catheter tip cultures with Gram-negative micro-organisms at the University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands, between 2005 and 2009, were retrospectively studied. Patients with Gram-negative bacteremia within 48 h before catheter removal were excluded. The main outcome measure was bacteremia with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Other endpoints were length of the hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, secondary complications of Gram-negative bacteremia, and duration of intensive care admission. A total of 280 catheters from 248 patients were colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Sixty-seven cases were excluded because of preceding positive blood cultures, leaving 213 catheter tips from 181 patients for analysis. In 40 (19%) cases, subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia developed. In multivariate analysis, arterial catheters were independently associated with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] = 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-20.92), as was selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.69). Gram-negative bacteremia in patients who received SDD was predominantly caused by cefotaxime (part of the SDD)-resistant organisms. Mortality was significantly higher in the group with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (35% versus 20%, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00-4.49). Patients with a catheter tip colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms had a high chance of

  4. Bacillus cereus bacteremia and multiple brain abscesses during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Jordan R; Phillips, Marianne; Cole, Catherine; Francis, Joshua; Blyth, Christopher C; Gottardo, Nicholas G

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy.

  5. Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.

  6. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

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    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7 revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known.

  7. Immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia.

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    Haiyan Liu

    Full Text Available Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu. In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.

  8. BRIEF HYPOXIA PRECEDING E. COLI BACTEREMIA DOWNREGULATES HEPATIC TNF-α PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic TNF-α production following gram-negative bacteremia or hypovolemic shock predisposes to acute lung injury. However, TNF-α expression may be modified by the manner in which the hepatic O2 supply is reduced and equally important, its timing relative to bacteremia. Brief secondary hypoxic stress of buffer-perfused rat livers downregulates E. Coli (EC)-induced TNF-α expression whereas low-flow ischemia preceding EC increases subsequent TNF-α production owing to reactive O2 species (ROS). Here we determined whether 30 min of constant-flow hypoxia preceding 109 intraportal EC likewise increases antigenic and bioactive TNF-α protein concentrations during reoxygenation via production of ROS. Multiple groups (n=38) were studied over 180 minutes, circulation antigenic TNF-α decreased in H/R+EC vs. EC controls (1 939±640 vs. 12 407±2 476 μg/L at t=180 min; P<0.01, along with TNF-α bioactivity). TNF-α protein were not restored to control levels in ALLO+H/R+EC. Thus, EC-induced hepatic TNF-α production and export is strongly O2-dependent in intact liver regardless of the generation of ROS or the sequence of bacteremia and modest hypoxic stress.

  9. PBP-2 Negative Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi Bacteremia from a Prostate Abscess: An Unusual Occurrence

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    Chandni Merchant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus which has been described as a pathogen responsible for various nosocomial infections including bacteremia, brain abscess, and infection of intravenous pacemakers. Recently, such bacteria have been described to be found typically on skin and mucosal surfaces. It is also believed to be a part of the preaxillary human flora and more frequently found in men. It is very similar in its pathogenicity with Staphylococcus aureus group and expresses a fibronectin binding protein. Literature on this pathogen reveals that it commonly causes otitis among dogs because of its location in the auditory meatus of canines. Also, it has strong association with pyoderma in dogs. The prime concern with this organism is the antibiotic resistance and relapse even after appropriate treatment. Very rarely, if any, cases have been reported about prostatic abscess (PA with this microbe. Our patient had a history of recurrent UTIs and subsequent PA resulting in S. schleiferi bacteremia in contrast to gram negative bacteremia commonly associated with UTI. This organism was found to be resistant to methicillin, in spite of being negative for PBP2, which is a rare phenomenon and needs further studies.

  10. Evaluating Children with Otitis Media for Bacteremia or Urinary Tract Infection

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    Daniel Yawman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unclear if clinicians evaluate for concurrent bacteremia or UTI in young patients diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM. Objectives. To describe how often, and under which circumstances, emergency providers investigate for bacteremia or UTI in 2–36 month olds with AOM. Methods. Cases of AOM were analyzed from the 2001–2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS-Emergency Department dataset. Results. AOM was diagnosed in 17% of the 10,847 recorded visits of 2–36 month olds. Of these visits, laboratory testing included: CBC: 7%, Blood culture: 4%, urinalysis or urine culture: 5%, and any of these tests: 9%. Rates of testing for 2–6 month olds with temperature ≥ 38.0 (CBC: 13%, blood culture: 9%, urinalysis or urine culture: 7%, any of the tests: 14% were not significantly different from testing of patients aged 6–12 months, or 12–36 months (all P>.1. Patients with temperature of ≥39.0 were more likely to have all tests, with the exception of urine investigation, than patients with temperature between 38.0 and 38.9. Conclusions. 17% of 2–36 month old patients seen in the emergency department are diagnosed with AOM. Investigating for bacteremia or UTI in these patients is not routine, even in febrile infants.

  11. A subtle mimicker in emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Maria Vittoria De; Giacomo, Roberta Di; Muzio, Antonio Di; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality. Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion. Methods: We describe 2 examples, accompanied by videos, of acute drug-induced oro-mandibular dystonia, both subsequent to occasional haloperidol intake. Results: Management and treatment of this movement disorder are often difficult: neuroleptics withdrawal, treatment with benzodiazepines, and anticholinergics are recommended. Conclusion: Alternative treatment options are also discussed. PMID:27741141

  12. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

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    Diego Strianese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  13. EVENTRATION OF LEFT HEMIDIAPHRAGM MIMICKING AS CAVITY

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    Kansal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eventration of diaphragm is a condition in which there is abnormal elevation of the diaphragm as a result of thinning of muscular layer. It can be congenital as well as acquired. It is more common left sided. Herniation of the abdominal contents can be there. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to life threatening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilator support. Ultrasound provides valuable information regarding the integrity of the diaphragm. Other imaging modalities include fluoroscopy, CT and MRI that provide valuable information when diagnosis is in doubt. We are presenting a case report of 25-year-old male with eventration of left hemidiaphragm mimicking as cavity. After taking detail history, examination and proper investigations we finally reached to this diagnosis.

  14. Case report. Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Biggio, P

    2002-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common dermatomycosis, occurring throughout the world, characterized by irregular, slightly scaly patches, varying in color from red/light brown to white. Pityriasis rotunda, on the other hand, is an uncommon disease, reported in specific ethnic groups, and characterized by perfectly round or oval patches of varying color, with a scaly surface. The histologic pattern is that of ichthyosis vulgaris. We report here the case of a male patient, aged 31, from Sardinia (Italy), affected by Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda. Mycological examination allowed us to formulate the correct diagnosis, and ensuing treatment with antifungal drugs was entirely successful. The authors, while pointing out the rarity of this case, stress the possibility that Pityriasis versicolor mimics Pityriasis rotunda and vice-versa, especially in those countries in which the two diseases are endemic. More widespread recourse to microscopic examination can help avoid the risk of mistaken diagnosis and consequent incorrect treatment.

  15. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

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    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  16. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  17. Tentorium schwannoma mimicking meningioma: an unusual location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calişaneller, Tarkan; Ozen, Ozlem; Altinörs, Nur; Caner, Hakan

    2008-07-01

    A 60-year-old female was admitted to our clinic complaining of a long-lasting headache. Cranial magnetic resonance imagining examination of the patient revealed a 22x24 mm extra-axial, well-demarcated, mass lesion based on the left tentorium. The patient underwent a craniotomy and the tumor was totally excised with the adjacent tentorium. The histopathological examination of the tumor complied with the diagnosis of schwannoma. The rest of the clinical course was uneventful and the patient was released from the hospital without any neurological deficit. Intracranial schwannomas can rarely originate from atypical dural locations and radiological techniques are not always helpful in distinguishing tentorial schwannoma from tentorial meningioma. We presented a patient with a tentorium schwannoma mimicking meningioma and discussed the current literature.

  18. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

  19. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

  20. Differing burden and epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella bacteremia in rural and urban Kenya, 2006-2009.

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    Collins Tabu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. RESULTS: NTS accounted for 60/155 (39% of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3% in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban and 64% (rural of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults. In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa.

  1. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  2. Risk factors for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in patients with colonization in the intensive care unit

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    Kim Se

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemic outbreaks of multi-drug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (AB in intensive care units (ICUs are increasing. The incidence of MDR AB bacteremia, which develops as a result of colonization, is increasing through widespread dissemination of the pathogen, and further colonization. We sought to determine risk factors for MDR AB bacteremia in patients colonized with MDR AB in the ICU. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of 200 patients colonized with MDR AB in the ICU at Severance Hospital, South Korea during the outbreak period between January 2008 and December 2009. Results Of the 200 patients colonized with MDR AB, 108 developed MDR AB bacteremia, and 92 did not. APACHE II scores were higher in bacteremic than non-bacteremic patients at the time of ICU admission and colonization (24.0 vs. 21.6; P = 0.035, 22.9 vs. 16.8; P P = 0.923, but the duration of time at risk was shorter in bacteremic patients (12.1 vs. 6.0 days; P = 0.016. A recent invasive procedure was a significant risk factor for development of bacteremia (odds ratio = 3.85; 95% CI 1.45-10.24; P = 0.007. Multivariate analysis indicated infection and respiratory failure at the time of ICU admission, maintenance of mechanical ventilation, maintenance of endotracheal tube instead of switching to a tracheostomy, recent central venous catheter insertion, bacteremia caused by other microorganism after colonization by MDR AB, and prior antimicrobial therapy, were significant risk factors for MDR AB bacteremia. Conclusions Patients in the ICU, colonized with MDR AB, should be considered for minimizing invasive procedures and early removal of the invasive devices to prevent development of MDR AB bacteremia.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in various countries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahdi, Sara; DaSilva, Ligia V; Parveen, Salina

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood associated infections and mortality in the United States. The main syndromes caused by these pathogens are gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. This article reviewed the antibiotic resistance profile of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the United States and other countries including Italy, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Australia. The awareness of antimicrobial resistance of these two pathogens is not as well documented as other foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio spp. are usually susceptible to most antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. However, many studies reported that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed multiple-antibiotic resistance due to misuse of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture production. In addition, both environmental and clinical isolates showed similar antibiotic resistance profiles. Most frequently observed antibiotic resistance profiles involved ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline regardless of the countries. The presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in seafood and aquatic environments is a major concern in fish and shellfish farming and human health.

  4. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  5. Antibiotic resistant Salmonella and Vibrio associated with farmed Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  6. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N′,N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and

  7. Quorum-sensing regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio scophthalmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Aljaro Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that Vibrio scophthalmi, the most abundant Vibrio species among the marine aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of healthy cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, contains at least two quorum-sensing circuits involving two types of signal molecules (a 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and the universal autoinducer 2 encoded by luxS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions regulated by these quorum sensing circuits in this vibrio by constructing mutants for the genes involved in these circuits. Results The presence of a homologue to the Vibrio harveyi luxR gene encoding a main transcriptional regulator, whose expression is modulated by quorum–sensing signal molecules in other vibrios, was detected and sequenced. The V. scophthalmi LuxR protein displayed a maximum amino acid identity of 82% with SmcR, the LuxR homologue found in Vibrio vulnificus. luxR and luxS null mutants were constructed and their phenotype analysed. Both mutants displayed reduced biofilm formation in vitro as well as differences in membrane protein expression by mass-spectrometry analysis. Additionally, a recombinant strain of V. scophthalmi carrying the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus, which causes hydrolysis of acyl homoserine lactones, was included in the study. Conclusions V. scophthalmi shares two quorum sensing circuits, including the main transcriptional regulator luxR, with some pathogenic vibrios such as V. harveyi and V. anguillarum. However, contrary to these pathogenic vibrios no virulence factors (such as protease production were found to be quorum sensing regulated in this bacterium. Noteworthy, biofilm formation was altered in luxS and luxR mutants. In these mutants a different expression profile of membrane proteins were observed with respect to the wild type strain suggesting that quorum sensing could play a role in the regulation of

  8. Vibrio neptunius sp. nov., Vibrio brasiliensis sp. nov. and Vibrio xuii sp. nov., isolated from the marine aquaculture environment (bivalves, fish, rotifers and shrimps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L; Li, Y; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, C C; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Rupp, G S; Pereira, A; De Bem, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) groups A5 (21 isolates), A8 (6 isolates) and A23 (3 isolates) distinguished in an earlier paper (Thompson et al., Syst Appl Microbiol 24, 520-538, 2001) were examined in more depth. These three groups were phylogenetically related to Vibrio tubiashii, but DNA-DNA hybridization experiments proved that the three AFLP groups are in fact novel species. Chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further revealed several differences among the 30 isolates and known Vibrio species. It is proposed to accommodate these isolates in three novel species, namely Vibrio neptunius (type strain LMG 20536T; EMBL accession no. AJ316171; G +C content of the type strain 46.0 mol%), Vibrio brasiliensis (type strain LMG 20546T; EMBL accession no. AJ316172; G + C content of the type strain 45.9 mol%) and Vibrio xuii (type strain LMG 21346T; EMBL accession no. AJ316181; G +C content of the type strain 46.6 mol%). These species can be differentiated on the basis of phenotypic features, including fatty acid composition (particularly 14:0 iso, 14:0 iso 3-OH, 16:0 iso, 16:0, 17:0 and 17:1 omega8c), enzyme activities and utilization and fermentation of various carbon sources.

  9. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  10. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  11. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  12. Interactions between Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and the bivalve pathogens Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 and Vibrio splendidus LGP32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, T; Fabbri, R; Cortese, K; Smerilli, A; Ciacci, C; Grande, C; Vezzulli, L; Pruzzo, C; Canesi, L

    2013-12-01

    Marine bivalves can accumulate large numbers of bacteria, in particular Vibrio species, whose persistence in bivalve tissues largely depends on their sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of circulating hemocytes and hemolymph soluble factors. The interactions between vibrios and hemolymph have been investigated, in particular in bivalve species susceptible to infection by certain Vibrio spp. and strains. In this work, the effects of two bivalve pathogens, Vibrio splendidus LGP32 (V.s.) and Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 (V.a.), isolated from oyster mortality outbreaks, on the hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated. In vitro, V.s., but not V.a., induced a dramatic decrease in lysosomal membrane stability-LMS in the hemocytes; both vibrios induced a moderate lysozyme release, with V.s. > V.a.. The V.s.-induced decrease in LMS was mediated by activation of PI-3Kinase, as shown by use of different kinase inhibitors. TEM analysis showed rapid internalization of both vibrios; however, V.s. lead to cellular and lysosomal damage and was able to survive within the hemocytes, whereas significant killing of V.a. was observed. In vivo, in mussels challenged with either vibrio and sampled at 6, 24 and 96 h post-injection, transient decreases in hemocyte LMS and progressive increases in serum lysozyme activity were observed, with V.s. > V.a.. Moreover, whereas V.a. was efficiently cleared from hemolymph, V.s. showed significant growth, that was maximal at 24 h p.i. when lowest LMS values were recorded in the hemocytes. Both vibrios also induced significant decreases in LMS in the digestive gland, again with V.s. > V.a.. The results indicate distinct interactions between mussel hemocytes and the two vibrio strains tested. The effects of V.s. may be due to the capacity of this strain to interfere with the signaling pathways involved in hemocyte function, thus escaping the bactericidal activity of the host cell, as observed for certain mammalian pathogens

  13. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  14. Time to positivity of blood culture association with clinical presentation, prognosis and ESBL-production in Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Viñas-Castillo, L; Lepe-Jiménez, J A; García-Cabrera, E; Cisneros-Herreros, J M

    2012-09-01

    The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been associated with increased mortality in bacteremia caused by several microorganisms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between TTP and prognosis, clinical presentation and extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-production in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. This is a retrospective observational study involving 226 adult patients with E. coli bacteremia. Data collected included underlying diseases, clinical presentation, prognosis factors, TTP, ESBL-production and outcome. Thirty-one (14%) patients had severe sepsis and 29 (13%) septic shock at presentation. Thirty-three (14%) strains were ESBL-producers. Thirty-nine (17%) patients died during admission and 17 (7.5%) within 48 hours. The median TTP was 8.3 hours (range, 0.42–76.5). It was significantly shorter in patients with septic shock (6.23 h, range 1.12–47.29 h vs. 8.51 h, range 0.42–76.50 h; p = 0.018). Rapid growth of E. coli, Pitt index >1.5, non-urinary source and Charlson score >2 were selected as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality by the multivariate analysis. ESBL-production was not associated with modifications in TTP. Lower TTP is an independent risk factor for septic shock and poor outcome in episodes of E. coli bacteremia. The TTP in E. coli bacteremia is not significantly modified by ESBL-production.

