WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacteremia mimicking vibrio

  1. Monomicrobial Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia in cirrhotic adults in southern Taiwan: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syue, Ling-Shan; Chen, Po-Lin; Wu, Chi-Jung; Lee, Nan-Yao; Lee, Ching-Chi; Li, Chia-Wen; Li, Ming-Chi; Tang, Hung-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas and Vibrio are important water-borne pathogens causing substantial morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients in Taiwan, but the differences in clinical manifestations of Aeromonas and Vibrio bacteremia have not been reported in detail. From January 2003 to September 2013, cirrhotic patients with monomicrobial Aeromonas or Vibrio bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan were included in this study. The study population consisted of 77 cirrhotic patients with Aeromonas bacteremia and 48 patients with Vibrio bacteremia. Both pathogens clustered during the summer season; Vibrio bacteremia was more correlated with higher temperatures (Vibrio: r(2) = 0.95, p Vibrio bacteremia mainly occurred in mildly or moderately decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A and B: 45.8% vs. 20.8%, p = 0.003), and caused more soft-tissue infections (31.3% vs. 5.2%; p Vibrio and Aeromonas bacteremia (14.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.96), but those with Vibrio bacteremia underwent a fulminant course, as evidenced by a shorter time from bacteremia onset to death (3.1 days vs. 8.2 days, p = 0.04). In cirrhotic patients, bacteremia caused by Aeromonas and Vibrio species clustered in summer months and caused similar mortality, but Vibrio bacteremia led to a more severe and fulminant sepsis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells lining the heart valves and the heart ( endocarditis ) Bones ( osteomyelitis ) Joints ( infectious arthritis ) In bacteremia, bacteria ... from the infected site, causing bacteremia. In some bacterial infections , such as pneumonia and skin abscesses , bacteria ...

  3. Fatal bacteremia due to immotile Vibrio cholerae serogroup O21 in Vientiane, Laos – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Catrin E

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infections with non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from Laos. Elsewhere, non cholera-toxin producing, non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae have been described from blood cultures and ascitic fluid, although they are exceedingly rare isolates. Case presentation We describe a farmer who died with Vibrio cholerae O21 bacteremia and peritonitis in Vientiane, Laos, after eating partially cooked apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata and mussels (Ligumia species. The cultured V. cholerae were non-motile. PCR detected ompW and toxR gene regions but not the ctxA, ompU, omp K and TCP gene regions. Although the organisms lacked flagellae on scanning electron microscopy, they possessed the Vibrio flagellin flaA gene. Conclusion Severe bacteremic non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae is reported from Laos. The organisms were unusual in being non-motile. They possessed the Vibrio flagellin flaA gene. Further research to determine the reasons for the non-motility and virulence is required.

  4. Synthetic peptides mimicking lipopolysaccharide as a potential vaccine candidates against Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Fatemeh Mohammad Pour; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhea caused mainly by Gram-negative marine habitant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1. Cholera vaccination is limited mainly to developed countries, due to the cumbersome and expensive task of vaccine production. In the present work, the aim was to study the immunogenicity of the synthetic mimotopes through two different routes of injection and oral administration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the immunogenic components in Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot be used as a vaccine candidate, due to its high toxic effect. Three phage-displayed selected peptides, with high affinity to anti-LPS VHH tested in our previous study, were chemically synthesized and used as a potential vaccine candidate. In order to enhance the antigenic properties and safe delivery, these peptides were conjugated to BSA as a carrier and encapsulated with PLGA. Peptides were injected intra-peritoneally or administered orally, alone or in combined form. Mice sera and feces were collected for assessment of humoral and mucosal antibody titers, respectively. ELISA plates were coated with mimotope conjugates and V. cholerae , Shigella sonnei and ETEC were used as target antigens. Antibody titer was measured by adding IgG and IgA as primary antibodies. Mice receiving three selected synthetic peptide conjugates (individually or in combination) showed higher antibody titer compared to control groups. The mice immunized with synthetic peptides were protected against more than 15 LD50 of V. cholerae. These peptides are mimicking LPS and can potentially act as vaccine candidates against V. cholerae.

  5. Bacteriemia por Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 en un paciente en hemodiálisis crónica Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteremia in a chronic hemodialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela S. Zárate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139 es un agente poco frecuente como causal de bacteriemias y no hay informes que documenten su presencia en pacientes en hemodiálisis crónica. Se describe el caso de una paciente en hemodiálisis crónica que presentó un cuadro de sepsis, por lo cual inició un tratamiento con vancomicina y ceftacidima. Al cabo de seis horas y media de incubación en el sistema BACT/ALERT de hemocultivo, se evidenció la presencia de bacilos curvos gram negativos, posteriormente identificados como Vibrio cholerae mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el uso de los kits API 20 NE y VITEK 2. La evaluación del serogrupo y de la presencia de factores de patogenicidad, realizada en el laboratorio de referencia, determinó que el microorganismo hallado pertenecía al serogrupo no-O1, no-O139. No se detectó la toxina de cólera, tampoco el factor de colonización ni la toxina termoestable. El aislamiento presentó sensibilidad frente a ampicilina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina, tetraciclina, ceftacidima y cefotaxima por el método de difusión con discos y por VITEK 2. La paciente cumplió 14 días de tratamiento con ceftacidima endovenosa, con evolución favorable.Non-O1, and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an infrequent cause of bacteremia. There are no reports of such bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients. This work describes the case of a chronic hemodialysis patient that had an episode of septicemia associated with dialysis. Blood cultures were obtained and treatment was begun with vancomycin and ceftazidime. After 6.5 hours of incubation in the Bact/Alert system there is evidence of gram-negative curved bacilli that were identified as Vibrio cholerae by conventional biochemical tests, API 20 NE and the VITEK 2 system. This microorganism was sent to the reference laboratory for evaluation of serogroup and virulence factors and was identified as belonging to the non-O1 and non-O139 serogroup. The cholera

  6. Aeromonas caviae mimicking Vibrio cholerae infectious enteropathy in a cholera-endemic region with possible public health consequences: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwetselaar, Marco; Nyombi, Balthazar; Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; Chamba, Nyasatu; Dekker, Marieke C J; Kilonzo, Kajiru G; Urasa, Sarah J; Mmbaga, Blandina T

    2018-03-17

    Aeromonas species have been documented to yield false positive results in microbiological tests for Vibrio cholerae. They share many biochemical properties with Vibrio species, with which they were jointly classified in the family Vibrionaceae until genotypic information provided new insights. Aeromonas species are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections, albeit with great apparent variation in pathogenicity and virulence both between and within species of the genus. We report two cases with clinically mild cholera-like symptoms, at a time when a cholera outbreak was unfolding in other regions of the country (Tanzania). These are the first cases to be reported with Aeromonas mimicking cholera in our area. Two patients were admitted at the isolation unit designated by the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre for emerging infectious diseases and provided informed consent about regular stool analysis and culture under the provisional diagnosis of gastroenteritis. The first patient was a 23-year-old black African woman with a 2-day history of watery diarrhea and vomiting associated with a temperature of 39.7 °C. The second patient was a 47-year-old black African woman with a 2-day history of diarrhea and vomiting with a temperature of 37.7 °C, and she was hemodynamically stable. Both patients were isolated in a specific area for infection control and treated with fluids and orally administered rehydration solution, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and paracetamol. Stool culture was done. The isolated colonies were reported as V. cholerae and transferred to the research laboratory of Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute for confirmation using whole genome sequencing. Microbiological testing determined colonies isolated from stool to be V. cholerae, and warranted the conclusion "presumptive cholera." Whole genome sequencing, however, established the presence of Aeromonas caviae rather than V. cholerae. The co-existence of Aeromonas species with V

  7. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  8. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  9. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particula...

  10. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular...... attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively...

  11. Streptococcus bovis bacteremia and underlying gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, H W; Roberts, R B

    1978-07-01

    Twenty-six adults with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and ten with bacteremia alone were studied to determine possible portals of entry. Of 36 patients (17 with endocarditis, eight with bacteremia alone), 25 had gastrointestinal lesions or manipulation. In 22, the gastrointestinal tract appeared to be the source of S bovis bacteremia. Four patients had either carcinoma of the colon (two) or potentially malignant villous adenomas (two) when first seen because of S bovis bacteremia. None of these, nor two other patients with benign colonic polyps, had bowel-related symptoms or signs prior to admission. Since S bovis is a normal intestinal tract inhabitant, bacteremia may frequently be associated with bowel lesions. Streptococcus bovis bacteremia may provide an early clue to the presence of serious and clinically unexpected gastrointestinal disease. Gastrointestinal tract evaluation should be part of S bovis bacteremia patient management, with or without endocarditis.

  12. Bacteremia and candidemia in hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1988-01-01

    171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with gran......171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39...

  13. Septic Shock due to Vibrio alginolyticus in a Cirrhotic Patient: The First Case in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Young; Moon, Soo-Youn; Lee, Sang-Oh; Yang, Hee-Young; Lee, Hee-Joo; Lee, Mi Suk

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of septic shock due to Vibrio alginolyticus presenting with fever and bilateral leg pain. Despite intensive management with antibiotics and inotropic agents, the patient died from septic shock 1 day after hospitalization. V. alginolyticus was isolated from both leg wounds and a blood culture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of V. alginolyticus bacteremia in Korea.

  14. Vibrio injenensis sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jayoung; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Yeseul; Park, In-Soon; Kim, Hongik; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kang, Seok-Seong; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio species are well known as motile, mostly oxidase-positive, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. They are abundant in aquatic environments and are a common cause of human infections including diarrhea, soft tissue diseases, and bacteremia. Here, two Gram-negative bacteria, designated M12-1144 T and M12-1181, were isolated from human clinical specimens and identified using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic study based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belong to the genus Vibrio, and are closely related to Vibrio metschnikovii KCTC 32284 T (98.3%) and Vibrio cincinnatiensis KCTC 2733 T (97.8%). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c/C 16:1 ω6c, 38.0%), C 16:0 (23.0%), and summed feature 8 (C 18:1 ω7c or C 18:1 ω6c, 19.3%) and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 44.1 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between the two newly isolated strains and V. metschnikovii KCTC 32284 T and V. cincinnatiensis KCTC 2733 T was between 42.6 to 47.5%. The similarities of genome-to-genome distance between M12-1144 T and related species ranged from 18.4-54.8%. Based on these results, a new species of the genus Vibrio, Vibrio injenensis is proposed. The type strain is M12-1144 T (=KCTC 32233 T  =JCM 30011 T ).

  15. [Anaerobiospirillum thomasii bacteremia with fatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitenberger, Edgardo R; Chavez, Claudio M; Rizzo, Mabel S; Suarez, Ariel I

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobiospirillum thomasii has been reported as a causative agent of diarrhea in humans; however no bacteremia associated with this pathogen has been described so far. We present here the first case of fatal A. thomasii bacteremia in an alcoholic patient. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Halophilic Vibrio species from seafish in Senegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Schandevyl, P; Van Dyck, E; Piot, P

    1984-01-01

    Sucrose-positive and sucrose-negative halophilic Vibrio species at counts of up to 10(7)/100 g were isolated from muscles tissue in 27 and 43%, respectively, of 128 seafish from coastal waters in Senegal. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, including 21% urease-positive strains, was the most common isolate, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio damsela, and Vibrio fluvialis.

  17. Two cases of Ruminococcus gnavus bacteremia associated with diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Grønvall Kjær; Skov, Marianne N; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of bacteremia with the anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus. In both cases, the bacteremia was associated with diverticular disease. Preliminary conventional identification suggested peptostreptococci, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spec...

  18. Differential Medium for Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Gordon D.; Stager, Charles E.; Verwey, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential medium designed for rapid presumptive identification of Vibrio cholerae was described and shown to be useful for enumeration of viable cholera vibrios in the presence of other intestinal bacteria. Images PMID:4764406

  19. The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg

    2015-01-01

    were cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with population controls, bacteremia patients were at the highest risk of death from genitourinary diseases and infectious diseases within 1 year of bacteremia. Among 1-year survivors of bacteremia, the risk of death was increased for all major causes....... The most common causes of death after bacteremia are cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Among hospitalized patients, the incidence of bacteremia is highest within days of admission and varies with patient and clinical characteristics.......Bacteremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and ranks among the top seven causes of death in Europe and North America. The occurrence of bacteremia has increased for decades while short-term prognosis has remained unchanged or improved only slightly. Consequently, we are facing...

  20. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety...... > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different......-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding....

  1. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  2. Pneumonia and Bacteremia Due to Kytococcus schroeteri

    OpenAIRE

    Blennow, Ola; Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Özenci, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  3. Pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Ola; Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Ozenci, Volkan

    2012-02-01

    Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  4. Pasteurella multocida Bacteremia in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kukrety

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient’s uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient’s dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population.

  5. Microbiology of Odontogenic Bacteremia: beyond Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahitiyawa, N. B.; Jin, L. J.; Leung, W. K.; Yam, W. C.; Samaranayake, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The human gingival niche is a unique microbial habitat. In this habitat, biofilm organisms exist in harmony, attached to either enamel or cemental surfaces of the tooth as well as to the crevicular epithelium, subjacent to a rich vascular plexus underneath. Due to this extraordinary anatomical juxtaposition, plaque biofilm bacteria have a ready portal of ingress into the systemic circulation in both health and disease. Yet the frequency, magnitude, and etiology of bacteremias due to oral origin and the consequent end organ infections are not clear and have not recently been evaluated. In this comprehensive review, we address the available literature on triggering events, incidence, and diversity of odontogenic bacteremias. The nature of the infective agents and end organ infections (other than endocarditis) is also described, with an emphasis on the challenge of establishing the link between odontogenic infections and related systemic, focal infections. PMID:19136433

  6. Investigation of bacteremia after separator placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Preet Kaur Dua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simple orthodontic procedure such as separator placement can be associated with the occurrence of transient bacteraemia. Use of clorhexidine before separator placement has been recommended as a measure to decrease the bacteraemia. Aim: The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of transient bacteremia after separator placement following use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Methodology: The study group consisted of 27 adult patients who reported for orthodontic treatment (18 males and 9 females. The patients were asked to rinse their mouth for 60 sec with 15 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash before the separator placement. An aseptic technique was used to draw out 5 ml of blood was from either the left or right antecubital fossa immediately before orthodontic separator placement (as control group, and the second 5 ml sample was taken 1–2 min after the placement of separators mesial and distal to all the first molars. All the blood samples were inoculated into culture bottles containing Brain Heart Infusion and incubated aerobically for 7 days. Media used for bacterial growth is chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Results: From a total of 27 patients and 54 samples, none of the sample was found positive for bacteremia. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there is no bacteremia after the placement of separators following the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  7. Investigation of bacteremia after debonding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yasin; Goymen, Merve; Zer, Yasemin; Buyuktas Manay, Ayse

    2018-03-23

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of debonding procedures after completion of orthodontic treatments on bacteremia. Twenty-eight patients who were treated with fixed orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry's Department of Orthodontics at Gaziantep University and who had an indication of debonding were selected for this study, and blood samples were taken from these patients at different times and examined for bacteremia. Blood culture samples were taken from the antecubital veins of the patients prior to debonding (T 0 ), immediately after removing the bracket (T 1 ), and immediately after cleaning the composite residues and plaque deposits on the enamel surface (T 2 ). The blood samples were then inoculated in blood culture bottles and investigated for bacterial growth. The results showed that there was no bacterial growth in the blood samples taken at T 0 and T 1 , whereas 10 of the blood culture samples taken at T 2 showed bacterial growth including the following bacteria; Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus, Actinomyces oris, Actinomyces naeslundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was concluded that patients in the risk group could develop bacteremia during debonding procedures. The presence of these bacteria in sterile blood suggested the possibility of bacterial endocarditis.

  8. Risk factors for concurrent bacteremia in adult patients with dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Yeang, Ming S; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David C

    2017-06-01

    Bacteremia in dengue may occur with common exposure to pathogens in association with severe organ impairment or severe dengue, which may result in death. Cohort studies identifying risk factors for concurrent bacteremia among patients with dengue are rare. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of adult patients with dengue who were admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2004 to 2008. For each case of dengue with concurrent bacteremia (within the first 72 hours of admission), we selected four controls without bacteremia, who were matched on year of infection and dengue confirmation method. Conditional logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for concurrent bacteremia. Among 9,553 patients with dengue, 29 (0.3%) had bacteremia. Eighteen of these patients (62.1%) had concurrent bacteremia. The predominant bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, one of which was a methicillin-resistant strain. Dengue shock syndrome occurred more frequently and hospital stay was longer among cases than among controls. Three cases did not survive, whereas none of the controls died. In multivariate analysis, being critically ill at hospital presentation was independently associated with 15 times the likelihood of a patient with dengue having concurrent bacteremia. Concurrent bacteremia in adult patients with dengue is uncommon but presents atypically and results in more deaths and longer hospital stay. Given the associated mortality, collection of blood cultures and empiric antibiotic therapy may be considered in patients who are critically ill. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. E. coli bacteremia in comparison to K. pneumoniae bacteremia: influence of pathogen species and ESBL production on 7-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Leistner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and –negative and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.

  10. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a putative coral pathogen in tropical oceans, but also possesses antagonistic traits. We previously reported antibacterial activity in Vibrio coralliilyticus strain S2052 based upon the antibiotic andrimid. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether V....... coralliilyticus S2052 produces the antibiotic under conditions mimicking natural habitats of vibrios. S2052 synthesized andrimid with both chitin and macroalgal extracts as sole nutrient source. With chitin, the biosynthesis of metabolites other than andrimid was largely abolished, and the yield of the antibiotic...... per cell was twofold higher. In cultures with Artemia as live chitin model system, S2052 reached up to 108 cells ml-1, produced andrimid and showed attachment to the exoskeleton and chitinous exuviae. The metabolic focus on andrimid production with chitin indicates that the antibiotic could serve...

  11. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  12. [Recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with a transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic shunt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Amélie; Mihaïla-Amrouche, Liliana; Perreira Rocha, Elsa; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Capron, Loïc

    2004-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) are an accepted technique for controlling the complications of portal hypertension. Although the incidence of TIPS-associated bacteremia appears to be low (2%), this complication has a high mortality. We report one case of recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with TIPS and regression of TIPS thrombus after antibiotherapy. The antibiotic regimen is similar to that given in bacterial endocardites.

  13. Bacteremia caused by Pseudomonas luteola in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Senel, Saliha; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas luteola has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. The clinical manifestations of P. luteola bacteremia and its susceptibility to antibiotics have not been characterized. This retrospective study was conducted at a 382-bed tertiary care center in Turkey. During the 9-year study period, 7 patients (5 females and 2 males) were diagnosed with P. luteola bacteremia. Six of these patients had hospital-acquired bacteremia, whereas 1 patient had community-acquired P. luteola infection. All patients had monomicrobial bacteremia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that all strains of P. luteola were sensitive to amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem, and that all strains were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, aztreonam, and colistin. In conclusion, we believe that P. luteola can cause both community- and hospital-acquired bacteremia. Amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and meropenem were effective against P. luteola in the present study.

  14. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  15. Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia in a premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Al-Dossary, Fahad; Demmler, Gail J

    2002-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is a normal component of the human vaginal flora and commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis. Invasive infection in obstetrical patients due to G. vaginalis has also been reported. In the pediatric age range, infection due to G. vaginalis is extremely rare and limited to neonates. We describe a 23-week premature infant with G. vaginalis bacteremia and review the characteristics of neonatal G. vaginalis infection reported in the literature. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of G. vaginalis isolates has shown that penicillin, ampicillin, erthromycin, clindamycin, and vancomycin are effective in vitro.

  16. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  17. Bacteremia with an Unusual Pathogen: Mycobacterium neoaurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Awadh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium neoaurum (M. neoaurum is an infrequently encountered cause of infection in humans. It is a member of the rapidly growing mycobacteria family. It predominately afflicts those with a compromised immune status and a chronically indwelling vascular access. Isolation of this organism is challenging yet the advent of 16s ribosomal sequencing paved the way for more sensitive detection. No treatment guidelines are available and treatment largely depends on the experience of the treating physician and nature of the isolate. We report a case of M. neoaurum bacteremia in an immune competent host, with a chronically placed peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line.

  18. Multiplex PCR for detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species with primer sets designed using comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Ji-Oh; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Ei-Seul; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-10-26

    The genus Vibrio is clinically significant and major pathogenic Vibrio species causing human Vibrio infections are V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus and V. mimicus. In this study, we screened for novel genetic markers using comparative genomics and developed a Vibrio multiplex PCR for the reliable diagnosis of the Vibrio genus and the associated major pathogenic Vibrio species. A total of 30 Vibrio genome sequences were subjected to comparative genomics, and specific genes of the Vibrio genus and five major pathogenic Vibrio species were screened. The designed primer sets from the screened genes were evaluated by single PCR using DNAs from various Vibrio spp. and other non-Vibrio bacterial strains. A sextuplet multiplex PCR using six primer sets was developed to enable detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species. The designed primer sets from the screened genes yielded specific diagnostic results for target the Vibrio genus and Vibrio species. The specificity of the developed multiplex PCR was confirmed with various Vibrio and non-Vibrio strains. This Vibrio multiplex PCR was evaluated using 117 Vibrio strains isolated from the south seashore areas in Korea and Vibrio isolates were identified as Vibrio spp., V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. alginolyticus, demonstrating the specificity and discriminative ability of the assay towards Vibrio species. This novel multiplex PCR method could provide reliable and informative identification of the Vibrio genus and major pathogenic Vibrio species in the food safety industry and in early clinical treatment, thereby protecting humans against Vibrio infection.

  19. Bacteremia associated with toothbrushing and dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Peter B; Brennan, Michael T; Sasser, Howell C; Fox, Philip C; Paster, Bruce J; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K

    2008-06-17

    Antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations for the prevention of infective endocarditis are based in part on studies of bacteremia from dental procedures, but toothbrushing may pose a greater threat. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence, duration, nature, and magnitude of endocarditis-related bacteremia from single-tooth extraction and toothbrushing and to determine the impact of amoxicillin prophylaxis on single-tooth extraction. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 290 subjects were randomized to (1) toothbrushing, (2) single-tooth extraction with amoxicillin prophylaxis, or (3) single-tooth extraction with identical placebo. Blood was drawn for bacterial culturing and identification at 6 time points before, during, and after these interventions. The focus of our analysis was on bacterial species reported to cause infective endocarditis. We identified 98 bacterial species, 32 of which are reported to cause endocarditis. Cumulative incidence of endocarditis-related bacteria from all 6 blood draws was 23%, 33%, and 60% for the toothbrushing, extraction-amoxicillin, and extraction-placebo groups, respectively (Pextraction, given the greater frequency for oral hygiene, toothbrushing may be a greater threat for individuals at risk for infective endocarditis.

  20. Antibiotic resistance and the risk of recurrent bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudt, Sjoukje H S; de Greeff, Sabine C; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Vlek, Anne L M; Bonten, Marc J M

    2017-12-07

    Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with antibiotic resistance. We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4-30days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single non-susceptible or co-non-susceptible (I/R), to 3rd generation cephalosporins -/+ carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime -/+ carbapenems (Pseudomonas spp.), aminopenicillins -/+ vancomycin (Enterococcus spp.), or MSSA/MRSA (S. aureus). We calculated absolute and relative risks of recurrent bacteremia after single- and co-non-susceptible vs. susceptible first bacteremia, estimated the crude population attributable effect of antibiotic resistance for the Netherlands, and calculated absolute risks of developing non-susceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode. Risk ratios for recurrent bacteremia after a first episode caused by a single- and co-non-susceptible bacteria, respectively, vs. susceptible first episodes, were 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-2.0) and 5.2 (2.1-12.4) for Enterobacteriaceae, 1.3 (0.5-3.1) and 5.0 (2.9-8.5) for Pseudomonas spp., 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and 1.6 (0.6-4.2) for Enterococcus spp., and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) for MRSA vs. MSSA. The estimated population annual number of recurrent bacteremias associated with non-susceptibility was 40. Risks of recurrent bacteremia caused by a non-susceptible pathogen after a susceptible first episode were at most 0.4% (Pseudomonas spp.). Although antibiotic non-susceptibility was consistently associated with higher risks of recurrent bacteremia, the estimated number of additional recurrent episodes in the Netherlands (40 per year) was rather limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the

  1. Bacteremia in connection with transurethral resection of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P B; Hansen, R I; Madsen, O G

    1987-01-01

    of bacteremia was found in patients with hypertrophy of the prostate than in those with cancer of the prostate and in patients undergoing long-lasting surgical intervention. Patients who developed bacteremia due to pathogenic bacteria were hospitalized for a significantly longer period of time.......A bacteriological survey of 50 consecutive patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate was performed. Preoperatively, 28% of the patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria. In the postoperative period, 46% of all the patients developed transient bacteremia. A significantly higher rate...

  2. Microbial Ecophysiology of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Danevčič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use different adaptation strategies to survive environmental perturbations. In this minireview, adaptation strategies of new red-pigmented Vibrio ruber isolated from coastal environments to different environmental stresses (i.e. salinity, viscosity, UV light, mitomycin C, nutrient availability and temperature are reviewed. To cope with environmental stresses Vibrio ruber uses several different adaptive strategies. For example, lipid composition as well as phase behaviour are strongly dependent on salt concentration. Vibrio ruber membrane has no hydroxy fatty acids, but exceptionally high lysolipid content compared to other related Vibrio species. Inorganic nutrient uptake by bacteria is selective, depends on environmental conditions and varies several fold with environmental perturbations. Protein composition, carbon flow through the central metabolic pathways, energy generation as well as secondary metabolite production adapt readily to stress conditions. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase proved to be a good indicator of Vibrio ruber stress. Cells are able to modulate their local viscosity in response to variations of environmental viscosity. The bacterium harbours several viral genetic elements in its genome, which could be induced by mitomycin C. Environmental conditions during growth of bacteria have a significant effect on lysate carbon turnover. Secondary metabolite prodigiosin confers protection against UV in the environment, which adds to the known repertoire of prodigiosin ecophysiological functions. In conclusion, Vibrio ruber in its short acquaintance with the scientific community (less than ten years has proven to be an immensely valuable model system for ecophysiological studies of bacteria.

  3. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  4. Cellulitis and Bacteremia Caused by Bergeyella zoohelcum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ru Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergeyella zoohelcum is a rod-shaped, aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile and non-saccharolytic bacterium. It is frequently isolated from the upper respiratory tract of dogs, cats and other mammals. Clinically, B. zoohelcum has been known to cause cellulitis, leg abscess, tenosynovitis, septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis, and is associated with animal bites. In addition, food-borne transmission was considered in a recent case report. We report a 73-year-old man with liver cirrhosis who had no history of dog bite but had dog exposure, who developed cellulitis of the left lower leg and B. zoohelcum was isolated from blood culture. This patient, without evidence of polymicrobial infection, was treated with cefazolin and gentamicin with a good outcome. B. zoohelcum is a zoonotic pathogen that may cause bacteremia in patients with underlying disease such as liver cirrhosis; it can be treated with a beta-lactam or quinolone.

  5. Raoultella Planticola Bacteremia Following Consumption of Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W Lam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly found in water, soil and aquatic environments. There have only been 16 cases of R planticola infection documented in the literature to date. R planticola possesses the ability to convert histidine to histamine and can produce symptoms of scombroid poisoning when poorly prepared seafood is consumed in large amounts. The present report describes a case involving a 56-year-old woman who presented with R planticola bacteremia and symptoms consistent with cholangitis four days after consuming a seafood salad containing squid and octopus. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Recent chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitor use and altered biliary flow secondary to hepatic metastases may have been contributing factors to the pathogenesis of disease.

  6. Impact of bacteremia on the pathogenesis of experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C.T.; Holm, D.; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2008-01-01

    Background. Bacteremia plays a major role in the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. This experimental study investigated how bacteremia influences the pathophysiologic profile of the brain. Methods. Rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of infected study...... rats: (1) rats with attenuated bacteremia resulting from intravenous injection of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody, (2) rats with early-onset bacteremia resulting from concomitant intravenous infection, or (3) a meningitis control group. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, ventricle size......, brain water distribution, and brain pathologic findings were analyzed using magnetic resonance morphological and functional imaging. Laboratory data and clinical disease scores were obtained. Results. Attenuation of the bacteremic component of pneumococcal meningitis improved clinical disease symptoms...

  7. Bacteremia causes hippocampal apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Leib, S.L.; Rowland, Ian J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bacteremia and systemic complications both play important roles in brain pathophysiological alterations and the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. Their individual contributions to the development of brain damage, however, still remain to be defined. METHODS: Using an adult...... rat pneumococcal meningitis model, the impact of bacteremia accompanying meningitis on the development of hippocampal injury was studied. The study comprised of the three groups: I. Meningitis (n=11), II. meningitis with attenuated bacteremia resulting from iv injection of serotype......-specific pneumococcal antibodies (n=14), and III. uninfected controls (n=6). RESULTS: Pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis score 0.22 (0.18-0.35) compared to uninfected controls (0.02 (0.00-0.02), Mann Whitney test, P=0.0003). Also, meningitis with an attenuation of bacteremia...

  8. Meteorological effects on the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    perform an 8-year longitudinal population-based ecological study in a Danish county to examine whether foregoing changes in meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind velocity, predicted variations in pneumococcal bacteremia (PB) incidence....

  9. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  10. Francisella novicida bacteremia after a near-drowning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Meghan; Doppalapudi, Avanthi; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Myers, Debra; Husband, Brigitte; Pollard, Kerry; Mead, Paul; Petersen, Jeannine M; Whitener, Cynthia J

    2012-08-01

    We describe a rare case of Francisella novicida bacteremia following a near-drowning event in seawater. We highlight the challenges associated with laboratory identification of F. novicida and differences in the epidemiology of F. novicida and Francisella tularensis infections.

  11. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Serratia marcescens bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Ann, Hea Won; Choi, Heun; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (pmarcescens bacteremia.

  12. OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Causing Bacteremia, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsoo Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OXA-48-producing isolates were identified in approximately 4% and less than 1% of ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing bacteremia at the largest tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi.

  13. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are

  14. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  15. Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Vincent Bryan D; Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J

    2017-02-01

    Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus ( P =0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker ( P =0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve ( P =0.003), and recent hospitalization ( P =0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups ( P =0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted.

  16. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Naeimi; Kiarash Ghazvini K; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri MT; Merangiz Kaboli; Mahmood Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also record...

  17. Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia in Neonates in a Predominantly Hispanic Population

    OpenAIRE

    YI eJIA; Alicia eAlvarez; Cesar eGarcia; Eduardo Daniel Rosas-Blum; Darius eBoman; Marc eZuckerman

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps, and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Objectives We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United St...

  18. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  19. Multiplex PCR for detection of the Vibrio genus and five pathogenic Vibrio species with primer sets designed using comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Ji-Oh; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Ei-Seul; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Vibrio is clinically significant and major pathogenic Vibrio species causing human Vibrio infections are V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. alginolyticus and V. mimicus. In this study, we screened for novel genetic markers using comparative genomics and developed a Vibrio multiplex PCR for the reliable diagnosis of the Vibrio genus and the associated major pathogenic Vibrio species. Methods A total of 30 Vibrio genome sequences were subjected to comparati...