  15. Etiological Misidentification by Routine Biochemical Tests of Bacteremia Caused by Gordonia terrae Infection in the Course of an Episode of Acute Cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Sande, E.; Brun-Otero, M.; Campo-Cerecedo, F.; Esteban, E.; Aguilar, L.; García-de-Lomas, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:16825404

  16. Whole-Genome Sequences of the Archetypal K1 Escherichia coli Neonatal Isolate RS218 and Contemporary Neonatal Bacteremia Clinical Isolates SCB11, SCB12, and SCB15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael W; Jackson, Lydgia A; Akins, Darrin R; Dyer, David W; Chavez-Bueno, Susana

    2015-02-26

    Neonatal bacteremia Escherichia coli strains commonly belong to the K1 capsular type. Their ability to cause invasive neonatal disease appears to be determined by other virulence factors that have yet to be identified. We report here the genome sequences of four E. coli neonatal bacteremia isolates, including that of the archetypal strain RS218.

  17. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Sepsis in Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Intravascular Catheters A Retrospective Multicenter Study and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, David J.; de Ruiter, Susanne C.; Buiting, Anton G. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Thijsen, Steven F.; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Wintermans, Robert G. F.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Ekkelenkamp, Miquel B.

    2011-01-01

    Two previous studies in tertiary care hospitals identified Staphylococcus aureus colonization of intravascular (IV) catheters as a strong predictor of subsequent S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), even in the absence of clinical signs of systemic infection. Bacteremia was effectively prevented by timely an

  18. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase G894T (GLU298ASP) polymorphism is associated with hypotension in patients with E. coli bacteremia but not in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Reetta; Hurme, Mikko; Laine, Janne; Eklund, Carita; Vuento, Risto; Aittoniemi, Janne; Huhtala, Heini; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2009-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasoactive substance is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is, in turn, a key regulator of vascular NO production. The eNOS gene polymorphism at position 894 (G>T, Glu298Asp) resulting in T allele has been studied in the context of vascular diseases, but its role in sepsis has not yet been explored. We here studied the effect of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism on the clinical course of the disease in patients with bacteremia. The study comprised 147 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, or Escherichia coli. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and during 6 consecutive days. The polymorphism of eNOS gene, G894T, was genotyped. Carriage of the T allele was associated with low MAP (P = 0.004) and high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (P = 0.001) in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The effect on blood pressure was most prominent in the early stage of the disease (MAP on admission = 52 mmHg in T-allele carriers vs. 91 mmHg in noncarriers; P < 0.001). However, the same was not detected in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, or beta-hemolytic streptococci). The Glu298Asp polymorphism had no effect on case fatality in any pathogen. Carriage of the T allele of the eNOS gene is a risk factor for hypotension in patients with E. coli bacteremia but not in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism.

  19. Mimicking Bone - Chemical and Physical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C Cox

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that chemical and physical features of bone contribute to its functionality, reactivity and mechanical performance. This fundamental rationale underpins the author’s research strategy. This paper presents a summary of efforts to fabricate a synthetic structure, referred to as a scaffold, that both chemically and physical emulates the intricate structure of bone. An understanding of key features of bone tissue that contribute to its remarkable properties is presented as a background to this work. Novel work aimed at improving the understanding of the synthesis of a ceramic biomaterial, namely hydroxyapatite, that is chemically similar to bone mineral is discussed. A case study involving the manufacture of porous scaffolds by 3D printing is also presented. In summary, this article highlights a number of on-going challenges that multidisciplinary tissue engineers aim to solve to get one step closer to mimicking bone, which clinically could improve the quality of life for millions of people worldwide.  Photo credit: By Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig, CSc. (Author's archive [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

  20. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  1. Controlled Deposition of HAp Mimicking Tooth Enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical compositions and microsturcture of mature human tooth enamel were investigated by XRD , FTIR and SEM to further understand the characteristics of tooth enamel. In order to obtain apatite crystals chemically and structurally similar to those in tooth enamel, biomimetic way was employed. Selfassembled monolyers terminated with-SO3 H groups were used as deposition substrates and 1.5 SBF ( the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- ions 1.5 times than those in simulated body fluid ) with and without 5 ppm F- were used as soaking medium. The XRD and FTIR results showed that both the deposited fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite( F-HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF with F- and hydroxyapatite ( HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF were carbonate-containing, mimicking human tooth enamel in chemical compositions. The SEM photos showed that needle-like F-HAp crystals bad large aspect ratios and grew in bundles, which were similar to the crystals in human tooth enamel.The results provide available information on dental restoration.

  2. Lymphocitic infundibuloneurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of infundibulo-neurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma is presented. A 69-years-old female patient developed polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory analysis revealed central diabetes insipidus. No hormonal abnormalities. Cranial-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a left sided mass in the adenohypophysis presuming a pituitary adenoma. The mass had contact to both internal carotids. Admission to our department for neurosurgical treatment followed. Ophthalmo - logic examination and neurological examination yielded normal findings. A second MRI focussing on the sellar-region showed a leftsided (T2-MRI.hyperintense, distended adenohypophysis, without contrast enhancement in T1. The stalk appeared thickened. T1- weighted sequences of the neurohypophysis showed loss of signal intensity. We diagnosed an infundibulo-neurohypophysitis and abstai - ned from surgical removal. The patient was discharged under treatment with corticosteroids and desmopressin. Hypophysitis is rare and shows special clinical characteristics. Despite defined radiological features to differentiate between hypophysitis and adenoma the possibility of misdiagnosis, and unnecessary surgical procedures, should always kept in mind.

  3. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  4. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma mimicking a clival chordoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachhara R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of entirely infrasellar craniopharyngioma mimicking a clival chordoma is described. Only 22 cases of craniopharyngioma with nasopharyngeal extension have been reported in the literature. Of the reported cases, most were primarily intracranial with secondary downward extension; only two were thought to originate from an infrasellar location. The present case is another example of an entirely infrasellar craniopharyngioma, with extensive clival destruction, mimicking a clival chordoma. Relevant literature on the subject is reviewed.

  5. Seasonal Variation of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteremia According to Acquisition and Patient Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation analysis. METHODS In 3 Danish health regions (2.3 million total inhabitants), patients with bacteremia were identified from 2000 through 2011 using information from laboratory information systems. Analyses were confined to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus...... pneumoniae. Additional data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry for the construction of admission histories and calculation of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Bacteremias were categorized as community acquired, healthcare associated (HCA), and hospital acquired. We defined multiple....... coli, 6,924 S. aureus, and 4,884 S. pneumoniae bacteremia cases. For E. coli, the seasonal variation was highest for community-acquired cases (PTT ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.32), was diminished for HCA (PTT ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.25), and was missing for hospital-acquired cases. No seasonal...

  6. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhrajit Ganguly; Saibal Das; Jayanta Kumar Dey; Somnath Mondal

    2012-01-01

    With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V.) cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  7. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhrajit Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V. cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  8. Characterization of vibrios diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum (Annellida, Polichaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, Loredana; Giangrande, Adriana; Pizzolante, Graziano; Caruso, Giorgia; Alifano, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Vibrios are among the most abundant culturable microbes in aquatic environments. They can be either free-living in the water column or associated with several marine organisms as mutualists, saprophytes, or parasites. In the present study we analysed vibrios abundance and diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum, complementing culture-based with molecular methods. Vibrios reached 4.6 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) thus representing a conspicuous component of the heterotrophic culturable bacteria. In addition, luminous vibrios accounted for about 60% of the total culturable vibrios in the mucus. The isolates were assigned to: Vibrio gigantis, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio jasicida, Vibrio crassostreae, Vibrio kanaloae, and Vibrio xuii. Two Vibrio isolates (MI-13 and MI-15) may belong to a new species. We also tested the ability of the Vibrio isolates to grow on M. infundibulum mucus as the sole carbon source. All strains showed appreciable growth in the presence of mucus, leading us to conclude that this matrix, which is abundant and covers the animal entirely, may represent a microcosm and a food source for some bacteria, playing a crucial role in the structuring of a mucus-associated beneficial microbial community. Moreover, the trophic relationship between vibrios and M. infundibulum mucus could be enhanced by the protection that mucus offers to vibrios. The results of this study represent a contribution to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic invertebrate-microbe associations present in nature and highlight the importance of exploring relationships that Vibrio species establish with marine invertebrates.

  9. Immune dysfunction prior to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a determinant of long-term mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Greenberg

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The clinical implications for patients who survive serious infections are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the excess mortality for survivors of sepsis observed in epidemiological studies is due to increased vulnerability to subsequent infections. We undertook this study to identify characteristics of patients who are at high risk for death after surviving a common type of blood-stream infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At a single academic medical center, 237 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia admitted during a three-year period were retrospectively identified. The primary outcomes were 30-day and 31 to 90-day mortality after the first positive blood culture. The primary predictor variable of interest was clinical immune dysfunction prior to bacteremia. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was not significantly different for patients with and without prior immune dysfunction. However, during days 31 to 90, 11 patients (20% with prior immune dysfunction compared to 10 patients (8.6% without prior immune dysfunction died (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.03-6.53, p = 0.04. In a Cox-proportional hazard model controlling for age, there was a significant association between prior immune dysfunction and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.44, 95% CI 1.01-5.90, p = 0.05 and a non-significant trend towards occurrence of subsequent infections and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.12, 95% CI 0.89-5.07, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prior immune dysfunction are at high risk for death 31 to 90 days, but not <30 days, after S. aureus bacteremia. Further investigation is needed to determine if this finding is due to poor prognosis of chronic disease or increased vulnerability to subsequent infections.

  10. Identifying Patients with Bacteremia in Community-Hospital Emergency Rooms: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Taro Takeshima

    Full Text Available (1 To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with bacteremia, using only information that is readily available in the emergency room (ER of community hospitals, and (2 to test the validity of that rule with a separate, independent set of data.Multicenter retrospective cohort study.To derive the clinical prediction rule we used data from 3 community hospitals in Japan (derivation. We tested the rule using data from one other community hospital (validation, which was not among the three "derivation" hospitals.Adults (age ≥ 16 years old who had undergone blood-culture testing while in the ER between April 2011 and March 2012. For the derivation data, n = 1515 (randomly sampled from 7026 patients, and for the validation data n = 467 (from 823 patients.We analyzed 28 candidate predictors of bacteremia, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and basic laboratory data. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to derive an integer risk score (the "ID-BactER" score. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., the AUC were computed.There were 241 cases of bacteremia in the derivation data. Eleven candidate predictors were used in the ID-BactER score: age, chills, vomiting, mental status, temperature, systolic blood pressure, abdominal sign, white blood-cell count, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and C-reactive protein. The AUCs was 0.80 (derivation and 0.74 (validation. For ID-BactER scores ≥ 2, the sensitivities for derivation and validation data were 98% and 97%, and specificities were 20% and 14%, respectively.The ID-BactER score can be computed from information that is readily available in the ERs of community hospitals. Future studies should focus on developing a score with a higher specificity while maintaining the desired sensitivity.

  11. Number of positive blood cultures, biofilm formation, and adhesin genes in differentiating true coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteremia from contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeri, I; Giormezis, N; Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Zotou, A; Kolonitsiou, F; Koutsileou, K; Fligou, F; Marangos, M; Anastassiou, E D; Spiliopoulou, I

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the number of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-positive blood cultures remains obscure in regards to determining true bacteremia versus contamination. The goal of this study was to determine the predictors of real CNS bloodstream infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ICU patients with at least one CNS-positive blood culture were identified from the microbiology database. Biofilm formation was tested by glass tube and microtiter plate assay. mecA gene, ica operon genes (icaA, icaB, icaD), and adhesin genes (aap, bap, atlE, fbe, fnbA) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CNS were recovered from 120 septic episodes, 20 of which were true CNS bacteremias, whereas from the remaining 100 episodes, the isolated CNS were characterized as contaminants. The number of positive blood cultures was significantly associated with true CNS bacteremia. Nineteen true bacteremic Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were compared to 38 contaminants. Biofilm synthesis was documented in 37 isolates associated with the presence of the ica operon (p = 0.048). There were 39, 26, 38, 21, and 10 strains positive for the presence of atlE, bap, fbe, aap, and fnbA genes, respectively. Rifampicin resistance, absence of severe sepsis, number of S. epidermidis-positive blood cultures, and absence of the bap gene were independently associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia as compared to contaminant strains. The number of positive blood cultures is associated with true CNS bacteremia. The presence of adhesin genes may play a role in differentiating true infection from contamination, whereas absence of the bap gene is associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia.

  12. Mortalities of Eastern and Pacific oyster Larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S; Church, Karlee M; Häse, Claudia C

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a well-known coral pathogen, has recently been shown to elicit mortality in fish and shellfish. Several strains of V. coralliilyticus, such as ATCC 19105 and Pacific isolates RE22 and RE98, were misidentified as V. tubiashii until recently. We compared the mortalities caused by two V. tubiashii and four V. coralliilyticus strains in Eastern and Pacific oyster larvae. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of V. coralliilyticus in Eastern oysters (defined here as the dose required to kill 50% of the population in 6 days) ranged from 1.1 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml seawater; strains RE98 and RE22 were the most virulent. This study shows that V. coralliilyticus causes mortality in Eastern oyster larvae. Results for Pacific oysters were similar, with LD50s between 1.2 × 10(4) and 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/ml. Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19106 and ATCC 19109 were highly infectious toward Eastern oyster larvae but were essentially nonpathogenic toward healthy Pacific oyster larvae at dosages of ≥1.1 × 10(4) CFU/ml. These data, coupled with the fact that several isolates originally thought to be V. tubiashii are actually V. coralliilyticus, suggest that V. coralliilyticus has been a more significant pathogen for larval bivalve shellfish than V. tubiashii, particularly on the U.S. West Coast, contributing to substantial hatchery-associated morbidity and mortality in recent years.

  13. Streptococcus lutetiensis Bacteremia. First Clindamycin Resistant Isolate Carrying lnuB Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Almuzara, Marisa; Bonofiglio, Laura; Cittadini, Roberto Arnaldo; Vera Ocampo, C.; Montilla, A.; Del Castillo, M.; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Mollerach, Marta Eugenia; C. Vay

    2015-01-01

    First Case of Streptococcus lutetiensis Bacteremia Involving a Clindamycin-Resistant Isolate Carrying the lnuB Gene Fil: Almuzara, Marisa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica; Argentina; Fil: Bonofiglio, Laura. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Departamento de Microbiología, Inmunología y Biotecnología; Argentina; Fil: Cittadini, Roberto Arnaldo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria;...

  14. Intravenous Drug Abuse by Patients Inside the Hospital: A Cause for Sustained Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Noopur; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.

  15. Intravenous Drug Abuse by Patients Inside the Hospital: A Cause for Sustained Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.

  16. A Cluster of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia Cases among Injection Drug Users

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    Michael A Benusic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  17. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.

  18. Staphylococcus pettenkoferi Bacteremia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Abdulaziz Ahmed Hashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus pettenkoferi is a relatively recently described coagulase-negative staphylococci species first described in 2002. Since then, nine additional cases of infection caused by this species have been reported in various countries around the world, including Germany, Belgium, France, South Korea, Italy, Brazil and Mexico. The present report describes a case of S pettenkoferi peripheral line-associated bacteremia. To our knowledge, the present report is the first description of human infection caused by S pettenkoferi in Canada. The present report also provides an overview of the laboratory detection of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci.

  19. Gram-negative rod bacteremia after cardiovascular surgery: Clinical features and prognostic factors

    OpenAIRE

    田子, さやか

    2016-01-01

    博士(医学) 乙第2895号(主論文の要旨、要約、本文),著者名:Sayaka Tago・Yuji Hirai・Yusuke Ainoda・Takahiro Fujita・Ken Kikuchi,タイトル:Gram-negative rod bacteremia after cardiovascular surgery: Clinical features and prognostic factors,掲載誌:Journal of microbiology(1684-1182), immunology and infection,著作権関連情報:ℂ2015, Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2015.07.008

  20. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia: A multi-national population-based assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin B; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited. METHODS: Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000...... independently associated with death at 30-days in logistic regression analysis included male gender, hospital-onset disease, older age, and lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, or unknown focus of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality...

  1. Community Acquired Bacteremia in Young Children from Central Nigeria- A Pilot Study

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    Olugbile Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the etiology of bacteremia in children from Nigeria are sparse and have been confounded by wide spread non-prescription antibiotic use and suboptimal laboratory culture techniques. We aimed to determine causative agents and underlying predisposing conditions of bacteremia in Nigerian children using data arising during the introduction of an automated blood culture system accessed by 7 hospitals and clinics in the Abuja area. Methods Between September 2008 and November 2009, we enrolled children with clinically suspected bacteremia at rural and urban clinical facilities in Abuja or within the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Blood was cultured using an automated system with antibiotic removing device. We documented clinical features in all children and tested for prior antibiotic use in a random sample of sera from children from each site. Results 969 children aged 2 months-5 years were evaluated. Mean age was 21 ± 15.2 months. All children were not systematically screened but there were 59 (6% children with established diagnosis of sickle cell disease and 42 (4.3% with HIV infection. Overall, 212 (20.7% had a positive blood culture but in only 105 (10.8% were these considered to be clinically significant. Three agents, Staphylococcus aureus (20.9%, Salmonella typhi (20.9% and Acinetobacter (12.3% accounted for over half of the positive cultures. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typhi Salmonellae each accounted for 7.6%. Although not the leading cause of bacteremia, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the single leading cause of all deaths that occurred during hospitalization and after hospital discharge. Conclusion S. typhi is a significant cause of vaccine-preventable morbidity while S. pneumoniae may be a leading cause of mortality in this setting. This observation contrasts with reports from most other African countries where non-typhi Salmonellae are predominant in young children. Expanded surveillance is

  2. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  3. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia caused by choledocholithiasis in the absence of gallbladder stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antwan Atia; Tejas Raiyani; Pranav Patel; Robert Patton; Mark Young

    2012-01-01

    A 67-years-old male presented with periumbilical abdominal pain,fever and jaundice.His anaerobic blood culture was positive for clostridium perfringens.Computed tomogram scan of the abdomen and abdominal ultrasound showed normal gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD).Subsequently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticogram showed choledocholithiasis.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogramwith sphincterotomy and CBD stone extraction was performed.The patient progressively improved with antibiotic therapy Choledocholithiasis should be considered as a source of clostridium perfringens bacteremia especially in the setting of elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic pattern.

  4. Bacteremia due to imipenem-resistant Roseomonas mucosa in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Anne-Laure; Saumet, Laure; Bourdier, Alice; Haouy, Stéphanie; Sirvent, Nicolas; Marchandin, Hélène

    2014-04-01

    Roseomonas are described as opportunistic pathogens rarely involved in human infections. Their identification requires molecular methods and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern varies according to the species. We report the first case of bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in a child with leukemia and reviewed pediatric cases of Roseomonas infection, for which undoubted strain identification was available. Favorable outcome was observed despite resistance to numerous β-lactams that may account for delayed effective treatment, suggesting the low virulence of Roseomonas in children. Here, the strain also displayed unusual resistance to imipenem, highlighting the possible acquisition of additional resistance by this pathogen.

  5. Elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predicts mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mölkänen, T; Ruotsalainen, E; Thorball, C W;

    2011-01-01

    are scarce. To elucidate the role of suPAR in a common bacteremic infection, the serum suPAR levels in 59 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA assay and associations to 1-month mortality and with deep infection focus were analyzed. On day three, after......PAR levels as compared to patients with no deep infection focus. suPAR was found to be prognostic for mortality in receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, which was not observed for serum C-reactive protein (CRP); the area under the curve (AUC) for suPAR was 0.754 (95% confidence interval [CI...

  6. Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacteremia due to Bartonella quintana in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Fulchini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 63-year-old man treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia who developed multiple angiomatous papules and fever. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from a skin lesion and blood sample revealed Bartonella quintana as causative agent confirming the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis with bacteremia. Treatment with doxycycline, initially in combination with gentamicin, led to complete resolution of the lesions. This case shows the importance of considering bacillary angiomatosis as a rare differential diagnosis of angiomatous lesions in the immunocompromised patient, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and following lymphocyte depleting treatments as alemtuzumab.

  7. Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Shigella flexneri serotype-2 causing bacteremia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn M Ninan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Shigella flexneri serotype-2 causing bacteremia in an elderly gentleman with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, who had no other apparent risk factors. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the organism was a multidrug resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing straian, which was confirmed by molecular characterization. This rare case alerts both the clinician and microbiologist to a previously unaddressed risk factor of Shigella spp. causing bacteremia, as well as emerging resistant strains that are on the rise in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Problems in identification of Francisella philomiragia associated with fatal bacteremia in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Lemming, L E; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Francisella philomiragia is a rare gram-negative, halophilic coccobacillus with bizarre spherical forms on primary isolation. A case of F. philomiragia bacteremia in a 24-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease is reported. Identification of F. philomiragia was problematic with conven......Francisella philomiragia is a rare gram-negative, halophilic coccobacillus with bizarre spherical forms on primary isolation. A case of F. philomiragia bacteremia in a 24-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease is reported. Identification of F. philomiragia was problematic...

  9. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    The two-component quorum sensing (QS) system, first described in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and evolutionarily conserved among members of the genus Vibrio, has been best studied in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (1, 2). In the V. cholerae QS system, the response to the accumulation...

  10. Vibrio anguillarum and larval mortality in a California coastal shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, L H; Blecka, J; Zebal, R

    1978-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated as a pathogen in the commercial culture of oyster spat at Pigeon Point, Calif. A water-soluble, heat-stable exotoxin extracted from cultures of the vibrio inhibited larval swimming and contributed to larval mortality. Although the vibrio was insensitive to penicillin in standard plate testing, this antibiotic proved useful in preventing mass larval mortalities in the hatchery.

  11. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  12. Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences.

  13. Ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Sumio; Furumai, Yuki; Katayama, Sei-Ichi; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus have been suggested but the lower number of the vibrio in aquatic environments may be one explanation. Although the number of V. vulnificus was also not as large, most of the isolates possessed the pathogenic genes, vvp and vvh, suggesting the potential for fatal pathogenicity to patients having underlying diseases. As for V. cholerae, some non-O1/non-O139 serovar isolates were detected in a fresh water area, and many of them had hlyA, the gene for hemolysin which acts as a pathogenic factor in sporadic cases of diarrhea. Thus, the total number of pathogenic vibrios detected was not of concern. However, the marine products of these areas are shipped in wide area and are for general consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to survey pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments in order to ensure food hygiene.

  14. New Vibrio species associated to molluscan microbiota: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus L Romalde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio consists of more than 100 species grouped in 14 clades that are widely distributed in aquatic environments such as estuarine, coastal waters and sediments. A large number of species of this genus are associated with marine organisms like fish, molluscs and crustaceans, in commensal or pathogenic relations. In the last decade, more than 50 new species have been described in the genus Vibrio, due to the introduction of new molecular techniques in bacterial taxonomy, such as multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA or fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP. On the other hand, the increasing number of environmental studies has contributed to improve the knowledge about the family Vibrionaceae and its phylogeny. Vibrio crassostreae, V. breoganii, V. celticus are some of the new Vibrio species described as forming part of the molluscan microbiota. Some of them have been associated with mortalities of different molluscan species, seriously affecting their culture and causing high losses in hatcheries as well as in natural beds. For other species, ecological importance has been demonstrated being highly abundant in different marine habitats and geographical regions. The present work provides an updated overview of the recently characterized Vibrio species isolated from molluscs. In addition, their pathogenic potential and/or environmental importance is discussed.

  15. Blood culture status and mortality among patients with suspected community-acquired bacteremia: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Henrik T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of mortality among patients with positive and negative blood cultures may indicate the contribution of bacteremia to mortality. This study (1 compared mortality among patients with community-acquired bacteremia with mortality among patients with negative blood cultures and (2 determined the effects of bacteremia type and comorbidity level on mortality among patients with positive blood cultures. Methods This cohort study included 29,273 adults with blood cultures performed within the first 2 days following hospital admission to an internal medical ward in northern Denmark during 1995-2006. We computed product limit estimates and used Cox regression to compute adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs within 0-2, 3-7, 8-30, and 31-180 days following admission for bacteremia patients compared to culture-negative patients. Results Mortality in 2,648 bacteremic patients and 26,625 culture-negative patients was 4.8% vs. 2.0% 0-2 days after admission, 3.7% vs. 2.7% 3-7 days after admission, 5.6% vs. 5.1% 8-30 days after admission, and 9.7% vs. 8.7% 31-180 days after admission, corresponding to adjusted MRRs of 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6-2.2, 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5, 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.1, and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.8-1.1, respectively. Mortality was higher among patients with Gram-positive (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.6-2.2 and polymicrobial bacteremia (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2-5.5 than among patients with Gram-negative bacteremia (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0. After the first 2 days, patients with Gram-negative bacteremia had the same risk of dying as culture-negative patients (adjusted MRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.1. Only patients with polymicrobial bacteremia had increased mortality within 31-180 days following admission (adjusted MRR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8-2.1 compared to culture-negative patients. The association between blood culture status and mortality did not differ substantially by level of

  16. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  17. A pentaplex PCR assay for detection and characterization of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, N; Hou, A

    2013-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood-related illnesses and also can cause wound infections. These bacteria often co-exist in marine and estuarine environments. However, there have been no reported protocols that can detect and characterize (i.e. pathogenic or nonpathogenic) them in a single PCR. In this study, we developed a pPCR assay with a combination of two species-specific and three pathogenic-specific PCR primers to simultaneously detect virulent (viuB in V. vulnificus and tdh/trh in V. parahaemolyticus) and nonvirulent (vvhA in V. vulnificus and tlh in V. parahaemolyticus) markers of the two species in bacterial isolates. The assay was validated by three methods. First, the pPCR was used to characterize 300 bacterial isolates consisting of seven reference strains and 293 environmental strains isolated from the Gulf of Mexico water. Results were compared with characterizations based on single-gene PCR amplifications and previously published multiplex PCR protocols. Second, 51 isolates characterized with the pPCR were analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing to confirm any false-negative/positive reaction. Finally, the effectiveness of the assay for heterogeneous bacterial samples was validated. The pPCR correctly characterized isolates from the Gulf with an efficiency of 96·6-98·7%.

  18. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  19. Relationship of aquatic environmental factors with the abundance of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal area of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Robles, A; Acedo Félix, E; Gomez-Gil, B; Quiñones Ramírez, E I; Nevárez-Martínez, M; Noriega-Orozco, L

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Vibrio are common in aquatic environments. Among them are V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus. Several studies have shown that environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, are involved in their epidemiology. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the presence/amount of V. cholerae, V, vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus and the environmental conditions of the seawater off the coast of Guaymas, México. Quantification of all four pathogenic bacteria was performed using the most probable number method, and suspected colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations were found using principal component analysis. V. parahaemolyticus was the most abundant and widely distributed bacteria, followed by V. vulnificus, V. mimicus and V. cholerae. Positive correlations between V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus with temperature, salinity, electric conductivity, and total dissolved solids were found. The abundance of V. cholerae was mainly affected by the sampling site and not by physicochemical parameters.

  20. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  1. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  2. Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains.

  3. Empedobacter brevis Bacteremia in a Patient Infected with HIV: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by Empedobacter brevis (E. brevis is very rare. We report the first case of E. brevis bacteremia in a patient with HIV and review the current literature. A 69-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 count of 319 presented with chief complaints of black tarry stools, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. Physical exam was significant for abdominal pain on palpation with no rebound or guarding. His total leukocyte count was 32,000 cells/μL with 82% neutrophils and 9% bands. Emergent colonoscopy and endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed esophageal candidiasis, a nonbleeding gastric ulcer, and diverticulosis. Blood cultures drawn on days 1, 2, and 3 of hospitalization grew E. brevis. Patient improved with intravenous antibiotics. This case is unusual, raising the possibility of gastrointestinal colonization as a source of the patient’s bacteremia. In conclusion, E. brevis is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious health care associated infections.

  4. Infections in hemodialysis: a concise review - Part 1: bacteremia and respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, T; Liakopoulos, V; Leivaditis, K; Antoniadi, G; Stefanidis, I

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are particularly predisposed to infections. It seems that the HD procedure per se as well as disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity significantly contribute to this susceptibility. Infections are the major cause of morbidity and the second cause of death following cardiovascular events in HD patients. Episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia account for the majority of severe infections in this population. In addition to these bacterial infections another common problem in HD units is the blood transmitted viral infections, particularly infections caused by hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and Human immunodeficiency virus. A number of safety concerns exist for limiting the spread of these viral infections among HD patients and the staff of the unit. The aim of the present review is to present in a concise albeit practical form the difficult aspect of infections in HD. For practical reasons the review is separated in two parts. The present first part covers bacteremia and respiratory infections, while the second part will cover blood transmitted viral infections. PMID:21607029

  5. Bacteremia among Jordanian children at Princess Rahmah Hospital: Pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate microorganisms causing bacteremia in Jordanian children and to assess their sensitivity to various groups of antimicrobials."nMethods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures taken from 378 children aged below 15 year, who sought medical attention at Princess Rahmah Hospital between January and December/2008."nResults: Out of 4475 tested blood samples, 378 isolates were recovered from blood cultures. The male to female isolate ratio was (1.26:1.0. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus (86.2%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (9%, Escherichia coli (1.9%, Streptococcus spp. (1.9%, Pseudomonas spp. (0.8%, and Acinetobacter sp. was found in only one culture (0.3%. The susceptibility rate of S. aureus was recorded the highest (99.6% for vancomycin, and the lowest susceptibility rate (3.2% was recorded for aztreonam."nConclusions: Staphylococcus aureus was the main isolate in bacteremic children, with all isolates demonstrating susceptibility to vancomycin. Overall, aztreonam resistance was near 97%, and this rate was not affected by sex and blood isolate type. This information should be considered when empirical therapy is recommended or prescribed for children with bacteremia.

  6. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  7. Streptococcus intermedius Bacteremia and Liver Abscess following a Routine Dental Cleaning

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    Lachara V. Livingston

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated.

  8. Streptococcus intermedius Bacteremia and Liver Abscess following a Routine Dental Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Lachara V; Perez-Colon, Elimarys

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated.

  9. Prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin against Streptococcus mutans bacteremia in lactoferrin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental caries, which is often detected in transient bacteremia. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein showing antibacterial activities against several Streptococcus species. We reported here the prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin (hLF) in a lactoferrin knockout mouse (LFKO-/-) bacteremic model. The hLF treatment significantly cleared S. mutans from the blood and organs of bacteremic mice when compared to the non-hLF treated mice. Further, analysis of serum cytokines, spleen and liver cytokine mRNA levels revealed that hLF prophylaxis modulates their release differently when compared to the non-hLF treated group. C-reactive protein level (P = 0.003) also decreased following hLF prophylaxis in S. mutans induced bacteremic mice. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that hLF prophylaxis significantly decreased the expression level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MPO and iNOS in spleen and liver. These results suggested that the hLF protects the host against S. mutans-induced experimental bacteremia.

  10. Anaerobic bacteremia in a general hospital: retrospective five-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, F; Mendez, F J; Perez, F; Mendoza, M C

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteremia (116 cases) represented 5.4% of the total cases of bacteremia in the Hospital Nuestra Señora de Covadonga of Oviedo, Spain, during a five-year period (1981-1985). Microbiologic data for all 116 cases and clinical data for 63 patients were analyzed. A total of 129 isolates were identified as gram-negative bacilli (45.7%), gram-positive bacilli (38.0%), gram-positive cocci (14.0%), and gram-negative cocci (2.3%). Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens were the most frequently occurring species. Anaerobic polymicrobial infection was detected in 21 patients. The most relevant clinical features were fever (79%), metastatic abscesses (33%), anemia (27%), septic shock (25%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (6%). The overall mortality rate was 25.4%, and the factors associated with a poor prognosis were age over 60 years, lack of adequate surgical treatment, severe underlying disease, metastatic foci, and polymicrobial and/or nosocomial infection.