  20. Ethanolamine utilization in Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. Previous studies have revealed the presence of eutBC genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. However, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the Vibrio genus. Our comparative genomics study reveals the presence of genes that are involved in ethanolamine utilization in several Vibrio species. Using Vibrio alginolyticus as a model system we demonstrate that ethanolamine is better utilized as a nitrogen source than as a carbon source. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Lakshminarayan Iyer and Dr. Vivek Anantharaman (nominated by Dr. L Aravind). PMID:23234435

  1. Bacteremias por bacilos gram-negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrelírio J. R. Gonçalves

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita atenção dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos. Os organismos etiológicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqüência foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsáveis por 58% do total das infecções, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi o trato urinário em 61,3% dos casos. A infecção foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prévio de antibióticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esteróides e citostáticos. As principais doenças predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulação do aparelho urinário, com infecção prévia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstrução biliar. As principais manifestações clínicas foram a presença de febre, calafrios e hipotensão arterial. A complicação mais freqüente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente três vêzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficiência renal aguda, superinfecção e infecção pulmonar metastática. Considerações terapêuticas gerais e esquemas de antibióticos são propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infecções por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.

  2. Sensitivity of the vibrios to ultraviolet-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ultraviolet-inactivation kinetics of a number of strains of Vibrio cholerae (classical), Vibrio cholerae (el tor), NAG vibrios and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were investigated. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between any two of the four types of vibrio in respect of their sensitivity to U.V. (author)

  3. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  4. Pharmacotherapeutic options for treating Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiol, Carlota; Cuervo, Guillermo; Shaw, Evelyn; Pujol, Miquel; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    Case-fatality rates for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) remain unacceptably high and have improved only modestly in recent decades. Treatment of SAB is still a clinical challenge, especially if methicillin-resistant strains are involved. New drugs with anti-staphylococcal activity are currently available, and their role as alternatives to standard therapies is being investigated. Areas covered: In this review, we give an update of the current available antibiotics for the treatment of SAB. We provide information regarding the pharmacological characteristics, the accepted indications, and the most important adverse events of the old and new anti-staphylococcal agents, as well as the existing evidence on their use for the treatment of SAB. Expert opinion: The management of patients with SAB is very complex and needs a multidisciplinary approach. There are currently new available options for the treatment of methicillin-resistant SAB. However, more data from clinical trials are needed to assign specific roles to each antibiotic and to include them in the new antibacterial armamentarium. The role of combination therapy for the treatment of increasingly complex patients with SAB deserves thorough investigation.

  5. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-05-08

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer.

  6. The Clinical Characteristics, Carbapenem Resistance, and Outcome of Acinetobacter Bacteremia According to Genospecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Shin, Jong-Hee; Lee, Seung Yeop; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung-Ji; Jung, Sook-In; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Kwan Soo; Jang, Hee-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background Few clinical data are available on the relationship between genospecies and outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia, and the results are inconsistent. We performed this study to evaluate the relationship between genospecies and the outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia. Methods Clinical data from 180 patients who had Acinetobacter bacteremia from 2003 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The genospecies were identified by rpoB gene sequence analysis. The clinical features and outcomes of 90 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia were compared to those of 90 patients with non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (60 with A. nosocomialis, 17 with Acinetobacter species “close to 13 TU”, 11 with A. pittii, and two with A. calcoaceticus). Results A. baumannii bacteremia was associated with intensive care unit-onset, mechanical ventilation, pneumonia, carbapenem resistance, and higher APACHE II scores, compared to non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (PAcinetobacter bacteremia. Our results emphasize the importance of correct species identification of Acinetobacter blood isolates. PMID:23755171

  7. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takumi; Hamada, Yukihiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-06-01

    The presence of anaerobes in the blood stream is known to be associated with a higher rate of mortality. However, few prognostic risk factor analyses examining whether a patient's background characteristics are associated with the prognosis have been reported. We performed a retrospective case-controlled study to assess the prognostic factors associated with death from anaerobic bacteremia. Seventy-four patients with anaerobic bacteremia were treated between January 2005 and December 2014 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. The clinical information included drug susceptibility was used for analysis of prognostic factors for 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed an association between the 30-day mortality rate and malignancy (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.08-12.31) and clindamycin resistance (OR: 7.93, 95% CI: 2.33-27.94). The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality showed that the 30-day survival rate was 83% in clindamycin susceptible and 38.1% in clindamycin resistant anaerobes causing bacteremia. The result of log-rank test also showed that susceptibility to clindamycin affected mortality (P anaerobic bacteremia with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. The results of this study are important for the early and appropriate management of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial family of Vibrionaceae is indigenous in the marine estuarine environments such as the Maryland Coastal Bays. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are both pathogenic bacteria. Understanding the distribution of Vibrio species is crucial because of the health concerns associated with the bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall abundance of bacteria with a focus on Vibrio species in the Maryland Coastal Bays. Seawater samples were collected from 10 different sites that differ with regard to water quality. The total bacteria count (TBC) was determined by two methods: Total plate count and Epifluorescence microscopy. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to estimate the population of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to the bacteriological analysis, the environmental parameters of temperature and salinity were measured using YSI 6600 multiparameter meter. The average total bacteria count was 2.21 log CFU ml-1. Vibrio vulnificus comprised 5% of the total bacteria count while Vibrio parahaemolyticus comprised only 2% of the total bacteria count. Vibrio vulnificus ranged from 0.30 to 2.48 log MPN ml-1 at the sites tested. Lower Vibrio parahaemolyticus count was observed at the sites with a range of 0.30 to 1.97 log MPN ml-1. There was no significant correlation between the environmental parameters and the Vibrio spp. Since both Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus peak in the summer, there is a potential for a risk of wound infections and gastrointestinal illness based on this data.

  9. Zoonose Vibrio vulnificus: meldingsplicht raadzaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Moller, L.

    2010-01-01

    Op de lijst van meldingsplichtige infectieziekten komen een aantal zoönosen voor, zoals pest, rabiës en leptospirose. De relatief onbekende zoönotische Vibrio vulnificus valt opmerkelijk genoeg niet onder de meldingsplichtige infectieziekten. Juist vanwege het zeer agressieve beloop van een

  10. Bacteremia during adenoidectomy: a comparison of suction diathermy adenoid ablation and adenoid curettage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Transient bacteremia is induced by adenoidectomy when the integrity of the nasopharyngeal membrane is broken. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in patients undergoing adenoidectomy, to identify the causative organisms, and to compare the incidences of bacteremia between the two techniques suction diathermy and curettage.

  11. Multicystic Hepatocarcinoma Mimicking Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC became easier in relation to the improved radiological examinations; however, the neoplasm may occur under atypical presentations mimicking other benign or malignant processes. Multicystic HCC mimicking a liver abscess associated with septic-type fever and leukocytosis is rare, has a poor prognosis, and poses diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient, who presented with fever, leukocytosis, and large cystic masses involving right and left lobes of the liver initially considered abscesses and finally diagnosed as HCC after open drainage and liver biopsy. Although the patient died on the tenth postoperative day due to pulmonary oedema, the authors emphasize the high index of suspicion needed in the diagnosis of this unusual presentation of HCC.

  12. Comparative Study of Plasma Endotoxin with Procalcitonin Levels in Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of bacteremia.

  13. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    and pandemics mainly due to poor water supply and personal hygiene. The other important and most common seafood-borne halophilic Vibrio is V. parahaemolyticus. Since its discovery in 1953 (Fujino et al., 1953), many aspects on this pathogen were explored... that include 13 different O antigens and 71 different K antigens (Iguchi et al., 1995). Unlike V. cholerae, infection caused by V. parahaemolyticus has no relation with socioeconomic status, meteorological changes, quality of the water supply and general...

  14. Neurocognitive Outcomes at 10 Years of Age in Extremely Preterm Newborns with Late-Onset Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, H Reeve; Babata, Kikelomo; Allred, Elizabeth N; Erdei, Carmina; Kuban, Karl C K; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Leviton, Alan; Dammann, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the difference in 10-year neurocognitive outcomes between extremely low gestational age newborns without bacteremia and those with suspected or confirmed late-onset bacteremia. Neurocognitive function was evaluated at 10 years of age in 889 children born at <28 weeks of gestation and followed from birth. Definite (culture-positive) late-onset bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 was identified in 223 children, and 129 children had suspected bacteremia. Infants with the lowest gestational age and birth weight z-score had the highest prevalence of definite and suspected late-onset bacteremia. Compared with peers with no or suspected bacteremia, infants with definite bacteremia performed worse on tests of general cognitive ability, language, academic achievement, and executive function, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Adjustment for low IQ attenuated the associations between bacteremia and all dysfunctions at age 10 years. Children with suspected bacteremia did not differ appreciably from those with no evidence of bacteremia. The motor domain was unaffected. Extremely low gestational age newborns who had definite late bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 are at heightened risk of neurocognitive limitations at age 10 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Identification of Vibrio mimicus bacteriophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevskaia, N E; Kudriakova, T A; Avdeeva, E P; Makedonova, L D; Kachkina, G V

    2011-03-01

    Lysogeny was studied in Vibrio mimicus; the indicator V. cholerae El Tor strain was selected to identify phages. New V. mimicus phages were obtained and identified, which had a morphological similarity and an antigen affinity for morphological group I cholerae phages. Phage differentiation revealed that morphological group I V. mimicus phages showed certain differences manifested as their lytic activity against V. cholerae strain 1322-69 of serovar 37 while this property was absent in cholerae phages.

  16. Agrobacterium radiobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Edwards, Morven S

    2003-02-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter is an opportunistic pathogen often associated with indwelling catheters. We report five children with central venous catheter-associated A. radiobacter bacteremia and review the characteristics of pediatric Agrobacterium infections. Cure was achieved with appropriate antibiotics, often ticarcillin-clavulanate and gentamicin, and removal of the catheter.

  17. Shigella sonnei bacteremia in an elderly diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronda, F; Parras, F; Martínez, J L; Baquero, F

    1988-06-01

    A case of Shigella sonnei bacteremia in a 65-year-old patient suffering from diabetes mellitus is discussed. The isolated strain had plasmid-mediated serum resistance and excreted aerobactin. The presence of diabetes mellitus as an underlying disease and the production by the Shigella sonnei isolate of factors related to bacterial invasion may have contributed to the bacteremic episode.

  18. Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation.

  19. Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Morteza; Che, Kendrick; Garrison, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation. PMID:25405041

  20. [Limitation of therapeutic effort in patients with bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyas Miazza, Carla; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa María; Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Ezpeleta Galindo, Ana Isabel; Laín Miranda, María Elena; Aspiroz Sancho, Carmen

    2018-03-28

    The limitation of therapeutic effort (LTE) depends on medical, ethical and individual factors. We describe the characteristics of patients with bacteremia in which it was decided to limit the therapeutic effort. Prospective study of bacteremia in a community hospital in 2011. We collected information regarding patient variable (age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidities, Charlson Index and exogenous factors) as well as regarding the infectious episode (etiology, focus, place of adquisition, clinical expressivity, LTE and hospital mortality). The group in which LTE was performed was compared to the one that was not. We collected 233 episodes of bacteremia in 227 patients. We performed LTE in 19 patients (8.2%). Patients with LTE were older (80.7 vs. 72.6 years, p=.014), had more comorbidity (Charlson index 4.6 vs. 2.1, pLTE was the urinary (42.1%) and there was a predominance of gram positive bacteria (63.2%). The empirical treatment was started early in 73.7% of cases. All patients except one died. LTE is considered in an important number of patients with bacteremia. They usually are older, with more comorbidity and functional dependence, bad functional basal status and important comorbidity. Knowing their differential characteristics allow us to understand this decision. Copyright © 2018 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  2. Recurrent Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Bacteremia in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua R; Leber, Amy; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F; Ardura, Monica I

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of an infant with recurrent bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, likely transmitted from mother to infant. Our case highlights the importance of an epidemiological history and molecular diagnostics in ascertaining insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and optimal management. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Risk factors for concurrent bacteremia in adult patients with dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Linn Thein

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Concurrent bacteremia in adult patients with dengue is uncommon but presents atypically and results in more deaths and longer hospital stay. Given the associated mortality, collection of blood cultures and empiric antibiotic therapy may be considered in patients who are critically ill.

  4. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  5. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naeimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also recorded for each patient. Results: In 2 culture samples obtained before the operation and in 15 culture samples obtained after the operation, blood cultures were positive. One postoperative sample was excluded from the study due to probability of contamination. Of 14 postoperative cultures, staphylococcus epidermidis and streptococcus pyogenes were positive in 8 and 4 cases, respectively. There were no significant correlations between positive culture and age, otorrhea (duration and odor, surgical approach, type of surgery and pathological condition of patients. Conclusion: Risk of bacteremia following middle ear operations should be considered especially in patients who are high risk for postoperative endocarditis. Considering the serious complications of bacteremia, prophylactic measures are necessary in middle ear operations in this group of patients.    

  6. Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia in Neonates in a Predominantly Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alicia; Jia, Yi; Garcia, Cesar J; Rosas-Blum, Eduardo D; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps, and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United States-Mexico border city in order to examine the demographic and clinical associations. We characterized the demographic and clinical features in all pediatric patients with blood cultures positive for S. bovis at University Medical Center in El Paso, TX, USA between January 2000 and December 2010. Hospital records were systematically reviewed by using a standardized protocol. A total of seven episodes of S. bovis bacteremia were documented in seven pediatric patients (four female and three male). Mean age was 1.2 days (range 1-3 days), all were Hispanic, average birth weight (3.25 kg). Mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (five) and Caesarian section (two). All of our patients developed early (pediatric patients had endoscopy and none of them died. Streptococcus bovis is considered as an uncommon pathogen in the newborn, but can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not identified and treated early. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentation of neonatal bacteremia due to S. bovis.

  7. Survey of Enteric Pathogens Causing Bacteremia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptomatic bacteraemia, is a frequent condition among cancer patients with a significant morbidity and mortality all over the world. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the burden of enteric pathogens causing bacteremia among cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Ten ml blood samples were withdrawn from the cancer patients under aseptic conditions. The blood specimens were added to the blood culture bottles and incubated at 37°C. The bacterial isolates from these samples were identified by routine biochemical reactions. Results: During the study period, 68 blood samples from cancer patients were analyzed for bacteremia. Of these patients, six were female (08/82% and 62 were male (91.18%; with age ranging from under 40 years to 85 years old (mean, 63 years. Gastro-intestinal cancer and cancers of head and neck were the most frequent cancer types in the studied group, accounting for 51 (75% and 15 (22.1% cases, respectively. The mean weight of patients was 69.18 Kg (range: 49-100 Kg. Similarly, the mean length of hospital stay was 8 days (range: 4-12 days. Positive blood cultures were detected in only 12 (17.65% and 11 (91.7% blood specimens from the Cancer Institute, Tehran, compared with one (08.33% from Shahid Kamali hospital, Karaj. From these patients, 15 bacteria were isolated; E. coli alone outnumbered other species and accounted for 33.33% of the episodes of bacteremia. Conclusions: In conclusion, our investigation revealed that cancers of GI tract are the most common cancer types causing bacteremia and also we identified that most common bacteria causing bacteremia in Cancer Institute, Tehran and Shahid Kamali Hospital, Karaj, are E. coli and S. aureus

  8. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. IMPORTANCE OF HEMOCULTURE IN DIAGNOSIS OF BACTEREMIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all kinds of microorganisms from blood can be isolated by hemoculture. The isolate consists of 75–85% Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, until the other part of the isolate consists of fungi or other microorganisms.During the three-year period (1998–2001 we analyzed microbiological characteristics of all positive hemocultures inspected in microbiological laboratory in the Public Health Institute in Nis as well as clinical parameters of patients with the aim of determining the cause of bacteremia. We applied standard microbiologic methods for inspection of 1995 hemocultures taken from 759 patients whereupon we registered positive medical findings in 18,75%. In the majority of cases only one kind of microorganisms was isolated, while in 1.06% of positive hemocultures we isoleted two kinds of microorganisms.Isolation of Streptococcus b heamolyticus gr. A, Streptococcus pneumoniae, E.coli, Proteus mirabilisa, Salmonellae enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginose i Candide spp confirms bacteremia. Difteroids and Bacillus spp. were isolated only from contaminated hemocultures. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent contminant and causes bacteremia in the patients with intravascular catheter and patients on intravenous and peritoneal dialysis. A similar finding of α hemolitic streptococcus of viridans group was registered in the patients with subacute and acute endocarditis who had had an intravenous catheter implanted.On the basis of the results obtained, we can conclude that microorganisms from groups of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida and Enterobacteriaceace family are the most frequent causes of bacteremia. Beside its limiting factors (time of sampling, duration of incubation, possible contamination of samples, number of hemocultures, hemoculture is the only method by which the causes of bacteremia and sepsis can be isolated.

  10. Clinical manifestations of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholera are uncommon. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections. METHODS: The clinical charts of all patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections and who were treated in two hospitals in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections were identified based on the databank of the bacteriology laboratories of two hospitals. The overall mean age was 53.3 years, and men comprised 53 (63.9% of the patients. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus were the two most common underlying diseases, followed by malignancy. The most common type of infection was acute gastroenteritis (n = 45, 54.2%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 12, 14.5% and primary bacteremia (n = 11, 13.3%. Other types of infection, such as peritonitis (n = 5, 6.0%, skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI (n = 5, 6.0%, urinary tract infection (n = 3, 3.6% and pneumonia (2, 2.4%, were rare. July and June were the most common months of occurrence of V. cholera infections. The overall in-hospital mortality of 83 patients with V. cholera infections was 7.2%, but it was significantly higher for patients with primary bacteremia, hemorrhage bullae, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, or admission to an ICU. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with acute respiratory failure (odds ratio, 60.47; 95% CI, 4.79-763.90, P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Non-O1 V. cholera infections can cause protean disease, especially in patients with risk factors and during warm-weather months. The overall mortality of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections was only 7.2%; however, this value varied among different types of infection.

  11. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the predominant seafood pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Samples were collected from Vellar estuary, shrimp ponds and shrimp for characterization of V. parahaemolyticus. A total of 26 blue green centre (BG) Vibrio strains were isolated and characterized through biochemical ...

  12. Propionic acidemia mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweikat, Imad M; Naser, Enas N; Abu Libdeh, Abdulsalam I; Naser, Osama J; Abu Gharbieh, Najwan N; Maraqa, Nizar F; Abu Libdeh, Bassam Y

    2011-05-01

    Propionic acidemia manifesting with hyperglycemia is rare. Few cases have been reported mainly of the neonatal-onset form associated with high mortality. We report a 9-month-old Palestinian boy who manifested with coma, severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis. Family history of unexplained infant deaths was helpful in reaching the correct diagnosis. In response to therapy, the patient regained consciousness without neurologic deficits and had normal examination. This is, to our knowledge, the first case report of late-onset propionic acidemia that had this presentation and survived. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  13. The daily risk of bacteremia during hospitalization and associated 30-day mortality evaluated in relation to the traditional classification of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS...

  14. Histoplasmosis mimicking metastatic spinal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Qu, Liyan; Zhu, Jian; Yang, Zhengming; Yan, Shigui

    2017-08-01

    Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by a fungus called Histoplasma. Diagnosis of histoplasmosis is based on the culture of biological samples and detection of fungus in tissues. Histoplasmosis can mimic malignant lesions. We report a 65-year-old, immunocompetent, male patient with back pain. We describe the main clinical and radiological characteristics in our patient who had vertebral histoplasmosis that mimicked cancer. A computed tomography scan showed lytic lesions of the right side of T4, T5, and T6 vertebral bodies. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed abnormal marrow signals in T4, T5, and T6 vertebral bodies (low signal on T1, high on T2 and short time inversion recovery (STIR)). Which was mimicking malignancy, such as haematological malignancy and metastatic bone cancer. Therefore, thoracic spinal surgery using the anterior approach was performed. An intraoperative frozen section examination and routine postoperative pathology showed thoracic histoplasmosis infection. Treatment of histoplasmosis was performed with oral itraconazole. The lesions did not progress and the patient symptomatically improved at a follow-up of 26 months.

  15. Rhodococcus bacteremia in cancer patients is mostly catheter related and associated with biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Al Akhrass

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94% central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI. Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%. Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated.

  16. Rhodococcus Bacteremia in Cancer Patients Is Mostly Catheter Related and Associated with Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akhrass, Fadi; Al Wohoush, Iba; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Reitzel, Ruth; Jiang, Ying; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2012-01-01

    Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94%) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%). Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated. PMID:22427914

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteremia in Slovenian children with solitary and multiple erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnež, Maja; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva

    2011-11-01

    To establish the frequency and characteristics of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteremia in Slovenian children with solitary and multiple erythema migrans, 1164 patients were included in this prospective study. Bacteremia was established in 11.4% of all patients, 15.8% of patients with multiple erythema migrans, and in 7.6% of patients with solitary erythema migrans. Bacteremia can be detected in children, with untreated erythema migrans, up to 39 days after the onset of skin rash.

  18. Cupriavidus pauculus bacteremia in a child on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzodi, Adaora S; Schears, Gregory J; Neal, James R; Henry, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremia secondary to Cupriavidus pauculus in a 15-month-old boy on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The source of the organism was water in the thermoregulator reservoir. The child responded well to cefepime and ciprofloxacin, a delayed oxygenator change out and replacement of the thermoregulator reservoir with a unit that was cleaned and decontaminated with sodium hypochlorite. Isolation of Cupriavidus pauculus from a patient on ECMO support should raise suspicion of the reservoir as a source.

  19. A case of Bacteroides pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Eun; Park, So-Young; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-12-01

    Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. The microorganism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia in Neonates in a Predominantly Hispanic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI eJIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Objectives: We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United States - Mexico border city in order to examine the demographic and clinical associations. Methods: We characterized the demographic and clinical features in all pediatric patients with blood cultures positive for S. bovis at University Medical Center in El Paso, Texas between January 2000 and December 2010. Hospital records were systematically reviewed by using a standardized protocol.Results: A total of 7 episodes of S. bovis bacteremia were documented in 7 pediatric patients (4 female and 3 male. Mean age was 1.2 days (range 1-3 days, all were Hispanic, average birth weight (3.25 kg. Mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (5 and Caesarian section (2. All of our patients developed early (< 1 week onset disease and presented with signs of respiratory distress. Five out of 7 babies presented with abdominal distention and diarrhea. Six had clinical evidence of sepsis at presentation. Respiratory distress was the most common manifestation of sepsis (7. Aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed in 2 of them. Most patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics (6, either ampicillin and gentamicin or ampicillin and cefotaxime, and one with ampicillin alone. None of the pediatric patients had endoscopy and none of them died.Conclusions: S. bovis is considered an uncommon pathogen in the newborn, but can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality if not identified and treated early. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentation of neonatal

  1. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Tamrin M.; Sano, Motohiko; Hatai, Kishio; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC® 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  2. Complete genome sequence of a giant Vibrio phage ValKK3 infecting Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin M. Lal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, Vibrio phage ValKK3 that is specific to Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC® 17749™. Vibrio phage ValKK3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on MiSeq sequencing platform and annotated using Blast2Go. The complete sequence of ValKK3 genome was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KP671755.

  3. [Predictive ability of clinical parameters of bacteremia in hemodialysed patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Ana L; Vilaró, Mario; De la Fuente, Jorge; Cuestas, Eduardo; Bongiovanni, María E

    2012-01-01

    No clinical events to differentiate bacteteremia from other pathologies in hemodialysis patients therefore the physicians makes diagnosis and treatment decisions based on clinical evidence an local epidemiology. the aim of this work was to study the frequency of microorganism isolated from blood culture of hemodialysis patients with suspected bacteraemia and evaluate Sensitivity (S) and Specificity (E) of medical diagnostic orientation in this cases of suspected Materials and methods: we performed an observational and prospective study for one year in hemodialysis patient with suspected bacteremia. We evaluated blood pressure, temperature (Tº), altered conscious state (AEC), respiratory frequency (FR), chills (ESC),diarrhea (DIARR), blood culture results and microbiological identification. We work with the mean ± standar desviation for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables We analyzed S, E, negative predictive value (VPN), positive predictive value (VPP) RESULTADOS: a total of 87 events with suspected bacteremia 34 (39%) were confirmed with positive blood culture the most common microorganisms were cocci Gram positive (CGP) 65%, Most relevant clinical variables were PCP ≥ 2 (VPN 81%), Tº ≥ 38 (VPN 76%) and AEC (E 98% y VPP 80%). CGP were the most prevalent microorganisms None of the clinical variables shows high S and E indicating low usefulness as a predictive tool of bacteremia Excepting AEC with E98% and VPP 80% but it would be necessary to evaluate this variable with a more number patient. Results justify to routine HC use like diagnostic tool.

  4. Transient bacteremia induced by toothbrushing a comparison of the Sonicare toothbrush with a conventional toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Shamsi; Williams, Bryan; Sheller, Barbara; Elwood, Thomas; Mancl, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated toothbrush-induced bacteremias. Transient bacteremias are well tolerated by healthy individuals but may increase endocarditis risk in patients with cardiac conditions. This study assessed bacteremia levels after brushing with either the Sonicare electric toothbrush or a manual toothbrush. Fifty healthy children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia with oral intubation were randomly assigned to a manual or Sonicare group. Plaque levels and gingival health were scored and a blood sample collected. Teeth were brushed for 1 minute and a postbrushing blood sample was drawn. Samples were analyzed for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Gingival health and plaque scores did not differ between groups. No correlation was detected between plaque and gingival scores and occurrence of bacteremia. The frequency of bacteremia was 46% with manual brushing: 18% aerobic, 9% anaerobic and 73% both. This differed significantly (P = .022) with 78% bacteremias in the Sonicare group: 22% aerobic, 22% anaerobic and 56% both. The Sonicare induced significantly more bacteremias than manual toothbrushing. These results show that vigorous brushing increased bacteremia from one brushing but does not answer whether bacteremia incidence would decrease with a program of vigorous daily brushing; this should be clarified before recommending brushing methods for patients with compromised cardiac conditions.

  5. Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, Marta; Sabé, Núria; Tubau, Fe; Lladó, Laura; Baliellas, Carme; González-Costello, José; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Carratalà, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    We sought to determine the risk factors, molecular epidemiology, antibiotic therapy, and outcomes of bacteremia because of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. All episodes of bacteremia occurring in SOT recipients were prospectively documented from 2007 to 2013. Of 318 episodes of bacteremia, 49 were caused by P. aeruginosa. Thirty-one strains (63%) were XDR defined by nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antipseudomonal antimicrobial categories. Time from transplantation to bacteremia was shorter in XDR P. aeruginosa group comparing to other etiologies (median days 66 vs. 278; P=0.03). Factors independently associated with XDR P. aeruginosa bacteremia were prior transplantation, nosocomial acquisition, and septic shock at onset. XDR P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to a single clone (ST-175). Comparing to other etiologies, patients with bacteremia because of XDR P. aeruginosa more often received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy. Persistence of bacteremia, shock, respiratory failure and intensive care unit admission were more frequent in patients with XDR P. aeruginosa. The overall case-fatality rate was higher among patients with XDR P. aeruginosa bacteremia than in the others (38% vs. 16%; P=0.009). Bacteremia because of XDR P. aeruginosa should be carefully considered when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy for hospitalized SOT recipients with prior transplantation presenting with septic shock.

  6. Bacteriophage interactions with marine pathogenic Vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalatzis, Panagiotis

    Incidents of Vibrio-associated diseases in marine aquaculture are increasingly reported on a global scale, incited also by the world’s rising temperature. Administration of antibiotics has been the most commonly applied remedy used for facing vibriosis outbreaks, giving rise to concerns about...... pathogens. The combinatory administration of virulent bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1, isolated against Vibrio alginolyticus significantly reduced the Vibrio load in cultures of Artemia salina live prey, decreasing subsequently the risk of a vibriosis outbreak in the marine hatchery. During infection...... to studying the interactions between marine pathogenic Vibrio and their corresponding bacteriophages, while discussing the potential and limitations of phage therapy application in the biological control of vibriosis....

  7. Bacteriophages in the control of pathogenic vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Plaza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are common inhabitants of marine and estuarine environments. Some of them can be pathogenic to humans and/or marine animals using a broad repertory of virulence factors. Lately, several reports have indicated that the incidence of Vibrio infections in humans is rising and also in animals constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control.

  8. Occurrences of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Vellar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-04-03

    2001). Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 43: 263- 266. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (1989). Molecular Cloning: A. Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.

  9. Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov., isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-12-01

    Two novel vibrio isolates (R-40492(T) and R-40493(T)) originating from the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum in Brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach comprising multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), ΔT(m) analysis and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) fell within the genus Vibrio and were most closely related to each other with 99% similarity; similarities of these two novel isolates towards Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T), Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T), Vibrio nigripulchritudo LMG 3896(T), Vibrio sinaloensis LMG 25238(T) and Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) varied between 97.1 and 98.5%. DDH experiments showed that the two isolates had less than 15% relatedness to the phylogenetically most closely related Vibrio species. R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) had 55-57% relatedness to each other. The ΔT(m) between R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) was 6.12 °C. In addition, MLSA of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB; 6035 bp in length) showed that the two novel isolates formed a separate branch with less than 92% concatenated gene sequence similarity towards known species of vibrios. Two novel species are proposed to accommodate these novel isolates, namely Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. (type strain, R-40492(T)=LMG 25438(T)=CAIM 1454(T)) and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov. (type strain, R-40493(T)=LMG 25439(T)=CAIM 1455(T)).

  10. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  11. Mortalities of eastern and pacific oyster larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio cora...

  12. Hyaluronidase allergy mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichura, Nirav D; Alam, Md Shahid; Jaichandran, V V; Mistry, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2017-10-20

    Hyaluronidase enzyme is a common additive with local anesthetic agent to facilitate faster permeation of the anesthetic in periocular tissues during ophthalmic surgery. We report a series of five subjects presenting with clinical features mimicking orbital cellulitis following peribulbar anesthesia and consequently diagnosed with hyaluronidase hypersensitivity. The study was conducted at a tertiary eye care center in Southern India. It was a retrospective interventional case series. We retrospectively reviewed the case records of patients diagnosed as and treated for hyaluronidase allergy from 2011 to 2015. The presenting features included periocular edema, proptosis, and restriction of ocular movements. The symptoms appeared immediately after the injection to as late as 6 days after the surgery. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, relevant investigations, and dermal allergy tests. All five patients tested positive for hyaluronidase. Patients were treated with antihistaminics, systemic steroids, and emergency orbital decompression, when required. In majority of the patients, symptoms resolved in 3-5 days. Clinically, hyaluronidase allergy may mimic orbital cellulitis, which in the context of a recent intraocular surgery may be alarming for both the patient and the surgeon. However, with prompt intervention, the prognosis is extremely favorable in cases of hyaluronidase allergy. It is important for ophthalmic surgeons and anesthetists to recognize and differentiate this entity from the more serious vision threatening conditions.

  13. Cefepime vs other antibacterial agents for the treatment of Enterobacter species bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Galar, Alicia; Guzmán-Suarez, Belisa B; Kubiak, David W; Baghdady, Nour; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hooper, David C; O'Brien, Thomas F; Marty, Francisco M

    2014-06-01

    Carbapenems are recommended for treatment of Enterobacter infections with AmpC phenotypes. Although isolates are typically susceptible to cefepime in vitro, there are few data supporting its clinical efficacy. We reviewed all cases of Enterobacter species bacteremia at 2 academic hospitals from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes of interest were (1) persistent bacteremia ≥1 calendar day and (2) in-hospital mortality. We fit logistic regression models, adjusting for clinical risk factors and Pitt bacteremia score and performed propensity score analyses to compare the efficacy of cefepime and carbapenems. Three hundred sixty-eight patients experienced Enterobacter species bacteremia and received at least 1 antimicrobial agent, of whom 52 (14%) died during hospitalization. Median age was 59 years; 19% were neutropenic, and 22% were in an intensive care unit on the day of bacteremia. Twenty-nine (11%) patients had persistent bacteremia for ≥1 day after antibacterial initiation. None of the 36 patients who received single-agent cefepime (0%) had persistent bacteremia, as opposed to 4 of 16 (25%) of those who received single-agent carbapenem (P Enterobacter species bacteremia. Its use should be further explored as a carbapenem-sparing agent in this clinical scenario.