  11. Bacteremia due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans in neonates: clinical features and outcome

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    Ozden Turel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans at a neonatal intensive care unit. We aimed to present clinical, laboratory and treatment data of the patients. Materials and METHODS: All consecutive episodes of bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans at our neonatal intensive care unit, beginning with the index case detected at November 2009 until cessation of the outbreak in April 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Thirty-four episodes of bacteremia occurred in 22 neonates during a 6-month period. Among the affected, 90% were preterm newborns with gestational age of 32 weeks or less and 60% had birth weight of 1000 g or less. Endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheter use, total parenteral nutrition and prolonged antibiotic therapy were the predisposing conditions. Presenting features were abdominal distention, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. The mortality rate was 13.6% and the majority of isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, and resistant to gentamycin. More than half were breakthrough infections. Despite intensive efforts to control the outbreak by standard methods of hand hygiene, patient screening and isolation, containment could be achieved only after the neonatal intensive care unit was relocated. The investigation was not able to single out the source of the outbreak. CONCLUSION: A. xylosoxidans has the potential to cause serious infections in premature babies. More studies are needed to determine the importance of different sources of infection in hospital units.

  12. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  13. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  14. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13......Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen...... Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility...

  15. Nosocomial extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in hemodialysis patients and the implications for antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Yang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: In accordance with our previous study, our results have demonstrated the inferiority of flomoxef to carbapenems in the treatment of HD access-related ESBL-Kp bacteremia and provide an insight into the possibility of using ertapenem rather than flomoxef as an initial or de-escalating therapy for infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria.

  16. First report of neonatal bacteremia caused by "Haemophilus quentini" diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of neonatal bacteremia caused by a "Haemophilus quentini" isolate in Italy. The isolate was differentiated from H. influenzae by 16S rRNA sequencing and was characterized by comparison with the wild-type "H. quentini" CCUG 36167. Both isolates carried substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 but were susceptible to aminopenicillins.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains That Establish Bacteremia in the Infant Rat Model of Invasive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Mussa, Huda J.; Cole, Brett K.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive disease. The infant rat is the accepted model of invasive H. influenzae disease. Here, we report the genome sequences of six nontypeable H. influenzae strains that establish bacteremia in the infant rat. PMID:26404588

  18. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  19. Francisella philomiragia Bacteremia in a Patient with Acute Respiratory Insufficiency and Acute-on-Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relich, Ryan F; Humphries, Romney M; Mattison, H Reid; Miles, Jessica E; Simpson, Edward R; Corbett, Ian J; Schmitt, Bryan H; May, M

    2015-12-01

    Francisella philomiragia is a very uncommon pathogen of humans. Diseases caused by it are protean and have been reported largely in near-drowning victims and those with chronic granulomatous disease. We present a case of F. philomiragia pneumonia with peripheral edema and bacteremia in a renal transplant patient and review the diverse reports of F. philomiragia infections.

  20. Presence of the KPC carbapenemase gene in Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia, and the correlation with in vitro carbapenem susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    During six months, we obtained Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia at a 1250-bed teaching hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, and compared carbapenem susceptibility with the presence of blaKPC, a transferable carbapenemase gene. Three (1.2%) out of 243 isolates were ...

  1. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Z

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided.

  2. 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of metastatic infection in gram-positive bacteremia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Cuijpers, M.L.H.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    The timely detection of metastatic infectious foci in gram-positive bacteremia is crucial, because these foci often require prolonged antibiotic treatment or drainage. The diagnosis of metastatic infectious foci is difficult because localizing symptoms are often absent. We investigated whether (18)F

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of metastatic infection in gram-positive bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Fidel J; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Sturm, Patrick D; Krabbe, Paul F M; van Dijk, Arie P J; Cuijpers, Maria L H; Adang, Eddy M M; Wanten, Geert J A; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Oyen, Wim J G

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The timely detection of metastatic infectious foci in gram-positive bacteremia is crucial, because these foci often require prolonged antibiotic treatment or drainage. The diagnosis of metastatic infectious foci is difficult because localizing symptoms are often absent. We investigated w

  4. (18)F-FDG PET/CT for detection of metastatic infection in gram-positive bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Sturm, P.D.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Van Dijk, A. P. J.; Cuijpers, M.L.H.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    The timely detection of metastatic infectious foci in gram-positive bacteremia is crucial, because these foci often require prolonged antibiotic treatment or drainage. The diagnosis of metastatic infectious foci is difficult because localizing symptoms are often absent. We investigated whether (18)F

  5. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.P.C.; van Wijk, P.T.I.; Mathoera, R.B.; de Jongh-Leuvenink, J.; van der Poll, T.; Wever, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Absolute lymphocytopenia has been reported as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. Likewise, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been shown a simple promising method to evaluate systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. Methods: We retrospectively eval

  6. Appropriateness of empirical treatment and outcome in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N.J. Frakking (Florine N.); W.C. Rottier (Wouter); J.W. Dorigo-Zetsma; J.M. van Hattem (Jarne); B.C. van Hees (Babette); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); S.P.M. Lutgens (Suzanne P.); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.F. Thijsen (Steven); A. Verbon (Annelies); B.J.M. Vlaminckx (Bart J.); J.W.C. Stuart (James W. Cohen); M.A. Leverstein-Van Hall (Maurine); M.J.M. Bonten (Marc)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information wa

  7. Bacteria causing bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients presenting with febrile neutropenia-species distribution and susceptibility patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Karin G. E.; Winter, Rik H. L. J.; Ammann, Roland A.; Droz, Sara; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Kamps, Willem A.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric cancer patients. The aim of this study was to establish the microbiological spectrum and the susceptibility patterns of bacteremia-causing bacteria in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia in relation to the use of pro

  8. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  9. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  10. Is 2 weeks of antibiotic therapy enough to treat elderly patients with nontyphoid Salmonella bacteremia? A case report of fatal endovascular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Lin; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Kan, Chung-Dann; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2014-08-01

    Nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) can cause invasive diseases in the elderly. Notably, the most feared complication of NTS bacteremia is endovascular infection. The risk factors for infected aortic aneurysm include old age and atherosclerosis. Extended use of antimicrobial therapy (> 2 weeks) for NTS bacteremia should be considered for those who demonstrate the risk factors for endovascular infection, even when a metastatic focus is clinically elusive. Herein, we report the case of a 75-year-old patient with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction who died of an infected aortic aneurysm despite 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy that was administered to treat the initial NTS bacteremia.

  11. Serum procalcitonin elevation in elderly patients with coronary heart disease at the onset of septic shock caused by either Gram negative or Gram positive bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dao-zheng; MA Huan; WANG Shou-hong; WU Yan; QIN Tie-he; TAN Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock caused by bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and appropriate treatment.Procalcitonin (PCT) has been shown to accurately and quickly distinguish bacteremia from noninfectious inflammatory states in critically severe patients.However,the extent of PCT magnitude elevation according to the Gram stain result in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) at the onset of septic shock caused by bacteremia varies,and has not been clearly elucidated.Methods The medical records of advanced age (non-neutropenic) patient with CHD and septic shock between Mar 2013 and Jun 2015 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram-positive (GP) bacteria or Gram-negative (GN) bacteria were reviewed,and the levels of PCT,C-reactive (CRP) protein and white blood cells count (WBC) in both groups were analyzed.Results 75 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n =40) or GP bacteremia (n =35) were enrolled.PCT levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia [(8.93 ± 17.58) vs.(64.42 ± 58.56) ng/L (P < 0.001)],whereas there was no significant difference in CRP and WBC (P > 0.05).Moreover,a high PCT level was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia in this study population.A PCT level of 19.69 ng/mL yielded a 72.5% sensitivity,a 91.4% specificity,an 8.43 positive likelihood ratio and a 0.30 negative likelihood ratio for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort [AUROCC =0.870 (0.041),95% CI (0.790-0.949)].Conclusion In an elderly patient (non-neutropenic)with CHD and septic shock,GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia (PCT > 19.69 ng/mL).

  12. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two independent cases of bacteremia display increased bacterial fitness and novel immune evasion phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R L; Haigh, R D; Pascoe, B; Sheppard, S K; Price, F; Jenkins, D; Rajakumar, K; Morrissey, J A

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent infection. In this study, the genetic changes and associated phenotypic traits specific to S. aureus persistent bacteremia were identified by comparing temporally dispersed isolates from persistent infections (persistent isolates) originating from two independent persistent S. aureus bacteremia cases with the initial infection isolates and with three resolved S. aureus bacteremia isolates from the same genetic background. Several novel traits were associated specifically with both independent sets of persistent S. aureus isolates compared to both the initial isolates and the isolates from resolved infections (resolved isolates). These traits included (i) increased growth under nutrient-poor conditions; (ii) increased tolerance of iron toxicity; (iii) higher expression of cell surface proteins involved in immune evasion and stress responses; and (iv) attenuated virulence in a Galleria mellonella larva infection model that was not associated with small-colony variation or metabolic dormancy such as had been seen previously. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified different single nucleotide mutations within the mprF genes of all the isolates with the adaptive persistence traits from both independent cases. Overall, our data indicate a novel role for MprF function during development of S. aureus persistence by increasing bacterial fitness and immune evasion.

  13. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Two Independent Cases of Bacteremia Display Increased Bacterial Fitness and Novel Immune Evasion Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R. L.; Haigh, R. D.; Pascoe, B.; Sheppard, S. K.; Price, F.; Jenkins, D.; Rajakumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent infection. In this study, the genetic changes and associated phenotypic traits specific to S. aureus persistent bacteremia were identified by comparing temporally dispersed isolates from persistent infections (persistent isolates) originating from two independent persistent S. aureus bacteremia cases with the initial infection isolates and with three resolved S. aureus bacteremia isolates from the same genetic background. Several novel traits were associated specifically with both independent sets of persistent S. aureus isolates compared to both the initial isolates and the isolates from resolved infections (resolved isolates). These traits included (i) increased growth under nutrient-poor conditions; (ii) increased tolerance of iron toxicity; (iii) higher expression of cell surface proteins involved in immune evasion and stress responses; and (iv) attenuated virulence in a Galleria mellonella larva infection model that was not associated with small-colony variation or metabolic dormancy such as had been seen previously. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified different single nucleotide mutations within the mprF genes of all the isolates with the adaptive persistence traits from both independent cases. Overall, our data indicate a novel role for MprF function during development of S. aureus persistence by increasing bacterial fitness and immune evasion. PMID:26056388

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF BACTEREMIA IN VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNUEMONIA PATIENTS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, GUJARAT- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Modi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP is second most common cause of nosocomial infection. It also increases length of stay in hospital & cost for the patient. The ‘American Thoracic Society’ guidelines for Hospital Acquired Pneumonia recognize that when bronchoscopy is not performed blood cultures may be of value both to isolate an etiologic agent & define severity. Aim: The present study was carried out to measure the prevalence of bacteremia in pt. with VAP. Methodology: In this prospective study 100 patients aged 0-12 years, admitted in ICU & put on ventilator at S.S.G.Hospital, Vadodara from 1st Sep. 2010 to 31st September 2011 were enrolled. The Endotracheal secretion culture & Blood culture were performed after 48hrs of ventilation. The samples were processed as per standard microbiological methods. In case of ET secretion culture, >106 cfu/ml was considered significant for the presence of bacteremia. Result: Of total 100 patients, 85 were Endotracheal secretion culture positive. Blood culture was positive in 38 of these 85 patients. Out of these 38 patients 30 (79% patients showed the same organism as was recovered from the Endotracheal secretion culture. VAP was developed in 85% of patients (85 of 100 & bacteremia was present in 44% of VAP patients but 30 out of 38 (79% cases of bacteremia were of pulmonary origin. Conclusion: The presence of Bacteremia in the patients with Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is considered to have important role for defining the aetiology. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 23-26

  15. Characterization of tryptophanase from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Tansila, Natta; Chomchuen, Piraporn; Phattaranit, Phattiphong; Eangchuan, Supachok; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophanase (Trpase) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme responsible for the production of indole, an important intra- and interspecies signaling molecule in bacteria. In this study, the tnaA gene of Vibrio cholerae coding for VcTrpase was cloned into the pET-20b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) tn5:tnaA. Using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) chromatography, VcTrpase was purified, and it possessed a molecular mass of ∼49 kDa with specific absorption peaks at 330 and 435 nm and a specific activity of 3 U/mg protein. The VcTrpase had an 80 % homology to the Trpase of Haemophilus influenzae and E. coli, but only around 50 % identity to the Trpase of Proteus vulgaris and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The optimum conditions for the enzyme were at pH 9.0 and 45 °C. Recombinant VcTrpase exhibited analogous kinetic reactivity to the EcTrpase with K m and k cat values of 0.612 × 10(-3) M and 5.252 s(-1), respectively. The enzyme catalyzed S-methyl-L-cysteine and S-benzyl-L-cysteine degradation, but not L-phenylalanine and L-serine. Using a site-directed mutagenesis technique, eight residues (Thr52, Tyr74, Arg103, Asp137, Arg230, Lys269, Lys270, and His463) were conserved for maintaining enzyme catalysis. All amino acid substitutions at these sites either eliminated or remarkably diminished Trpase activity. These sites are thus potential targets for the design of drugs to control the V. cholerae Trpase and to further investigate its functions.

  16. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  17. The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae transmembrane transcriptional activator ToxR.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, K A; Schoolnik, G K

    1994-01-01

    A cross-hybridizing DNA fragment to Vibrio cholerae toxR was cloned from the nonpathogenic light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, and three proteins homologous to V. cholerae ToxR, ToxS, and HtpG were deduced from its DNA sequence. V. fischeri ToxR was found to activate a V. cholerae ToxR-regulated promoter, and an antiserum raised against the amino-terminal domain of V. cholerae ToxR cross-reacts V. fischeri ToxR.

  18. Mesalamine treatment mimicking relapse in a child with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iva Hojsak; Ana M Pavić; Sanja Kolaček

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are reports on mesalamine-induced bloody diarrhea mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) relapse, mostly in adults. Methods: Herein we present a case of a child with UC who developed relapse of hemorrhagic colitis related to mesalamine. Results: A 10-year-old girl developed severe symptoms mimicking UC relapse 3 weeks after introduction of mesalamine therapy. After mesalamine was withdrawn, her symptoms improved, but deteriorated again during the challenge of mesalamine despite concomitant use of corticosteroids. Conclusion: This is the fi rst case report on such a young child during the concomitant use of corticosteroids.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Jessina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infections. Clinicians often continue vancomycin started empirically even when methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA strains are identified by culture. However, vancomycin has been associated with poor outcomes such as nephrotoxicity, persistent bacteremia and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vancomycin versus the beta-lactam antibiotics nafcillin and cefazolin among patients with MSSA bacteremia. The outcome of interest for this study was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult in-patients admitted to a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2003 and June 30, 2007 who had a positive blood culture for MSSA and received nafcillin, cefazolin or vancomycin. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent mortality hazards comparing nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin. Similar methods were used to estimate the survival benefits of switching from vancomycin to nafcillin or cefazolin versus leaving patients on vancomycin. Each model included statistical adjustment using propensity scores which contained variables associated with an increased propensity to receive vancomycin. Results 267 patients were included; 14% (38/267 received nafcillin or cefazolin, 51% (135/267 received both vancomycin and either nafcillin or cefazolin, and 35% (94/267 received vancomycin. Thirty (11% died within 30 days. Those receiving nafcillin or cefazolin had 79% lower mortality hazards compared with those who received vancomycin alone (adjusted hazard ratio (HR: 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.09, 0.47. Among the 122 patients who initially received vancomycin empirically, those who were switched to nafcillin or cefazolin (66

  20. Enumeration of viable non-culturable Vibrio cholerae using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2015-08-01

    The well-known human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, can enter a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The differentiation of VBNC cells and nonviable cells is essential for both disease prevention and basic research. Among all the methods for detecting viability, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time PCR is popular because of its specificity, sensitivity, and speed. However, the effect of PMA treatment is not consistent and varies among different species and conditions. In this study, with an initial cell concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/ml, time and dose-effect relationships of different PMA treatments were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR using live cell suspensions, dead cell suspensions and VBNC cell suspensions of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706. The results suggested that a PMA treatment of 20 μM PMA for 20 min was optimal under our conditions. This treatment maximized the suppression of the PCR signal from membrane-compromised dead cells but had little effect on the signal from membrane-intact live cells. In addition to the characteristics of PMA treatment itself, the initial concentration of the targeted bacteria showed a significant negative influence on the stability of PMA-PCR assay in this study. We developed a strategy that mimicked a 1×10(8) CFU/ml cell concentration with dead bacteria of a different bacterial species, the DNA of which cannot be amplified using the real time PCR primers. With this strategy, our optimal approach successfully overcame the impact of low cell density and generated stable and reliable results for counting viable cells of V. cholerae in the VBNC state.