  14. Incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Dorsky, D; Feingold, J M; Bona, R D; Edwards, R L; Aslanzadeh, J; Tutschka, P J; Bilgrami, S

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 321 consecutive recipients of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) was conducted to ascertain the incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia. Ten patients developed VRE bacteremia at a median of 6 days following PBSCT. Nine isolates were Enterococcus faecium and one was E. faecalis. The median duration of bacteremia was 5 days. The central venous catheter was removed in seven individuals. Nine patients were treated with a variety of antimicrobial agents including quinupristin-dalfopristin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, oral bacitracin, co-trimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin. Bacteremia resolved without adverse sequelae in seven patients. Two individuals who died of other causes had persistent or relapsed bacteremia at the time of death. An additional patient suffered multiple relapses of VRE bacteremia and died as a result of VRE endocarditis 605 days following PBSCT. Mortality as a direct result of VRE bacteremia was 10% in this series. The optimal type and duration of treatment of VRE bacteremia has not been clearly defined. Therefore, we perform weekly stool surveillance cultures for VRE in our hospitalized transplant population and apply strict barrier precautions in those individuals in whom stool colonization has been identified. Furthermore, the empiric use of vancomycin has been restricted. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 147-152.

  15. Tsukamurella paurometabolum: a novel pathogen causing catheter-related bacteremia in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, C L; Haft, R F; Gantz, N M; Doern, G V; Christenson, J C; O'Brien, R; Overall, J C; Brown, B A; Wallace, R J

    1992-01-01

    Tsukamurella paurometabolum is a weakly acid-fast, pleomorphic gram-positive bacterium found in soil. Human infection due to this organism has rarely been described, and there are no published accounts of bacteremia. Three cases of bacteremia due to T. paurometabolum and related to long-term use of a central venous catheter in patients with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy are described.

  16. The clinical characteristics, carbapenem resistance, and outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia according to genospecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few clinical data are available on the relationship between genospecies and outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia, and the results are inconsistent. We performed this study to evaluate the relationship between genospecies and the outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia. METHODS: Clinical data from 180 patients who had Acinetobacter bacteremia from 2003 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The genospecies were identified by rpoB gene sequence analysis. The clinical features and outcomes of 90 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia were compared to those of 90 patients with non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (60 with A. nosocomialis, 17 with Acinetobacter species "close to 13 TU", 11 with A. pittii, and two with A. calcoaceticus. RESULTS: A. baumannii bacteremia was associated with intensive care unit-onset, mechanical ventilation, pneumonia, carbapenem resistance, and higher APACHE II scores, compared to non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (P<0.05. In univariate analyses, age, pneumonia, multidrug resistance, carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empirical antibiotics, higher APACHE II scores, and A. baumannii genospecies were risk factors for mortality (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed A. baumannii genospecies (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.56-8.33, age, pneumonia, and higher APACHE II scores to be independent risk factors for mortality (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: A. baumannii genospecies was an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia. Our results emphasize the importance of correct species identification of Acinetobacter blood isolates.

  17. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Recent and innovative methods for detection of bacteremia and fungemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reller, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Advances continue to be made in methods for more reliable or more rapid means of detecting bacteremia and fungemia. The importance of blood sample volume and broth dilution has been established in controlled studies. New technology includes the use of resins that remove antimicrobials from blood samples, detection of radioactivity from organisms given radiolabeled substrate, use of dyes that stain microbial DNA and RNA, use of slides coated with growth media, and lysis-centrifugation for trapping microorganisms. Technology now being considered includes counterimmunoelectrophoresis, head-space gas chromatography, electrical impedance, microcalorimetry, and the use of lasers to detect pH changes and turbidity

  19. A Case of Liver Abscess with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saho Koyano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desulfovibrio spp. are gram-negative, sulfate-reducing, and anaerobic bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. Because Desulfovibrio spp. are infrequent causative agents of infectious diseases and are difficult to isolate and to identify from clinical specimens, the appropriate antibiotic therapy to infection with Desulfovibrio spp. has not been determined. We report the first case of liver abscess with bacteremia due to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to show the clinical presentation and treatment. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam and oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

  20. Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Verena Nielsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH, Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238 were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS (53.3%; n = 129, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22 and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17. Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2. Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4 for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4 for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1 for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9 for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR. Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial

  1. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Bunker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient’s rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  2. A Simple Algorithm for Predicting Bacteremia Using Food Consumption and Shaking Chills: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takahashi, Erika; Mishima, Kentaro; Toyoda, Takeo; Saitoh, Fumihiro; Yasuda, Akari; Matsuoka, Joe; Sugita, Manabu; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence; Inoue, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Predicting the presence of true bacteremia based on clinical examination is unreliable. We aimed to construct a simple algorithm for predicting true bacteremia by using food consumption and shaking chills. A prospective multicenter observational study. Three hospital centers in a large Japanese city. In total, 1,943 hospitalized patients aged 14 to 96 years who underwent blood culture acquisitions between April 2013 and August 2014 were enrolled. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions were excluded. We assessed the patients' oral food intake based on the meal immediately prior to the blood culture with definition as "normal food consumption" when >80% of a meal was consumed and "poor food consumption" when <80% was consumed. We also concurrently evaluated for a history of shaking chills. We calculated the statistical characteristics of food consumption and shaking chills for the presence of true bacteremia, and subsequently built the algorithm by using recursive partitioning analysis. Among 1,943 patients, 223 cases were true bacteremia. Among patients with normal food consumption, without shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 2.4% (13/552). Among patients with poor food consumption and shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 47.7% (51/107). The presence of poor food consumption had a sensitivity of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-97.9%) for true bacteremia, and the absence of poor food consumption (ie, normal food consumption) had a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.17-0.19) for excluding true bacteremia, respectively. Conversely, the presence of the shaking chills had a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.4%) and a positive LR of 4.78 (95% CI, 4.56-5.00) for true bacteremia. A 2-item screening checklist for food consumption and shaking chills had excellent statistical properties as a brief screening instrument for predicting true bacteremia. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  3. Evaluation of in vitro Vibrio static activity of Shewanella algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To conquer disease problem in shrimp industries, probiotic biocontrol is a well known remedy now. The antagonistic ability of separated isolates from different parts of juvenile Penaeus monodon were screened against shrimp Vibrio pathogens; Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. The most antagonistic effect ...

  4. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  5. Gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of Staphylococcus aureus following bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Shopsin, Bo; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. [A case of catheter-related bacteremia of Tsukamurella pulmonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyoeun Eun; Sung, Heungsup; Baek, Seung Mi; Namgung, Seung; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Gyu Hyung

    2009-02-01

    Tsukamurella pulmonis is an aerobic actinomycete. We report a catheter-related bacteremia of T. pulmonis. A 39 yr-old male with ALL was hospitalized to receive bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although the patient developed a high fever at the 7th hospital day (HD), it subsided with vancomycin treatment, and he received BMT at 9th HD. Fever resurged at 16th HD despite sustained treatment with vancomycin, meropenem, and amphotericin B, but subsided with removal of Hickman catheter (HC) at 19th HD. Three sets of blood cultures comprising one from the HC and two from venipunctures were taken at 7th, 16th, and 19th HD, and the distal tip of the HC was also cultured. The aerobic vials of all 3 HC-withdrawn blood cultures and one peripheral blood culture taken at 19HD and the HC tip culture grew long, straight, thin gram-positive rods that were positive on modified Kinyoun stain. This organism showed tiny, rough, grey colonies after 3-day incubation and grew to large flat colonies when incubation was extended. It was catalase-positive, urease-positive, and alkaline-slant/alkaline-deep on triple sugar iron agar, and hydrolyzed hypoxanthine. The sequence of 1,296 base pairs of 16S rRNA of this organism showed a 100.0% homology with the published sequence of T. pulmonis DSM 44142T. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. pulmonis bacteremia in Korea.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteremia Among Acutely Febrile Children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; John-Stewart, Grace C; Onchiri, Frankline M; Okumu, Albert O; Sitati, Ruth R; Cranmer, Lisa M; Lokken, Erica M; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2015-11-01

    In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8-4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0-2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Poor oral hygiene as a risk factor for infective endocarditis–related bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Thornhill, Martin; Michalowicz, Bryan S.; Noll, Jenene; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K.; Sasser, Howell C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Infective endocarditis (IE) often is caused by bacteria that colonize teeth. The authors conducted a study to determine if poor oral hygiene or dental disease are risk factors for developing bacteremia after toothbrushing or single-tooth extraction. Methods One hundred ninety-four participants in a study were in either a toothbrushing group or a single-tooth extraction with placebo group. The authors assessed the participants’ oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis statuses. They assayed blood samples obtained before, during and after the toothbrushing or extraction interventions for IE-associated bacteria. Results The authors found that oral hygiene and gingival disease indexes were associated significantly with IE-related bacteremia after toothbrushing. Participants with mean plaque and calculus scores of 2 or greater were at a 3.78- and 4.43-fold increased risk of developing bacteremia, respectively. The presence of generalized bleeding after toothbrushing was associated with an almost eightfold increase in risk of developing bacteremia. There was no significant association between any of the measures of periodontal disease and the incidence of bacteremia after toothbrushing. The oral hygiene or disease status of a tooth was not significantly associated with bacteremia after its extraction. Conclusion Bacteremia after toothbrushing is associated with poor oral hygiene and gingival bleeding after toothbrushing. Clinical Implications Improvements in oral hygiene may reduce the risk of developing IE. PMID:19797553

  9. Poor oral hygiene as a risk factor for infective endocarditis-related bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Peter B; Brennan, Michael T; Thornhill, Martin; Michalowicz, Bryan S; Noll, Jenene; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K; Sasser, Howell C

    2009-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) often is caused by bacteria that colonize teeth. The authors conducted a study to determine if poor oral hygiene or dental disease are risk factors for developing bacteremia after toothbrushing or single-tooth extraction. One hundred ninety-four participants in a study were in either a toothbrushing group or a single-tooth extraction with placebo group. The authors assessed the participants' oral hygiene, gingivitis and periodontitis statuses. They assayed blood samples obtained before, during and after the toothbrushing or extraction interventions for IE-associated bacteria. The authors found that oral hygiene and gingival disease indexes were associated significantly with IE-related bacteremia after toothbrushing. Participants with mean plaque and calculus scores of 2 or greater were at a 3.78- and 4.43-fold increased risk of developing bacteremia, respectively. The presence of generalized bleeding after toothbrushing was associated with an almost eightfold increase in risk of developing bacteremia. There was no significant association between any of the measures of periodontal disease and the incidence of bacteremia after toothbrushing. The oral hygiene or disease status of a tooth was not significantly associated with bacteremia after its extraction. Bacteremia after toothbrushing is associated with poor oral hygiene and gingival bleeding after toothbrushing. Improvements in oral hygiene may reduce the risk of developing IE.

  10. Clinical analysis of Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Lu, Jen-Her; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Chun-Jen; Wu, Keh-Gong; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Enterobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in pediatric patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients (under the age of 18 years) having Enterobacter bacteremia who were treated at Taipei the Veterans General Hospital from January 2001 to June 2011. In total, 853 positive blood cultures were obtained from 620 patients during the study period. Among them, 96 episodes of Enterobacter bacteremia were found in 83 patients, accounting for 11.3% of all bacteremia. Eighty-two cases (98.8%) were nosocomial infections. Most of the cases were neonates (62 cases, 74.7%) and premature infants (51 cases, 61.5%). The common sources of bacteremia were the respiratory tract (53.0%), followed by intravascular catheter (10.8%), multiple sources (10.8%), and the gastrointestinal tract (8.4%). The overall case fatality rate was 18.1%, with the highest rate being reported among premature infants. The factors responsible for the deaths were leukocytosis and a higher median number of underlying diseases. Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Enterobacter species are probably an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia in premature neonates. The number of underlying diseases should be considered a major factor influencing the prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Use of rifampin in persistent coagulase negative staphylococcal bacteremia in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Frans J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS are the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. A minority of neonates does not respond to vancomycin therapy and develops persistent bacteremia, which may be treated with rifampin. We evaluated the use of rifampin in persistent CoNS bacteremia. Methods Retrospective study of 137 neonates with CoNS bacteremia during admission to a tertiary NICU between July 2006 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were total duration of bacteremia and the adequacy of vancomycin and rifampin therapy. Results 137/1696 (8.0% neonates developed a CoNS bacteremia. Eighteen were treated with rifampin because of persistent bacteremia (3 positive blood cultures at least 48 hours apart with clinical symptoms or (a serious suspicion of an intravascular thrombus. Duration of bacteremia prior to rifampin therapy (8.0 ± 3.6 days was positively correlated (p Conclusion Rifampin may be effective in the treatment of persistent CoNS infections in neonates. Outcome may be improved by adequate monitoring of vancomycin trough levels.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinac, P B; Lokken, E M; Walson, J L; Richardson, B A; Crump, J A; John-Stewart, G C

    2016-07-01

    SETTINGp: Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults living in tuberculosis (TB) endemic settings, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a common cause of bloodstream infections. Although young children have an increased propensity for M. tuberculosis dissemination, M. tuberculosis bacteremia is infrequently described in children. To determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia in adult and pediatric patients and to examine sources of heterogeneity between estimates. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Of 1077 reviewed abstracts, 27 publications met the inclusion criteria, yielding 29 independent M. tuberculosis bacteremia prevalence estimates: 22 in adults, 6 in children, and 1 not stratified by age group. The random effects pooled M. tuberculosis bacteremia prevalence in adults was 13.5% (95%CI 10.8-16.2) and 0.4% (95%CI 0-0.9) in children (P for difference = 0.004). Restricting analyses to HIV-infected participants, pooled M. tuberculosis bacteremia prevalence from 21 adult studies was 15.5% (95%CI 12.5-18.5) and 0.8% (95%CI 0-1.8) in three pediatric studies (P = 0.001). Inclusion of pre-determined study-level confounders did not account for observed differences in M. tuberculosis bacteremia prevalence between age groups. While M. tuberculosis bacteremia appears relatively common in adults, particularly those with HIV infection, bloodstream M. tuberculosis appears to be rare in children.

  13. Bacteriophages in the control of pathogenic vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Nicolás; Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Perez-Reytor, Diliana

    2018-01-01

    constitute a continuing threat for aquaculture. Moreover, the continuous use of antibiotics has been accompanied by an emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, implying a necessity for efficient treatments. One promising alternative that emerges is the use of lytic bacteriophages; however......, there are some drawbacks that should be overcome to make phage therapy a widely accepted method. In this work, we discuss about the major pathogenic Vibrio species and the progress, benefits and disadvantages that have been detected during the experimental use of bacteriophages to their control....

  14. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    or siblings) of patients previously hospitalized with S aureus bacteremia. MEASUREMENTS: Poisson regression models were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of S aureus bacteremia, with the incidence rate in the population as a reference. RESULTS: 34 774 individuals (the exposed cohort...... of variables in the multiple regression analysis, and whether nonsignificant interactions were true or caused by insufficient statistical power remains uncertain. CONCLUSION: A significant familial clustering of S aureus bacteremia was found, with the greatest relative rate of disease observed in individuals...

  15. Aeromonas salmonicida bacteremia associated with chronic well water consumption in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ann Moore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida is associated with superficial skin infections in fish. Its virulence factors allow colonization of water including surface water such as salt water, beaches, and fresh water wells. Moreover, it is possible for immunocompromised patients to develop invasive disease after chronic exposure to Aeromonas spp. through contaminated water. While there are reports of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia following water ingestion, there have been no reports of A. salmonicida bacteremia from water consumption. We report the first case of A. salmonicida bacteremia in a patient with diabetes due to chronic consumption of well water.

  16. Probing the Catalytic Mechanism of Vibrio harveyi GH20 β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase by Chemical Rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanat Meekrathok

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi GH20 β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (VhGlcNAcase is a chitinolytic enzyme responsible for the successive degradation of chitin fragments to GlcNAc monomers, activating the onset of the chitin catabolic cascade in marine Vibrios.Two invariant acidic pairs (Asp303-Asp304 and Asp437-Glu438 of VhGlcNAcase were mutated using a site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The effects of these mutations were examined and the catalytic roles of these active-site residues were elucidated using a chemical rescue approach. Enhancement of the enzymic activity of the VhGlcNAcase mutants was evaluated by a colorimetric assay using pNP-GlcNAc as substrate.Substitution of Asp303, Asp304, Asp437 or Glu438 with Ala/Asn/Gln produced a dramatic loss of the GlcNAcase activity. However, the activity of the inactive D437A mutant was recovered in the presence of sodium formate. Our kinetic data suggest that formate ion plays a nucleophilic role by mimicking the β-COO-side chain of Asp437, thereby stabilizing the reaction intermediate during both the glycosylation and the deglycosylation steps.Chemical rescue of the inactive D437A mutant of VhGlcNAcase by an added nucleophile helped to identify Asp437 as the catalytic nucleophile/base, and hence its acidic partner Glu438 as the catalytic proton donor/acceptor.Identification of the catalytic nucleophile of VhGlcNAcases supports the proposal of a substrate-assisted mechanism of GH20 GlcNAcases, requiring the catalytic pair Asp437-Glu438 for catalysis. The results suggest the mechanistic basis of the participation of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the chitin catabolic pathway of marine Vibrios.

  17. Vibrio ecology - Identifying Environmental Determinants Favorable for the Presence and Transmission of Pathogenic Vibrios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In a tri-coastal collaborative study, the population densities of vibrios are being determined in the Mississippi Sound, Puget Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Timbalier...

  18. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  19. 3-Amino 1,8-naphthalimide, a structural analog of the anti-cholera drug virstatin inhibits chemically-biased swimming and swarming motility in vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2017-06-01

    A screen for inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae motility identified the compound 3-amino 1,8-naphthalimide (3-A18NI), a structural analog of the cholera drug virstatin. Similar to virstatin, 3-A18NI diminished cholera toxin production. In contrast, 3-A18NI impeded swimming and/or swarming motility of V. cholerae and V. parahemolyticus suggesting that it could target the chemotaxis pathway shared by the polar and lateral flagellar system of vibrios. 3-A18NI did not inhibit the expression of V. cholerae major flagellin FlaA or the assembly of its polar flagellum. Finally, 3-A18NI enhanced V. cholerae colonization mimicking the phenotype of chemotaxis mutants that exhibit counterclockwise-biased flagellum rotation. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic evidence that Vibrio inhibens is a heterotypic synonym of Vibrio jasicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanczyk, Yoshiko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Urbanczyk, Henryk

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio inhibens is a marine bacterium species of the genus Vibrio (Vibrionaceae, Gammaproteobacteria). The species has been shown to be closely related to members of the genus Vibrio in the so-called Harveyi clade. The clade includes at least 11 closely related species with similar physiological and biochemical properties. Due to these similarities, species of the Harveyi clade are difficult to characterize taxonomically. Previously phenotypic and genotypic properties of the V. inhibens type strain were compared with six species of the Harveyi clade, resulting in the possibility that V. inhibens could be a synonym of a previously described species. In this study, the taxonomic status of V. inhibens was analyzed using genomic approaches. The whole-genome sequence of the type strain of V. inhibens, CECT 7692T, was obtained and analyzed. Calculations of average nucleotide identity with the blast algorithm (ANIb) showed that CECT 7692T has an ANIb of 97.5 % or higher to five strains of Vibrio. jasicida, including the type strain, but an ANIb lower than 93.5 % to other members of the Harveyi clade Vibrio. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of 133 protein-coding genes showed a close evolutionary relationship of CECT 7692T to V. jasicida. Based on these results, Vibrio inhibens is proposed to be a later heterotypic synonym of V. jasicida.

  1. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Pouladfar, Gholam Reza; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Case Presentation We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin. Conclusions C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27621914

  3. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  4. PHAGE TYPING OF VIBRIO "EL TOR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ADIBFAR

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available 33 Stools from 518 patients suspected of having cholera were examined. From 174 of these patients Vibrio EI Tor was isolated. PO of these strains belonged to phage type IV, 53 to phage type V and one strain was untypable. It is suggested that these strains originated from two different sources.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  6. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilty of potentially pathogenic halophilic Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is indispensable for empirical treatment of infections and in preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. This study is aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophylic Vibrio species isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Susceptibility ...

  8. Comparison of classifications of aptamers against Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a novel method to detect the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus, 45 aptamers were previously selected and tested. In order to better understand the properties of these aptamers, it was essential to classify these aptamers based on appropriate criteria. The primary structure of 45 aptamers against V. alginolyticus was analyzed ...

  9. Isolated ovarian tuberculosis mimicking ovarian carcinoma: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although genitourinary tuberculosis is common, reports of isolated ovarian tuberculosis are rare. However, its presentation can mimick that of an ovarian tumour, leading to diagnostic difficulties. A woman of 17 years presented with chronic pelvic pain, weight loss, a right ovarian mass on ultrasound, and a significantly ...

  10. Uncomplicated bifid Meckle's diverticulum mimicking recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was excised with V shaped ileal wall. Histopathology showed features of Meckel's diverticulum without any Gastric or pancreatic tissue in mucosa. Clinicians should be wary of a bifid meckel's diverticulum as a very rare anomaly that can be symptomatic mimicking appendicitis. Keywords: Bifid, Meckel's, Diverticulitis ...

  11. Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U.O. Ezomike

    Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion and caused by Proteus mirabilis. U.O. Ezomikea,∗. , M.A. Ituena, S.C. Ekpemoa, S.O. Ekenzeb a Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria b Sub-Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, ...

  12. Acute dystonia mimicking angioedema of the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Pallesen, Kristine A U; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acute dystonia of the face, jaw and tongue caused by metoclopramide and mimicking angioedema. The patient had attacks for several years before the correct diagnosis was made and we present the first ever published video footage of an attack. This adverse drug reaction is known...

  13. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M.; Schima, W.; Turetschek, K.; Thurnher, S.A. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fuegger, R. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, G. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-06-01

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  14. Iliacus Abscess with Radiculopathy Mimicking Herniated Nucleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... radiculopathy mimicking herniated nucleus pulposus: Aadditional diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:392-3. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows ...

  15. Not Your Garden-Variety Bacteremia: Gardnerella in an Immunocompromised Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Prerana; Temple, John; Kantor, Molly

    2018-04-17

    Systemic Gardnerella infections are rare and usually associated with surgical instrumentation of the genitourinary tract. We present a case of symptomatic and transient Gardnerella bacteremia in a man with AIDS after a traumatic urinary catheter insertion.

  16. Gram-negative rod bacteremia after cardiovascular surgery: Clinical features and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Tago

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Graft replacement was the most common surgical procedure in patients with GNRB after CVS. Empirical antibiotics covering Gram-negative rods including P. aeruginosa should be considered if bacteremia is suspected in unstable patients after CVS.

  17. Nosocomial bacteremia due to Kluyvera cryocrescens: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshino

    2016-01-01

    Piperacilin/tazobactam was administered for 2 weeks and the bacteremia resolved. Unfortunately, there was acute exacerbation of the interstitial lung disease, which was fatal. According to our review, including our case, K. cryocrescens bacteremia tends to occur in immunocompromised hosts, and indwelling catheters might be risk factors. Extended spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines are generally adequate agents for empiric therapy based on susceptibilities of K. cryocrescens clinical isolates.

  18. Recurrent bacteremia with different strains of Streptococcus pyogenes in an immunocompromised child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Minami, Masaaki; Narita, Kotaro; Nakata, Tomohiko; Itomi, Seiko; Kubota, Kinya; Oya, Teruaki; Nishiyama, Hideki; Kato, Hideki; Yuasa, Norihiro

    2016-06-01

    We report an immunocompromised child who experienced two episodes of bacteremia due to Streptococcus pyogenes. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA profiles, emm genotypes, superantigen profiles, antimicrobial susceptibility, and resistance-related genes were investigated, and the results showed different profiles between the two isolates. This is the first report describing recurrent bacteremia caused by different strains of S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with bacteremia among patients with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryota; Shindo, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Kimura, Kouji; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-03-01

    Some important virulence factors have been elucidated in Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. We investigated the relationship between virulence factors and multilocus sequence types (STs) and assessed the risk factors for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae. From April 2004 through April 2012, a total of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumonia (23 with bacteremia and 97 without bacteremia) were collected from 10 medical institutions in Japan. Additionally, 10 strains of K. pneumoniae serotype K2 that were isolated >30 years ago were included in this study. These isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the characteristics of their virulence factors, such as hypermucoviscosity phenotype and RmpA and aerobactin production between patients with and without bacteremia, were examined. MLST analysis was performed on the 120 isolates from patients with pneumonia, and some sequence type groups were defined as genetic lineages (GLs). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia (21.7%) than in those without bacteremia (7.2%). The majority of the strains with serotype K2 were classified into GL14 or GL65, and rmpA and the gene for aerobactin were present in all GL65-K2 strains but absent in all GL14-K2 strains. In a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for bacteremia included GL65 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81 to 49.31), as well as neoplastic disease (AOR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.61 to 37.92), immunosuppression (AOR, 17.85; 95% CI, 1.49 to 214.17), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.29 to 17.61). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia and was associated with the virulence factors of K. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Isolation of lytic bacteriophage against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers-Stomps, C; Høj, L; Bourne, D G; Hall, M R; Owens, L

    2010-05-01

    The isolation of lytic bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi with potential for phage therapy of bacterial pathogens of phyllosoma larvae from the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus. Water samples from discharge channels and grow-out ponds of a prawn farm in northeastern Australia were enriched for 24 h in a broth containing four V. harveyi strains. The bacteriophage-enriched filtrates were spotted onto bacterial lawns demonstrating that the bacteriophage host range for the samples included strains of V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Bacteriophage were isolated from eight enriched samples through triple plaque purification. The host range of purified phage included V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus and V. parahaemolyticus. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that six purified phage belonged to the family Siphoviridae, whilst two belonged to the family Myoviridae. The Myoviridae appeared to induce bacteriocin production in a limited number of host bacterial strains, suggesting that they were lysogenic rather than lytic. A purified Siphoviridae phage could delay the entry of a broth culture of V. harveyi strain 12 into exponential growth, but could not prevent the overall growth of the bacterial strain. Bacteriophage with lytic activity against V. harveyi were isolated from prawn farm samples. Purified phage of the family Siphoviridae had a clear lytic ability and no apparent transducing properties, indicating they are appropriate for phage therapy. Phage resistance is potentially a major constraint to the use of phage therapy in aquaculture as bacteria are not completely eliminated. Phage therapy is emerging as a potential antibacterial agent that can be used to control pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems. The development of phage therapy for aquaculture requires initial isolation and determination of the bacteriophage host range, with subsequent creation of

  1. Morbidity, mortality, and management of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in the USA: update on antibacterial choices and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwine, Jessica K; Bhavan, Kavita

    2018-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant healthcare costs, morbidity, and mortality in the United States. Complications of MRSA bacteremia include infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis, all of which are difficult to treat. Time to effective therapy and antibacterial choice greatly affect patient outcomes. Vancomycin and daptomycin remain first-line therapies; however, reports of vancomycin-associated treatment failure and reduced daptomycin susceptibility highlight the need to define alternative strategies for MRSA bacteremia treatment. In addition, several patient- and pathogen-specific factors influence the outcomes of MRSA bacteremia. It is, therefore, critical to explore the interaction between host- and pathogen-specific factors and its effect on MRSA bacteremia pathogenesis and mortality. This review discusses the factors that drive the development of MRSA bacteremia and examines alternative treatment strategies.

  2. Low risk of bacteremia after endoscopic variceal therapy for esophageal varices: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yi; Dwivedi, Alok; Elhanafi, Sherif; Ortiz, Arleen; Othman, Mohamed; Zuckerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) are the main therapeutic procedures for the emergency treatment and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices in cirrhotics. Post-endoscopic bacteremia has been reported after EVS and EVL, but data on the frequency of bacteremia are conflicting. This study aims to provide incidences of bacteremia after EVS and EVL in different settings through meta-analysis. Methods: Only prospective or...

  3. Bacteremia and other body site infection caused by hypervirulent and classic Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Li, Dongdong; Zhou, Haijian; Sun, Yunfang; Guo, Ling; Shen, Dingxia

    2017-03-01

    To investigate bacteremia and other body site infection caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), a recently recognized pathogen of invasive infection, and classic Klebsiella pneumoniae (cKP), a very common organism associated with many kinds of nosocomial infection. Clinical information obtained from patients with both bacteremia and other body site infections caused by hvKP and/or cKP was retrospectively reviewed. Homo-hvKP (or homo-cKP) was defined as homologous hvKP (or cKP) strains from different body sites in each individual patient according to string test, virulence gene amplification and PFGE pattern. MLST was carried on to understand the correlation of sequence type with capsular polysaccharide type for Klebsiella pneumoniae from blood. Sixty-four hvKP and 101 cKP strains were isolated from blood and other body sites of 76 patients who had bacteremia accompanied by other site infection. Among these patients, 27 were infected with homo-hvKP, 32 were with homo-cKP, 12 were with heterogeneous cKP, and five were with both hvKP and cKP. Patients with bacteremia and liver abscesses caused by homo-hvKP accounted for 51.9%, and 92.6% of homo-hvKP infected patients did not receive any invasive procedures before bacteremia. However, patients with bacteremia and biliary tract infection caused by homo-cKP accounted for 34.4%, and 78.1% of homo-cKP infected patients had history of invasive procedures before bacteremia. More homo-hvKP strains (59.3%) than homo-cKP strains (34.4%) were isolated from blood earlier than other sites. HvKP strains were statistically more susceptible to the tested antimicrobials than cKP strains. An outbreak of carbapenem-resistant cKP infection and possible gene transfer of KPC-2 from cKP to hvKP were brought to notice. Both hvKP and cKP could cause bacteremia and other body site infection. But patients with hvKP bacteremia usually suffered from liver abscess without previous invasive procedures, most patients with c

  4. Implementation of global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS in patients with bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipas Sirijatuphat

    Full Text Available The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens. GLASS was implemented at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand using a locally developed web application program (app to transfer blood culture specimen data, and to enter clinical data of patients with positive blood culture by infection control nurses and physicians via the app installed in their smart phones. The rate of positive blood culture specimens with true infection was 15.2%. Escherichia coli was the most common cause of bacteremia. Secondary bacteremia, primary bacteremia, and central line-associated blood stream infection was observed in 61.8%, 30.6%, and 12.6% of cases, respectively. Sepsis was observed in 56.9% of patients. E.coli was significantly more common in community-acquired bacteremia, whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii were significantly more common in hospital-acquired bacteremia. Hospital-acquired isolates of E.coli, K.pneumoniae, A.baumannii, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus and Enterococcus faecium were more resistant to antibiotics than community-acquired isolates. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with antibiotic-resistant bacteremia than in patients with antibiotic non-resistant bacteremia (40.5% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001. The patients with antibiotic-resistant bacteremia consumed more resources than those with antibiotic non-resistant bacteremia. Blood culture results combined with patient clinical data were

  5. Copper homeostasis at the host vibrio interface: lessons from intracellular vibrio transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Audrey S; Rubio, Tristan P; Nguyen, An N; Lemire, Astrid; Roche, David; Nicod, Julie; Vergnes, Agnès; Poirier, Aurore C; Disconzi, Elena; Bachère, Evelyne; Le Roux, Frédérique; Jacq, Annick; Charrière, Guillaume M; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that several vibrio species have evolved the capacity to survive inside host cells. However, it is still often ignored if intracellular stages are required for pathogenicity. Virulence of Vibrio tasmaniensis LGP32, a strain pathogenic for Crassostrea gigas oysters, depends on entry into hemocytes, the oyster immune cells. We investigated here the mechanisms of LGP32 intracellular survival and their consequences on the host-pathogen interaction. Entry and survival inside hemocytes were required for LGP32-driven cytolysis of hemocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. LGP32 intracellular stages showed a profound boost in metabolic activity and a major transcription of antioxidant and copper detoxification genes, as revealed by RNA sequencing. LGP32 isogenic mutants showed that resistance to oxidative stress and copper efflux are two main functions required for vibrio intracellular stages and cytotoxicity to hemocytes. Copper efflux was also essential for host colonization and virulence in vivo. Altogether, our results identify copper resistance as a major mechanism to resist killing by phagocytes, induce cytolysis of immune cells and colonize oysters. Selection of such resistance traits could arise from vibrio interactions with copper-rich environmental niches including marine invertebrates, which favour the emergence of pathogenic vibrios resistant to intraphagosomal killing across animal species. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  7. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  8. Giant chondroid syringoma radiologically mimicking malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkiz Uyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroid syringoma, or mixed tumor of skin, is a relatively rare, usually benign sweat gland tumor, most often seen in the head-and-neck region. Rare malignant examples have been reported, commonly involving the extremities. We report here a case radiologically mimicking a malignant neoplasm, but histologically-proven benign subcutaneous chondroid syringoma, arising in the anterior aspect of the upper thigh of a 59-year-old male.