  1. Sequence determination of rRNA genes of pathogenic Vibrio species and whole-cell identification of Vibrio vulnificus with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, R; Ludwig, W; Amann, R I; Schleifer, K H

    1994-04-01

    A comparative analysis of seven new 16S rRNA gene sequences of pathogenic Vibrio species with previously published vibrio sequences confirmed that Vibrio vulnificus represents a group that is not closely related to the core organisms of the genus Vibrio. In addition, we found that V. vulnificus, Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum and Vibrio diazotrophicus branch off separately from the core group. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of V. vulnificus strains belonging to biotypes 1 and 2 revealed that the sequences of all but four biotype 1 strains were identical to each other but slightly different (17 bases) from the sequences of the rest of the V. vulnificus strains investigated. In addition, the sequences of variable regions of the 23S rRNA genes of Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio cholerae, and V. vulnificus C7184 and TW1 were determined, aligned, and compared with all available bacterial 23S rRNA sequences in order to search for specific target sites. As a result, four oligonucleotide probes specific for V. vulnificus were synthesized, and the specificities of these probes were evaluated by dot blot hybridization to membrane-bound RNAs from 21 V. vulnificus strains, 13 strains belonging to other Vibrio species, 61 strains belonging to species that are members of the alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses of the Proteobacteria, and 3 eucaryotic microorganisms. Two probes hybridized with all of the V. vulnificus strains tested, and the other two probes distinguished V. vulnificus biotype 1 strains from all other organisms. In situ identification of V. vulnificus by using tetramethylrhodamine- or fluorescein-labelled oligonucleotides is now possible.

  2. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  3. Biofilm recruitment of Vibrio cholerae by matrix proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperthuy, Marylise; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2015-11-01

    The appearance of bacterial biofilms involves secretion of polysaccharides and proteins that form an extracellular matrix embedding the bacteria. Proteases have also been observed, but their role has remained unclear. Smith and co-workers have now found that proteolysis can contribute to further recruitment of bacteria to Vibrio cholerae biofilms.

  4. Quorum Sensing Enhances the Stress Response in Vibrio cholerae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Adam; Kan, Biao; Zhu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae lives in aquatic environments and causes cholera. Here, we show that quorum sensing enhances V. cholerae viability under certain stress conditions by upregulating the expression of RpoS, and this regulation acts through HapR, suggesting that a quorum-sensing-enhanced stress response plays a role in V. cholerae environmental survival.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequences of 26 Vibrio cholerae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Samit S.; Chande, Aroon T.; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae employs several adaptive mechanisms for environmental persistence, including natural transformation and type VI secretion, creating a reservoir for the spread of disease. Here, we report whole-genome sequences of 26 diverse V. cholerae isolates, significantly increasing the sequence diversity of publicly available V. cholerae genomes. PMID:28007852

  6. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  7. Bacillus cereus fatal bacteremia and apparent association with nosocomial transmission in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretto, E; Barbarini, D; Poletti, F; Marzani, F C; Emmi, V; Marone, P

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus cereus has sometimes been implicated in food poisoning and in opportunistic infections of seriously ill patients. This report describes an unusual case of persistent bacteremia and multiple organ failure associated with B. cereus in a patient admitted to our institution for lung cancer. The patient was undergoing treatment with an antimicrobial agent (imipenem) that was shown to be effective against the micro-organism in vitro. No portal of entry for the strain was detected. After treatment with vancomycin, also shown to be effective in vitro, no clinical improvement was noted and the patient died. Molecular studies showed that the same strain caused an episode of pseudobacteremia in another patient admitted to the same ICU room.

  8. C-reactive protein level as a predictor of mortality in liver disease patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Sine H; Søvsø, Morten; Gradel, Kim O

    2011-01-01

    and no recorded liver disease from the same region and time period. Methods. Retrospective review of medical records with registration of demography, co-morbidity, bacteriological, biochemical and clinical findings, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Results. Mortality...... was significantly higher in patients with chronic liver disease (mortality rate ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.9) and it was correlated to Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores. CRP levels were not different between the three Child-Turcotte-Pugh classes (p = 0.33), and no linear correlation with 30-day mortality...... was observed. Conclusion. Mortality associated with bacteremia is increased in patients with chronic liver disease and it is correlated with Child-Turcotte-Pugh score. The prognostic information of initial CRP levels in patients with chronic liver disease is weak. The clinical management of patients...

  9. Treatment of Haemophilus bacteremia with benzylpenicillin is associated with increased (30-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thønnings Sara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal antibiotic treatment strategies of Haemophilus infections are still needed. Therefore, 30-day case fatality rate (CFR of Haemophilus bacteremia and efficacy of various antibiotic treatment regimes were studied. Methods All episodes of Haemophilus bacteremia in the former Copenhagen County during the period 2000-9 were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical findings and outcome were collected retrospectively from medical records. Results 105 consecutive episodes were identified (median age: 69 years, with only 4 children H. influenzae, and 11% to other Haemophilus species. Pneumonia was the most common primary focus (in 48%, and 58% of the patients had Charlson comorbidity index > 1. Definitive antibiotic therapy was in 26 cases benzylpenicillin, in 12 cases aminopenicillins, in 50 cases cefuroxime and in 16 cases broadspectrum antibiotics, whereas 1 palliative case died without start of therapy. Whereas the use of broadspectrum antibiotics was related to the severity of the disease (admittance to ICU, need for assisted ventilation or hemodialysis, septic shock, no significant difference in clinical features was demonstrated for therapy with benzylpenicillin, aminopenicillin or cefuroxime, except benzylpenicillin was rarely administered to immunosuppressed patients. The CFR was 22% (23/105. The choice of empiric antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with mortality (adequate vs. inadequate treatment: 23% (21/93 vs. 17% (2/12, respectively, P > 0.05. In contrast, definite antibiotic therapy with cefuroxime or aminopenicillins resulted in a significantly lower CFR than treatment with benzylpenicillin (12% (6/50 or 0% (0/12 vs. 39% (10/26, respectively, Log rank test P  0.02. When adjustments were made for other identified risk factors in bivariate logistic regression analysis, treatment with cefuroxime was still were found to be associated with a significantly lower CFR than for

  10. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  11. The first cases of human bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter seifertii in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishii, Kozue; Kikuchi, Ken; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Moriya, Kyoji

    2016-05-01

    Acinetobacter seifertii, a novel species of Acinetobacter, was first reported in 2015. A. seifertii strains were isolated from human clinical specimens (blood, respiratory tract, and ulcer) and hospital environments. Here, we report the first cases of bacteremia caused by A. seifertii in patients with catheter-related bloodstream infection in Japan. The patients favorably recovered, without any complications, after removal of the peripheral intravenous catheters and administration of antibiotics. The pathogens were initially identified as Acinetobacter baumannii, using phenotypic methods and the MicroScan Walkaway System; however, rpoB gene sequence analysis indicated 99.54% similarity to A. seifertii. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that one of the strains was not susceptible to gentamicin and ceftazidime. Our report shows that Acinetobacter species other than A. baumannii can also cause nosocomial infections and that accurate methods for the identification of causative agents should be developed.

  12. Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter ursingii in infants: Reports of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Nurhayat; Kepenekli, Eda Kadayifci; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Akkoc, Gulsen; Demir, Sevliya Ocal; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter ursingii is an aerobic, gram-negative, opportunistic microorganism which is rarely isolated among Acinetobacter species. We present two immunocompetent infants who developed bacteremia due to A. ursingii. The first patient is a two -month- old boy who had been hospitalized in pediatric surgery unit for suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula because of recurrent aspiration pneumonia unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. The second patient is a fourteen -month- old boy with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. A. ursingii was isolated from their blood cultures. They were successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Although A. ursingii has recently been isolated from a clinical specimen; reports of infection with A. ursingii in children are rare. A. ursingii should be kept in mind as an opportunistic microorganism in children.

  13. Occurrence and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species in the aquatic environments of Georgia

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    Tamari eKokashvili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n=657 and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n=938. Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost ninety percent of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus were detected in 62.8%, 37.8%, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs.

  14. Outcomes and Risk Factors for Mortality among Patients Treated with Carbapenems for Klebsiella spp. Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehle, Lauren R.; Cottreau, Jessica M.; Thompson, David J.; Filipek, Rachel L.; O’Donnell, J. Nicholas; Lasco, Todd M.; Mahoney, Monica V.; Hirsch, Elizabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extensive dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae has led to increased resistance among Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are used as a last resort against resistant pathogens, but carbapenemase production can lead to therapy failure. Identification of risk factors for mortality and assessment of current susceptibility breakpoints are valuable for improving patient outcomes. Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and risk factors for mortality among patients treated with carbapenems for Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. Methods Patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2012 with blood cultures positive for Klebsiella spp. who received ≥ 48 hours of carbapenem treatment within 72 hours of positive culture were included in this retrospective study. Patient data were retrieved from electronic medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for 30-day hospital mortality. Results One hundred seven patients were included. The mean patient age was 61.5 years and the median APACHE II score was 13 ± 6.2. Overall, 30-day hospital mortality was 9.3%. After adjusting for confounding variables, 30-day mortality was associated with baseline APACHE II score (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35; P = 0.03), length of stay prior to index culture (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.06; P = 0.04), and carbapenem non-susceptible (imipenem or meropenem MIC > 1 mg/L) infection (OR, 9.08; 95% CI, 1.17–70.51; P = 0.04). Conclusions Baseline severity of illness and length of stay prior to culture were associated with 30-day mortality and should be considered when treating patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. These data support the change in carbapenem breakpoints for Klebsiella species. PMID:26618357

  15. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

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    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  16. Mobilization of endothelial progenitors by recurrent bacteremias with a periodontal pathogen.

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    Moritz Kebschull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal infections are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this link are yet unclear. Here, we evaluate the in vivo effects of bacteremia with a periodontal pathogen on endothelial progenitors, bone marrow-derived cells capable of endothelial regeneration, and delineate the critical pathways for these effects. METHODS: 12-week old C57bl6 wildtype or toll-like receptor (TLR-2 deficient mice were repeatedly intravenously challenged with 10⁹ live P. gingivalis 381 or vehicle. Numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, circulating angiogenic cells, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were measured by FACS/culture. Endothelial function was assessed using isolated organ baths, reendothelization was measured in a carotid injury model. RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels were assessed by ELISA/qPCR. RESULTS: In wildtype mice challenged with intravenous P.gingivalis, numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, CAC, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were strongly increased in peripheral circulation and spleen, whereas Sca1+/flk1+ progenitor numbers in bone marrow decreased. Circulating EPCs were functional, as indicated by improved endothelial function and improved reendothelization in infected mice. The osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was increased after P. gingivalis challenge in the bone marrow niche of wildtype mice and late-outgrowth EPC in vitro. Conversely, in mice deficient in TLR2, no increase in progenitor mobilization or osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was detected. CONCLUSION: Recurrent transient bacteremias, a feature of periodontitis, increase peripheral EPC counts and decrease EPC pools in the bone marrow, thereby possibly reducing overall endothelial regeneration capacity, conceivably explaining pro-atherogenic properties of periodontal infections. These effects are seemingly mediated by toll-like receptor (TLR-2.

  17. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

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    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  18. Trichophyton Schoenleinii-induced widespread tinea corporis mimicking parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, P; Farshi, S; Khosravi, A R; Naraghi, Z S; Chalangari, R

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of extensive tinea corporis in an 80-year-old woman on her forearms, thighs, legs, buttocks and trunk, mimicking parapsoriasis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii, without scalp involvement. Diagnosis of Trichophyton schoenleinii was confirmed by microscopy and mycological culture specimens.

  19. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

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    Mohammad E. Naffaa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with systemic multiorgan disease with overlapping features, the differential diagnosis included infectious diseases, malignancies, and systemic autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We present an unusual case of a young male with B cell lymphoma who presented with symptoms mimicking systemic vasculitis and review the existing literature.

  20. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Netanel; Ben-Itzhak, Ofer; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    In a patient with systemic multiorgan disease with overlapping features, the differential diagnosis included infectious diseases, malignancies, and systemic autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We present an unusual case of a young male with B cell lymphoma who presented with symptoms mimicking systemic vasculitis and review the existing literature. PMID:27293945

  1. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking cutaneous lymphoma in a hyperthyroid cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Elisabeth; Kerr, Moira; Macdonald, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for chronic, localized, swelling and crusting of the left upper lip, weight loss, sporadic vomiting, and focal alopecia between the scapulae was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and regional eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Treatment with methimazole exacerbated an underlying hypersensitivity disorder leading to marked generalized lymphadenopathy that histologically mimicked lymphoma.

  2. Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Jae Min [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea); Sung, Ki Woong [Department of Paediatrics, Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul 135-710 (Korea)

    2003-11-01

    A 4.3-year-old girl with acute leukaemia, who was being treated with chemotherapy (including vincristine), developed paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed diffusely enhancing nerve roots on contrast-enhanced images. Spinal fluid analysis showed a normal protein level. Vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome is thought to be the cause of the MRI abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Primary Papillary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ureter Mimicking Genitourinary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Gulwani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter are rare and account for less than 1% of all malignancies at this site. We report a case of primary papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ureter that clinically mimicked genitourinary tuberculosis. Early diagnosis is important for the better outcome.

  4. Calcified Klatskin tumor mimicking intrahepatic stone: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Han, J K; Lee, H S; Lee, K H; Kim, S H; Kim, K W; Kim, Y J; Kim, H-C; Choi, B I

    2005-01-01

    Calcification is a relatively uncommon manifestation of malignant liver neoplasm. Calcifications in peripheral cholangiocarcinomas but not in Klatskin tumor have been reported. We present a rare case of Klatskin tumor that had dystrophic calcification mimicking a intrahepatic stone in a 65-year-old man.

  5. Osteoid osteoma of the radial styloid mimicking de quervain tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloros, George D; Themistocleous, George S; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Khaldi, Lubna; Efstathopoulos, Dimitrios G; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2007-10-01

    A very unusual location of osteoid osteoma arising in the radial styloid is presented, which strongly mimicked de Quervain tenosynovitis, thereby resulting in the patient undergoing an additional unnecessary operation and a substantial delay of more than 2 years in diagnosis.

  6. Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection presenting as a pulmonary nodule mimicking cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Stephanie L; Reese, Jason M; Mysliwiec, Vincent; Mahlen, Steven D

    2011-07-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is typically isolated from pulmonary sources, presenting as pneumonia in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe a novel clinical presentation of A. xylosoxidans infection presenting as multiple spiculated, pulmonary nodules mimicking cancer for which the patient underwent a wedge resection of the lung for diagnosis and staging of presumptive cancer.

  7. Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm, mimicking hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikelis, Michail; Xifaras, Michail; Magoufis, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Mitsikostas, Dimos Dimitrios

    2005-06-01

    Unruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms most often remain asymptomatic, but they may cause headache or other symptoms or signs. We describe herewith a case of headache attributed to an unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm, clearly mimicking the phenotype of hemicrania continua. Potential pathophysiological explanations and recommendations for recognition of similar cases are discussed.