  9. Hydroxychloroquine-Associated Hyperpigmentation Mimicking Elder Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxychloroquine may result in cutaneous dyschromia. Older individuals who are the victims of elder abuse can present with bruising and resolving ecchymoses. Purpose The features of hydroxychloroquine-associated hyperpigmentation are described, the mucosal and skin manifestations of elder abuse are reviewed, and the mucocutaneous mimickers of elder abuse are summarized. Case Report An elderly woman being treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed d...

  10. Photochromic crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kingo; Nishimura, Ryo; Hatano, Eri; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Yokojima, Satoshi

    2018-01-31

    Photoresponsive crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions are prepared using photochromic diarylethenes. Upon UV irradiation to a diarylethene crystal, the self-aggregated and needle-shaped crystals of photogenerated colored closed-ring isomer were generated on the surface. The rough surface showed the superhydrophobic lotus effect. By controlling the heating procedures, UV irradiation processes, and molecular structural modification, rose-petal effects of wetting, anti-reflective moth eye effect, and double-roughness structure mimicking the surface of lotus leaf were observed. By changing the molecular structure, superhydrophilic surface mimicking snail shell was photogenerated. We also found a derivative to form hollow crystals by sublimation. The crystals showed photosalient effect and the photo-response similar to impatiens was observed after small beads were packed in the hollow. These photoresponsive functions are unique, and they demonstrate a macroscopic response by assembling microscopic molecular movement of light. In the future, such a molecular assembly system will be a promising candidate for fabricating photoresponsive architectures and soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [138 episodes of bacteremia or fungemia in patients with solid organ (renal or hepatic) transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Mensa, J; Almela, M; Vilardell, J; Navasa, M; Claramonte, J; Cruceta, A; Serrano, R; García-Valdecasas, J C; Soriano, E

    1994-07-02

    To study the bacteremias and fungemias of the patients with solid organ transplantation (kidney or liver) and analyze the differences according to the type of graft. A prospective study included in a control program of bacteremias of a 1000-bed hospital and a follow up study of the infections of the patients who had undergone kidney transplantation (KT) (1985-1991) and liver transplantation (LT) (1988-1991) were carried out. One hundred thirty-one bacteremias and 5 fungemias, 75 in 62 patients with KT out of a total of 568 transplantations (11%) and 63 out of 54 patients with LT out of a total of 185 transplantations (29%) were identified. The prevalence of bacteremia in LT was greater (p enterobacterias (12 and 12, respectively), Pseudomonas sp. (14 and 6, respectively), Candida sp. (2 and 3, respectively) with similar rates in both transplants. The origin of bacteremia was; renal and urinary tract, most frequent in KT (21 and 2 respectively) (p = 0.001). The origin of bacteremia was: renal and urinary tract, most frequent in KT (21 and 2 respectively) (p < 0.001), intraabdominal and biliary tract, most frequent in LT (4 and 14, respectively) (p = 0.007); intravenous catheter, most frequent in LT (16 and 24 respectively) (p < 0.05); lung, most frequent in LT although without statistical significance (3 and 8, respectively), (p = NS), and finally, surgical wound (4 and 1, respectively) (p = NS). Seventeen patients died (14 with LT and 3 with KT). The incidence of bacteremia and the mortality related, was greater in LT than that observed in KT. The most frequent origin in KT was the kidney and urinary tract and the biliary and intraabdominal organs and the intravenous catheter were most prevalent in liver transplants. Staphylococcus sp was the most frequent germ in both types of transplantation and polymicrobian infection in liver transplants. Gram-negative germs caused higher mortality in liver transplantation.

  12. Recurrent bacteremia caused by the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Hsu, Han-Lin; Tan, Che-Kim; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Cheng, Aristine; Liu, Chia-Ying; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with recurrent bacteremia caused by the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex at a medical center. All ACB complex isolates associated with recurrent bacteremia were identified to the genomic species level using a 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer sequence-based method. Genotypes were determined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns generated by arbitrarily primed PCR and by pulsotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Relapse of infection was defined as when the genotype of the recurrent isolate was identical to that of the original infecting strain. Reinfection was defined as when the genospecies or genotype of the recurrent isolate differed from that of the original isolate. From 2006 to 2008, 446 patients had ACB complex bacteremia and 25 (5.6%) had recurrent bacteremia caused by the ACB complex. Among the 25 patients, 12 (48%) had relapse of bacteremia caused by A. nosocomialis (n = 7) or A. baumannii (n = 5). Among the 13 patients with reinfection, 5 (38.5%) had reinfection caused by different genospecies of the ACB complex. Most of the patients were immunocompromised, and most of the infection foci were catheter-related bloodstream infections. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33.3%. A. baumannii isolates had lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates than A. nosocomialis and A. pittii isolates. In conclusion, relapse of ACB complex bacteremia can develop in immunocompromised patients, especially those with central venous catheters. Molecular methods to identify the ACB complex to the genospecies level are essential for differentiating between reinfection and relapse of bacteremia caused by the ACB complex.

  13. Significância clínica, epidemiologia e microbiologia das bacteremias por estafilococos coagulase-negativos em Hospital de Ensino Clinical significance, epidemiology and microbiology of coagulase-negative staphylococcal nosocomial bacteremia at a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Góngora-Rubio

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN são importantes agentes etiológicos das bacteremias hospitalares e freqüentemente considerados como contaminantes de hemoculturas. No período de outubro de 1990 a setembro de 1992, foram estudadas 300 hemoculturas positivas para ECN no Hospital São Paulo, sendo 141 bacteremias consideradas de origem hospitalar. Com o objetivo de diferenciar as bacteremias hospitalares verdadeiras das contaminantes por ECN, foram definidos critérios clínicos e microbiológicos. Apenas 20,6% das bacteremias hospitalares por ECN foram consideradas como verdadeiras. A maior freqüência de recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, a presença de cateter intravascular e a utilização de nutrição parenteral foram achados significativos. Não houve diferença significante quanto a resistência a oxacilina e produção de SLIME entre os ECN isolados das bacteremias verdadeiras e contaminantes. O critério clínico e a positividade da hemocultura até 48 horas após a incubação, utilizados em nossa definição, foram úteis para caracterizar as bacteremias verdadeiras por ECN.Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are an important cause of nosocomial bacteremia and they are frequently considered as contaminants of blood-cultures. From October 1990 to September 1992, 300 positive blood-cultures for CNS at the Hospital São Paulo were studied and 141 CNS bacteremias were characterized as nosocomial bacteremias. Clinical and microbiological criteria were defined to differentiate between true CNS bacteremia and contaminated cultures. Only 20.6% of the CNS nosocomial bacteremia were considered as true bacteremia. Most of the CNS true nosocomial bacteremia were detected among newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit; the presence of intravascular catheter and parenteral nutrition were significant findings. We did not detect significant difference between true nosocomial bacteremia and

  14. Cholera and other vibrio-associated diarrhoeas*

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in knowledge of Vibrio species and related organisms that are responsible for diarrhoeal diseases, particularly V. cholerae O-Group 1 (epidemic strains), atypical V. cholerae O-Group 1, non-O-Group 1 V. cholerae (non-epidemic strains), V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and ”Group F vibrios”. This article reviews the important new information, and identifies gaps in our knowledge, on aspects such as the epidemiology and bacteriology of vibri...

  15. Ceftaroline fosamil monotherapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a comparative clinical outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Samia; Huang, Vanthida; Hartman, Pamela; Perri, Mary B; Moreno, Daniela; Zervos, Marcus J

    2017-04-01

    Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia; however, its use has been subject to scrutiny due to failure in severe infections. Ceftaroline fosamil (CPT-F) is approved for MRSA acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, but not for bloodstream infections. The clinical outcomes of treatment with CPT-F in patients with MRSA bacteremia were evaluated. Patients diagnosed with MRSA bacteremia at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, USA, involving isolates with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration ≥1.0mg/l and susceptible in vitro to CPT-F, were systematically reviewed retrospectively. Ceftaroline fosamil-treated patients were matched with at least two vancomycin- and/or one daptomycin-treated control patient based on age-patients age 65 years or greater or less than 65 years of age. Outcomes evaluated included the duration of hospitalization, duration of therapy, adverse events, relapse, hospital readmission, and death. Thirty consecutive cases of MRSA bacteremia treated with CPT-F during the period May 2011 to June 2013 were identified; these patients were matched to 56 MRSA bacteremia patients treated with vancomycin and 46 MRSA bacteremia patients treated with daptomycin. The primary source of MRSA bacteremia in the cohort treated with CPT-F was endocarditis (n=7, 23%), skin/wound (n=9, 30%), and bone/joint (n=8, 27%). The MRSA bacteremia in those treated with CPT-F was community-acquired in 43% of cases, healthcare-associated in 43%, and hospital-acquired in 13%. The mean length of hospital stay for these patients was 22 days. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 13% (n=4) in CPT-F patients versus 24% (n=11) in daptomycin patients and 11% (n=6) in vancomycin patients (p=0.188). CPT-F demonstrated comparable clinical outcomes in MRSA bacteremia patients compared with the other agents, especially as salvage therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  16. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus viridans in children with hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Panina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia caused by Streptococcus viridans may be fulminant in neutropenic patients. The clinical signs of streptococcal bacteremiain neutropenic patients are obvious, but non-specific, and are characterized by fever, pulmonary symptoms (pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome in 20–25 % of cases, hemodynamic instability (about 30 % of cases, rash and followed desquamation, in rare cases – neurological disorders (encephalopathy. Perhaps the main difference from other bacteremia in immunocompromised patients is approximately 10 times higher risk of rapid (during the first two days development of acute lung injury with hypoxemia often requiring oxygen subsidies and respiratory support. Frequency, clinical characteristics and outcomes of streptococcal bacteremia, as well as the spectrum of antibiotics sensitivity was retrospective analyzed in this study. From 2003 to 2009 in children with various oncological and hematological diseases and febrile neutropenia 265 microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures, including Gram-positive in 113 (42 % patients. Strains of Streptococcus viridans, isolated at least once from blood (central venous catheter and / or peripheral veins, are included in analysis. Streptococcus viridans were isolated from the blood of 20 patients, accounting for 7.5 % of the total number of bacteremia and 17.7 % of gram-ositive bacteremia. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML accounted for 45 % of all patients with streptococcal bacteremia, but the incidence of streptococcal bacteremia in AML patients was 8.7 % and did not differ from patients with other diagnoses. 11 (55 % from 20 patients have mucositis at diagnosis of bacteremia, in 14 patients (70 % prior chemotherapy included high dose of cytosine arabinoside. All patients with streptococcal bacteremia have severe neutropenia (median 70 cells / mkl and characterized by fever (100 %, septic shock (8 patients, 40 % and RDS (7 patients, 35 % required high

  17. Efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil for bacteremia associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandourek, Alena; Smith, Alexander; Llorens, Lily; Thye, Dirk A; Eckburg, Paul B; Friedland, H David

    2014-02-01

    Few publications of prospective studies have described patient outcomes in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP)-associated bacteremia. Our objective, in performing this subgroup analysis, was to assess outcomes in subjects with CABP-associated bacteremia in 2 randomized, double-blind clinical studies comparing treatment with ceftaroline fosamil versus ceftriaxone. Our analysis summarizes baseline subject demographics, distribution of baseline pathogens isolated from blood cultures, clinical response rates at Day 4, and clinical cure rates at end of therapy and test of cure (8 to 15 days after end of therapy) in subjects with bacteremic CABP in the ceFtarOline Community-acquired pneUmonia trial vS ceftriaxone in hospitalized patients (FOCUS) studies. In the FOCUS studies, 23 of 614 patients in the ceftaroline fosamil-treated group and 22 of 614 patients in the ceftriaxone-treated group had CABP-associated bacteremia. Baseline demographics were similar between groups. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common baseline bloodstream isolate. For subjects with CABP-associated bacteremia, clinical response/cure rates were similar at Day 4 (60.9% vs 59.1%), end of therapy (69.6% vs 72.7%), and test of cure (69.6% vs 68.2%) for ceftaroline fosamil and ceftriaxone, respectively. In subjects with CABP-associated bacteremia, ceftaroline fosamil demonstrated similar clinical outcomes at Day 4, end of therapy, and test of cure compared with ceftriaxone.

  18. Predicting bacteremia based on nurse-assessed food consumption at the time of blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Onda, Toshihito; Murayama, Go; Yamanouchi, Masashi; Inukai, Minori; Sakai, Ai; Kikuta, Masumi; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence M; Inoue, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Bacteremia and its complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. However, the yield of blood cultures is relatively low, with many false-positive results from bacterial contamination. We investigated the relationship between patient food consumption and the presence of bacteremia. This was an observational analysis of a cohort of 1179 patients who underwent blood culture analysis between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions, such as gastrointestinal illness and malignant disease treated with chemotherapy, were excluded. Food consumption was rated by nurses as the percentage of food consumed during the meal preceding the blood culture. Groupings were as follows: low consumption (50% to 80%). Low consumption was observed in 39.8% of patients, moderate in 17.8%, and high in 41.6%. The average body temperature was 38.1 ± 1.1°C. Bacteremia was present in 18.5%, 3.9%, and 1.4% of patients in the low, moderate, and high food consumption groups, respectively. The negative predictive value was 98.3%, suggesting that bacteremia is very unlikely in the setting of good food intake. Bacteremia is an unlikely occurrence in hospitalized patients who maintain adequate food consumption at the time of blood culture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

  20. AN INVESTIGATION ON PATHOGENIC VIBRIOS DISTRIBUTION IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almasi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for controlling and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research was carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios with emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholera in the wastewater of Kermanshah city western Iran in 2002. The method of study was cross sectional descriptive. There were 8 discharge outlet domestic wastewaters, which had been chosen as sampling sites. Samples were collected weekly in randomized manner in daytime. Three hundred and thirty nine samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated site 7 with 5 positives, sites 4 and 8 each with 3, site 5 with 2, sites 2, 3 and 6 each with one positive, whereas, there was not any Vibrio detected in site 1. The most positive samples were seen in spring, late summer and early autumn. The positive results were detected on May, June, September, and October. Among positive samples, Vibrio parahemolyticus, could be regarded based on differentiation tests. Vibrio cholera was not seen. It seems that the presence of Vibrio parahemolyticus was due to some food store deal with distribution of seafood. Hence it is suggested that this relationship could be considered through analytical study using PCR for detection of Vibrios.

  1. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  2. Inactivation of Vibrio anguillarum by attached and planktonic Roseobacter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Melchiorsen, Jette; Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate inhibition of Vibrio by Roseobacter in a combined liquid-surface system. Exposure of Vibrio anguillarum to surface-attached roseobacters (10e7 cfu/cm2) resulted in significant reduction or complete killing of the pathogen inoculated at 10e2 – 10e4...

  3. Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality after bacteremia in working-age patients. A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Kristoffer; Nørgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality.......To examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality in patients with bacteremia and the underlying factors that may mediate differences in mortality....

  4. Serum procalcitonin elevation in critically ill patients at the onset of bacteremia caused by either Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Ladoire, Sylvain; Aho, Serge; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Doise, Jean-Marc; Prin, Sébastien; Olsson, Niels-Olivier; Blettery, Bernard

    2008-03-26

    In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP) or Gram negative (GN) bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52) or GP bacteremia (n = 45) were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.88). In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.

  5. [THE IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF BACTERIOPHAGES OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC VIBRIO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaevskaia, N E; Kudriakova, T A; Makedonova, L D; Kachkina, G V

    2015-04-01

    The issue of identification and differentiation of large group of bacteriophages of human pathogenic vibrio is still unresolved. In research and practical applied purposes it is important to consider characteristics of bacteriophages for establishing similarity and differences between them. The actual study was carried out to analyze specimens of DNA-containing bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio. The overwhelming majority of them characterized by complicated type of symmetry--phages with double-helical DNA and also phages with mono-helical DNA structure discovered recently in vibrio. For the first time, the general framework of identification and differentiation of bacteriophages of pathogenic vibrio was developed. This achievement increases possibility to establish species assignment of phages and to compare with phages registered in the database. "The collection of bacteriophages and test-strains of human pathogenic vibrio" (No2010620549 of 24.09.210).

  6. [Epidemiology and clinical features of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia in Cartagena (Murcia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Almazán, Amaya; Viqueira-Gonzalez, Montserrat; Alcalde, María Del Mar; Alcaraz-Vidal, Begoña; Vera-Méndez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A gradual increase in severe cases due to Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus beta-hemolytic group A (SGA), has been detected in the last few decades. Retrospective study of bacteremia due to S.pyogenes detected between January 2009 and January 2013 in Cartagena. The annual incidence for severe bacteremia has been estimated. Thirteen cases of SGA bacteremia were recorded. The incidence increased from 0.37 in 2009 to 2.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2012. The predominant focus was skin and soft tissue infections (53%). Early mortality was 20%. Severe streptococcal disease is rare, but affects individuals with good functional status, and is associated with a high mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating antibiotic stewardship programs in patients with bacteremia using administrative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, J; Søgaard, M; Andreasen, V

    2015-01-01

    When introducing new antibiotic guidelines for empirical treatment of bacteremia, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of the new guideline. We examined the utility of administrative data to evaluate the effect of new antibiotic guidelines and the prognostic impact of appropriate empirical...... treatment. We categorized 2,008 adult patients diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2012 according to whether they received cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (old regimen) or not (new regimen). We used administrative data to extract individual level data on mortality, readmission, and appropriateness.......87–1.25) for the new versus the old regimen. This study demonstrates that administrative data can be useful for evaluating the effect and quality of new bacteremia treatment guidelines...

  8. Diabetes and Risk of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk...... factors for urinary tract infection are the same as in persons without diabetes. Bacteremia: The risk of bacteremia due to pneumococci is approximately 1.5 times increased in diabetes, similar to the increased risk for pneumonia. In comparison, diabetes is associated with 2.5 to 3 times increased risk...

  9. Environmental occurrence and clinical impact of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Stockley, Louise; Rangdale, Rachel; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens found naturally in marine and estuarine waters, and are a leading cause of seafood-associated bacterial illness. These pathogens are commonly reported in the USA and in many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan; however, there is growing concern that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus may represent an important and increasing clinical problem in Europe. Several factors underlie the need for a greater understanding of these non-cholera vibrios within a European context. First, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus infections are increasing, and tend to follow regional climatic trends, with outbreaks typically following episodes of unusually warm weather. Such findings are especially alarming given current predictions regarding warming of marine waters as a result of global climatic change. Second, a myriad of epidemiological factors may greatly increase the incidence as well as clinical burden of these pathogens - including increasing global consumption and trade of seafood produce coupled to an increase in the number of susceptible individuals consuming seafood produce. Finally, there is currently a lack of detailed surveillance information regarding non-cholerae Vibrio infections in Europe, as these pathogens are not notifiable in many countries, which probably masks the true clinical burden of many human infections. This review will present a pertinent overview of both the environmental occurrence and clinical impact of V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. © 2010 Crown copyright.

  10. Unusual presentation of chondroblastoma mimicking Trevor's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Karkhur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor, represents 1%–2% of all primary bone tumors, typically seen in patients 10–25-year-old and more common in males. It occurs most frequently in the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. Soft tissue extension is extremely rare. Adjacent joints may develop effusions, but the tumor mass protruding into the joint has never been seen in case of chondroblastoma. We report a rare case of intra-articular chondroblastoma arising from proximal tibia in a 16-year-old boy and growing into the knee joint mimicking an intra-articular osteochondroma.

  11. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Mimicking Fulminant Periorbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient who was referred for orbital cellulitis but was finally diagnosed with acute leukemia. Case Report: A 17-year-old boy presented with fever, periorbital erythema and swelling mimicking periorbital cellulitis. He underwent empiric antibiotic therapy. Complete blood counts revealed leukocytosis with a predominance of immature blast cells. Bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia. Chemotherapy was initiated resulting in resolution of signs and symptoms. Conclusion: Acute leukemia may mimic periorbital cellulitis and must be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  12. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  13. Pigmented poroid neoplasm mimicking nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Ueno, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    We reported the case of a 92-year-old woman with a pigmented and non-pigmented surface of the pedunculated nodule on her lower leg. Microscopic examination revealed that this nodule consisted of a component of small, dark, homogenous, poroid cells and cuticular cells in the dermis. The histopathological features of the lesion were consistent with poroid neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that HMB-45 and Melan-A were positive in malanocytes and melanophages of the pigmented areas. Unlike most poroid neoplasms, this case showed pigmented lesion mimicked nodular melanoma.

  14. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis mimicking ovarian torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Yang Tyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL can be misleading. Herein, we present the case of a 42-year-old nulliparous female who had previously undergone a total hysterectomy and presented with an acute abdomen. A presumptive diagnosis of ovarian torsion was made based on the clinical findings and an ultrasonographic examination. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed immediately. DPL was subsequently diagnosed based on an intra-operative frozen section during surgical exploration and the final histopathologic examination. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of DPL mimicking ovarian torsion.

  15. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  16. Dural Metastasis Mimicking Meningioma: An Interesting Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzaini Abdul Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dural metastasis is a rare entity in clinical practice. We report a case of dural metastasis secondary to thyroid carcinoma, which on both preoperative CT and MRI and at surgery had the typical appearance of a meningioma. Histopathological findings confirmed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma as a primary site. Although rare, dural metastases can mimic a meningioma. Our experience in this case has led us to consider metastasis as a differential diagnosis even when a meningioma is suspected. We believe that reporting of the case of dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma may help clinicians in future.

  17. Giant Spermatocele Mimicking Hydrocele: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chih Yeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Spermatoceles are usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally during physical examination. We report a case of giant spermatocele that mimicked a hydrocele. A 55-year-old man suffered from right scrotal enlargement for several years. As the heavy sensation and scrotal soreness worsened in recent months, he came to our outpatient clinic for help. Hydrocele was suspected due to transilluminating appearance of the scrotal content. Surgical exploration was arranged and a giant spermatocele was found. Total excision of the spermatocele was performed and the patient recovered well. The specimen was sent for pathology and spermatocele with spermatozoa was noted.

  18. Clinical Pharmacist Management of Bacteremia in a Community Hospital Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, C Dustin; Bitton, Bryce J; Torosyan, Annie; Myers, Kevin P

    2017-06-01

    Bacteremia is a serious condition that leads to high morbidity and mortality. Data describing pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department are lacking. To determine if pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department (ED) led to an increase in appropriate treatment of bacteremia as well as improvements in patient outcomes. The primary outcome of this retrospective cohort study was the rate of appropriate treatment of bacteremia. Secondary outcomes included the rate of unplanned, infectious disease-related 90-day admission or readmission to the ED or hospital as well as infectious disease-related 90-day mortality. All patients seen in the ED and subsequently discharged who had a positive blood culture determined not to be a contaminant were included in the study. Patients were analyzed in 2 cohorts: those that were physician managed (107 patients) and those that were pharmacist managed (138 patients). In the physician-managed cohort, 50 of 107 (47%) patients were treated appropriately compared with 131 of 138 (95%) patients in the pharmacist-managed cohort ( P managed patients, which occurred in 4 of 138 patients (2.9%) versus the physician-managed patient cohort in which 13 of 107 patients (12.1%) were readmitted ( P = 0.01). There was no difference in mortality between the groups ( P = 0.8337). Pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the ED was associated with higher rates of appropriate treatment and a corresponding decrease in the rates of attributable 90-day admission or readmission to the hospital or ED.

  19. Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dalla Pria Balejo

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27 or periodontitis (n = 27 were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients. Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (p<0.05. Results: In all sampling times, polymerase chain reaction revealed higher blood bacterial levels than culture (p<0.0001, while gingivitis patients presented lower bacterial levels in blood than periodontitis patients (p<0.0001. Individuals who experienced bacteremia showed worse mean clinical attachment level (3.4 mm vs. 1.1 mm and more subgingival bacteria (p<0.005. The pre-procedural rinse did not reduce induced bacteremia. Conclusions: Bacteremia was influenced by periodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control.

  20. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  1. Bacteremia caused by Pantoea agglomerans at a medical center in Taiwan, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aristine; Liu, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Hsu, Meng-Shuian; Yang, Chia-Jui; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-06-01

    There are only three case reports of adult patients with spontaneous Pantoea agglomerans bacteremia in the English literature. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and microbiologic characteristics patients of P agglomerans bacteremia. We studied all adult patients with P agglomerans bacteremia at a medical center from 2000 to 2010. The isolates were identified using two commercial identification systems. Of the 18 patients identified, 72% (n = 13) had active gastroesophageal disease treated with antacids. Two-thirds of patients had indwelling central lines and advanced cancers. None of the removed catheter tips yielded P agglomerans and line persistence was not associated with adverse outcomes. Initial disease severity was low, hypotension was uncommon and no patient died of bacteremia. Recurrence of bacteremia occurred in one patient with deep-seated infection. 16srRNA gene sequencing identified only half of the isolates as P agglomerans. The remaining nine isolates were Enterobacter species for six, Pantoea ananatis for two, and Exiguobacterium profundum for one. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the subgroup molecularly identified as P agglomernas and the overall group characteristics. Eleven (61%) of the 18 isolates were susceptible to cefazolin, six (33%) susceptible to fosfomycin (MIC ≤ 64 mg/ml). Two isolates had colistin MICs ≥ 4 mg/ml. Bacteremia caused by P agglomerans is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and receipt of antacids. 16srRNA gene sequencing should not be used as the sole basis for its identification and we have highlighted the need for another molecular-based technique to conclusively characterize P agglomerans. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Dynamic Computational Model of Symptomatic Bacteremia to Inform Bacterial Separation Treatment Requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead E Miller

    Full Text Available The rise of multi-drug resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics, which has led to increased mortality rates associated with symptomatic bacteremia, or bacterial sepsis. To combat decreasing antibiotic effectiveness, extracorporeal bacterial separation approaches have been proposed to capture and separate bacteria from blood. However, bacteremia is dynamic and involves host-pathogen interactions across various anatomical sites. We developed a mathematical model that quantitatively describes the kinetics of pathogenesis and progression of symptomatic bacteremia under various conditions, including bacterial separation therapy, to better understand disease mechanisms and quantitatively assess the biological impact of bacterial separation therapy. Model validity was tested against experimental data from published studies. This is the first multi-compartment model of symptomatic bacteremia in mammals that includes extracorporeal bacterial separation and antibiotic treatment, separately and in combination. The addition of an extracorporeal bacterial separation circuit reduced the predicted time of total bacteria clearance from the blood of an immunocompromised rodent by 49%, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Implementation of bacterial separation therapy resulted in predicted multi-drug resistant bacterial clearance from the blood of a human in 97% less time than antibiotic treatment alone. The model also proposes a quantitative correlation between time-dependent bacterial load among tissues and bacteremia severity, analogous to the well-known 'area under the curve' for characterization of drug efficacy. The engineering-based mathematical model developed may be useful for informing the design of extracorporeal bacterial separation devices. This work enables the quantitative identification of the characteristics required of an extracorporeal bacteria separation device to provide biological benefit. These devices will potentially

  3. Postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery, with and without prophylactic antibiotic administration: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asi Kanwarjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many a times in clinical periodontology, the decision whether to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics or not , is perplexing.The present study was conducted to compare the bacteremias induced after periodontal flap surgeries with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Materials and Methods: The occurrence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery was studied in 30 patients. On these patients, 30 quadrant wise flap surgeries were carried out without any preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and 30 surgeries carried out after prophylactic administration of amoxycillin preoperatively. A blood sample was taken from each patient at the time of maximum surgical trauma and was cultured for micro-organisms and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: 18 out of 60 blood samples were positive for micro-organisms. There was a significant reduction in post operative bacteremia after amoxycillin prophylaxis (x - 7.96 with P< 0.01 as post operative bacteremia was found in 14 of the non medicated patients as compared to only 4 of the pre medicated patients. The micro-organisms encountered in the study are as follows:- 1 Staphylococcus albus coagulase negative, 2 Klebsiella, 3 Psedomonas aerugenosa, 4 Streptococcus viridans, 5 Alpha hemolytic streptococcus, 6 Neisseria catarrhalis Conclusion: On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the incidence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery is not as high as previously reported. The clinical results show that Amoxicillin is highly effective in reducing postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery and thus in preventing the possible sequelae (Infective Endocarditis and other systemic maladies in susceptible patients. However, cefotaxime and cephalexin may prove to be more effective in preventing the same.

  4. Importance of Molecular Methods to Determine Whether a Probiotic is the Source of Lactobacillus Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains.

  5. Risk factors and outcome analysis of acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteremia in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Yuan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Wu, Si-Ru; Huang, Chih-Wei; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2014-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteremia has been identified increasingly in critical patients admitted in ICUs. Notably, A. baumannii complex bacteremia has a high mortality rate, yet the risk factors associated with mortality remain unclear and controversial. Retrospective study. All adult ICUs at a tertiary care medical center. All patients with A. baumannii complex bacteremia admitted in 2009-2010. None. Risk factors for mortality were analyzed. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region sequencing for genospecies and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Carbapenemase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. A total of 298 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 73 (24.5%) infected by imipenem-resistant A. baumannii complex. The overall 30-day mortality was 33.6% (100 of 298). Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii complex bacteremia specifically showed a high mortality (69.9%) and was associated with prior use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for more than 5 days for treating ventilator-associated pneumonia before the occurrence of bacteremia. Mortality was associated with inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy, which was correlated with imipenem-resistant A. baumannii complex but not with any specific genospecies. ISAba1-blaOXA-23-ISAba1 (Tn2006) was found in most (66.7%, 40 of 68) imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (genospecies 2) and also spread beyond species border to all imipenem-resistant genospecies 3 (2), 13TU (2), and 10 (1). For critical patients with A. baumannii complex infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia in particular, the selective pressure from prior use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for 5 days or more increased risk of subsequent imipenem-resistant A. baumannii complex bacteremia. To reduce mortality, rapid identification of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii complex and early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in these high-risk patients are crucial.