  8. Design of Vibrio 16S rRNA Gene Specific Primers and Their Application in the Analysis of Seawater Vibrio Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; YANG Guanpin; WANG Hualei; CHEN Jixiang; SHI Xianming; ZOU Guiwei; WEI Qiwei; SUN Xiuqin

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenic species of genus Vibrio cause vibriosis, one of the most prevalent diseases of maricultured animals and seafood consumers. Monitoring their kinetics in the chain of seafood production, processing and consumption is of great importance for food and mariculture safety. In order to enrich Vibrio-representing 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and identify these bacteria further real-timely and synchronously among bacterial flora in the chain, a pair of primers that selectively amplify Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments were designed with their specificities and coverage testified in the analysis of seawater Vibrio community. The specificities and coverage of two primers, VF169 and VR744, were determined theoretically among bacterial 16S rDNAs available in GenBank by using BLAST program and practically by amplifying Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments from seawater DNA. More than 88.3% of sequences in GenBank, which showed identical matches with VR744, belong to Vibrio genus. A total of 33 clones were randomly selected and sequenced. All of the sequences showed their highest similarities to and clustered around those of diverse known Vibrio species. The primers designed are capable of retrieving a wide range of Vibrio 16S rDNA fragments specifically among bacterial flora in seawater, the most important natural environment of seafood cultivation.

  9. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

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    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  10. USA300 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and the Risk of Severe Sepsis: Is USA300 MRSA Associated with More Severe Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Kristen M.; Stine, O. Colin; Johnson, J. Kristie; Perencevich, Eli N.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Lesse, Alan J.; Gordin, Fred M.; Climo, Michael W.; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Objective USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing as a cause of severe community-associated bacteremic infections. We assessed severe sepsis in response to infection in patients with USA300 MRSA compared to non-USA300 MRSA bacteremia. Methods A cohort study was conducted from 1997–2008 comparing sepsis in response to infection in 271 patients with MRSA bacteremia from four VA hospitals. Results Sixty-seven (25%) patients with MRSA bacteremia were USA300 MRSA; 204 (75%) were non-USA300 MRSA. The proportion of MRSA bacteremia caused by USA300 MRSA increased over time (χ2 p<0.0001). Adjusting for age and nosocomial infection, patients with USA300 MRSA bacteremia were more likely to have severe sepsis or septic shock in response to infection than patients with non-USA300 MRSA bacteremia (adjusted Relative Risk=1.82; 95% CI: 1.16–2.87; p=0.01). Conclusions This suggests that patients with USA300 MRSA are more likely to develop severe sepsis in response to their infection, which could be due to host or bacterial differences. PMID:21558047

  11. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  12. Significância clínica, epidemiologia e microbiologia das bacteremias por estafilococos coagulase-negativos em Hospital de Ensino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Rubio F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN são importantes agentes etiológicos das bacteremias hospitalares e freqüentemente considerados como contaminantes de hemoculturas. No período de outubro de 1990 a setembro de 1992, foram estudadas 300 hemoculturas positivas para ECN no Hospital São Paulo, sendo 141 bacteremias consideradas de origem hospitalar. Com o objetivo de diferenciar as bacteremias hospitalares verdadeiras das contaminantes por ECN, foram definidos critérios clínicos e microbiológicos. Apenas 20,6% das bacteremias hospitalares por ECN foram consideradas como verdadeiras. A maior freqüência de recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, a presença de cateter intravascular e a utilização de nutrição parenteral foram achados significativos. Não houve diferença significante quanto a resistência a oxacilina e produção de SLIME entre os ECN isolados das bacteremias verdadeiras e contaminantes. O critério clínico e a positividade da hemocultura até 48 horas após a incubação, utilizados em nossa definição, foram úteis para caracterizar as bacteremias verdadeiras por ECN.

  13. Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL)-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases) and non-ESBL (30 cases) RESULTS: Risk factors associated ...

  14. Mechanisms underlying the additive and redundant Qrr phenotypes in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey A M; Keener, James P

    2014-01-07

    Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae regulate their virulence factors according to the local cell-population density in a regulatory system called quorum sensing. Their quorum sensing systems contain a small RNA (sRNA) circuit to regulate expression of a master transcriptional regulator via multiple quorum regulated RNA (Qrr) and a protein chaperon Hfq. Experiments and genetic analysis show that their respective quorum sensing networks are topologically equivalent and have homologous components, yet they respond differently to the same experimental conditions. In particular, V. harveyi Qrr are additive because all of its Qrr are required to maintain wild-type-like repression of its master transcriptional regulator. Conversely, V. cholerae Qrr are redundant because any of its Qrr is sufficient to repress its master transcriptional regulator. Given the striking similarities between their quorum sensing systems, experimentalists have been unable to identify conclusively the mechanisms behind these phenotypic differences. Nevertheless, the current hypothesis in the literature is that dosage compensation is the mechanism underlying redundancy. In this work, we identify the mechanisms underlying Qrr redundancy using a detailed mathematical model of the V. harveyi and V. cholerae sRNA circuits. We show that there are exactly two different cases underlying Qrr redundancy and that dosage compensation is unnecessary and insufficient to explain Qrr redundancy. Although V. harveyi Qrr are additive when the perturbations in Qrr are large, we predict that V. harveyi and V. cholerae Qrr are redundant when the perturbations in Qrr are small. We argue that the additive and redundant Qrr phenotypes can emerge from parametric differences in the sRNA circuit. In particular, we find that the affinity of Qrr and its expression relative to the master transcriptional regulator determine the level of redundancy in V. harveyi and V. cholerae. Furthermore, the additive and redundant Qrr

  15. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/ SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zoo-plankto...

  16. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Vibrio in bivalves and mud from the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cortés, V; Antillón, F

    1990-11-01

    The presence of enteropathogenic Vibrio was evaluated in 36 sediment samples and 41 bivalve samples obtained from 3 collecting sites in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Isolation methods for halophilic and non halophilic Vibrio were used. The biochemical profiles of the strains obtained revealed the presence of the following isolates: 224 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 V. furnissii, 1 V. damsela and 3 V. fluvialis. V. cholerae was not isolated, due principally to the use of TCBS agar.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i) food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii) food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii) food without oregano oil (the control). The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae). The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p

  18. Detection of gram-negative bacteremia by limulus amebocyte lysate assay: evaluation in a rat model of peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Moulin, G C; Lynch, S E; Hedley-Whyte, J; Broitman, S A

    1985-01-01

    A spectrophotometric Limulus amebocyte lysate assay using lysis filtration and centrifugation has been developed for the detection of gram-negative bacteria in blood. The assay is directed at detection of endotoxin in viable and nonviable bacteria present in the blood-stream and not detection of free endotoxin in plasma. The assay was evaluated in a model of peritonitis in which rats were challenged with an inoculum consisting of sterilized human feces, barium sulfate, and one of eight species of bacteria. This assay was able to detect gram-negative bacteremia due to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the rat model when compared with sham-inoculated uninfected rats. The assay failed to detect bacteremia due to Bacteroides fragilis or Staphylococcus aureus, nor was there a significant rise in absorbance when a pellet containing sterilized feces was implanted in the rat.

  19. No specific time window distinguishes between community-, healthcare-, and hospital-acquired bacteremia, but they are prognostically robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court; Ostergaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We examined whether specific time windows after hospital admission reflected a sharp transition between community and hospital acquisition of bacteremia. We further examined whether different time windows to distinguish between community acquisition, healthcare association (HCA...... mortality pertaining to bacteremia 0, 1, 2, …, 30, and 31 days and later after admission. Next, we assessed whether different admission (0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-7 days) and HCA (30, 90 days) time windows were associated with changes in odds ratio (OR) and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC......) curve for 30-day mortality, adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity, and microorganisms. Results. For 56,606 bacteremic episodes, no sharp transitions were detected on a specific day after admission. Among the 8 combined time windows, ORs for 30-day mortality varied from 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI...

  20. Risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among individuals with and without end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise H; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Benfield, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections among hemodialysis patients and of exit-site infections among peritoneal dialysis patients. However, the risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among end-stage renal disease patients have not been...... delineated. METHODS: In this Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study patients with end-stage renal disease and matched population controls were observed from end-stage renal disease diagnosis/sampling until first episode of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, death, or end of study period....... Staphylococcus aureus positive blood cultures, hospitalization, comorbidity, and case fatality were obtained from nationwide microbiological, clinical, and administrative databases. Incidence rates and risk factors were assessed by regression analysis. RESULTS: The incidence rate of Staphylococcus aureus...

  1. Detection of Vibrio Species Isolated from Ornamental Guppy Fish in Kashan, Isfahan, Iran Fish culturing Pounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Kiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gram-negative bacteria are the most pathogenic bacteria for marine organisms including ornamental fish. Materials and methods: In the present study Vibrio species isolated from ornamental guppy fish in Kashan, Isfahan, Iran fish ponds and were detected according to molecular detection and genetic alignment. Liver, kidney, skin, brain and gill samples were taken from ornamental guppy fish in Kashan, Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured on enriched culture media and purification steps were performed based on microbiological methods. Primary identification was done using biochemical characterization of the isolated bacteria. Molecular detection was done based on amplification of 16SrDNA sequence of Vibrio cholera genome containing ITS (internal transcribed spacer; and sequence alignment of the amplified nucleotides. Results: The isolated bacteria detected as Vibrio spp., including Vibrio cholera (99% sequence similarity, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (up to 90% similarity in the genome sequence. The aquaculture ponds had alkaline water and the amount of five-day BOD was not in a safe range, which are favorable conditions for Vibrio species. Discussion and conclusion: Aquatic organisms in Iran can be carriers of human pathogens such as Vibrio species. The results obtained in the present study and similar investigations should be mentioned in aquaculture healthcare systems.

  2. Enterobacteria and Vibrio from Macrobrachium amazonicum prawn farming in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoel de Arajo Neto Paiva; Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Andr Jalles Monteiro; Jos Jlio Costa Sidrim; Marcos Fbio Gadelha Rocha; Jamille Alencar Sales; Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes; Yago Brito de Ponte; Clia Maria de Souza Sampaio; Jos Luciano Bezerra Moreira; Lucas Pereira de Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the isolation of enterobacteria associated with Macrobrachium amazonicum (M. amazonicum) farming and evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio strains. Methods: Strains were isolated from female M. amazonicum prawns and environmental and hatchery water. Biochemical assays were used to identify bacterial genera and those belonging to the genus Vibrio were submitted to further analyses for species identification, through Vitek 2 automated system and serotyping. Susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The following genera of enterobacteria were recovered: Enterobacter (n=11), Citrobacter (n=10), Proteus (n=2), Serratia (n=2), Kluyvera (n=2), Providencia (n=2), Cedecea (n=1), Escherichia (n=1), Edwardsiella (n=1) and Buttiauxella (n=1). As for Vibrio, three species were identified: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (n=4), Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) (n=1) and Vibrio mimicus (n=1). Vibrio spp. showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values within the susceptibility range established by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute for almost all antibiotics, except for V. vulnificus, which presented intermediate profile to ampicillin. Conclusions:Enterobacteria do not seem to be the most important pathogens associated with M. amazonicum farming, whereas the recovery of Vibrio spp. from larviculture, with emphasis on Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus, deserves special attention due to their role as potentially zoonotic aquaculture-associated pathogens. Furthermore, the intermediate susceptibility of V. vulnificus to ampicillin reflects the importance of monitoring drug use in prawn farming.

  3. VibrioBase: A Model for Next-Generation Genome and Annotation Database Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Woh Choo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the ongoing research of Vibrio spp., a dedicated platform for the Vibrio research community is needed to host the fast-growing amount of genomic data and facilitate the analysis of these data. We present VibrioBase, a useful resource platform, providing all basic features of a sequence database with the addition of unique analysis tools which could be valuable for the Vibrio research community. VibrioBase currently houses a total of 252 Vibrio genomes developed in a user-friendly manner and useful to enable the analysis of these genomic data, particularly in the field of comparative genomics. Besides general data browsing features, VibrioBase offers analysis tools such as BLAST interfaces and JBrowse genome browser. Other important features of this platform include our newly developed in-house tools, the pairwise genome comparison (PGC tool, and pathogenomics profiling tool (PathoProT. The PGC tool is useful in the identification and comparative analysis of two genomes, whereas PathoProT is designed for comparative pathogenomics analysis of Vibrio strains. Both of these tools will enable researchers with little experience in bioinformatics to get meaningful information from Vibrio genomes with ease. We have tested the validity and suitability of these tools and features for use in the next-generation database development.

  4. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism detected by FDG PET/CT in a patient with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Thomassen, Anders; Hess, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    We report incidental FDG PET/CT findings of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient with bacteremia. In this patient, diagnosis of thromboembolism was not considered until FDG PET/CT imaging was performed, and the findings prompted immediate anticoagulant therapy. The role of FDG...... PET/CT in venous thromboembolism is not yet well established, but the potential benefit must be kept in mind when interpreting FDG PET/CT images regardless of the underlying disease....

  5. Comparison of cefazolin versus oxacillin for treatment of complicated bacteremia caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julius; Echevarria, Kelly L; Hughes, Darrel W; Cadena, Jose A; Bowling, Jason E; Lewis, James S

    2014-09-01

    Contrary to prior case reports that described occasional clinical failures with cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, recent studies have demonstrated no difference in outcomes between cefazolin and antistaphylococcal penicillins for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. While promising, these studies described low frequencies of high-inoculum infections, such as endocarditis. This retrospective study compares clinical outcomes of cefazolin versus oxacillin for complicated MSSA bacteremia at two tertiary care hospitals between January 2008 and June 2012. Fifty-nine patients treated with cefazolin and 34 patients treated with oxacillin were included. Osteoarticular (41%) and endovascular (20%) sources were the predominant sites of infection. The rates of clinical cure at the end of therapy were similar between cefazolin and oxacillin (95% versus 88%; P=0.25), but overall failure at 90 days was higher in the oxacillin arm (47% versus 24%; P=0.04). Failures were more likely to have received surgical interventions (63% versus 40%; P=0.05) and to have an osteoarticular source (57% versus 33%; P=0.04). Failures also had a longer duration of bacteremia (7 versus 3 days; P=0.0002), which was the only predictor of failure. Antibiotic selection was not predictive of failure. Rates of adverse drug events were higher in the oxacillin arm (30% versus 3%; P=0.0006), and oxacillin was more frequently discontinued due to adverse drug events (21% versus 3%; P=0.01). Cefazolin appears similar to oxacillin for the treatment of complicated MSSA bacteremia but with significantly improved safety. The higher rates of failure with oxacillin may have been confounded by other patient factors and warrant further investigation.

  6. Rapid detection of blaOXA in carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter radioresistens bacteremia leading to unnecessary antimicrobial administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adam C; Lewis, James S; Pfeiffer, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Rapid molecular techniques to identify resistant pathogens are revolutionizing antibiotic stewardship; however, it is important to recognize the limitations of these techniques. Herein we describe two cases of bacteremia that were both initially identified by genotypic testing as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. and subsequently identified phenotypically as carbapenem-susceptible A. radioresistens. The genotypic results prompted unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic use and infection control concerns.

  7. Dos casos de Enteritis con bacteriemia por Campylobacter jejuni Two cases of enteritis with bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Borda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter es un importante agente causante de enfermedad en el ser humano en nuestro medio. Los casos de bacteriemia ocurren principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos y son debidos frecuentemente a C. fetus. Sin embargo la bacteriemia es un episodio que también se ha observado en pacientes con enteritis por C. jejuni. Referimos dos pacientes con enteritis grave y bacteriemia, ambos con enfermedades concomitantes compatibles con inmunodepresión: uno con síndrome nefrótico de larga data y otro con hepatopatía crónica con cirrosis. Destacamos que los dos casos presentaron hematemesis y uno de ellos, enterorragia. Sugerimos prestar atención a la coloración de Gram durante el subcultivo de los caldos con hemocultivos, en busca de formas características de esta especie, y en ese caso emplear medios de cultivo en microaerofilia a 37 y 42 °C.Campylobacter is an important agent of illness in human beings. Bacteremia occurs principally in the immunocompromissed host and is frequently due to C. fetus. Nevertheless bacteremia also has been observed in patients with enteritis due to C. jejuni. We refer two cases of patients with severe enteritis and bacteremia, both of them with immunosupressive concomitant diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic cirrotic hepatopathy. Both patients presented hemathemesis.