  6. The effect of S. pneumoniae bacteremia on cerebral blood flow autoregulation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Brandt, Christian T.; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of bacteremia on cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation in a rat model of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis. Anesthetized rats were divided into five groups (A to E) and inoculated with pneumococci intravenously and normal saline intracisternally...... during incremental reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by controlled hemorrhage. Autoregulation was preserved in all rats without meningitis (groups A and E) and was lost in 24 of 25 meningitis rats (groups B, C, and D) (P...meningitis groups (Pcerebral vasodilation, which right shifts...

  7. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  8. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremias following liver transplantation: a clinical analysis of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou JD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jiandang Zhou,1,2 Hui Huang,3 Shan Liu,4 Ping Yu,2 Qiquan Wan5 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 2Department of Immunology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 3Nursing Department, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 4Adelphi University College of Nursing and Public Health, New York, NY, USA; 5Department of Transplant Surgery, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia after liver transplantation and investigate the drug resistance of S. aureus to frequently used antibiotics to provide evidence for clinical prevention and therapy.Materials and methods: In a double-center retrospective study, blood cultures positive for S. aureus were obtained from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2014. The BACTEC 9120 blood culture system and the Vitek-2 system were used to process blood samples and identify species, respectively. We also collected these patients’ data to confirm clinical and laboratory characteristics.Results: Twenty of 275 (7.3% liver recipients developed S. aureus bacteremia during the study period. The median time to the onset of S. aureus bacteremias was 6 days after liver transplantation and all episodes of bacteremias were early onset. The lung was the most common source of primary infection, followed by the intra-abdominal/biliary tract. A total of nine (45% liver recipients died due to S. aureus bacteremias. Of these 20 S. aureus cases, 80% were methicillin-resistant. S. aureus was highly resistant to erythromycin and penicillin (resistance rate >90%. No S. aureus resistant to glycopeptides and oxazolidone antibiotics was observed. There were seven (35% liver recipients with an inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Between the

  10. Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens intravascular catheter-related bacteremia in a haematology patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, R; Halim, H A; Ng, K P; Hanifah, Y A; Chin, E; Jaafar, F L; Abubakar, S

    2011-11-01

    Tsukamurella spp. are a rare but important cause of intravascular catheter-related bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. The organism is an aerobic, Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast bacillus that is difficult to differentiate using standard laboratory methods from other aerobic actinomycetales such as Nocardia spp., Rhododoccus spp., Gordonia spp., and the rapid growing Mycobacterium spp. We report a case of Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens catheter-related bacteremia in a 51-year-old haematology patient who responded to treatment with imipenem and subsequent line removal. 16srRNA sequencing allowed for the prompt identification of this organism.

  11. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  12. A classic mimicker of systemic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ariño, Marc; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; Deudero Infante, Aída; Ayats Delgado, Montserrat; Novell Teixidó, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Embolic and constitutional manifestations of intracavitary cardiac tumors are included within the classic mimickers of systemic vasculitis, especially in those in which there are no cardiac manifestations. We present a case report of atrial myxoma in which the patient only presented systemic symptoms and in whom an initial diagnostic approach of systemic vasculitis was made. We also performed a literature search of the cases described. A case report of atrial myxoma with atypical presentation manifested as a systemic disease with no concomitant cardiac symptoms is described. The case report is discussed and 11 cases of atrial myxoma pseudovasculitis described in the literature are reviewed, emphasizing their similarities and differences. Constitutional symptoms and cutaneous manifestations were the most common. Most of the cases showed partial response to glucococorticosteroid treatment, reinforcing the theory of the inflammatory role in its pathogenesis. Mean delayed time to diagnosis was 12.27 months. Atrial myxoma is a systemic vasculitis mimicker, this being difficult to diagnose in the absence of cardiac manifestations. This delay in diagnosis entails serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging findings of mimickers of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyoung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC as the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC in high-risk patients by typical imaging findings alone is widely adopted in major practice guidelines for HCC. While imaging techniques have markedly improved in detecting small liver lesions, they often detect incidental benign liver lesions and non-hepatocellular malignancy that can be misdiagnosed as HCC. The most common mimicker of HCC in cirrhotic liver is nontumorous arterioportal shunts that are seen as focal hypervascular liver lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. Rapidly enhancing hemangiomas can be easily misdiagnosed as HCC especially on MR imaging with liver-specific contrast agent. Focal inflammatory liver lesions mimic HCC by demonstrating arterial-phase hypervascularity and subsequent washout on dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. It is important to recognize the suggestive imaging findings for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC as the management of CC is largely different from that of HCC. There are other benign mimickers of HCC such as angiomyolipomas and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Recognition of their typical imaging findings can reduce false-positive HCC diagnosis.

  14. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding after pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Franco; Zamparelli, Roberto; Soave, Maurizio P; Gargaruti, Riccardo; Scapigliati, Andrea; De Paulis, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    To determine the presence of pleural sliding on chest ultrasonography (US) in a series of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Prospective, observational study. 16-bed SICU of a University hospital. 8 patients (7 men, 1 woman), aged 64 - 73 years (mean 67.5 yrs). Seven patients underwent pneumonectomy for pulmonary neoplasms; one patient underwent an atypical lung resection after having undergone a pneumonectomy one year before. None. Chest ultrasounds were performed during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous ventilation after endotracheal tube removal. In both examinations, pleural sliding was searched bilaterally in brightness mode (B-mode) and motion mode (M-mode) on the anterior thoracic wall in the least gravitationally dependent areas. During mechanical ventilation, pleural sliding was always absent on the side of the pneumonectomy and present on the other side. During spontaneous ventilation, some artifacts mimicking pleural sliding were noted on the side of the pneumonectomy both in B-mode and M-mode (presence of the seashore sign) in all patients, except for the one patient who had undergone a pneumonectomy one year earlier. Those artifacts became more pronounced during deep breaths. Ultrasound artifacts mimicking pleural sliding may be observed in the absence of the lung and may originate from the activity of intercostal muscles since they become more evident during deep breathing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemotactic Behaviors of Vibrio cholerae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Ikuro; Nishiyama, So-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, swims in aqueous environments with a single polar flagellum. In a spatial gradient of a chemical, the bacterium can migrate in "favorable" directions, a property that is termed chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of V. cholerae is not only critical for survival in various environments and but also is implicated in pathogenicity. In this chapter, we describe how to characterize the chemotactic behaviors of V. cholerae: these methods include swarm assay, temporal stimulation assay, capillary assay, and receptor methylation assay.

  16. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T; Unterweger, Daniel; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    As the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae represents an enormous public health burden, especially in developing countries around the world. Cholera is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotics are commonly administered as part of the treatment regimen. Here we review the initial identification and subsequent evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of V. cholerae. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including efflux pumps, spontaneous chromosomal mutation, conjugative plasmids, SXT elements and integrons, are also discussed. Numerous multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae have been isolated from both clinical and environmental settings, indicating that antibiotic use has to be restricted and alternative methods for treating cholera have to be implemented.

  17. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Alexandra R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. PMID:26658001

  18. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Shelley M; Mey, Alexandra R; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Radiosensitivity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, S.; Kraisorn, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of two salt concentration 0.85% and 3% NaCl, on the radiosensitivity of 3 cultures of Vibrio parahaemolyticus K 3 , K 13 , and K 28 , incoulated into sterile crab meat and pealed shrimp homogerntes was investigated. In peeled shrimp, with 0.85% NaCl, its D 10 values for strains K 3 , K 13 and K 28 were 57.1+-0.50, 62.6+-0.79, 47.9+-0.43 Gy, respectively. The variation of the strains was increased in 3% salt concentration with D 10 values of 80.5+-0.88, 73.3+-1.04, 52.8+-0.44 Gy, for strains K 3 , K 13 and K 28 , respectively. For the crab meat honagenate with 0.85% NaCl, its D 10 value for strains K 3 and K 13 were 57.8+-0.72 and 52.1+-0.96 Gy, and the values for 3% NaCl were 70.0+-0.12 and 52.7+-0.82 Gy, respectively. In most cases the complete destruction was obtained with 50-60 kGy. Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood could be readily controlled by radicidation

  1. Positive Predictive Value of True Bacteremia according to the Number of Positive Culture Sets in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Tsuyoshi; Chikumi, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Okada, Kensaku; Hayabuchi, Tatsuya; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takata, Miyako; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Performing multiple blood culture sets simultaneously is a standard blood culture methodology, although it is often difficult to distinguish true bacteremia from contamination when only one of several blood culture sets is positive. This study clarified the relationship between the number of positive blood culture sets and clinical significance in patients with positive blood culture. Patients aged 18 years and over with at least 1 positive blood culture were enrolled. Positive blood culture episodes were categorized from clinical records as true bacteremia, contamination, or unknown clinical significance. The associations among episodes of true bacteremia, isolated bacteria, the number of positive blood culture sets from among the performed sets, and the clinical background of patients were analyzed. Among a total of 407 episodes, 262, 67 and 78 were true bacteremia, contamination and unknown clinical significance, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of 1 out of 1, 1 out of 2 and 2 out of 2 positive sets in cases of Staphylococcus aureus, were 81.3%, 50% and 100% respectively; those in cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 20.5%, 10.8% and 63.5%, respectively. Almost all cases of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Candida species were true bacteremia. The probability of true bacteremia was strongly associated with recent surgery in multivariate analysis (P sets from among the performed sets varies by microorganism. Therefore, PPVs calculated using this method may help physicians distinguish true bacteremia from contamination.

  2. A Teenager With Sacroileitis, Rash and Fever Caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navneet K; Craft, David; Crook, Tonya; Dossett, John

    2016-12-01

    We report a rare case of sacroileitis in a teenager resulting from Streptobacillus moniliformis bacteremia, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight. We discuss the challenges of making this diagnosis and review the literature on rat bite fever.

  3. [Procalcitonin as a predictor of bacteremia in pediatric patients with malignancies and febrile neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, D A; Vezirova, Z Sh; Geyusheva, T F

    2015-02-01

    Dynamics of procalcitonin level was studied in 75 pediatric patients, in whom on back- ground of polychemotherapy conduction for oncological disease bacteremia and neutropenia have occurred. Determination of procalcitonin level as a rapidly reacting biomarker of generalized infectious process permits to establish its progression, to con- duct early diagnosis, to perform timely and adequate treatment measures.

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.

  5. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to gro...

  6. Community-acquired bacteremia and acute cholecystitis due to Enterobacter cloacae: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isasti Guillermo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Enterobacter cloacae is responsible for 65-75% of all Enterobacter infections, bacteremia being the most common syndrome. The majority of infections are nosocomially acquired and in patients with predisposing factors. Case presentation We present a case of E. cloacae bacteremia secondary to acute cholecystitis in a 60-year-old man with recent diagnosis of cholelithiasis. The diagnosis was established with abdominal echography and positive blood and biliary cultures. The patient was managed successfully with cholecystectomy and antibiotic therapy. Conclusion The peculiarity of our case is the development of community-acquired bacteremia due to E. cloacae with a clear infectious focus, as a single agent isolated in several blood cultures, in a patient without severe underlying diseases, prior antimicrobial use or previous hospital admission. Although the majority of Enterobacter spp. infections are nosocomially acquired, primary bacteremia being the most common syndrome, these pathogens may also be responsible for community-acquired cases. Patients without predisposing factors may also be affected.

  7. A Retrospective Quality Study of Hemodialysis Catheter-Related Bacteremia in a Danish Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarup, Sophie; Olesen, Bente; Pourarsalan, Mahshid

    2016-01-01

    and surveillance is a critical aspect of infection control and prevention. Aim: To analyze incidence, causative species, and treatment of HD CRB in adult chronic HD patients at Nordsjaellands Hospital (NOH), Denmark. Methods: All episodes of bacteremia in the Department of Cardiology, Nephrology and Endocrinology...

  8. An original case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after a near-drowning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughetto, Estelle; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Pelloux, Isabelle; Maurin, Max; Caillon, Jocelyne; Moreau, Philippe; Ygout, Jean-François; Corvec, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    We report the first case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after water contamination in France. A 75-year-old man developed septic pneumonic tularemia after a near-drowning accident. We highlight the need for a longer incubation time for isolation of F. tularensis from blood cultures.

  9. Treatment outcomes in patients with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine S; O'Neal, Hollis R; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    Infections with resistant Enterobacter spp. are increasingly described, yet data on outcomes associated with these infections are limited. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate outcomes of hospitalized patients with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (CR) Enterobacter bacteremia. Cephalosporin resistance was detected using cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. Patients with Enterobacter spp. bacteremia from January 2006 through February 2008 defined the population. We defined cases as those with CR isolates; controls were patients with bacteremia due to non-CR isolates. Treatment failure was defined as persistence of the presenting signs of infection 72 h after initial culture collection. Of the 95 Enterobacter cases identified, 31 (33%) were CR. CR cases were significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.94). This association was not seen after adjustment for age, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), and inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. Inappropriate empiric therapy (adjusted OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.32-11.31) and SAPS II score (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16) were significantly associated with treatment failure in the multivariate analysis. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia is associated with treatment failure due to receipt of inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and severity of illness.

  10. Case series of Bifidobacterium longum bacteremia in three preterm infants on probiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Andrea; Zbinden, Reinhard; Berger, Christoph; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics as prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is being increasingly practised. We report, for the first time, a case series of 3 preterm, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who developed bacteremia with Bifidobacterium longum on probiotic therapy with Infloran® containing viable B. longum. We retrospectively reviewed data of 3 infants (of gestational age probiotic therapy with Infloran or shortly after, respectively, and was interpreted as transient bacteremia. The clinical presentation of these infants did not require antibiotic treatment after the isolation of B. longum. Infant 3 developed an NEC despite probiotic therapy with Infloran and the blood cultures showed B. longum growth. This infant required explorative laparotomy and antibiotic treatment. The clinical isolates of B. longum and the strain of the Infloran capsule showed an identical profile on biochemical, mass-spectrometric and molecular analyses, suggesting a direct correlation between the administration of probiotics and bacteremia with B. longum in all 3 infants. The occurrence of bacteremia with bifidobacteria after its prophylactic administration in VLBW infants and its possible clinical consequences are a matter of concern. In the interests of safety, the use of probiotics in such a population should be indicated with caution and requires further investigation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. CAUSES OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED BACTEREMIA AND PATTERNS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN VIENTIANE, LAOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHETSOUVANH, RATTANAPHONE; PHONGMANY, SIMMALY; SOUKALOUN, DOUANGDAO; RASACHAK, BOUACHANH; SOUKHASEUM, VIMONE; SOUKHASEUM, SEUN; FRICHITHAVONG, KAMTHAVI; KHOUNNORATH, SENGMANIVONG; PENGDEE, BOUNTHOM; PHIASAKHA, KHAMPHONG; CHU, VANG; LUANGXAY, KHONESAVANH; RATTANAVONG, SAYADETH; SISOUK, KONKAM; KEOLOUANGKOT, VALY; MAYXAY, MAYFONG; RAMSAY, ANDREW; BLACKSELL, STUART D.; CAMPBELL, JIM; MARTINEZ-AUSSEL, BERTRAND; HEUANVONGSY, MAYBOUN; BOUNXOUEI, BOUNTHAPAANY; THAMMAVONG, CHANPHENG; SYHAVONG, BOUNKONG; STROBEL, MICHEL; PEACOCK, SHARON J.; WHITE, NICHOLAS J.; NEWTON, PAUL N.

    2008-01-01

    There is no published information on the causes of bacteremia in the Lao PDR (Laos). Between 2000 and 2004, 4512 blood culture pairs were taken from patients admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, with suspected community-acquired bacteremia; 483 (10.7%) cultures grew a clinically significant community-acquired organism, most commonly Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (50.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.0%), and Escherichia coli (12.4%). S. aureus bacteremia was common among infants (69.2%), while children 1–5 years had a high frequency of typhoid (44%). Multi–drug-resistant S. Typhi was rare (6%). On multiple logistic regression analysis, typhoid was associated with younger age, longer illness, diarrhea, higher admission temperature, and lower peripheral white blood cell count than non-typhoidal bacteremia. Empirical parenteral ampicillin and gentamicin would have some activity against ∼ 88% of clinically significant isolates at a cost of US $1.4/day, an important exception being B. pseudomallei. Bacteremic infants in this setting require an anti-staphylococcal antibiotic. PMID:17124000

  12. In Reply - Statin Use and Risk of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Nielsen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether persons treated with statins experience a decreased risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (CA-SAB) as compared with nonusers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using population-based medical registries, we conducted a case-control study including all adul...

  13. Does the empiric use of vancomycin in pediatrics increase the risk for Gram-negative bacteremia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuno, SPMU; Heesen, GJM; Arends, JP; Kimpen, JLL; van Houten, M.A.

    Background, Gram-negative bacteremia in children, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, may in part be induced by intensive treatment procedures and nonspecific use of antibiotics. Our primary objective was to study the causal relationship between the use of vancomycin and Gram-negative

  14. Investigation of bacteremia induced by removal of orthodontic mini-implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Karapsias, Stergios; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential occurrence of bacteremia in orthodontic patients after removal of miniscrews.The study group comprised 30 healthy subjects (17 males, 13 females) with a mean age of 24.1 years treated with self-ligating fixed appliances and mini-implant anchorage.

  15. Changing epidemiology of pediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Denmark from 1971 through 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marianne Sjølin; Espersen, Frank; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is known to be a leading cause of bacteremia in childhood, and is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. To determine developments in incidence and mortality rates, as well as risk factors associated with outcome, we analyzed data from 1971 thr...

  16. First clinical description of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia in a patient with dental abscess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordjian, Hayarpi H; Schultz, Joyce D J H; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia originating from a dental abscess and imitating necrotizing fasciitis in a previously healthy adult. The isolates were easily identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The clinical course, surgical and antibiotic treatment as well as the successful outcome...

  17. Incidence of bacteremia after chewing, tooth brushing and scaling in individuals with periodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Larsen, Tove; Kilian, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS...

  18. Incidence of bacteremia after chewing, tooth brushing and scaling in individuals with periodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, F.L.; Kilian, Mogens; Holmstrup, P.

    2006-01-01

    higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. Practical implications...

  19. Course and Outcome of Bacteremia Due to Staphylococcus Aureus: Evaluation of Different Clinical Case Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lautenschlager (Stephan); C. Herzog (Christian); W. Zimmerli (Werner)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn a retrospective survey of patients hospitalized in the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, the course and outcome of 281 cases of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus over a 7-year period were analyzed. The main purpose was to evaluate different case definitions. In 78%

  20. Viridans streptococcus bacteremia in children on chemotherapy for cancer: an underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R; Hassall, T; Morland, B; Gray, J

    2003-09-01

    The authors discuss the morbidity associated with viridans streptococcus bacteremia, and its implications on the choice of antibiotics used as prophylaxis and treatment. They retrospectively studied the case notes of 38 children who were being treated for various malignant conditions in their unit and developed 40 episodes of bacteremia with viridans streptococci between October 1995 and January 1999. Viridans streptococci were the third commonest blood culture isolate during this period, after coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. The majority of the isolates were Streptococcus mitis (55%). Others were S. sanguis (25%), S. oralis (12.5%), S. salivarius (5%), and S. acidominimus (2.5%). Twenty-five percent of the patients had been treated with regimens that included cytosine arabinoside, 60% were receiving prophylactic co-trimoxazole, and 87.5% were neutropenic. Thirty percent of patients had abnormal chest X-rays, and 15% were hypotensive; 2 patients required admission to the intensive care unit. Initial antibiotic therapy was changed because of failure of clinical response in 60% of cases, despite the infecting organism being sensitive in vitro. This study confirms the importance of viridans streptococci as a cause of bacteremia in pediatric hematology and oncology patients, leading to significant morbidity. Further work is required to establish the optimal treatment for viridans streptococcus bacteremia.

  1. Catheter-related Mycobacterium abscessus bacteremia manifested with skin nodules, pneumonia, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hsin Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previously rare, catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria is now increasingly encountered, especially among cancer patients who have catheters implanted for chemotherapy treatments. A 73-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML had Mycobacterium abscessus bacteremia with manifestations of multiple skin nodules, pneumonia, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy 4 months after the implantation of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC for the delivery of chemotherapy. The catheter-related M. abscessus bacteremia was confirmed by positive blood cultures of specimens drawn from a PICC line and a peripheral vein. She defervesced with the administration of meropenem, amikacin, levofloxacin, clarithromycin, and by the removal of PICC. Her fever subsided for 3 months with the disappearance of skin and lung lesions; however, she died of AML relapse. Bacteremia and skin infection caused by M. abscessus can be detected by culture and pathological examinations and should be considered in leukemia patients with a PICC. With appropriate laboratory diagnosis, M. abscessus bacteremia with disseminated infections can improve with catheter removal and combination antimicrobial therapy.

  2. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Ericson, Marna; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Bradley, Julie M; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-04-15

    Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely source of transmission and the mother, a

  3. Mimicking Seawater For Culturing Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Anita Mac; Sonnenschein, Eva; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Only about 1% of marine bacteria have been brought into culture using traditional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate if mimicking the natural bacterial environment can increase culturability.We used marine substrates containing defined algal polymers or gellan gum...... 100-fold; from 8.5 x 101 CFU/ml to 5.2 x 103 CFU/ml, whereas addition of AHLs did not improve culturability on any of the media.The substitution of agar with gellan gum shows great promise for increasing culturability of marine bacteria, and further studies are ongoing. The AHLs used in this study...... were selected based on a previous study determining the most common AHLs produced by marine strains of the Vibrionaceae family. However, their effect on culturability could not be fully explained, so also here further studies are being carried out....

  4. Case report. Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Biggio, P

    2002-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common dermatomycosis, occurring throughout the world, characterized by irregular, slightly scaly patches, varying in color from red/light brown to white. Pityriasis rotunda, on the other hand, is an uncommon disease, reported in specific ethnic groups, and characterized by perfectly round or oval patches of varying color, with a scaly surface. The histologic pattern is that of ichthyosis vulgaris. We report here the case of a male patient, aged 31, from Sardinia (Italy), affected by Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda. Mycological examination allowed us to formulate the correct diagnosis, and ensuing treatment with antifungal drugs was entirely successful. The authors, while pointing out the rarity of this case, stress the possibility that Pityriasis versicolor mimics Pityriasis rotunda and vice-versa, especially in those countries in which the two diseases are endemic. More widespread recourse to microscopic examination can help avoid the risk of mistaken diagnosis and consequent incorrect treatment.

  5. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Strianese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  6. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  7. Development of tissue mimicking ultrasound phantom materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Sang Chul [Shinheung College, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Young Kun [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Jung [Korea Food Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk [Yonsei Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We carried out studies on develop of the ultrasound tissue mimicking materials (TMM) by synthesis of polymer urethane (C, CCR, TiO{sub 2}, tungsten, graphite, silver type). The major finding were as follows; (1) C type TMM was shown good homogeneity, penetration, gray scale like as liver tissue and propagated speed 1,540 m/s, attenuation 0.5 {approx} 0.7 dB/cm/MHz. (2) TiO{sub 2} type TMM was shown heterogeneous dot echo pattern. (3) Silver type TMM was appear good homogeneous echo pattern like as echo texture of thyroid gland. Therefor, C type TMM will be useful for ultrasound Q/A phantom materials and previous phantom materials.

  8. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  9. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  10. Acute perimyocarditis mimicking transmural myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hesham R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although acute pericarditis has charachteristic electrocardiographic (ECG findings that differentiate it from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI; in certain cases diagnosis is somewhat difficult especially when the ECG reveals focal instead of diffuse changes and moreover when pericarditis is associated with an underlying myocarditis causing elevation of the cardiac biomarkers therefore increasing the difficulty in differentiating between both enteties. This is especially important because adverse lethal side effect can occur if thrombolytic therapy is administered for a patient with acute pericarditis, or if a diagnosis of transmural MI is missed. In this case report we are describing an 18 year old male patient who presented with an acute onset of severe chest pain associated with focal ECG changes and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicking transmural MI. This report aims to sensitize readers to this debate and create awareness among cardiologists and intensivists with both presentations and how to reach an accurate diagnosis.

  11. Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, S.; Siddiqui, N.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary site in young females mimicking an advanced ovarian malignancy. We present 2 cases with the classical triad of advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma-ascites, abdominopelvic masses and elevated serum CA-125 levels. Laparoscopic examination revealed peritoneal nodules which on biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation and no malignant cells. Patients were started on anti-tuberculous therapy and on follow-up their symptoms as well as CA-125 levels normalized. Medical awareness of peritoneal tuberculosis is lacking and many young women with this disease undergo unnecessary extended surgery. Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy seems to be a sufficient and safe method to provide a definitive diagnosis for this curable infection. If left untreated, the disease may disseminate and result in significant organ dysfunctions particularly infertility. (author)

  12. Genome analysis of three novel lytic Vibrio coralliilyticus phages isolated from seawater, Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, Chitra; Casareto, Beatriz Estela; Dohra, Hideo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Yoshinaga, Koichi; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2017-10-01

    Three novel Vibrio phages were isolated from seawater in Okinawa. The Vibrio phage RYC infected Vibrio coralliilyticus SWA 07, while Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2 infected the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus P1 (LMG 23696). The Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2 displayed head-tail structures whereas the Vibrio phage RYC showed a tailless non-enveloped capsid. All these Vibrio phages contained linear and double-stranded DNA. The whole genome sequencing revealed that Vibrio phage RYC has a larger genome size compared to Vibrio phages CKB-S1 and CKB-S2, and six tRNAs genes were found only in Vibrio phage RYC. Genome-wide comparison showed that Vibrio phage CKB-S1 was closely related, but was not identical, to Vibrio parahaemolyticus phages VP16T and VP16C. Meanwhile, the Vibrio phages RYC and CKB-S2 did not show high genome-wide similarity to any phages. These results suggest that the Vibrio phages CKB-S1, CKB-S2 and RYC are novel phages, which need further exploration, especially for their potential applications in phage therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

  14. Cost Attributable to Nosocomial Bacteremia. Analysis According to Microorganism and Antimicrobial Sensitivity in a University Hospital in Barcelona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Riu

    Full Text Available To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility.We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive.A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733. Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859. Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210. Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency.Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve prevention strategies

  15. Comparison of radiometric and conventional culture systems in detecting Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteremia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Zwahlen, A.; Elliott, H.L.; Ford, N.K.; Charache, F.P.; Moxon, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    To compare the efficiency of detecting Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteremia by the BACTEC radiometric system and a conventional Trypticase soy broth blood culture system, the authors developed an in vivo model of bacteremia in rats. After intravenous injection of 50 to 200 CFU into adult rats, there was a linear logarithmic increase in CFU per milliliter of rat blood during the first 10 h (r = 0.98), allowing accurate prediction of the level of bacteremia with time. Culture bottles were inoculated with 0.5 ml of blood obtained by cardiac puncture and processed as clinical samples in the microbiology laboratory with RS and conventional protocols. They found the following. (i) The first detection of bacteremia by RS was similar to that by TSB if a Gram stain of the TSB was done on day 1 and was superior if that smear was omitted (P less than 0.01). (ii) The detection times in both systems were comparable at different magnitudes of bacteremia (10(1) to 10(4) CFU/ml). (iii) Supplementation of inoculated bottles with 2 ml of sterile rat blood interfered with Gram stain detection in TSB but resulted in increased 14 CO 2 production in RS. (iv) No difference in detection time was found between RS and TSB for four different clinical isolates. These studies show that, in a biologically relevant model, the detection of positive blood cultures for H. influenzae type b by RS was comparable to or better than detection by TSB when blood was processed analogously to clinical specimens

  16. Computed tomography findings associated with bacteremia in adult patients with a urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T Y; Kim, H R; Hwang, K E; Lee, J-M; Cho, J H; Lee, J H

    2016-11-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) has rapidly increased recently at acute stage, but the CT findings associated with bacteremia in UTI patients are unknown. 189 UTI patients were enrolled who underwent a CT scan within 24 h after hospital admission. We classified CT findings into eight types: a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion, enlarged kidneys, perinephric fat stranding, ureteritis or pyelitis, complicated renal cyst, renal papillary necrosis, hydronephrosis, and renal and perirenal abscess. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the CT findings associated with bacteremia. The mean age of these patients was 60 ± 17.2 years, and 93.1 % were women. Concurrent bacteremia was noted in 40.2 % of the patients. Abnormal CT findings were noted in 96.3 % of the patients and 62.4 % had two or more abnormal findings. The most frequent abnormal CT finding was a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion (77.2 %), followed by perinephric fat stranding (29.1 %). Perinephric fat stranding, hydronephrosis, and the presence of two or more abnormal CT findings were significantly associated with bacteremia in patients with community-acquired UTI. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.009-1.062], two or more abnormal CT findings (OR 3.163; 95 % CI 1.334-7.498), and hydronephrosis (OR 13.160; 95 % CI 1.048-165.282) were significantly associated with bacteremia. Physicians should be aware that appropriate early management is necessary to prevent fatality in patients with these CT findings.

  17. Genome-Based Analysis of Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia Associated with Recurrent and Mixed-Strain Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Kathy E; Gouliouris, Theodore; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J

    2018-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) bloodstream infections are associated with high recurrence rates. This study used genome sequencing to accurately distinguish the frequency of relapse and reinfection in patients with recurrent E. faecium bacteremia and to investigate strain relatedness in patients with apparent VREfm and vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) mixed infection. A retrospective study was performed at the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) between November 2006 and December 2012. We analyzed the genomes of 44 E. faecium isolates from 21 patients (26 VREfm isolates from 12 patients with recurrent bacteremia and 18 isolates from 9 patients with putative VREfm/VSEfm mixed infection). Phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility was determined using a Vitek2 instrument. Genomes were compared with those of a further 263 E. faecium isolates associated with bacteremia in patients at CUH over the same time period. Pairwise comparison of core genomes indicated that 10 (71%) episodes of recurrent VREfm bacteremia were due to reinfection with a new strain, with reinfection being more likely with increasing time between the two positive cultures. The majority (78%) of patients with a mixed VREfm and VSEfm infection had unrelated strains. More than half (59%) of study isolates were closely related to another isolate associated with bacteremia from CUH. This included 60% of isolates associated with reinfection, indicating acquisition in the hospital. This study provides the first high-resolution insights into recurrence and mixed infection by E. faecium and demonstrates that reinfection with a new strain, often acquired from the hospital, is a driver of recurrence. Copyright © 2018 Raven et al.

  18. Clinical Characteristics and Low Susceptibility to Daptomycin in Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Hiroki; Yamada, Koichi; Shibata, Wataru; Fujimoto, Hiroki; Takizawa, Etsuko; Niki, Makoto; Nakaie, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Oinuma, Ken-Ichi; Niki, Mamiko; Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Shuto, Taichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium has high levels of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and the mortality due to E. faecium bacteremia is high. Accordingly, E. faecium strains with low susceptibility to daptomycin are a concern in clinical practice. This study assessed the predictive factors and prognosis of patients with bacteremia due to E. faecium as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility, particularly to daptomycin, among E. faecium isolates. The medical records of patients admitted to Osaka City University Hospital with E. faecalis (n = 60) and E. faecium (n = 48) bacteremia between January 2011 and March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The E. faecalis group (mean age: 62.0 years) included 22 women, and the E. faecium group (mean age: 59.1 years) included 19 women. Predictive factors for infection, prognosis, and isolate antimicrobial susceptibilities were evaluated. The mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and mortality rate did not differ between the two groups. The independent predictors of E. faecium bacteremia in multivariate analysis included quinolone use (p = 0.025), malignancy (p = 0.021), and prolonged hospitalization (p = 0.016). Cardiovascular disease was associated with a reduced risk of E. faecium bacteremia (p = 0.015). Notably, the percentage of E. faecium isolates with low daptomycin susceptibility was higher than that of E. faecalis (8.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.036). Thus, E. faecium should be considered when administering antibiotic therapy to patients with a history of these predictors. Furthermore, the use of daptomycin should be avoided in case of E. faecium with low susceptibility to daptomycin.