  8. [Bacteremia and endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis in patients with alcoholic hepatopathy without evidence of colonic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroagudín, J F; Lorenzo Solar, M; Martínez Rey, C; Brage Varela, A; Torre, J A; González Quintela, A

    1996-09-01

    The association of Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and endocarditis with colonic pathology, mainly neoplastic, is well known. Its relationship with liver disease without evidence of gastrointestinal disease has been rarely described. To analyze the association between S. bovis infection and liver disease, positive blood cultures for this microorganism in hospitalized patients in the Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Departments from December 1993 until October 1995, have been reviewed. Three cases of S. bovis infection (one bacteremia, two endocarditis) were found. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed in all three patients, with associated hepatitis C virus in one of them. Colonic pathology was excluded by colonoscopy and/or barium enema. Other gastrointestinal disorders were excluded by means of gastroscopy, barium gastrointestinal study and abdominal ultrasonography. Antibiotic therapy was based in betalactamics, with associated aminoglycoside in two cases. One patient needed aortic and mitral valve replacement and another one needed orthotopic liver transplantation. No new gastrointestinal pathology emerged in the follow-up (5-23 months). Cases of S. bovis bacteremia and endocarditis should be screened not also for colonic pathology, but also for liver disease, particularly in alcoholics.

  9. Neither Single nor a Combination of Routine Laboratory Parameters can Discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Loetsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adequate early empiric antibiotic therapy is pivotal for the outcome of patients with bloodstream infections. In clinical practice the use of surrogate laboratory parameters is frequently proposed to predict underlying bacterial pathogens; however there is no clear evidence for this assumption. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory capacity of predictive models consisting of routinely available laboratory parameters to predict the presence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia. Major machine learning algorithms were screened for their capacity to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for discriminating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cases. Data from 23,765 patients with clinically suspected bacteremia were screened and 1,180 bacteremic patients were included in the study. A relative predominance of Gram-negative bacteremia (54.0%), which was more pronounced in females (59.1%), was observed. The final model achieved 0.675 ROC-AUC resulting in 44.57% sensitivity and 79.75% specificity. Various parameters presented a significant difference between both genders. In gender-specific models, the discriminatory potency was slightly improved. The results of this study do not support the use of surrogate laboratory parameters for predicting classes of causative pathogens. In this patient cohort, gender-specific differences in various laboratory parameters were observed, indicating differences in the host response between genders.

  10. The Zymovars of Vibrio cholerae: Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Zymovars analysis also known as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae strains and characterise strains or group of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The mean genetic diversity was 0.339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and non-O1 may be present in several geneticaly diverse (different zymovars strains. Conversely the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup. It is confirmed that the South American epidemic strain differs from the 7th pandemic El Tor strain in locus LAP (leucyl leucyl aminopeptidase. Here it is shown that this rare allele is present in 1 V. mimicus and 4 non-O1 V. cholerae. Non toxigenic O1 strains from South India epidemic share zymovar 14A with the epidemic El Tor from the 7th pandemic, while another group have diverse zymovars. The sucrose negative epidemic strains isolated in French Guiana and Brazil have the same zymovar of the current American epidemic V. cholerae.

  11. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis Bacteremia in patients hospitalized with cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.Cellulitis is an acute inflammation of dermis and subcutaneous tissue, usually complicating wounds, ulcers, or dermatosis. Even though in these cases it is recommended to perform culture from skin and soft tissue samples, the utility of blood cultures remains controversial due to the low frequency of positive results. Here we report the prevalence of bacteremia in patients with cellulitis admitted in our

  12. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindito Sen; Ranjan K Nandi; Amar N Ghosh

    2005-09-01

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of the sodium ions in the medium and then plateaus. The range within which the swimming speed attains saturation is approximately the same at different temperatures.

  13. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M; Wojciechowski, C; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  14. Virulenzregulationskaskade und Chitobiose-Metabolismus in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, der Erreger der gastrointestinalen Erkrankung Cholera, ist ein Gram- negatives, fakultativ anaerobes gekrümmtes Stäbchenbakterium und zugleich der wohl bekannteste Vertreter der Familie Vibrionaceae. Es persisitiert die meiste Zeit in aquatischen Ökosystemen wie Flüssen, Seen oder Meeresküsten, wo das Bakterium meist mit Crustaceen oder anderen Organismen mit Chitin-haltigen Oberflächen assoziiert vorliegt. Über orale Aufnahme kontaminierter Lebensmittel oder von Wasser kann ...

  15. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  16. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850 from Emilia Romagna and Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luca Passalacqua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholerae are responsible of the majority of food-borne human infections by consumption of bivalve shellfish. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the occurrence of these bacteria, and their potential pathogenicity, in the Manila clam R. philippinarum from Emilia Romagna (ER and Sardinia (SR regions, Italy. Isolation was performed on CHROMagarTM vibrio with subculture on (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose Agar and m-modified-cellobiose-polymyxin bcolistin (-CPC Agar. Suspected strains were purified, biochemically characterized and genotyped by simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the specie-specific and pathogenic gene markers: V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP, tdh and trh; V. vulnificus (vvhA, hsp, vcgC, vcgE, CPS operon allele 1, CPS operon allele 2, 16s-rRNA operon allele A, 16s-rRNA operon allele B; V. cholerae (toxRC, hlya, tcpI, tcpA, ctxA, ctxB, stn/sto. Moreover a multiplex PCR was applied to the SR bivalve shellfish, for the simultaneous detection of the three targets directly on homogenate samples, targeting the species-specific gene for V. cholerae (toxRC, V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP and V. vulnificus (vvhA. As a result of phenotyping and genotyping of isolates, bivalve shellfish from ER resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (27.8% and V. vulnificus (10.1%, but negative for V. cholerae. Shellfish from SR resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (30.3%, V. vulnificus (6.1% and V. cholerae (3%. No significant differences emerged between the two areas (P>0.05.

  17. Occurrence of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio Cholerae and Vibrio Vulnificus in the Clam Ruditapes Philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from Emilia Romagna and Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Pier Luca; Zavatta, Emanuele; Bignami, Giorgia; Serraino, Andrea; Serratore, Patrizia

    2016-01-18

    Marine vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholerae are responsible of the majority of food-borne human infections by consumption of bivalve shellfish. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the occurrence of these bacteria, and their potential pathogenicity, in the Manila clam R. philippinarum from Emilia Romagna (ER) and Sardinia (SR) regions, Italy. Isolation was performed on CHROMagar(TM) vibrio with subculture on (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) Agar and m-modified-cellobiose-polymyxin b-colistin (-CPC) Agar. Suspected strains were purified, biochemically characterized and genotyped by simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specie-specific and pathogenic gene markers: V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP, tdh and trh); V. vulnificus (vvhA, hsp, vcgC, vcgE, CPS operon allele 1, CPS operon allele 2, 16s-rRNA operon allele A, 16s-rRNA operon allele B; V. cholerae (toxRC, hlya, tcpI, tcpA, ctxA, ctxB, stn/sto). Moreover a multiplex PCR was applied to the SR bivalve shellfish, for the simultaneous detection of the three targets directly on homogenate samples, targeting the species-specific gene for V. cholerae (toxRC), V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP) and V. vulnificus (vvhA). As a result of phenotyping and genotyping of isolates, bivalve shellfish from ER resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (27.8%) and V. vulnificus (10.1%), but negative for V. cholerae. Shellfish from SR resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (30.3%), V. vulnificus (6.1%) and V. cholerae (3%). No significant differences emerged between the two areas (P>0.05).

  18. Occurrence of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, Vibrio Cholerae and Vibrio Vulnificus in the Clam Ruditapes Philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from Emilia Romagna and Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Pier Luca; Zavatta, Emanuele; Bignami, Giorgia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Marine vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. cholerae are responsible of the majority of food-borne human infections by consumption of bivalve shellfish. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the occurrence of these bacteria, and their potential pathogenicity, in the Manila clam R. philippinarum from Emilia Romagna (ER) and Sardinia (SR) regions, Italy. Isolation was performed on CHROMagarTM vibrio with subculture on (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) Agar and m-modified-cellobiose-polymyxin b-colistin (-CPC) Agar. Suspected strains were purified, biochemically characterized and genotyped by simplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specie-specific and pathogenic gene markers: V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP, tdh and trh); V. vulnificus (vvhA, hsp, vcgC, vcgE, CPS operon allele 1, CPS operon allele 2, 16s-rRNA operon allele A, 16s-rRNA operon allele B; V. cholerae (toxRC, hlya, tcpI, tcpA, ctxA, ctxB, stn/sto). Moreover a multiplex PCR was applied to the SR bivalve shellfish, for the simultaneous detection of the three targets directly on homogenate samples, targeting the species-specific gene for V. cholerae (toxRC), V. parahaemolyticus (toxRP) and V. vulnificus (vvhA). As a result of phenotyping and genotyping of isolates, bivalve shellfish from ER resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (27.8%) and V. vulnificus (10.1%), but negative for V. cholerae. Shellfish from SR resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus (30.3%), V. vulnificus (6.1%) and V. cholerae (3%). No significant differences emerged between the two areas (P>0.05). PMID:27800436

  19. Granuloma inguinale mimicking as squamous cell carcinoma of penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma inguinale (GI is an acquired chronic, slowly progressive, mildly contagious disease of venereal origin, characterized by granulomatous ulceration of the genitalia and neighboring sites, with little or no tendency to spontaneous healing caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. A 55-year-old male presented with fissured, foul smelling, fungating growth over prepuce with phimosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC without lymphadenopathy. It started with painless papulonodular showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, infiltration in dermis, acanthosis and vacuolated macrophages suggestive of GI and not showing any histopathological features of SCC. Patient was successfully treated by giving cotrimoxazole twice a day for 21 days. Here, we presented a case of GI mimicking SCC of penis, which was diagnosed on basis of histopathology and treated with excision followed by medical therapy with cotrimoxazole.

  20. Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil - Case report Infecção por Vibrio vulnificus no sul do Brasil - Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Beenke França

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus.O gênero Vibrio é membro da família Vibrionaceae, e entre as espécies patogênicas, Vibrio vulnificus, bacilo gram negativo lactose positivo, tem sido frequentemente citado. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 39 anos, em uso de medicação imunossupressora, admitido no hospital para transplante hepático. Doze horas após a internação, o paciente evoluiu com febre, mialgias, anúria e placas eritematosas em membros inferiores, com rápido crescimento e evolução proximal. O paciente foi tratado com ceftriaxona, meropenem e oxacilina sem melhora, evoluindo para óbito em 30 horas. Hemocultura mostrou crescimento de bacilo gram negativo posteriormente identificado como Vibrio vulnificus.

  1. Mimicking biological functionality with polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan J.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2016-12-01

    The vast opportunities for biomaterials design and functionality enabled by mimicking nature continue to stretch the limits of imagination. As both biological understanding and engineering capabilities develop, more sophisticated biomedical materials can be synthesized that have multifaceted chemical, biological and physical characteristics designed to achieve specific therapeutic goals. Mimicry is being used in the design of polymers for biomedical applications that are required locally in tissues, systemically throughout the body, and at the interface with tissues.

  2. Localized IgG4-related Cholecystitis Mimicking Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a case of localized IgG4-cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer with focal/segmental type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). In this case, we were unable to exclude a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and thus performed radical cholecystectomy. Type1 AIP is often associated with gallbladder lesions, accompanied by generally diffuse, circumferential thickening of the gallbladder wall. Although localized IgG4-related cholecystitis is extremely rare, differentiating this condition from gallbladder cancer is often very difficult.

  3. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree mimicking a choledochal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemade Bhushan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS of biliary tree is a rare type of mesenchymal neoplasm diagnosed at surgery or by preoperative liver biopsy. We present a one year eight months old child who mimicked a choledochal cyst and was eventually treated with surgery, chemotherapy with IRS IV protocol and adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy to surgical bed with 6 MV photons to a dose of 5040cGy in 28 fractions.

  4. Osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Raj Gopinathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteofibrous dysplasia or ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion of childhood, commonly described in the maxilla and the mandible. Among long bones, it usually presents in the tibia as a painless swelling or anterior bowing. Ossifying fibroma of clavicle has never been reported in English literature, to the best of our knowledge. Here, we would like to present an unusual case of osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis.

  5. Acutely calcified hematoma mimicking a displaced medial epicondyle fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Addie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an interesting and unusual case of an acutely calcified pin-site infection hematoma mimicking a displaced cartilaginous medial epicondyle, in a child with a Gartland type III fracture. The treatment of such pathology could be confusing and may interfere with the correct clinical decision-making process. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of such a case.

  6. Osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Karikal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an osteolytic nasal polyp of the maxillary sinus with clinical features and radiographic features mimicking that of a malignancy. Maxillary sinusitis being a common inflammatory condition progressed to cause destruction of the maxillary bone and spread into the facial soft tissue, which is quite a rare occurrence. We have discussed in detail the clinical, radiological, histopathology and management of this uncommon presentation of a common case.

  7. Spitz Nevus on the Earlobe Mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Özmen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spitz nevus is a benign, usually acquired melanocytic tumor which is seen especially in children and adolescents. It usually appears as a pink or light-brown, smooth-surfaced, well-circumscribed and asymptomatic papulonodular lesion. A large group of dermatologic disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Herein we present a case of Spitz nevus with a two month history of a nodular lesion on the earlobe which mimicks cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  8. Sciatic Hernia Mimicking Perianal Abscess in a Cirrhotic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Andraus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal hernias are very frequent in cirrhotic patients with ascites. The hernias usually present as umbilical, inguinal, incisional, or femoral. However, these patients can also develop uncommon hernias such as pelvic hernias because of pelvic floor weakness and high abdominal pressure due to ascites. We present the first case of a cirrhotic patient with ascites that developed a giant sciatic hernia mimicking a perianal abscess.

  9. Tuberculosis of the skull mimicking a bony tumor

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of calvarial tuberculosis mimicking a solitary bone tumor, which was surgically removed. A 52-year-old female presented with a right forehead swelling, which gradually enlarged over the course of 2 years, with no symptoms or raised intracranial pressure or neurological deficits. Plain and contrast-enhanced brain computed tomography scans were done, revealing a punched-out lesion of the right frontal bone, with a nonenhancing lytic mass. With an initial diagnosis of an i...

  10. A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwaljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder.

  11. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  12. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  13. Overexpression and export of Vibrio anguillarum metalloprotease in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fengli; Chi Zhenming; Chen Jixiang; Wu Longfei; Liang Likun

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum metalloprotease, an extracellular zinc metalloprotease involved in the virulence mechanism of Vibrio anguillarum, is synthesized from the empA gene as a 611-residue precursor and naturally secreted via Sec secretion pathway in Vibrio anguillarum. In this study, heterologous expression of the empA gene encoding metallopmtease and export of the recombinant metalloprotease in Escherichia coliwere examined. The empA gene was subcloned into pBAD24 with arabinose promoter and sequenced. The sequence encoded a polypeptide(611 amino acids)consisting of four domains: a signal peptide, an Nterminal propeptide, a mature region and a C-terminal propeptide. The empA gene inserted in plasmid pBAD24 was overexpressed in TOP10 strain of E. Coli after arabinose induction. The 36kDa polypeptide of the recombinant metalloprotease as the mature protease was further confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. It was found that recombinant metalloprotease with the EmpA activity and antigenicity wasexported into the periplasm of Escherichia coli cells via Sec translocation pathway, whereas it was secreted into extracellular environments in V. Anguillarum. The results imply that the expression, export and processing mechanism of the protein in E. Coli are similar to those in V. Anguillarum.

  14. Heparin-Mimicking Polymers: Synthesis and Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Heparin is a naturally occurring, highly sulfated polysaccharide that plays a critical role in a range of different biological processes. Therapeutically, it is mostly commonly used as an injectable solution as an anticoagulant for a variety of indications, although it has also been employed in other forms such as coatings on various biomedical devices. Due to the diverse functions of this polysaccharide in the body, including anticoagulation, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation, and protein stabilization, and drawbacks of its use, analogous heparin-mimicking materials are also widely studied for therapeutic applications. This review focuses on one type of these materials, namely, synthetic heparin-mimicking polymers. Utilization of these polymers provides significant benefits compared to heparin, including enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects as a result of fine-tuning heparin-binding motifs and other molecular characteristics. The major types of the various polymers are summarized, as well as their applications. Because development of a broader range of heparin-mimicking materials would further expand the impact of these polymers in the treatment of various diseases, future directions are also discussed. PMID:27739666

  15. Relationship between time to positivity of blood culture with clinical characteristics and hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Shi-ning; BO Jian; NING Yong-zhong; ZHAO Yu; LU Xiao-lin; YANG Ji-yong; ZHU Xi; YAO Gai-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that the time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture is a parameter correlating with degree of the bacteremia and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli (E.co/i). The objective of this study was to further investigate the diagnostic and prognostic power of using TTP to predict E. coli bacteremia.Methods A retrospective cohort study at two university hospitals was conducted. We retrieved all the medical records of those with E. coli bloodstream infection according to the records generated by their microbiology departments.Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical factors correlating with fast bacterial growth and significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality.Results Medical records of 353 episodes of E. coli bacteremia diagnosed between January 1,2007 and December 31,2009 were retrieved in the investigation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the TTP≤7 hours group is associated with higher incidence of active malignancies (41.7% vs. 27.2%, P=0.010), neutropenia (30% vs.14.3%, P=0.007), primary bacteremia (55.0% vs. 33.4%, P=0.002), and poorer outcome (hospital mortality 43.3% vs.11.9%, P=0.000) than the TTP >7 hours group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant predictors of hospital mortality, in rank order from high to low, were TTP (for TTP <7 hours, odds ratio (OR): 4.886; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.572-9.283; P=0.000),neutropenia (OR: 2.800; 95% CI:1.428-5.490; P=0.003), comedication of steroids or immunosuppressive agents (OR:2.670; 95% CI: 0.971-7.342; P=0.057).Conclusions Incidence of malignancies, neutropenia and primary bacterernia correlates with fast bacterial growth in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The parameter of TTP has been identified as a variable of highest correlation to hospital mortality and therefore can be potentially utilized as a mortality prognostic marker.

  16. Cross-protection against Vibrio cholerae infection by monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Cha, Sun-Shin; Lee, Chang-Seop; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Woo, Hye Ryun; Chung, Kyung Min

    2016-11-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. These results generate new insight into the development of broadly protective mAbs and/or vaccines against Vibrio species with MARTX toxins.

  17. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    . The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA......-DNA hybridization and multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 concatenated housekeeping genes. SNP analysis clustered 34/38 genomes within their accepted species. The pangenomic and SNP trees showed that V. harveyi is the most conserved of the four species studied and V. campbellii may be divided into at least three...

  18. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Kirchberger, Paul C; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2015-10-09

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86-87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93-94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment.

  19. Bacteremia due to anaerobic bacteria: epidemiology in a northern Bari Hospital, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaerobic bacteria are part of the commensal bacterial flora of skin and mucosae. Iatrogenic and pathological conditions altering this commensal relationship cause life-threatening diseases. Materials and Methods. We analysed the blood cultures sent to the microbiology of our hospital between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013 to measure the frequency of bacteraemia caused by anaerobia. We examined 3138 vials of blood cultures for anaerobia, inoculated following in-house standard procedures. The colonies grown in absence of air were subjected to biochemical analysis. The MICs of metronidazole for 23 of the 26 organisms was tested. Results. Twelve bacteria of the Bacteroides genus were identified, 9 Propionibacterium acnes, 1 Peptosctreptococcus micros, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Prevotella oralis, 1 Eubacterium lentum. Conclusions. The analysis of the results suggests that the incidence of cultures positive to anaerobia was constant across the years. We note that advanced age, altered mucocutaneous tropism, alterations to the oral and intestinal bacterial flora intensify the risk of anaerobial pathogenicity. The analysis of the metronidazole-determined MIC suggests that the intestinal anaerobic flora responds well to therapy and prophylaxis with Metronidazole, while the anaerobic bacteria residing on skin and other mucosae are resistant. It is however hard to determine the clinical impact of anaerobic bacteremiae and their effect on the outcome of the patient, due to the scarcity of available clinical data.

  20. High frequency of Acinetobacter soli among Acinetobacter isolates causing bacteremia at a tertiary hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kanamori, Hajime; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Gu, Yoshiaki; Tokuda, Koichi; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is generally the most frequently isolated Acinetobacter species. Sequence analysis techniques allow reliable identification of Acinetobacter isolates at the species level. Forty-eight clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. were obtained from blood cultures at Tohoku University Hospital. These isolates were identified at the species level by partial sequencing of the RNA polymerase β-subunit (rpoB), 16S rRNA, and gyrB genes. Then further characterization was done by using the PCR for detection of OXA-type β-lactamase gene clusters, metallo-β-lactamases, and carO genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing were also performed. The most frequent isolate was Acinetobacter soli (27.1%). Six of the 13 A. soli isolates were carbapenem nonsusceptible, and all of these isolates produced IMP-1. PFGE revealed that the 13 A. soli isolates were divided into 8 clusters. This study demonstrated that A. soli accounted for a high proportion of Acinetobacter isolates causing bacteremia at a Japanese tertiary hospital. Non-A. baumannii species were identified more frequently than A. baumannii and carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates were found among the non-A. baumannii strains. These results emphasize the importance of performing epidemiological investigations of Acinetobacter species.

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Meningitis- and Bacteremia-Causing Pneumococci Identifies a Common Core Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulohoma, Benard W; Cornick, Jennifer E; Chaguza, Chrispin; Yalcin, Feyruz; Harris, Simon R; Gray, Katherine J; Kiran, Anmol M; Molyneux, Elizabeth; French, Neil; Parkhill, Julian; Faragher, Brian E; Everett, Dean B; Bentley, Stephen D; Heyderman, Robert S

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a nasopharyngeal commensal that occasionally invades normally sterile sites to cause bloodstream infection and meningitis. Although the pneumococcal population structure and evolutionary genetics are well defined, it is not clear whether pneumococci that cause meningitis are genetically distinct from those that do not. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing of 140 isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infection (n = 70) and meningitis (n = 70) to compare their genetic contents. By fitting a double-exponential decaying-function model, we show that these isolates share a core of 1,427 genes (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,425 to 1,435 genes) and that there is no difference in the core genome or accessory gene content from these disease manifestations. Gene presence/absence alone therefore does not explain the virulence behavior of pneumococci that reach the meninges. Our analysis, however, supports the requirement of a range of previously described virulence factors and vaccine candidates for both meningitis- and bacteremia-causing pneumococci. This high-resolution view suggests that, despite considerable competency for genetic exchange, all pneumococci are under considerable pressure to retain key components advantageous for colonization and transmission and that these components are essential for access to and survival in sterile sites.

  2. Factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients with suspected bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildi, K; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Dell-Kuster, S; Frei, R; Bucher, H C; Nüesch, R

    2011-12-01

    Blood cultures are routinely taken in outpatients with fever and suspected bacterial infections. However, in the majority of cases, they are not informative and of limited value for clinical decision making. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients presenting to an outpatient clinic and emergency room. This was a case-control study of all outpatients with positive blood cultures from January 1, 2006 to October 31, 2007 and matched control patients with negative blood cultures in the same time period. Microbiology results and medical charts were reviewed to determine factors associated with positive blood cultures. The presence of a systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) (OR 2.7, 95% Cl 1.0-7.2) and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.1 per 10 mg/l, 95% Cl 1.0-1.2) were the most powerful predictive values for the development of positive blood cultures. In positive cases serum albumin was lower (35 mg/l versus 39 mg/l) than in controls. SIRS, increasing CRP and low albumin were associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients. With simple clinical assessment and few laboratory tests indicative of infection, it is possible to define a group at higher risk for bacteremia in outpatients.

  3. Onderzoek pathogene vibrio soorten in Nederlandse mosselen en oesters in augustus en september 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van de hoge weerstemperatuur in augustus 2003 zijn in de kweek- en verwatergebieden van mosselen en oesters in Nederland enkele monsters onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van voor de mens pathogene vibrio soorten. In geen van de 18 monsters is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, vulnificus of chole

  4. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some lactoferrin

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of vibrios and related species by means of atpA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Swings, Jean

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the use of atpA gene sequences as alternative phylogenetic and identification markers for vibrios. A fragment of 1322 bp (corresponding to approximately 88% of the coding region) was analysed in 151 strains of vibrios. The relationships observed were in agreement with the phylogeny inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. For instance, the Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio halioticoli, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio splendidus species groups appeared in the atpA gene phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that these groups may be considered as separate genera within the current Vibrio genus. Overall, atpA gene sequences appeared to be more discriminatory for species differentiation than 16S rRNA gene sequences. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97% corresponded to atpA gene sequences similarities above 80%. The intraspecies variation in the atpA gene sequence was about 99% sequence similarity. The results showed clearly that atpA gene sequences are a suitable alternative for the identification and phylogenetic study of vibrios.

  6. Detection and differentiation of Vibrio spp. in seafood and fish samples with cultural and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, U; Colditz, J; Thärigen, D; Kleih, W; Höller, C; Busch, U

    2010-09-01

    Vibrio spp. as natural inhabitants of sea- and brackwater of both tropical and temperate regions of the world are commonly found in different kinds of seafood. Even among the three main human pathogenic species Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus most of the isolates from seafood do not carry the different virulence factors responsible for foodborne infections. Therefore, the risk assessment of Vibrio spp. in seafood is currently based mainly on the knowledge of the genetic setting of foodborne strains. For the detection and differentiation of Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae and V. vulnificus) three probe-based multiplex real-time PCR systems were developed and validated. One real-time PCR system simultaneously detects V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae and V. vulnificus on genus level combined with an Internal Amplification Control. The detection limit for the system was between 1cfu/mL and 10cfu/mL in pure culture and in different artificially contaminated sample material, e. g. prawns or Alaska Pollock. The other two PCR systems were implemented for the detection of different virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae isolates. The molecular detection systems were applied for the investigation of 338 raw and cooked seafood and fish samples for the presence of the different Vibrio spp. The collected data indicate that the PCR systems can be useful for rapid detection and differentiation of Vibrio spp. in different food matrices as basis for a preventive consumer protection policy.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Bacterial Pathogen Vibrio sp. Strain B183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Harold J; Schott, Eric J

    2014-09-18

    We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain B183, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from shellfish that causes mortality in larval mariculture. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of its virulence mechanisms and add to our knowledge of Vibrio sp. diversity and evolution.

  8. Prior colonization is associated with increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in cancer patients☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Michael; Sorkin, John D.; Netzer, Giora; Johnson, Jennifer K.; Shardell, Michelle; Thom, Kerri A.; Harris, Anthony D.; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that prior colonization with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is associated with increased risk of subsequent antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia among cancer patients. We performed a matched case-control study. Cases were cancer patients with a blood culture positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Controls were cancer patients with a blood culture not positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was defined as any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in surveillance or non-sterile-site cultures obtained 2–365 days before the bacteremia. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 cases and 27 (8%) of 323 matched controls were previously colonized by any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was strongly associated with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5–14.7) after controlling for recent treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.8). In these patients with suspected bacteremia, prior cultures may predict increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:24582582

  9. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive

  10. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  11. Dangerous hitchhikers? Evidence for potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. on microplastic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Inga V; Kirmizi, Sidika; Wichels, Antje; Garin-Fernandez, Alexa; Erler, Rene; Löder, Martin; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    The taxonomic composition of biofilms on marine microplastics is widely unknown. Recent sequencing results indicate that potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. might be present on floating microplastics. Hence, these particles might function as vectors for the dispersal of pathogens. Microplastics and water samples collected in the North and Baltic Sea were subjected to selective enrichment for pathogenic Vibrio species. Bacterial colonies were isolated from CHROMagar™Vibrio and assigned to Vibrio spp. on the species level by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). Respective polymers were identified by ATR FT-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy). We discovered potentially pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus on a number of microplastic particles, e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene from North/Baltic Sea. This study confirms the indicated occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on marine microplastics and highlights the urgent need for detailed biogeographical analyses of marine microplastics.

  12. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using oligonucleotide distributions with application to Vibrio genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Nag; Raghunath Chatterjee; Keya Chaudhuri; Probal Chaudhuri

    2006-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and several other related Vibrio species show distinctly similar two-chromosomal genome organization. However, the modes of pathogenicity are very different among these species, and this is largely attributed to externally acquired genetic elements. We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identified by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands. After statistical determination of the genomic islands, we investigate their gene contents and their possible association with the pathogenic behaviour of the corresponding Vibrio species. These investigations lead to observations that are of evolutionary and biological significance.

  13. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  14. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  15. VibrioBase: A MALDI-TOF MS database for fast identification of Vibrio spp. that are potentially pathogenic in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, René; Wichels, Antje; Heinemeyer, Ernst-August; Hauk, Gerhard; Hippelein, Martin; Reyes, Nadja Torres; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-02-01

    Mesophilic marine bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae, specifically V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are considered to cause severe illness in humans. Due to climate-change-driven temperature increases, higher Vibrio abundances and infections are predicted for Northern Europe, which in turn necessitates environmental surveillance programs to evaluate this risk. We propose that whole-cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is a promising tool for the fast and reliable species classification of environmental isolates. Because the reference database does not contain sufficient Vibrio spectra we generated the VibrioBase database in this study. Mass spectrometric data were generated from 997 largely environmental strains and filed in this new database. MALDI-TOF MS clusters were assigned based on the species classification obtained by analysis of partial rpoB (RNA polymerase beta-subunit) sequences. The affiliation of strains to species-specific clusters was consistent in 97% of all cases using both approaches, and the extended VibrioBase generated more specific species identifications with higher matching scores compared to the commercially available database. Therefore, we have made the VibrioBase database freely accessible, which paves the way for detailed risk assessment studies of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. from marine environments.

  16. Serum level of YKL-40 is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and is associated with the outcome of the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Gitte; Ostergaard, Christian; Weis, Nina

    2002-01-01

    YKL40 is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum YKL-40 levels in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia...... and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age-matched healthy subjects...... prognostic factor of survival in logistic multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.002). In conclusion, high serum levels of YKL40 indicated a poorer prognosis for patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia....

  17. Serum Level of YKL-40 is Elevated in Patients with Streptococcus Pneumonial Bacteremia and is Associated with the Outcome of the Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, G; Østergaard, C; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2002-01-01

    YKL40 is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum YKL-40 levels in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia...... and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age-matched healthy subjects...... prognostic factor of survival in logistic multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.002). In conclusion, high serum levels of YKL40 indicated a poorer prognosis for patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia....

  18. [Consensus document for the treatment of bacteremia and endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus. Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiol, Francisco; Aguado, José María; Pascual, Alvaro; Pujol, Miquel; Almirante, Benito; Miró, José María; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, María de Los Angeles; Soriano, Alex; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Vallés, Jordi; Palomar, Mercedes; Tornos, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-02-01

    Bacteremia and endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are prevalent and clinically important. The rise in MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis is related with the increasing use of venous catheters and other vascular procedures. Glycopeptides have been the reference drugs for treating these infections. Unfortunately their activity is not completely satisfactory, particularly against MRSA strains with MICs > 1 microg/mL. The development of new antibiotics, such as linezolid and daptomycin, and the promise of future compounds (dalvabancin, ceftobiprole and telavancin) may change the expectatives in this field.The principal aim of this consensus document was to formulate several recommendations to improve the outcome of MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis, based on the latest reported scientific evidence. This document specifically analyzes the approach for three clinical situations: venous catheter-related bacteremia, persistent bacteremia, and infective endocarditis due to MRSA.

  19. Identification of Pathogenic Vibrio Species by Multilocus PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to Aquatic Environments of the Former Soviet Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A... Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA...members include Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera , and Vibrio para- haemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which have been implicated in

  20. Symptomatic ecchordosis physaliphora mimicking as an intracranial arachnoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush; Nanda, Anil

    2016-06-01

    Ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) is a rare, benign tumor derived from the notochordal remnants. Usually slow growing with an indolent course, most cases are incidental findings on autopsy. Limited data exists on symptomatic patients with EP. Diagnosis mainly relies on correlating histopathologic findings confirming the notochordal elements with MRI. We herein present a middle aged woman with symptomatic EP in the pre-pontine cistern that mimicked an arachnoid cyst on preoperative scans. Additionally, we emphasize the pathological and radiological characteristics of EP that could aid in prompt diagnosis of the lesion with emphasis on considering EP as a differential for mass lesions localized in the pre-pontine cistern.