  19. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters, providing data regulatory authorities can use to evaluate Vibrio spp. control plans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ...

  2. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Vibrio spp. within the Sydney Harbour Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Balaraju, Varunan; Carney, Richard; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio are a genus of marine bacteria that have substantial environmental and human health importance, and there is evidence that their impact may be increasing as a consequence of changing environmental conditions. We investigated the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community within the Sydney Harbour estuary, one of the most densely populated coastal areas in Australia, and a region currently experiencing rapidly changing environmental conditions. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approaches we observed significant spatial and seasonal variation in the abundance and composition of the Vibrio community. Total Vibrio spp. abundance, derived from qPCR analysis, was higher during the late summer than winter and within locations with mid-range salinity (5–26 ppt). In addition we targeted three clinically important pathogens: Vibrio cholerae, V. Vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus. While toxigenic strains of V. cholerae were not detected in any samples, non-toxigenic strains were detected in 71% of samples, spanning a salinity range of 0–37 ppt and were observed during both late summer and winter. In contrast, pathogenic V. vulnificus was only detected in 14% of samples, with its occurrence restricted to the late summer and a salinity range of 5–26 ppt. V. parahaemolyticus was not observed at any site or time point. A Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach revealed clear shifts in Vibrio community composition across sites and between seasons, with several Vibrio operational taxonomic units (OTUs) displaying marked spatial patterns and seasonal trends. Shifts in the composition of the Vibrio community between seasons were primarily driven by changes in temperature, salinity and NO2, while a range of factors including pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) explained the observed spatial variation. Our evidence for the presence of a spatiotemporally dynamic Vibrio community

  3. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Allred, Benjamin E; Raymond, Kenneth N; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-09-01

    Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N',N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and acquire essential

  4. Genome Sequence of the Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Marin, Michel A.; Dias, Graciela M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Edwards, Robert A.; Iida, Tetsuya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis revealed that it contains Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 and a set of genes related to pathogenesis and fitness, such as the type VI secretion system, present in choleragenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21952545

  5. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-05-17

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  6. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of lytic bacteriophages of Vibrio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Ye, Dezan; Kochel, Agnes; Jost, Guenter

    2008-06-01

    Vibrio is a widely distributed pathogen in aquatic environment. Our study aimed at searching for possible biological control of pathogenic vibrio. We collected natural samples from coast and lakes in spring of 2006 and autumn of 2005; and isolated lytic phages by double-layer plate method. We identified the hosts with 16S rDNA sequencing and observed their morphology with phages under electron microscopy. We also tested the physiological characteristics of phages. We isolated 96 bacteria and 2 phages (Vibio/XM/P1, Vibio/XM/P2). Their hosts belonged to Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Both phages were hexagonal-headed and one with a tail. Physiological tests show that their optimum grow condition were pH7, 25 degrees C and pH8, 30 degrees C. Both phages were sensitive to high temperature and UV light. Vibrio/XM/P2 was sensitive to aether and chloroform whereas Vibrio/XM/P1 not.

  7. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles resistance profiles of Vibrio spp. found on them. We collected 22 microplastic pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Vibrio vulnificus: An Environmental and Clinical Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing-Peng Heng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Vibrionaceae. It is a deadly, opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. V. vulnificus infection can be fatal as it may cause severe wound infections potentially requiring amputation or lead to sepsis in susceptible individuals. Treatment is increasingly challenging as V. vulnificus has begun to develop resistance against certain antibiotics due to their indiscriminate use. This article aims to provide insight into the antibiotic resistance of V. vulnificus in different parts of the world as well as an overall review of its clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention. Understanding the organism's antibiotic resistance profile is vital in order to select appropriate treatment and initiate appropriate prevention measures to treat and control V. vulnificus infections, which should eventually help lower the mortality rate associated with this pathogen worldwide.

  9. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  10. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  11. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  12. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  13. Viscosity dictates metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment. PMID:22826705

  14. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  15. Localized quorum sensing in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mary E; Snyder, Charles E; Kopp, Nathaniel D; Velegol, Darrell

    2008-04-01

    Quorum sensing is almost always regarded as a population density effect in three-dimensional bulk samples of bacteria. Here we create two-dimensional samples of Vibrio fischeri cells adhered onto glass surfaces to examine the effect of local population densities on quorum sensing. This is done by measuring the luminescent response. The 2-D bacterial populations enable us to simultaneously account for time and distance effects on quorum sensing, which were previously very challenging to access in typical three-dimensional bulk samples. Thus, we are able to consider quorum sensing in terms of signal diffusion. A diffusion model of quorum sensing signals guides the experiments and shows that for a given cell spacing (density) and diffusion time there exists a "true quorum"- a number of cells necessary for quorum sensing. We find that quorum sensing can occur locally in 2-D surface samples and is a function of cell population density as well as signal diffusion time.

  16. Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio Isolates in Aquaculture Environments: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Vibrio isolates recovered from four different fish pond facilities in Benin City, Nigeria, determine their antibiogram profiles, and evaluate the public health implications of these findings. Fish pond water samples were collected from four sampling sites between March and September 2014. A total of 56 samples were collected and screened for the isolation of Vibrio species using standard culture-based methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the identities of the Vibrio species using the genus-specific and species-specific primers. Vibrio species were detected at all the study sites at a concentration on the order of 10(3) and 10(6) CFU/100 ml. A total of 550 presumptive Vibrio isolates were subjected to PCR confirmation. Of these isolates, 334 isolates tested positive, giving an overall Vibrio prevalence rate of 60.7%. The speciation of the 334 Vibrio isolates from fish ponds yielded 32.63% Vibrio fluvialis, 20.65% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 18.26% Vibrio vulnificus, and 28.44% other Vibrio species. In all, 167 confirmed Vibrio isolates were selected from a pool of 334 confirmed Vibrio isolates for antibiogram profiling. The susceptibility profiles of 20 antimicrobial agents on the isolates revealed a high level of resistance for AMP(R), ERY(R), NAL(R), SUL(R), TMP(R), SXT(R), TET(R), OTC(R), and CHL(R). The percentage of multiple drug resistance Vibrio isolates was 67.6%. The multiple antibiotic resistance index mean value of 0.365 for the Vibrio isolates found in this study indicated that the Vibrio isolates were exposed to high-risk sources of contamination when antibiotics were frequently used. The resistant Vibrio strains could be transmitted through the food chain to humans and therefore constitutes a risk to public health.

  17. Photodynamic effect of curcumin on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Mou, Haijin; Xue, Changhu; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Xu, Chuanshan; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is currently a major cause of bacterial diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the inactivation effect of curcumin-mediated photodynamic action on V. parahaemolyticus. First of all, V. parahaemolyticus suspended in PBS buffer was irradiated by a visible light from a LED light source with an energy density of 3.6J/cm(2). Colony forming units (CFU) were counted and the viability of V. parahaemolyticus cells was calculated after treatment. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) production after photodynamic action of curcumin was evaluated using 9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis (methylene) dimalonic acid (ADMA). Bacterial outer membrane protein was extracted and analyzed using electrophoresis SDS-PAGE. DNA and RNA of V. parahaemolyticus were also extracted and analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis after photodynamic treatment. Finally, the efficacy of photodynamic action of curcumin was preliminarily evaluated in the decontamination of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster. Results showed that the viability of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly decreased to non-detectable levels over 6.5-log reductions with the curcumin concentration of 10 and 20μM. Photodynamic action of curcumin significantly increased the singlet oxygen level with the curcumin concentration of 10μM. Notable damage was found to bacterial outer membrane proteins and genetic materials after photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic action of curcumin reduced the number of V. parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster to non-detectable level. Our findings demonstrated that photodynamic action of curcumin could be a potentially good method to inactivate Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminating in oyster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low risk of bacteremia after endoscopic variceal therapy for esophageal varices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi; Dwivedi, Alok; Elhanafi, Sherif; Ortiz, Arleen; Othman, Mohamed; Zuckerman, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) are the main therapeutic procedures for the emergency treatment and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices in cirrhotics. Post-endoscopic bacteremia has been reported after EVS and EVL, but data on the frequency of bacteremia are conflicting. This study aims to provide incidences of bacteremia after EVS and EVL in different settings through meta-analysis. Only prospective or randomized studies were included in this meta-analysis. Binomial distribution was used to compute variance for each study. Random effects models were used as the final model for estimating the effect size and 95 % confidence interval. Adjusted effects were obtained using meta-regression analysis. Nineteen prospective studies involving 1001 procedures in 587 patients were included in the meta-analysis on the risk of bacteremia after EVS or EVL in cirrhotics with esophageal varices. The frequency of bacteremia after endoscopic variceal therapy was 13 %. The frequency of bacteremia after EVS (17 %) was higher than after EVL (6 %) with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.106). The frequency of bacteremia after elective EVS (14 %) was significantly less than after emergency EVS (22 %) (P EVL (7.6 %) was not significantly different from after emergency EVL (3.2 %) (P = 0.850). The incidence of bacteremia is low in patients with cirrhosis and varices after esophageal variceal therapy. These results are consistent with our current guidelines that antibiotic prophylaxis before endoscopic variceal therapy is only necessary for bleeding patients.

  19. Bacteremia por Staphylococcus epidermidis y abceso de partes blandas en un paciente post-operado: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralith Garcia Apac

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an 11 year old male who presented with bacteremia by S. epidermidis and soft tissue abscesses after a bone autograft procedure. The patient received only medical treatment, resolving the abscesses successfully. We also did a review of the literature on S. epidermidis bacteremia, an entity which has acquired increasing importance in the etiology of hospital infections. (Rev Med Hered 2003; 14:221-223.

  20. Risk factors and outcomes of bacteremia caused by drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, Marta; Sabé, Núria; Tubau, Fe; Lladó, Laura; Baliellas, Carme; Roca, Josep; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-11-15

    Although infections due to the six ESKAPE pathogens have recently been identified as a serious emerging problem, information regarding bacteremia caused by these organisms in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients is lacking. We sought to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE (rESKAPE) organisms in liver, kidney, and heart adult transplant recipients. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized SOT recipients from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed. Of 276 episodes of bacteremia, 54 (19.6%) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium [0], methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [5], extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae [10], carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [8], carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [26], and derepressed chromosomal β-lactam and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter species [5]). Factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were prior transplantation, septic shock, and prior antibiotic therapy. Patients with rESKAPE bacteremia more often received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy than the others (41% vs. 21.6%; P=0.01). Overall case-fatality rate (30 days) was higher in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia (35.2% vs. 14.4%; P=0.001). Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens is frequent in SOT recipients and causes significant morbidity and mortality. rESKAPE organisms should be considered when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy for hospitalized SOT recipients presenting with septic shock, particularly those with prior transplantation and antibiotic use.

  1. Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Alex; Marco, Francesc; Martínez, José A; Pisos, Elena; Almela, Manel; Dimova, Veselka P; Alamo, Dolores; Ortega, Mar; Lopez, Josefina; Mensa, Josep

    2008-01-15

    Vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not uncommon, even when MRSA is susceptible to vancomycin. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration has any influence on the mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia. A total of 414 episodes of MRSA bacteremia were prospectively followed-up from 1991 through 2005. MIC of vancomycin for the first isolate was determined by E-test. Clinical variables recorded were age, comorbidity, prior administration of vancomycin, use of corticosteroids, prognosis of underlying disease, source of bacteremia, the need for mechanical ventilation, shock, and mortality. A "treatment group" variable was created and defined as follows: (1) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1 microg/mL (38 episodes), (2) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1.5 microg/mL (90 episodes), (3) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (40 episodes), and (4) receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (246 episodes). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Episodes caused by strains with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL were independently associated with a lower risk of shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75). Multivariate analysis selected receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 1.68-24.3), receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9), increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), use of corticosteroids (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.04-3.29), an ultimately (OR, 10.2; 95% CI, 2.85-36.8) or rapidly (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10) fatal underlying disease, high-risk (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.89-6.88) and intermediate-risk (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17-4.04) sources of bacteremia, and shock (OR, 7.38; 95% CI, 4.11-13.3) as the best predictors of

  2. Epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and outcomes of bacteremia caused by drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, Marta; Gudiol, Carlota; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Tubau, Fe; Contra, Anna; Boix, Lucía; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Calvo, Mariona; Carratalà, Jordi

    2014-03-01

    Infection due to the six ESKAPE pathogens has recently been identified as a serious emerging problem. However, there is still a lack of information on bacteremia caused by these organisms in cancer patients. We aimed to assess the epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens (rESKAPE) in patients with cancer. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized adults with cancer from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Of 1,148 episodes of bacteremia, 392 (34 %) were caused by ESKAPE pathogens. Fifty-four episodes (4.7 %) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium 0, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 13, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESLB)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 7, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 4, carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18 and derepression chromosomic ß-lactam and ESBL-producing Enterobacter species 12. Risk factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were comorbidities, prior antibiotic therapy, urinary catheter and urinary tract source. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was more frequent in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia than in the other cases (55.6 % vs. 21.5 %, p antibiotic therapy and have a urinary tract source. These patients often receive inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy and have a poor outcome.

  3. Risk and outcomes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia among patients admitted with and without MRSA nares colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Natalie S; Bessesen, Mary T

    2016-04-01

    The risk of nosocomial methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with nasal colonization on admission is 3-fold higher than in patients who are not colonized. Limited data on this question have been reported for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). This is an observational cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary care medical center from October 1, 2007-September 30, 2013, who underwent active screening for nasal colonization with MRSA. There were 29,371 patients who underwent screening for nasal MRSA colonization; 3,262 (11%) were colonized with MRSA. There were 32 cases of MRSA bacteremia among colonized patients, for an incidence of 1%. Thirteen cases of bacteremia occurred in non-MRSA-colonized patients, for an incidence of 0.05%. The odds of developing MRSA bacteremia for patients who were nasally colonized with MRSA compared with those who were not colonized were 19.89. There was no difference between colonized and noncolonized subjects with bacteremia in all-cause mortality at 30 days or 1 year. In a setting with active screening for MRSA, the risk of MRSA bacteremia is 19.89-fold higher among colonized than noncolonized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Incidence and risk factors for bacteremia on pediatric patients with burns in a specialized care center in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Velarde, Teresa de J; Lona-Reyes, Juan C; Riebeling-Dueñas, Alejandra; Orozco-Alatorre, Luis G

    2017-06-01

    Bacteremia events are frequent cause of mortality in burn patients and may originate from infected wounds, by bacterial translocation of endogenous microorganisms, from invasive devices or contaminated intravenous solutions. To quantify the incidence of bacteremia in pediatric patients with burns and to identify risk factors. A prospective cohort study was performed in pediatric patients with burns of Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Bacteremia was diagnosed by blood cultures in patients with clinical manifestations of sepsis. Risk factors were investigated by multivariate analysis with Cox regression. Were included in the cohort 260 patients, median age 3 years. The incidence of bacteremia was 9.6 events per 1,000 days patient. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (41.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (22.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.6%). Factors associated with bacteremia were: bums ≥ 20% TBSA (HR 11.06; 95% CI 4.8-25.4), deep second degree bums or higher (HR 6.9; 95% CI 2.0-23.3) and have had two or less debridement (HR 26.4; 95% CI 8.0-87.7). Patients with more extensive and deep burns with fewer debridement are at increased risk of bacteremia.

  5. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  6. Hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications : Mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Park, Jeong Mi; Goo, Hyun Woo; Bang, Sun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    To differentiate fine hyperdense dots mimicking microcalcifications from true microcalcifications on mammography. Mammograms showing hyperdense dots in ten patients (mean age, 59 years) were evaluated. Two radiologists were asked to differentiate with the naked eye the hyperdense dots seen on ten mammograms and proven microcalcifications seen on ten mammograms. Densitometry was also performed for all lesions and the contrast index was calculated. The shape and distribution of the hyperdense dots were evaluated and enquires were made regarding any history of breast disease and corresponding treatment. Biopsies were performed for two patients with hyperdense dots. Two radiologists made correct diagnoses in 19/20 cases(95%). The contrast index was 0.10-0.88 (mean 0.58) for hyperdense dots and 0.02-0.45 (mean 0.17) for true microcalcifications. The hyperdense dots were finer and homogeneously rounder than the microcalcifications. Distribution of the hyperdense dots was more superficial in subcutaneous fat (seven cases) and subareolar area (six cases). All ten patients with hyperdense dots had history of mastitis and abscesses and had been treated by open drainage (six cases) and/or folk remedy (four cases). In eight patients, herb patches had been attached. Biopsies of hyperdense dots did not show any microcalcification or evidence of malignancy. These hyperdense dots were seen mainly in older patients. Their characteristic density, shape, distribution and clinical history makes differential diagnosis from true microcalcifications easy and could reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures such as surgical biopsy.

  7. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  8. Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huge desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall mimicking an intraabdominal mass in a postpartum woman: a case report. Khaled Trigui, Mahdi Bouassida, Houda Kilani, Mohamed Mongi Mighri, Selim Sassi, Fathi Chebbi, Hassen Touinsi, Sadok Sassi ...

  9. Effects of Pollution on Vibrios in Woji River OJESANMI, A S; IBE, S N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    1987). Incidence of. Vibrio cholerae from estuaries of the United States west coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 1344-1348. Ndon, JA; Udo,SM; Wehrenberg, WB (1992). Vibrio-Associated Gastroenteritis in the lower Cross-. River basin of Nigeria.

  10. Prevalence and heterogeneity of Hemolysin gene vhh among hatchery isolates of Vibrio harveyi in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; George; Kumar

    Vibrio harveyi, pathogenic to fish, harbor a hemolysin gene vhh, the homologues of which are found in many species of the Genus Vibrio. It is investigated that the prevalence of vhh gene among V. harveyi isolated from Penaeus monodon hatcheries...

  11. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  12. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistant Vibrio spp. in Shellfish Hatchery Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Osorio, Carlos R; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The characterization of antibiotic-resistant vibrios isolated from shellfish aquaculture is necessary to elucidate the potential transfer of resistance and to establish effective strategies against vibriosis. With this aim, we analyzed a collection of bacterial isolates obtained from 15 failed hatchery larval cultures that, for the most part, had been treated experimentally with chloramphenicol to prevent vibriosis. Isolates were obtained during a 2-year study from experimental cultures of five different clam species. Among a total of 121 Vibrio isolates studied, 28 were found to be chloramphenicol resistant, suggesting that the shellfish hatchery had been using a sublethal concentration of the antibiotic. Interestingly, chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios showed also resistance to tetracycline and amoxicillin (group A; n = 19) or to streptomycin (group B; n = 9). Chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios were subjected to a PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes (cat), and the same approach was followed to study the tetracycline resistance markers (tet). 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing revealed that chloramphenicol-resistant vibrios pertained mostly to the Splendidus clade. Conjugation assays demonstrated that various R-plasmids which harbored the cat II/tet(D) genes and cat III gene in groups A and B respectively, were transferred to E. coli and bivalve pathogenic vibrios. Most interestingly, transconjugants exhibited the antibiotic resistance patterns of the donors, despite having been selected only on the basis of chloramphenicol resistance. This is the first report carried out in a bivalve hatchery elucidating the persistence of resistant vibrios, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and the transfer of different R-plasmids.

  13. [Role of ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirante, Benito; Pericás, Juan M; Miró, José M

    2014-03-01

    Ceftaroline fosamil is a new subclass of cephalosporins with high intrinsic activity against various multi-resistant Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as against Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia and infective endocarditis. Because of its pharmacokinetic profile and pharmacodynamic characteristics, this drug is a good therapeutic option for these infections. Experimental studies have shown good clinical efficacy for the treatment of endocarditis caused by S. aureus, regardless of their sensitivity to methicillin or vancomycin. Clinical experience is limited, although clinical trials and case series have reported a favorable clinical response in patients with bacteremia associated with skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, or infective endocarditis. Future studies should define more precisely the role of this new antibiotic in the treatment of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. [Bacteremia due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a febrile neutropenic pediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, H; Mastroianni, A; Casimir, L

    2007-01-01

    The presence of Granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas Abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. The aim of this study is to describe a case of A.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 degrees C) neutropenic (200 GB/mm3) boy. A.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples. Although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as the possible cause of fever, A. defectiva was considered a significant finding because this species is not part of the commensal skin flora. This case suggests that both A. defectiva and Granulicatella spp. should be regarded as possible causes of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients.

  15. Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A Isolated from Patients with Bacteremia in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchan, Jatan Bahadur; Morita, Masatomo; Matono, Takashi; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tandukar, Sarmila; Laghu, Ujjwal; Nagamatsu, Maki; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Hayakawa, Kayoko

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Nepal. We aimed to elucidate the molecular and clinical epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Nepal. Isolates were collected from 23 cases of bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A between December 2014 and October 2015. Thirteen patients (57%) were male, and the median age was 21 years. None of the patients had an underlying chronic disease. All S. Paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and were categorized as intermediately susceptible to levofloxacin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness among the isolates, including several clonal groups, suggesting local spread. Patients with bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal, were relatively young and nondebilitated. Improving control of S . Paratyphi infections should focus on effective infection control measures and selection of empirical therapy based on current resistance patterns.

  16. Serum procalcitonin elevation in critically ill patients at the onset of bacteremia caused by either gram negative or gram positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prin Sébastien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Methods Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP or Gram negative (GN bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. Results 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52 or GP bacteremia (n = 45 were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.88. Conclusion In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.

  17. Prospective study of bacteremia rate after elective band ligation and sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate for esophageal varices in patients with advanced liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilha,Danielle Queiroz; Correia,Lucianna Motta; Monaghan,Marie; Lenz,Luciano; Santos,Marcus; Libera,Ermelindo Della

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Band ligation (BL) is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY) can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients ...

  18. Post-ERCP bacteremia caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with pancreas cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcay Korhan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, nonfermentative Gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been isolated from intestine of humans and from various hospital or environmental water sources. A.xylosoxidans is both waterborne and results from the poor-hygienic conditions healthcare workers are in. In this case report, the bacteremia which appeared in a patient with pancreas cancer after ERCP was described.

  19. Management of hemodialysis catheter-related bacteremia with an adjunctive antibiotic lock solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasami, Zipporah; Carlton, Donna; Bimbo, Lisa; Taylor, Maria E; Balkovetz, Daniel F; Barker, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are complicated by frequent systemic infections. Standard therapy of catheter-associated bacteremia involves both systemic antibiotics and catheter replacement. Recent data suggest that biofilms in the catheter lumen are responsible for the bacteremia, and that instillation of an antibiotic lock (highly concentrated antibiotic solution) into the catheter lumen after dialysis sessions can eradicate the biofilm. We analyzed prospectively the efficacy of an antibiotic lock protocol, in conjunction with systemic antibiotics, for treatment of patients with dialysis catheter-associated bacteremia without catheter removal. Protocol success was defined as resolution of fever and negative surveillance cultures one week following completion of the protocol. Protocol failure was defined as persistence of fever or surveillance cultures positive for any pathogen. In addition, infection-free catheter survival was compared to that observed in institutional historical control patients treated with catheter replacement. Blood cultures were positive in 98 of 129 of episodes (76%) in which patients dialyzing with a catheter had fever or chills. Protocol success occurred in 40 of 79 infected patients (51%) treated with the antibiotic lock. Protocol failure occurred in 39 cases (49%): 7 had persistent fever, 15 had positive surveillance cultures (9 for Candida and 6 for bacteria), and 17 required catheter removal due to malfunction. Each of the pathogens in the surveillance cultures was different from the original pathogen in that patient. Eight of the 9 secondary Candida infections and all 6 secondary bacterial infections resolved after catheter exchange and specific antimicrobial treatment. Overall catheter survival with the antibiotic lock protocol was similar to that observed among patients managed with catheter replacement (median survival, 64 vs. 54 days, P = 0.24). Use of an antibiotic lock, in conjunction with systemic antibiotic therapy, can

  20. An Unusual Cause of Infective Endocarditis: Proteus mirabilis Bacteremia from an Infected Pressure Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus species is a common cause of urinary tract and wound infections in humans. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old male who had fever, a new-onset heart murmur, bacteremia, and a vegetation over his native aortic valve in echocardiography. This rare case demonstrated that infective endocarditis could be caused by Proteus mirabilis from an infected pressure ulcer.

  1. [Ability of procalcitonin to predict bacteremia in patients with community acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Timón Zapata, Jesús; Laserna Mendieta, Emilio José; Parejo Miguez, Raquel; Flores Chacartegui, Manuel; Gallardo Schall, Pablo

    2014-04-07

    To analyze the usefulness and ability of procalcitonin (PCT) to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) or other bacteria. This is an observational, prospective and descriptive study involving patients who were diagnosed with CAP in our Emergency Department. Data collected included socio-demographic and comorbidity variables, Charlson index, stage in the Pneumonia Severity Index and criteria of severe NAC, microbiologic studies and biomarker determinations (PCT and C reactive protein). The follow-up was carried out during 30 days to calculate the predictive power and the diagnostic performance for bacteremia caused or not by S. pneumoniae. Four hundred and seventy-four patients were finally included in the study. Blood cultures were positive in 85 individuals (17.9%) and S. pneumoniae was identified as the responsible pathogen in 75 of them (88.4%) (in 5 cases together with another agent). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for PCT to predict bacteremia (caused by S. pneumoniae or not) was 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.908-0.995; P98% and>10, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 19A, 7F, 1 and 3. The highest mean levels of PCT were found in serotypes 7F, 19A, 3 and 1, which showed statistically significant differences with regard to the others serotypes considered (P=.008). Serotypes associated with the highest percentage of severe sepsis-septic shock, 30-days mortality and multi-lobe or bilateral affection were 3, 1 and 19A; 1, 3 and 19A; and 3, 19A and 6A, respectively. PCT had a remarkable diagnostic ability to discard or suspect bacteremia and to guide the etiology of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 1, 3, 19A and 7F showed greater frequency, systemic inflammatory response and clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2017-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. First case of bacteremia caused by Moellerella wisconsensis: case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardentey-Reyes, A; Jacobs, F; Struelens, M J; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H

    2009-12-01

    Moellerella wisconsensis, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is rarely isolated in clinical specimens. We report here a case of M. wisconsensis infection in a 46-year-old cirrhotic patient with acute cholecystitis. This is the first reported case of a M. wisconsensis infection in Belgium and the first reported case of human bacteremia caused by this bacterium. Our case report is followed by a review of the literature.

  4. Evaluating the management of 493 patients presenting with bacteremia in 23 northern French hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, S; Cabaret, P; Nguyen, S; Descamps, D; Vachée, A; Cattoen, C; Van Grunderbeeck, N

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to update the epidemiology of bacteremia and evaluate their management and short-term outcome. We conducted a prospective multicenter survey from October to November 2011. Consecutive patients with at least one positive blood culture (BC) were included in the study. We evaluated the type and adequacy of empirical and documented antibiotic therapy, time to active antibiotic therapy, compliance with guidelines, and 10-day outcome. A total of 23 public and private hospitals and 633 patients (493 true pathogens and 140 contaminants) were included in the study. Patients' wards were medicine (57%), surgery (19%), intensive care (14%), onco/hematology (3.7%), pediatrics (3.4%), infectious diseases (1.8%), and obstetrics (1.2%). Main pathogens were Escherichia coli (36%), Staphylococcus aureus (16%), coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Klebsiella sp. (8% each). A total of 43 (8.7%) multidrug-resistant strains were observed, including 26 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase strains and 15 methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. An antibiotic active against the isolated pathogen was used in 74% of empirical and 96% of documented therapies. Median time between BC and administration of an active drug was 0.61 day. Empirical antibiotic therapies were protocol-compliant in 77% of cases. Few (4%) patients with contaminated BC received an antibiotic therapy (all inappropriate). Day-10 mortality was 12.1%, higher in patients presenting with severe sepsis or septic shock (22.5%) than in patients presenting with non-severe bacteremia (7.1%; Pmanagement of bacteremia seems satisfactory in these volunteer hospitals but bacteremia remains a severe infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. First Case of Bacteremia Due to Kytococcus schroeteri in a Child with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Banu; Dalgic, Nazan; Duman, Nurcan; Petmezci, Ercüment

    2018-03-22

    Kytococcus schroeteri is a commensal organism of the human skin, may cause serious infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a child with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)(Bruker Daltonics, Germany). İdentification was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  6. Early oral antibiotic switch compared with conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy for acute cholangitis with bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Young; Choi, Jung Sik; Song, Tae Jun; Do, Jae Hyuk; Choi, Seong-Ho; Oh, Hyoung-Chul

    2014-11-01

    Biliary decompression with antibiotic therapy is the mainstay treatment for acute cholangitis with bacteremia. A few studies have been conducted to investigate the optimal duration and route of antibiotic therapy in biliary tract infection with bacteremia. Patients with acute cholangitis with bacteremia who achieved successful biliary drainage were randomly assigned to an early oral antibiotic switch group (group A, n = 29) and a conventional intravenous antibiotics group (group B, n = 30). Patients were discharged when they were afebrile over 2 days after oral antibiotic switch and showed consecutive improvement in the laboratory index. They were followed up and assessed at 30 days after diagnosis to evaluate the eradication of bacteria, recurrence of acute cholangitis, and 30-day mortality rate. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics, clinical and laboratory index, severity of acute cholangitis, bacteria isolated from blood cultures, and clinical outcomes. The rate of eradication of bacteria was 93.1 % in group A and 93.3 % in group B, respectively (p = 0.97). Using non-inferiority tests, the rate of eradication of bacteria in group A was not inferior to that in group B (95 % CI -0.13 to 0.14, p = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence of acute cholangitis and a 30-day mortality rate between the two groups. Early switch to oral antibiotic therapy following adequate biliary drainage for treatment of acute cholangitis with bacteremia was not inferior to conventional 10-day intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  7. Seasonal Outbreak of Bacillus Bacteremia Associated With Contaminated Linen in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Jonathan H K; Leung, Sally S M; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Shuk-Ching; Wong, Sally C Y; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-05-15

    A high seasonal incidence of Bacillus bacteremia was associated with the use of contaminated hospital linens. An outbreak investigation was conducted to study the incidence and source of Bacillus bacteremia during the baseline, outbreak, and postoutbreak period from 1 January 2012 through 31 July 2016 at a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Replicate organism detection and counting plates were used for microbial screening of linen samples. The Bacillus species isolated from patient and linen samples were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and were phylogenetically analyzed. During the study period, a total of 113 207 blood cultures were collected from 43 271 patients, of which 978 (0.86%) specimens from 744 (1.72%) patients were identified as Bacillus species. The incidence of Bacillus bacteremia per 10 000 patient admissions and per 10 000 patient-days was significantly higher during the summer outbreak as compared with baseline and 1 year postoutbreak after cessation of the linen supply from the designated laundry and change of laundry protocol (39.97 vs 18.21 vs 2.27; 13.36 vs 5.61 vs 0.73; P Bacillus cereus group in 14 of 87 (16.1%) patients were phylogenetically associated with 9 linen sample isolates. Suboptimal conditions of hospital laundry contributed to the seasonal outbreak of Bacillus bacteremia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  9. Carbapenem Breakpoints for Acinetobacter baumannii Group: Supporting Clinical Outcome Data from Patients with Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chiang, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Wang, Yung-Chih; Lee, I-Hsin; Chen, Te-Li; Yang, Ya-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The carbapenem breakpoints set by different organizations for Acinetobacter are discordant, but supporting clinical data are lacking. This study aimed to provide the first clinical outcome data to support the carbapenem breakpoints for Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) group in patients with bacteremia. This study included 117 adults who received carbapenems for treatment of Ab group bacteremia in Taipei Veterans General Hospital over an 8-year period. We analyzed 30-day mortality rates among patient groups acquiring isolates with different carbapenem minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The carbapenem MIC breakpoint derived from classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to delineate the risk of 30-day mortality was between MICs of ≤ 4 mg/L and ≥ 8 mg/L. Mortality rate was higher in patients acquiring isolates with carbapenem MIC ≥ 8 mg/L than ≤ 4 mg/L, by bivariate (54.9% [28/51] vs 25.8% [17/66]; P = 0.003) and survival analysis (P = 0.001 by log-rank test). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression and Cox regression models including severity of illness indices demonstrated that treating patients with Ab group bacteremia caused by isolates with a carbapenem MIC ≥ 8 mg/L with carbapenem was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 5.125; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.946-13.498; P = 0.001, and hazard ratio, 2.630; 95% CI, 1.431-4.834; P = 0.002, respectively). The clinical outcome data confirmed that isolates with MIC ≤ 4 mg/L were susceptible to carbapenem, and those with MIC ≥ 8 mg/L were resistant in patients with Ab group bacteremia.

  10. Tunneled dialysis catheter exchange with fibrin sheath disruption is not associated with increased rate of bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.

  11. National Automated Surveillance of Hospital-Acquired Bacteremia in Denmark Using a Computer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, Jens; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2015, Denmark launched an automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, the Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA). OBJECTIVE To describe the algorithm used in HAIBA, to determine its concordance with point prevalence surveys (PPSs), and to present trends...... advantages of automated surveillance, HAIBA allows monitoring of HA bacteremia across the healthcare system, supports prioritizing preventive measures, and holds promise for evaluating interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-8....

  12. Impact of reduced tigecycline susceptibility on clinical outcomes of Acinetobacter bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea-Yuan Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The higher 14-day mortality rate for patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia receiving tigecycline appropriately compared to other appropriate antibiotics (36.4% versus 14.2%, P = 0.028 was due to the poor effect of tigecycline for isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/mL (63.6% of 11 versus 14.2% of 127, P = 0.001.

  13. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  14. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  15. Effects of chlorhexidine preprocedural rinse on bacteremia in periodontal patients: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balejo, Rodrigo Dalla Pria; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Miranda, Taís Browne; Moura, Sara Porto; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Single dose of systemic antibiotics and short-term use of mouthwashes reduce bacteremia. However, the effects of a single dose of preprocedural rinse are still controversial. This study evaluated, in periodontally diseased patients, the effects of a pre-procedural mouth rinse on induced bacteremia. Material and Methods: Systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis (n=27) or periodontitis (n = 27) were randomly allocated through a sealed envelope system to: 0.12% chlorhexidine pre-procedural rinse (13 gingivitis and 13 periodontitis patients) or no rinse before dental scaling (14 gingivitis and 15 periodontitis patients). Periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque, and gingival indices were measured and subgingival samples were collected. Blood samples were collected before dental scaling, 2 and 6 minutes after scaling. Total bacterial load and levels of P. gingivalis were determined in oral and blood samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction, while aerobic and anaerobic counts were determined by culture in blood samples. The primary outcome was the antimicrobial effect of the pre-procedural rinse. Data was compared by Mann-Whitney and Signal tests (pperiodontitis patients (pbacteria (pperiodontal parameters. In periodontally diseased patients, pre-procedural rinsing showed a discrete effect on bacteremia control. PMID:29211279

  16. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7 revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known.

  17. [Community-acquired bacteremia in adult patients attending the emergency service of a teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Muriel J; Rocchi, Marta; Gasparotto, Ana; Ocaña Carrizo, Valeria; Navarro, Mercedes; Mollo, Valeria; Avilés, Natalia; Romero, Vanessa; Carrillo, Sonia; Monterisi, Aída

    2012-01-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbimortality. This study describes the episodes of community-acquired bacteremia in adult patients registered at our hospital. Between January 2005, and December 2009, 271 episodes were studied. The diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 13.5 %. A total of 52 % of patients were male and 48 % female. The mean age was 60. The most frequent comorbidities were: diabetes (21 %), neoplasia (18 %), cardiopathy (11 %), and HIV infection (8 %). The focus was- respiratory (21 %), urinary (15 %), cutaneous (9 %), and others (13 %). Gram-positive bacteria prevailed (51.4%). The most frequent microorganisms were Escherichia coli (25 %), Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.9 %), and Staphylococcus aureus (12.3 %). Bacteremia was polymicrobial in 7 % of the cases. Thirty three percent of E. coli isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 6 % to ceftazidime. Fourteen percent of S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin whereas only 7 % of S. pneumoniae expressed high resistance to penicillin with MICs = 2 ug/ml, according to meningitis breakpoints.

  18. Immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhongle; Song, Wen; Wu, Wenyong; Zhou, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu). In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu) expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.

  19. Epidemiology of bacteremia in young hospitalized infants in Vientiane, Laos, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Margot; Luangxay, Khonesavanh; Sisouk, Kongkham; Vorlasan, Latdavan; Soumphonphakdy, Bandith; Sengmouang, Vanmaly; Chansamouth, Vilada; Phommasone, Koukeo; Van Dyke, Russell; Chong, Euming; Dance, David A B; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N

    2014-02-01

    As data about the causes of neonatal sepsis in low-income countries are inadequate, we reviewed the etiology and antibiotic susceptibilities of bacteremia in young infants in Laos. As Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of bacteremia in Lao infants, we also examined risk factors for this infection, in particular the local practice of warming mothers during the first weeks postpartum with hot coals under their beds (hot beds). Clinical and laboratory data regarding infants aged 0-60 days evaluated for sepsis within 72 h of admission to Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane, Laos, were reviewed, and 85 of 1438 (5.9%) infants' blood cultures grew a clinically significant organism. Most common were S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Whereas no methicillin-resistant S. aureus was found, only 18% of E. coli isolates were susceptible to ampicillin. A history of sleeping on a hot bed with mother was associated with S. aureus bacteremia (odds ratio 4.8; 95% confidence interval 1.2-19.0).

  20. Factors Associated with Klebsiella Bacteremia and Its Outcome in Under-Five Children Admitted with Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Akhter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Klebsiella bacteremia in children is perceived to be associated with fatal consequences, data are scarce on those children presenting with diarrhea. We evaluated the factors associated with Klebsiella bacteremia in such children. In this retrospective chart analysis, data of all diarrheal children was retrieved from electronic medical record system (named as SHEBA of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b, from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, who had their blood culture done. This was a study having a case-control design where comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics was done among children with Klebsiella bacteremia (cases = 30 and those without any bacteraemia (controls = 90. Controls were selected randomly. The cases more often had fatal outcome (p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders such as young age, severe dehydration, severe wasting, abnormal mentation, hypotension, and fast breathing, the cases were independently associated with hospital-acquired infection and positive stool growth (for all, p<0.05. The study highlights the importance of obtaining blood cultures in hospitalized children under five years old with diarrheal illness in the presence of either hospital-acquired infection or positive stool culture to have better outcome.

  1. Active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decreases the incidence of MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Pnina; Gottesman, Bat-Sheva; Katzir, Michal; Kilman, Avi; Ben-Nissan, Yona; Chowers, Michal

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of performance of active surveillance cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia in an endemic hospital. Before-after trial. A 700-bed hospital. All patients admitted to the hospital who were at high risk for MRSA bacteremia. Performance of surveillance cultures for detection of MRSA were recommended for all patients at high risk, and contact isolation was implemented for patients with positive results of culture. Each MRSA-positive patient received one course of eradication treatment. We compared the total number of surveillance cultures, the percentage of surveillance cultures with positive results, and the number of MRSA bacteremia cases before the intervention (from January 2002 through February 2003) after the start of the intervention (from July 2003 through October 2004). The number of surveillance cultures performed increased from a mean of 272.57 cultures/month before the intervention to 865.83 cultures/month after the intervention. The percentage of surveillance cultures with positive results increased from 3.13% before to 5.22% after the intervention (P hidden reservoirs of MRSA. Contact isolation can prevent new colonization and infection and lead to a significant reduction of morbidity and healthcare costs.

  2. Evaluating Children with Otitis Media for Bacteremia or Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yawman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unclear if clinicians evaluate for concurrent bacteremia or UTI in young patients diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM. Objectives. To describe how often, and under which circumstances, emergency providers investigate for bacteremia or UTI in 2–36 month olds with AOM. Methods. Cases of AOM were analyzed from the 2001–2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS-Emergency Department dataset. Results. AOM was diagnosed in 17% of the 10,847 recorded visits of 2–36 month olds. Of these visits, laboratory testing included: CBC: 7%, Blood culture: 4%, urinalysis or urine culture: 5%, and any of these tests: 9%. Rates of testing for 2–6 month olds with temperature ≥ 38.0 (CBC: 13%, blood culture: 9%, urinalysis or urine culture: 7%, any of the tests: 14% were not significantly different from testing of patients aged 6–12 months, or 12–36 months (all P>.1. Patients with temperature of ≥39.0 were more likely to have all tests, with the exception of urine investigation, than patients with temperature between 38.0 and 38.9. Conclusions. 17% of 2–36 month old patients seen in the emergency department are diagnosed with AOM. Investigating for bacteremia or UTI in these patients is not routine, even in febrile infants.

  3. Case series of patients with Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia with emphasis on the presence of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Erlangga; Wybo, Ingrid; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is anaerobic oral microbiota that might be associated with cancer. We reported 22 consecutive cases of patients (mean age of 63.8 years (range 34-89), 59.1% male) with F. nucleatum bacteremia that were admitted to a university hospital over a 10-year period. In 17 (77.2%) of these patients, F. nucleatum was the sole possible pathogen. Seven of the 22 patients (31.8%) had active cancer: esophagus carcinoma (n = 3), hematologic malignancies (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), and breast cancer (n = 1). In six out of seven patients (85.7%), the F. nucleatum was found within six months of the diagnosis of cancer. Four of seven (57.1%), patients with cancer were on chemotherapy. Three of 22 patients (13.4%) died within 1 month of F. nucleatum bacteremia due to cancer. In conclusion, F. nucleatum bacteremia occurs rarely and when it is found, it is often in patients with cancer, especially those with a recent diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica bacteremia and enterocolitis in a previously healthy 20-month-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takao; Suzuki, Teruaki; Kawase, Jun; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Nanao, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative bacillus that can cause illness ranging from a self-limiting enterocolitis to life-threatening bacteremia. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B, serotype O:8 (1B/O:8), is the most pathogenic of the Yersinia species because of the presence of the high-pathogenicity island and the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV). Here, we report a pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia and enterocolitis. A 20-month-old girl was admitted to hospital with fever,pharyngitis, and abdominal pain on day 2. Blood culture on admission was positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8. Stool culture on day 5 after cefotaxime treatment was also positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8, but only after cold enrichment at 4°C for 3 weeks. PCR assays identified the pYV only in stool specimens, indicating that strains from routine blood culture at 37°C lacked the pYV. The present case showed the usefulness of stool culture with cold enrichment and agglutination test for the diagnosis of Y. enterocolitica infection. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of collection and preservation of stool specimens for the identification of pYV. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia.

  5. [Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae and its application in establishing double-antibody sandwich ELISA for testing Vibrio cholerae from food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinxia; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Haiyu; Liu, Xuesong; Cao, Dong

    2013-11-01

    To prepare the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae and establish the double-antibody sandwich ELISA method for testing Vibrio cholerae from food products. BALB/c mice were immunized with flagellin extracted from Vibrio cholerae Vc75 by differential centrifugation. The splenocytes from the immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells when the antibody titer in serum reached 1:32 000. The hybridoma cell lines were obtained by regular subcloning and used to generate ascites. And mAbs reacting to Vibrio cholerae flagellin were achieved by purified from the ascites. Six hybridoma cell lines stably secreting mAbs against Vibrio cholerae flagellin were taken and named VcNo.1-VcNo.6. The mAb titer in serum by indirect ELISA was 1:2 × 10(6). SDS-PAGE showed that the flagellin protein molecular weight (Mr) was 44 000 and the purity was high. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA method was set up using VcNo.6 antibody for detecting Vibrio cholerae. The sensitivity reached 10(3) CFU/mL. The ELISA method showed high specificity to Vibrio cholerae through testing 100 Vibrio cholerae (100% positive) and 101 non-Vibrio cholerae strains (100% negative). The detection limit was 1 CFU/g sample in artificial contaminated samples. The mAbs against flagellin core protein of Vibrio cholerae was successfully prepared and used to set up the double-antibody sandwich ELISA. The mAb of VcNo.6 was highly specific to Vibrio cholerae. The sensitivity of the established ELISA was as high as 10(3) CFU/mL. Moreover, it did not react to non-Vibrio cholerae strains. Therefore, the mAbs of VcNo.6 could be widely used in Vibrio cholerae detection from food samples as well as clinical samples.

  6. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Acosta-Smith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species.

  7. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Smith, Erika; Viveros-Jiménez, Karina; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; de la Garza, Mireya; Martínez-Garcia, Jesús J.; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, some of which can cause serious infectious diseases. Vibrio infections are associated with the consumption of contaminated food and classified in Vibrio cholera infections and non-cholera Vibrio infections. In the present study, we investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and several synthetic peptides corresponding to bLF sequences, are able to inhibit the growth or have bactericidal effect against V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. The antibacterial activity of LF and LF-peptides was assessed by kinetics of growth or determination of colony forming unit in bacteria treated with the peptides and antibiotics. To get insight in the mode of action, the interaction between bLF and bLF-peptides (coupled to FITC) and V. cholera was evaluated. The damage of effector-induced bacterial membrane permeability was measured by inclusion of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide using flow cytometry, whereas the bacterial ultrastructural damage in bacteria treated was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that bLF and LFchimera inhibited the growth of the V. cholerae strains; LFchimera permeabilized the bacteria which membranes were seriously damaged. Assays with a multidrug-resistant strain of Vibrio species indicated that combination of sub-lethal doses of LFchimera with ampicillin or tetracycline strongly reduced the concentration of the antibiotics to reach 95% growth inhibition. Furthermore, LFchimera were effective to inhibit the V. cholerae counts and damage due to this bacterium in a model mice. These data suggest that LFchimera and bLF are potential candidates to combat the V. cholerae and other multidrug resistant Vibrio species. PMID:29375503

  8. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy mimicking acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Kryspin; Romanczuk, Mikolaj

    2009-05-01

    Ectopic pregnancy may lead to massive haemorrhage, infertility or death. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to save patients who would otherwise die. Serum amylase and lipase measurements are known biochemical markers of pancreatic inflammation and a recognized finding that may help diagnose acute pancreatitis. To the best of our knowledge (Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library have been researched) the following study presents the first case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy accompanied by markedly elevated amylase and lipase levels mimicking acute pancreatitis ever reported. A previously healthy, nulliparous 35-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a 2-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. Her last menstrual period was 7 weeks before presentation. At the admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable. The abdomen was soft with tenderness in its mesogastric area. Blood tests revealed markedly elevated activities of the pancreatic enzymes. Acute pancreatitis was the early clinical diagnosis and subsequent therapy was initiated. After 12 hours the condition of the patient suddenly worsened. She was clinically shocked with pallor, hypotension and tachycardia. Laboratory tests revealed anaemia and increased activities of pancreatic enzymes. An ultrasound examination demonstrated an accumulation of intraperitoneal fluid in the pelvis. Subsequently, the patient was subjected to immediate laparotomy. The peritoneal cavity contained large amount of blood. A cystic mass was found and extracted from the ruptured and bleeding right fallopian tube. Histological examination confirmed a rupture of an ectopic pregnancy of a 6-week-old foetus with an intact gestational sac. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged from hospital after 8 days. Our case proves that a misdiagnosed ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the event of elevated activities of pancreatic enzymes may lead to delayed diagnosis of haemorrhage to peritoneum, resulting in hemodynamic

  9. Vibriophages and their interactions with the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations.

  10. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  11. Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria - vibrios - are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiotic use for Vibrio infections: important insights from surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Brown, Anthony M; Luscombe, Georgina M; Wong, Shin Jie; Mendis, Kumara

    2015-06-11

    There is a paucity of data on the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics for lethal Vibrio species. Analyses of long-term surveillance datasets may provide insights into use of antibiotics to decrease mortality. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance (COVIS) dataset from 1990 to 2010, with 8056 records, was analysed to ascertain trends in antibiotics use and mortality. Two-thirds of patients (5243) were prescribed antibiotics - quinolones (56.1 %), cephalosporins (24.1 %), tetracyclines (23.5 %), and penicillins (15.4 %). Considering all Vibrio species, the only class of antibiotic associated with reduced odds of mortality was quinolone (odds ratio 0.56, 95 % CI 0.46-0.67). Patients with V. vulnificus treated according to CDC recommendations had lower mortality (quinolone alone: 16.7 %, 95 % CI 10.2-26.1; tetracycline plus cephalosporin: 21.7 %, 16.8-27.5; no antibiotic: 51.1 %, 45.6-56.7; each p Vibrio species, mortality rates increased with number of antibiotics in the treatment regimen (p Vibrio species, use of quinolones is associated with lower mortality and penicillin alone is not particularly effective. For the most lethal species, V. vulnificus, treatment that includes either quinolone or tetracycline is associated with lower mortality than cephalosporin alone. We recommend treating patients who present with a clinical syndrome suggestive of V. vulnificus infection with a treatment regimen that includes a quinolone.

  13. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13 Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility patterns of the individual host isolates, key phenotypic properties related to phage susceptibility are distributed worldwide and maintained in the global Vibrio community for decades. The phage susceptibility pattern of the isolates did not show any relation to the physiological relationships obtained from Biolog GN2 profiles, demonstrating that similar phage susceptibility patterns occur across broad phylogenetic and physiological differences in Vibrio strains. Subsequent culture experiments with two phages and two V. anguillarum hosts demonstrated an initial strong lytic potential of the phages. However, rapid regrowth of both phage-resistant and phage-sensitive cells following the initial lysis suggested that several mechanisms of protection against phage infection had developed in the host populations. PMID:24610858

  14. New Vibrio species associated to molluscan microbiota: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, Jesús L.; Dieguez, Ana L.; Lasa, Aide; Balboa, Sabela

    2014-01-01

    The genus Vibrio consists of more than 100 species grouped in 14 clades that are widely distributed in aquatic environments such as estuarine, coastal waters, and sediments. A large number of species of this genus are associated with marine organisms like fish, molluscs and crustaceans, in commensal or pathogenic relations. In the last decade, more than 50 new species have been described in the genus Vibrio, due to the introduction of new molecular techniques in bacterial taxonomy, such as multilocus sequence analysis or fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. On the other hand, the increasing number of environmental studies has contributed to improve the knowledge about the family Vibrionaceae and its phylogeny. Vibrio crassostreae, V. breoganii, V. celticus are some of the new Vibrio species described as forming part of the molluscan microbiota. Some of them have been associated with mortalities of different molluscan species, seriously affecting their culture and causing high losses in hatcheries as well as in natural beds. For other species, ecological importance has been demonstrated being highly abundant in different marine habitats and geographical regions. The present work provides an updated overview of the recently characterized Vibrio species isolated from molluscs. In addition, their pathogenic potential and/or environmental importance is discussed. PMID:24427157

  15. Topical antibiotics as a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia within selective digestive decontamination studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, James C

    2014-12-31

    Among methods for preventing pneumonia and possibly also bacteremia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) appears most effective within randomized concurrent controlled trials (RCCT's) although more recent trials have been cluster randomized. However, of the SDD components, whether protocolized parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (PPAP) is required, and whether the topical antibiotic actually presents a contextual hazard, remain unresolved. The objective here is to compare the bacteremia rates and patterns of isolates in SDD-RCCT's versus the broader evidence base. Bacteremia incidence proportion data were extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies investigating antibiotic (SDD) or non-antibiotic methods of VAP prevention and summarized using random effects meta-analysis of study and group level data. A reference category of groups derived from purely observational studies without any prevention method under study provided a benchmark incidence. Within SDD RCCTs, the mean bacteremia incidence among concurrent component groups not exposed to PPAP (27 control; 17.1%; 13.1-22.1% and 12 intervention groups; 16.2%; 9.1-27.3%) is double that of the benchmark bacteremia incidence derived from 39 benchmark groups (8.3; 6.8-10.2%) and also 20 control groups from studies of non-antibiotic methods (7.1%; 4.8 - 10.5). There is a selective increase in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among bacteremia isolates within control groups of SDD-RCCT's versus benchmark groups with data available. The topical antibiotic component of SDD presents a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia against which the PPAP component partially mitigates.

  16. Differing burden and epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella bacteremia in rural and urban Kenya, 2006-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Tabu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. RESULTS: NTS accounted for 60/155 (39% of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3% in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban and 64% (rural of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults. In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa.

  17. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of molecular methods to discriminate the closely related species Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio furnissii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmeister, Falko; Wieczorek, Angelina; Dieckmann, Ralf; Taureck, Karin; Strauch, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio fluvialis are two closely related species which are regarded as emerging human pathogens. Human infections have been mainly associated with consumption of seafood or drinking of contaminated water. V. furnissii strains can be distinguished from V. fluvialis by their ability to produce gas from fermentation of carbohydrates. In this study, we compare two phenotypic (biochemical testing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS) and three genotypic techniques (rpoB sequencing, conventional PCR and real-time PCR) for determination of the two species. The methods were evaluated on a collection of 42 V. furnissii and 32 V. fluvialis strains, which were isolated from marine environments and from animals intended for food production. Four of the applied methods allowed the unambiguous discrimination of the two species, while the biochemical testing was the least reliable technique, due to a high variation in the phenotype of gas production from carbohydrates. In view of the One Health concept reliable diagnostic techniques are a prerequisite for preventive public health measurements, as pathogens isolated from animals can cross species borders and methods for detection of sources, reservoirs and ways of transmission of pathogenic bacteria are indispensable for the prevention of infectious diseases in humans and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  20. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  1. Characterization of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cidicii sp. nov., a close relative of Vibrio navarrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Xu, Yue; Gladney, Lori M; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Case, Rebecca J; Boucher, Yan; Jordan, I King; Tarr, Cheryl L

    2016-10-01

    Four Vibrio spp. isolates from the historical culture collection at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, obtained from human blood specimens (n=3) and river water (n=1), show characteristics distinct from those of isolates of the most closely related species, Vibrio navarrensis and Vibrio vulnificus, based on phenotypic and genotypic tests. They are specifically adapted to survival in both freshwater and seawater, being able to grow in rich media without added salts as well as salinities above that of seawater. Phenotypically, these isolates resemble V. navarrensis, their closest known relative with a validly published name, but the group of isolates is distinguished from V. navarrensis by the ability to utilize l-rhamnose. Average nucleotide identity and percent DNA-DNA hybridization values obtained from the pairwise comparisons of whole-genome sequences of these isolates to V. navarrensis range from 95.4-95.8 % and 61.9-64.3 %, respectively, suggesting that the group represents a different species. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genome, including four protein-coding housekeeping genes (pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoB), places these four isolates into their own monophyletic clade, distinct from V. navarrensis and V. vulnificus. Based on these differences, we propose these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio cidicii sp. nov. is proposed; strain LMG 29267T (=CIP 111013T=2756-81T), isolated from river water, is the type strain.

  2. Reclassification of the larval pathogen for marine bivalves Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Spinard, Edward J; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-11-01

    The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V. tubiashii subsp. europaeus within the Orientalis clade. This polyphasic approach clearly demonstrated that this subspecies is phylogenetically and phenotypically distinct from V. tubiashii and should be elevated to the rank of species as Vibrio europaeus sp. nov. This reclassification allows us to update the Orientalis clade (V. bivalvicida,V. brasiliensis, V. crosai, V. hepatarius, V. orientalis, V. sinaloensis, V. tubiashii and V. europaeus sp. nov.) and reconstruct a better phylogeny of the genus Vibrio. An emended description of V. tubiashii is provided. Finally, the proposed novel species is represented by emergent bivalve pathogens [type strain PP-638T (=CECT 8136T=DSM 27349T), PP2-843 and 07/118 T2] responsible for high mortalities in Spanish and French hatcheries.

  3. Intragenomic Variation Among 16S rRNA Copies in Vibrio - Significance of Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsholm, Line Strand

    2017-01-01

    Intragenomic heterogeneity among 16S rRNA gene copies has been found in several species of bacteria. In this thesis, the presence of different 16S rRNA gene copies and the differences in the relative abundance of these 16S rRNA gene variants for different lifestyles was examined for three species of Vibrio. The Vibrio strains used were Vibrio anguillarum strain HI610, Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 and the Vibrio sp. strain RD5-30. The methods used to examine this were denaturing gradient g...

  4. Insights into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh Letchumanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages - viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy.

  5. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogroup...... the genomes of four published Vibrio species and constructed genome BLAST atlases. We identified 24 regions, gaps in the genome atlas, of greater than 10 kb that were unique to RIMD2210633. These 24 regions included an integron, f237 phage, 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS......) and 7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus genomic islands (VPaI-1 to VPaI-7). Comparative genomic analysis of our fifth genome, V. parahaemolyticus AQ3810, an O3:K6 isolate recovered in 1983, identified four regions unique to each V. parahaemolyticus strain. Interestingly, AQ3810 did not encode 8 of the 24 regions...

  6. Antibiotic-resistant mutants of γ-irradiated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurova, E.N.; Golovina, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    It was demonstrated that a nutrition medium has a protective effect against γ-radiation-induced lethal damages to vibrios. The values of D 0 and LD 90 were 3 times higher for vibrios irradiated in a nutrition medium than in a physiological solution. There was a small shoulder in the survival curve under both irradiation conditions. Exposure of vibrios to γ-quanta induced mutations resistant to streptomycin, their frequency increasing exponentially with radiation dose. The frequency of spontaneous mutations resistant to streptomycin was (5.85+-1.90)x10 -8 . Mutations resistant to chloramphenicol did not occur spontaneously and were not induced by γ-radiation. A spontaneous streptomycin-resistant mutant did not differ in radiosensitivity from the parent strain: n=1.54 and 1.46, D 0 =12.2 and 12.1 Gy and LD 90 =32.7 and 33.9 Gy respectively [ru

  7. Insights into Bacteriophage Application in Controlling Vibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Goh, Bey-Hing; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however, this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non-antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages – viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy. PMID:27486446

  8. Vibriophages and Their Interactions with the Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Demeng; Gram, Lone; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is an important pathogen in aquaculture, responsible for the disease vibriosis in many fish and invertebrate species. Disease control by antibiotics is a concern due to potential development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The use of bacteriophages to control the pathogen...... may offer a non-antibiotic-based approach to reduce vibriosis. A detailed understanding of the phage-host interaction is needed to evaluate the potential of phages to control the pathogen. In this study, we examined the diversity and interactions of 11 vibriophages, 24 V. anguillarum strains, and 13...... Vibrio species strains. Together, the host ranges of the 11 phages covered all of the tested 37 Vibrio sp. host strains, which represented considerable temporal (20 years) and geographical (9 countries) differences in their origins of isolation. Thus, despite the occurrence of unique susceptibility...

  9. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    mimicking several pathological conditions, Restless Legs Syndrome prevalence on general population according to various large epidemiological studies and pathogenic hypotheses on the issue of Restless Legs Syndrome are discussed. Finally, by presenting another possible "RLS-mimic" our aim is to highlight the common misdiagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome, which can mimic a variety of disorders, some of which are very common, such as an S1 radiculopathy, thus raising concern among doctors of various specialties addressed to by Restless Legs Syndrome sufferers, on the importance of proper diagnosis of the syndrome.

  10. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  11. Vibrios associated with mortality in cultured plaice Pleuronectes platessa fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Austin, B.; Austin, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty two bacterial strains, identified as Vibrio spp., were isolated from diseased plaice fry. The most numerous group comprised V. anguillarum (26/52), of which 3 isolates belonged to serogroup O2a, 16 corresponded to serogroup O18, and 7 isolates were nontypeable. All serogroup O18 isolates had....... fluvialis isolates had identical ribotype patterns, indicating the presence of a single clone. The last 5 isolates belonged to 2 different, unidentified Vibrio species (n=2 and 3, respectively). Although all isolates were recovered from diseased plaice fry, their exact role as pathogens for the fry......, the strains may have been more virulent upon primary isolation from the plaice fry....

  12. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  13. Leucine uptake and bacteriophage adsorption a Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, F.T.; Robb, S.M.; Mothibeli, M.A.; Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Vibrio mutants with altered leucine transport systems were isolated as part of a study on the physiological characteristics of stationary phase Vibrio cells. The strains are investigated and show that mutants which are defective in leucine uptake are unable to adsorb phage α3a. Elevated leucine transport produces a concomitant increase in the rate of phage adsorption. Phage adsortpion and L-leucine transport experiments indicated that there was a correlation between phage α3a adsorption and leucine uptake. The results suggest that the transport of L-leucine and phage α3 are linked

  14. Phenotypic characterization and RAPD fingerprinting of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus isolated during Tunisian fish farm outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Khouadja; Mejdi, Snoussi; Nourhen, Saidi; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastrointestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes and shellfish including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 9 V. parahaemolyticus and 27 V. alginolyticus strains isolated from outbreaks affecting cultured Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) along the Tunisian coast from 2008 to 2009. All isolates were tested for the presence of DNase, caseinase, protease, lipase, amylase, gelatinase, hemolytic activity and antibacterial resistance to different drugs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA was used to examine the genetic relatedness among the V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus strains.

  15. Polymorphism in a lincRNA Associates with a Doubled Risk of Pneumococcal Bacteremia in Kenyan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautanen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Mills, Tara C; Rockett, Kirk A; Strange, Amy; Ndungu, Anne W; Naranbhai, Vivek; Gilchrist, James J; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Band, Gavin; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Edkins, Sarah; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard D; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Macharia, Alex W; Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne; Mturi, Neema; Njuguna, Patricia; Mohammed, Shebe; Berkley, James A; Mwangi, Isaiah; Mwarumba, Salim; Kitsao, Barnes S; Lowe, Brett S; Morpeth, Susan C; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Chapman, Stephen J; Donnelly, Peter; Hill, Adrian V S; Spencer, Chris C A

    2016-06-02

    Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study. We identified an association between polymorphisms in a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (AC011288.2) and pneumococcal bacteremia and replicated the results in the same population (p combined = 1.69 × 10(-9); OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.84-3.31). The susceptibility allele is African specific, derived rather than ancestral, and occurs at low frequency (2.7% in control subjects and 6.4% in case subjects). Our further studies showed AC011288.2 expression only in neutrophils, a cell type that is known to play a major role in pneumococcal clearance. Identification of this novel association will further focus research on the role of lincRNAs in human infectious disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prior colonization is associated with increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Aaron S; Kleinberg, Michael; Sorkin, John D; Netzer, Giora; Johnson, Jennifer K; Shardell, Michelle; Thom, Kerri A; Harris, Anthony D; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesized that prior colonization with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is associated with increased risk of subsequent antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia among cancer patients. We performed a matched case-control study. Cases were cancer patients with a blood culture positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Controls were cancer patients with a blood culture not positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was defined as any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in surveillance or non-sterile-site cultures obtained 2-365 days before the bacteremia. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 cases and 27 (8%) of 323 matched controls were previously colonized by any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was strongly associated with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-14.7) after controlling for recent treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). In these patients with suspected bacteremia, prior cultures may predict increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Usefulness of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein for predicting bacteremia in urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, A; Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Lizcano-Lizcano, A; López-Guerrero, M A; Barroso-Manso, Á; Heredero-Gálvez, E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the capacity of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate and leukocytes to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Observational, retro-prospective analytical study of adult patients (≥15 years) diagnosed with UTI in an emergency department from August 2012 to January 2013. The study included 328 patients diagnosed with UTI, with a mean age of 52±22 years, 74% of whom were women. Of these, 43 (13.1%) had bacteremia. For predicting bacteremia, PCT achieved the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) at .993 (95% CI .987-1; P<.001). A cutoff≥1.16ng/mL achieves a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Lactate achieved an ROC-AUC of .844, and CRP achieved only .534. The mean values when comparing PCT levels in patients with UTIs with and without bacteremia were 8.08±16.37 and .34±.37ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). For patients with UTIs in the emergency department, PCT achieves considerable diagnostic performance for suspecting bacteremia, a performance greater than that of lactate, CRP and leukocytes. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of antibiotic impregnated PICC lines on the incidence of bacteremia in a regional burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shannon D; Thomas, Wendy; Neaman, Keith C; Ford, Ronald D; Paulson, Jayne

    2013-06-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been used increasingly in burn patients who often have decreased intravascular volumes and obtaining intravascular access for resuscitative efforts can be difficult. A potentially serious complication is bloodstream infection. The purpose of our study is to examine the impact of antibiotic impregnated PICC lines on the bacteremia rate in a regional burn center. Consecutive patients admitted to the burn unit and receiving an antibiotic impregnated PICC line were included in the study. Baseline demographics and bacteremia rate was recorded. A retrospective chart review was then undertaken of the 30 consecutive patients admitted to the burn unit and receiving a PICC line prior to the study period. Nineteen patients were enrolled over the two-year period. The bacteremia rate for the study group was 0% compared to the 50% bacteremia rate of the retrospective control group (p=PICC lines decrease the bacteremia rate in our burn population. This has potential benefits for both patient morbidity and mortality as well as potential cost savings for the healthcare system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. [Bacteremia and French computerized disease surveillance system: financial valorisation of an infectious diseases specialist in a hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S; Dufossez, F; Dekeyser, S; Descamps, D

    2011-07-01

    Bacteremia surveillance is a mission assumed by the referent person for antimicrobial therapy. We propose an original financial valorization of this activity, using the computerized disease surveillance system (CDSS). A database collecting community-acquired and care-associated bacteremia was created on January 1, 2009 at the Bethune Hospital, France, using EPI-Info software (EPI Data). This database was used to complete missing data (presence of bacteremia, origin [community-acquired or care-associated], site of infection) in CDSS codes of patients hospitalized in surgical and medical wards (410 beds) during 2009. Financial benefit was assessed by the difference of funds allocated on the basis of CDSS, before and after completion of the missing data. In 2009, 383 out of the 35,000 patients presented with bacteremia. When missing CDSS codes were added, a financial gain of 229,291 euros was obtained, concerning 64 patients. Bacteremia surveillance is a transversal task based on quality of care, which may have a positive financial impact. This study may be helpful for clinicians with transversal activities, for whom financial valorization is difficult to implement in the CDSS, particularly without hospitalization beds. The lack of complete notification in the CDSS may cause a substantial financial loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome....... The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA...

  1. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  2. Development of a More Sensitive and Specific Chromogenic Agar Medium for the Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Other Vibrio Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie; Thorsen, Trevor

    2016-11-08

    Foodborne infections in the US caused by Vibrio species have shown an upward trend. In the genus Vibrio, V. parahaemolyticus is responsible for the majority of Vibrio-associated infections. Thus, accurate differentiation among Vibrio spp. and detection of V. parahaemolyticus is critically important to ensure the safety of our food supply. Although molecular techniques are increasingly common, culture-depending methods are still routinely done and they are considered standard methods in certain circumstances. Hence, a novel chromogenic agar medium was tested with the goal of providing a better method for isolation and differentiation of clinically relevant Vibrio spp. The protocol compared the sensitivity, specificity and detection limit for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus between the new chromogenic medium and a conventional medium. Various V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=22) representing diverse serotypes and source of origins were used. They were previously identified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and further verified in our laboratory by tlh-PCR. In at least four separate trials, these strains were inoculated on the chromogenic agar and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar, which is the recommended medium for culturing this species, followed by incubation at 35-37 °C for 24-96 hr. Three V. parahaemolyticus strains (13.6%) did not grow optimally on TCBS, nonetheless exhibited green colonies if there was growth. Two strains (9.1%) did not yield the expected cyan colonies on the chromogenic agar. Non-V. parahaemolyticus strains (n=32) were also tested to determine the specificity of the chromogenic agar. Among these strains, 31 did not grow or exhibited other colony morphologies. The mean recovery of V. parahaemolyticus on the chromogenic agar was ~96.4% relative to tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2% NaCl. In conclusion, the new chromogenic agar is an effective medium to detect V

  3. Ocular surface foreign bodies: novel findings mimicking ocular malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudgil, A; Wagner, B E; Rundle, P; Rennie, I G; Mudhar, H S

    2014-11-01

    Malignant melanoma of the eye is an uncommon condition that is important to recognise. We describe three cases in which ocular foreign bodies have masqueraded as ocular malignant melanoma. Interventional case reports. Case 1 describes diathermy-induced carbon particle implantation, during plaque therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma, mimicking recurrence with extra-scleral invasion. Case 2 shows a foreign body called 'mullite' mimicking conjunctival melanoma. Case 3 demonstrates a conjunctival foreign body called 'illite' that mimicked a limbal melanocytic lesion, clinically thought to be either melanocytoma or melanoma. This report highlights the importance of careful history taking, examination, and appropriate biopsy in cases of suspected malignant melanoma, to prevent unnecessary and potentially radical treatment.

  4. Replication ofVibrio choleraeclassical CTX phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Han, Seung Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Chun, Jongsik; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-02-28

    The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication. However, the identification of atypical El Tor strains that contain CTX-cla-like phage, CTX-2, indicates that CTX-cla and CTX-2 replicate and can be transmitted to V. cholerae strains. The replication of CTX-cla and CTX-2 phages and the transduction of El Tor biotype strains by various CTX phages under laboratory conditions are demonstrated in this report. We have established a plasmid-based CTX phage replication system that supports the replication of CTX-1, CTX-cla, CTX-2, and CTX-O139. The replication of CTX-2 from the tandem repeat of lysogenic CTX-2 in Wave 2 El Tor strains is also presented. El Tor biotype strains can be transduced by CTX phages in vitro by introducing a point mutation in toxT , the transcriptional activator of the tcp (toxin coregulated pilus) gene cluster and the cholera toxin gene. This mutation also increases the expression of cholera toxin in El Tor strains in a sample single-phase culture. Our results thus constitute experimental evidence of the genetic mechanism of the evolution of V. cholerae .

  5. Characteristics comparisons of bacteremia in allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell-transplant recipients with levofloxacin prophylaxis and influence on resistant bacteria emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Levofloxacin prophylaxis in HSCT recipients is associated with the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia differ between allo- and auto-HSCT recipients, and these differences should be taken into account when designing strategies to prevent bacteremia.

  6. Neonatal appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeki Isamu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute appendicitis is a common disease in older children but rare in neonates. Case presentation We report the case of a 2-day-old Asian baby who suffered from neonatal appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication. Laparoscopic appendectomy was successfully performed after the trans-umbilical division of adhesions, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion There are few reports describing abdominal masses caused by appendicitis mimicking intestinal duplication. The laparoscopic approach for neonatal appendicitis is considered to be a safe and useful therapeutic modality with good cosmetic results.

  7. Clostridium difficile bacteremia and meningitis as a complication of prolonged cephalosporin therapy in a case of staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhrajit Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V. cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  8. Leclercia adecarboxylata bacteremia in a patient with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Lee, Wen-Sen; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Lam, Carlos; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Leclercia adecarboxylata, a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacillus, is generally viewed as an opportunistic pathogen because it is rarely cultured from clinical samples. Although rare, bacteremia due to L. adecarboxylata tends to occur in immunocompromised hosts and patients with systemic comorbidities. Only one case of bacteremia due to L. adecarboxylata has been reported in a previously healthy patient. We describe a male patient with an active peptic ulcer who developed L. adecarboxylata bacteremia after a long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The abdomen is believed to have been the most probable portal of entry. After appropriate medical management, the patient recovered without sequela. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among individuals with and without end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Have; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    transplant recipients (8.9 per 1,000 person-years). In persons with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, ninety-day case fatality was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.2%-20.3%) for end-stage renal disease patients and 33.7% (95% CI, 30.3-37.3) for population controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with end-stage renal disease......BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections among hemodialysis patients and of exit-site infections among peritoneal dialysis patients. However, the risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among end-stage renal disease patients have not been...... delineated. METHODS: In this Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study patients with end-stage renal disease and matched population controls were observed from end-stage renal disease diagnosis/sampling until first episode of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, death, or end of study period...

  10. Enumeration of viable non-culturable Vibrio cholerae using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2015-08-01

    The well-known human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, can enter a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The differentiation of VBNC cells and nonviable cells is essential for both disease prevention and basic research. Among all the methods for detecting viability, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time PCR is popular because of its specificity, sensitivity, and speed. However, the effect of PMA treatment is not consistent and varies among different species and conditions. In this study, with an initial cell concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/ml, time and dose-effect relationships of different PMA treatments were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR using live cell suspensions, dead cell suspensions and VBNC cell suspensions of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706. The results suggested that a PMA treatment of 20 μM PMA for 20 min was optimal under our conditions. This treatment maximized the suppression of the PCR signal from membrane-compromised dead cells but had little effect on the signal from membrane-intact live cells. In addition to the characteristics of PMA treatment itself, the initial concentration of the targeted bacteria showed a significant negative influence on the stability of PMA-PCR assay in this study. We developed a strategy that mimicked a 1×10(8) CFU/ml cell concentration with dead bacteria of a different bacterial species, the DNA of which cannot be amplified using the real time PCR primers. With this strategy, our optimal approach successfully overcame the impact of low cell density and generated stable and reliable results for counting viable cells of V. cholerae in the VBNC state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune dysfunction prior to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a determinant of long-term mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Greenberg

    Full Text Available The clinical implications for patients who survive serious infections are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the excess mortality for survivors of sepsis observed in epidemiological studies is due to increased vulnerability to subsequent infections. We undertook this study to identify characteristics of patients who are at high risk for death after surviving a common type of blood-stream infection.At a single academic medical center, 237 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia admitted during a three-year period were retrospectively identified. The primary outcomes were 30-day and 31 to 90-day mortality after the first positive blood culture. The primary predictor variable of interest was clinical immune dysfunction prior to bacteremia.The 30-day mortality was not significantly different for patients with and without prior immune dysfunction. However, during days 31 to 90, 11 patients (20% with prior immune dysfunction compared to 10 patients (8.6% without prior immune dysfunction died (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.03-6.53, p = 0.04. In a Cox-proportional hazard model controlling for age, there was a significant association between prior immune dysfunction and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.44, 95% CI 1.01-5.90, p = 0.05 and a non-significant trend towards occurrence of subsequent infections and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.12, 95% CI 0.89-5.07, p = 0.09.Patients with prior immune dysfunction are at high risk for death 31 to 90 days, but not <30 days, after S. aureus bacteremia. Further investigation is needed to determine if this finding is due to poor prognosis of chronic disease or increased vulnerability to subsequent infections.

  12. Cefmetazole for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae comparing with carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Takahiko; Iwata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Saori; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Ohji, Goh

    2016-08-18

    ESBL (Extended spectrum beta-lactamase) producing enterobacteriaceae are challenging organisms with little treatment options. Carbapenems are frequently used, but the emergence of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae is a concerning issue, which may hinder the use of carbapenems. Although cephamycins such as cefoxitin, cefmetazole or cefotetan are effective against ESBL-producers in vitro, there are few clinical data demonstrating effects against bacteremia caused by these organisms. We performed a retrospective observational study on cases of bacteremia caused by ESBL-producers to investigate the efficacy of cefmetazole compared with carbapenems. We also evaluated whether the trend of antibiotic choice changed over years. Sixty-nine patients (male 34, age 69.2 ± 14.4), including two relapse cases, were reviewed for this analysis. The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli (64, 93 %), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca (2 each, 4 %). The group that received carbapenem therapy (43, 62 %) had increased severity in the Pittsburgh Bacteremic score than the group that received cefmetazole therapy, (1.5 ± 1.5 vs 2.5 ± 2.1, p = 0.048), while analysis of other factors didn't reveal any statistical differences. Five patients in the carbapenem group and one patient in the cefmetazole group died during the observation period (p = 0.24). CTX-M-9 were predominant in this series (59 %). Infectious disease physicians initially recommended carbapenems at the beginning of the current research period, which gradually changed over time favoring the use of cefmetazole instead (p = 0.002). Cefmetazole may be safely given to patients with bacteremia caused by ESBL-producers as a definitive therapy, if one can select out relatively stable patients.

  13. Evaluation of the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, Justin B; Vo, Ngan H; Finch, Christopher K; Cleveland, Kerry O; Gelfand, Michael S; Self, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of death in the United States. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) encompasses >50% of all S aureus strains in infected hospitalized patients and increases mortality, length of stay and healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment of MRSA bacteremia with daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. Patients with MRSA bacteremia between June 2008 and November 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. A microbiology laboratory report identified patients with ≥ 1 positive MRSA blood culture. Patients ≥ 18 years receiving daptomycin, linezolid or vancomycin for ≥ 7 consecutive days were included. Polymicrobial blood cultures and patients treated concomitantly with >1 anti-MRSA agent were excluded. Of 122 patients included, 53 received daptomycin, 15 received linezolid and 54 received vancomycin. Clinical and microbiologic cure rates were similar between daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin (58.5% versus 60% versus 61.1%; 93.6% versus 100% versus 90%, respectively). Thirteen patients (daptomycin 4/24 versus linezolid 1/9 versus vancomycin 8/49, P = 0.5960) had recurrence while 12 patients had re-infection (daptomycin 5/42 versus linezolid 0/9 versus vancomycin 7/49, P = 0.4755). Treatment failure occurred in 11 patients treated with daptomycin, 4 with linezolid and 9 with vancomycin (P = 0.662). Compared with daptomycin and vancomycin, linezolid-treated patients had higher mortality (P = 0.0186). No difference in clinical or microbiologic cure rates was observed between groups. Daptomycin and vancomycin appear equally efficacious for MRSA bacteremia, whereas linezolid therapy was associated with higher mortality.

  14. Detection of quorum sensing molecules from Vibrio harveyi and use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the extraction and detection processes of quorum sensing molecules such as N-aceyl homoserine lactone compounds (AHL) from marine Vibrio harveyi. The spent culture of V. harveyi was solvent partitioned for AHL, rotary evaporated and re-suspended in 50% acetonitrile then detected with reporter ...

  15. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... Key words: Vibrio cholerae, Shigella, water-borne pathogens, polymerase chain reaction, environmental waters, drinking water, detection. Introduction ... in drinking water supplies and source waters should thus be viewed as a high priority. ... water, tap water and treated effluent). The bacterial cells from ...

  16. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated.

  17. Vibrio trends in the ecology of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Martino, Maria Elena; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization.

  18. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-20

    Aug 20, 2013 ... PCR template. Therefore, the multiplex PCR assay described herein is a quick, sensitive and effective method for monitoring of V. cholerae in the environment as well as for confirmation of its toxigenicity and epidemic potential. CONCLUSION. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is the major causative agent of.

  19. Biofilm recruitment of Vibrio cholerae by matrix proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperthuy, Marylise; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2015-11-01

    The appearance of bacterial biofilms involves secretion of polysaccharides and proteins that form an extracellular matrix embedding the bacteria. Proteases have also been observed, but their role has remained unclear. Smith and co-workers have now found that proteolysis can contribute to further recruitment of bacteria to Vibrio cholerae biofilms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and confirmation of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 is a major health problem in several developing countries. Traditional methods for identifying V. cholerae involve cultural, biochemical and immunological assays which are cumbersome and often take several days to complete. In the present study, a direct cell ...

  1. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The antibiotic susceptibility patterns and plasmid profile were studied for 18(32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin,.

  2. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in rivers of Mpumalanga province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhoeal disease, which mainly affects inhabitants of developing countries due to poor socio-economic conditions and lack of access to potable water and sanitation. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae are the aetiological agents of cholera. These bacteria are autochthonous to aquatic environments, ...

  3. Filamentous phage associated with recent pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, T.; Hattori, A.; Tagomori, K.; Nasu, H.; Naim, R.; Honda, T.

    2001-01-01

    A group of pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has recently appeared in Asia and North America. We demonstrate that a filamentous phage is specifically associated with the pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains. An open reading frame unique to the phage is a useful genetic marker to identify these strains.

  4. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in industrially polluted water, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing industrial effluents. The effect of iron as well as pH on the survival of Vibrio cholerae (non-O1, El Tor and classical strains) in water samples from 12 points, where selected industrial effluents were discharged into rivers, was studied.

  5. Extraction from prawn shells of substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodori, S; Moriya, T; Kohashi, O; Faming, D; Amako, K

    1989-10-01

    Substances cryoprotective for Vibrio cholerae were detected from prawn shells immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. This cryoprotective activity was heat resistant and sensitive to treatment with trypsin. For the exhibition of its full activity, the presence of Mg ion was indispensable. The cryoprotective activity of this substance was more active than that of other known cryoprotectants, like glycerol or serum.

  6. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  7. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of ...

  8. Vibrio damsela associated with diseased fish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 26 Vibrio damsela strains were isolated in Denmark. Fifteen strains were isolated from the head kidney of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in aquaculture, eight were from organs of two stingrays (Dasyatis pastinaca) held in captivity, two were from organs and pathological material...

  9. Localization of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outer membrane protein U (OmpU), an adhesion protein of Vibrio mimicus, is a good antigen, but its epitopes are still unclear. In order to locate the epitopes of OmpU protein, epitope prediction was performed using the amino acid sequence of OmpU protein of V. mimicus HX4 strain that was isolated from the diseased ...

  10. Pseudomonas piscicida kills vibrios by two distinct mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a naturally-occurring marine bacterium which kills competing bacteria, including vibrios. In studies by Richards et al. (AEM00175-17), three strains of P. piscicida were isolated and characterized. Strains secreted proteolytic enzymes which likely killed competing or...

  11. Vibrio Cholerae 01 Infections In Jos, Nigeria | Opajobi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae 01 in stool sample submitted for routine examination of enteric pathogens, as well as identify the serotypes and antibiogram of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics was undertaken. The survey involved the examination of 774 (763 stool and 11 rectal swabs) ...

  12. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínez-P., M. E.; Macek, Miroslav; Castro-G., M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-140 ISSN 1360-2276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 296 Grant - others:UNAM/DGAPA/PAPIT(MX) IN216796 Keywords : Vibrio cholera e * protozoan feeding * brackish water Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.969, year: 2004

  13. Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae in Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) industry in East Africa has suffered severe economic losses in the last few years due to failure to comply with the microbiological standards of European Union (E.U). Fresh and frozen products have been suspected to be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae. This has led to a ...

  14. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  15. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  16. A rare case of Shewanella putrefaciens bacteremia in a patient of road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes human infection. These are mostly found in environment and food stuffs. Shewanella are often found in mixed culture. It has been implicated in cellulitis, otitis media, and septicemia. It may be found in respiratory tract, urine, feces, and pleural fluid. There is no definite guideline for therapeutic option. In general, these are susceptible to various antimicrobial agents but are often resistant to penicillin and cephalothin. We report a rare case of bacteremia by S. putrefaciens in a patient of head injury with polytrauma after a road traffic accident.

  17. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to grow....... Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  18. Autochthonous epidemic typhus associated with Bartonella quintana bacteremia in a homeless person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiaga, Sékéné; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Trench fever, a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life-threatening louse-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and known to occur in conditions of war, famine, refugee camps, cold weather, poverty, or lapses in public health. We report the first case of seroconversion to R. prowazekii in a homeless person of Marseilles, France. This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless population, this disease is likely to reemerge in such situation.

  19. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia resulting from antimicrobial resistance acquired during treatment for X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, Meiwa; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Ippei; Yuza, Yuki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2016-10-01

    This is the first report of penicillin/cephalosporin-resistant Helicobacter cinaedi arising from prolonged treatment. H. cinaedi, common among immunocompromised patients, caused recurrent bacteremia and cellulitis in a 19-year-old Japanese man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these drugs was raised, which subsequently resulted in clinical failure. Prolonged suboptimal treatment may cause bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in H. cinaedi. It is possible that this resistance may have contributed to the treatment failure. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia caused by choledocholithiasis in the absence of gallbladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Antwan; Raiyani, Tejas; Patel, Pranav; Patton, Robert; Young, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A 67-years-old male presented with periumbilical abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. His anaerobic blood culture was positive for clostridium perfringens. Computed tomogram scan of the abdomen and abdominal ultrasound showed normal gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD). Subsequently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticogram showed choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogramwith sphincterotomy and CBD stone extraction was performed. The patient progressively improved with antibiotic therapy Choledocholithiasis should be considered as a source of clostridium perfringens bacteremia especially in the setting of elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic pattern. PMID:23112558

  1. Gram-negative rod bacteremia after cardiovascular surgery: Clinical features and prognostic factors

    OpenAIRE

    田子, さやか

    2016-01-01

    博士(医学) 乙第2895号(主論文の要旨、要約、本文),著者名:Sayaka Tago・Yuji Hirai・Yusuke Ainoda・Takahiro Fujita・Ken Kikuchi,タイトル:Gram-negative rod bacteremia after cardiovascular surgery: Clinical features and prognostic factors,掲載誌:Journal of microbiology(1684-1182), immunology and infection,著作権関連情報:ℂ2015, Taiwan Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2015.07.008

  2. Identification of a patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and meningitis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, D J; Zhang, Y; Rydquist-White, J; Wadowsky, R M; Post, J C; Ehrlich, G D

    1995-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the penicillin-binding protein gene PBP2B identified the presence of DNA specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae in the serum and CSF of a patient with culture-proven bacteremia and meningitis. Positive signals were seen to dilutions of 1:125 and 1:390,625 for the blood and CSF specimens, respectively. Potential advantages of PCR over conventional culture include exquisite sensitivity, faster results and the ability to identify the organisms by the presence of species-specific DNA even in patients pretreated with antibiotics.

  3. Intravenous Drug Abuse by Patients Inside the Hospital: A Cause for Sustained Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.

  4. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  5. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Nur A; Grim, Christopher J; Lipp, Erin K; Rivera, Irma N G; Chun, Jongsik; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Choi, Seon Young; Hoq, Mozammel; Munk, A Christine; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, J Chris; Han, Cliff S; Eisen, Jonathan A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-05-26

    Vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. We report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel Vibrio species, Vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the East Pacific Rise, near the southwest coast of Mexico. Genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed V. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species, namely Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio vulnificus, but sufficiently divergent to warrant a separate species status. The V. antiquarius genome encodes genes and operons with ecological functions relevant to the environment conditions of the deep sea and also harbors factors known to be involved in human disease caused by freshwater, coastal, and brackish water vibrios. The presence of virulence factors in this deep-sea Vibrio species suggests a far more fundamental role of these factors for their bacterial host. Comparative genomics revealed a variety of genomic events that may have provided an important driving force in V. antiquarius evolution, facilitating response to environmental conditions of the deep sea.

  6. Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Jae Min [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Irwon-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea); Sung, Ki Woong [Department of Paediatrics, Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul 135-710 (Korea)

    2003-11-01

    A 4.3-year-old girl with acute leukaemia, who was being treated with chemotherapy (including vincristine), developed paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed diffusely enhancing nerve roots on contrast-enhanced images. Spinal fluid analysis showed a normal protein level. Vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome is thought to be the cause of the MRI abnormalities. (orig.)

  7. Spinal MRI of vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yun Woo; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Jae Min; Sung, Ki Woong

    2003-01-01

    A 4.3-year-old girl with acute leukaemia, who was being treated with chemotherapy (including vincristine), developed paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed diffusely enhancing nerve roots on contrast-enhanced images. Spinal fluid analysis showed a normal protein level. Vincristine neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome is thought to be the cause of the MRI abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy | Smal | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy. J Smal. Abstract.

  9. Endometriosis of the meso-appendix mimicking appendicitis: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although appendicitis is largely a clinical diagnosis, on occasions diagnostic modalities may be needed to aid with the diagnosis. Despite the use of adjuncts and exploratory surgery, the diagnosis may not be clear until a histological diagnosis is achieved. Endometriosis of the appendix mimicking appendicitis is one of ...

  10. Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes: Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity. ABHRANIL DE DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI VINAYAK RANE R M KADAM ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 ...

  11. Trichophyton Schoenleinii-induced widespread tinea corporis mimicking parapsoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, P; Farshi, S; Khosravi, A R; Naraghi, Z S; Chalangari, R

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of extensive tinea corporis in an 80-year-old woman on her forearms, thighs, legs, buttocks and trunk, mimicking parapsoriasis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii, without scalp involvement. Diagnosis of Trichophyton schoenleinii was confirmed by microscopy and mycological culture specimens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dysplastic bone disease mimicking exostoses of the ear canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 43-year-old man who attended the ENT clinic complaining of bilateral hearing loss. He had multiple bony swellings in both ear canals that mimicked exostoses. An audiogram showed bilateral symmetrical mixed hearing loss. Excision was carried out to facilitate the use of a hearing aid.

  13. African oral histoplasmosis mimicking lip carcinoma: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Iocalised African histoplasmosis with an unusual presentation in a 56 year old Nigerian farmer is reported. The lesion presented as an ulcer clinically mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip. An incisional biopsy and culture studies confirmed African histoplasmosis and the utcer healed spontaneously ...

  14. Intracranial Gossypiboma Mimicking a Recurrent Low Grade Astrocytoma : Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Koo, Joon Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Il-San Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Gossypiboma is an inflammatory pseudomass formed by a retained surgical sponge or gauze with reactive tissue after surgery. Gossypiboma has been reported most frequently after abdominal or thoracic surgery. As such, gossypiboma following brain surgery is very rare. We report a case of gossypiboma mimicking tumor recurrence in the brain after a craniotomy and surgical excision of a low grade astrocytoma.

  15. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  16. Blood culture status and mortality among patients with suspected community-acquired bacteremia: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Henrik T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of mortality among patients with positive and negative blood cultures may indicate the contribution of bacteremia to mortality. This study (1 compared mortality among patients with community-acquired bacteremia with mortality among patients with negative blood cultures and (2 determined the effects of bacteremia type and comorbidity level on mortality among patients with positive blood cultures. Methods This cohort study included 29,273 adults with blood cultures performed within the first 2 days following hospital admission to an internal medical ward in northern Denmark during 1995-2006. We computed product limit estimates and used Cox regression to compute adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs within 0-2, 3-7, 8-30, and 31-180 days following admission for bacteremia patients compared to culture-negative patients. Results Mortality in 2,648 bacteremic patients and 26,625 culture-negative patients was 4.8% vs. 2.0% 0-2 days after admission, 3.7% vs. 2.7% 3-7 days after admission, 5.6% vs. 5.1% 8-30 days after admission, and 9.7% vs. 8.7% 31-180 days after admission, corresponding to adjusted MRRs of 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6-2.2, 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9-1.5, 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-1.1, and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.8-1.1, respectively. Mortality was higher among patients with Gram-positive (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.6-2.2 and polymicrobial bacteremia (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2-5.5 than among patients with Gram-negative bacteremia (adjusted 0-2-day MRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0. After the first 2 days, patients with Gram-negative bacteremia had the same risk of dying as culture-negative patients (adjusted MRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.1. Only patients with polymicrobial bacteremia had increased mortality within 31-180 days following admission (adjusted MRR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8-2.1 compared to culture-negative patients. The association between blood culture status and mortality did not differ substantially by level of

  17. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryshliak, Mark; Hammerl, Jens A; Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  18. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  19. Empedobacter brevis Bacteremia in a Patient Infected with HIV: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by Empedobacter brevis (E. brevis is very rare. We report the first case of E. brevis bacteremia in a patient with HIV and review the current literature. A 69-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 count of 319 presented with chief complaints of black tarry stools, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. Physical exam was significant for abdominal pain on palpation with no rebound or guarding. His total leukocyte count was 32,000 cells/μL with 82% neutrophils and 9% bands. Emergent colonoscopy and endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed esophageal candidiasis, a nonbleeding gastric ulcer, and diverticulosis. Blood cultures drawn on days 1, 2, and 3 of hospitalization grew E. brevis. Patient improved with intravenous antibiotics. This case is unusual, raising the possibility of gastrointestinal colonization as a source of the patient’s bacteremia. In conclusion, E. brevis is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious health care associated infections.

  20. Molecular epidemiological survey of bacteremia by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the relevance of intrinsic resistance mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cristina Cavalcanti Dantas

    Full Text Available The bacterial factors associated with bacteremia by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, including overexpression of efflux pumps, AmpC overproduction, and loss/alteration of the OprD porin in isolates that are non-Metallo-β-Lactamase producing were analyzed in a retrospective study. Molecular analyses included strain typing by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and identification of key genes via qualitative and quantitative PCR-based assays. Previous use of carbapenems and tracheostomy was independently associated with the development of bacteremia by extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. A high consumption of antimicrobials was observed, and 75.0% of the isolates contained amplicons with the blaSPM-1 and blaVIM genes. Of the 47 non-Metallo-β-Lactamase isolates, none had another type of carbapenemase. However, the isolates exhibited high rates of hyperproduction of AmpC, loss of the OprD porin (71.4% and the presence of MexABOprM (57.1% and MexXY (64.3%. This study suggests that in non-Metallo-β-Lactamase isolates, the association of intrinsic resistance mechanisms could contributes to the expression of multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant phenotypes.

  1. Genetic and Molecular Predictors of High Vancomycin MIC in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D.; Munckhof, Wendy J.; Robinson, J. Owen; Korman, Tony M.; O'Sullivan, Matthew V. N.; Anderson, Tara L.; Roberts, Sally A.; Warren, Sanchia J. C.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Tan, Hui-Leen; Gao, Wei; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    An elevated vancomycin MIC is associated with poor outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and is reported in patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in the absence of vancomycin treatment. Here, using DNA microarray and phenotype analysis, we investigated the genetic predictors and accessory gene regulator (agr) function and their relationship with elevated vancomycin MIC using blood culture isolates from a multicenter binational cohort of patients with SAB. Specific clonal complexes were associated with elevated (clonal complex 8 [CC8] [P < 0.001]) or low (CC22 [P < 0.001], CC88 [P < 0.001], and CC188 [P = 0.002]) vancomycin MIC. agr dysfunction (P = 0.014) or agr genotype II (P = 0.043) were also associated with an elevated vancomycin MIC. Specific resistance and virulence genes were also linked to an elevated vancomycin MIC, including blaZ (P = 0.002), sea (P < 0.001), clfA (P < 0.001), splA (P = 0.001), and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) locus (P = 0.02). These data suggest that inherent organism characteristics may explain the link between elevated vancomycin MICs and poor outcomes in patients with SAB, regardless of the antibiotic treatment received. A consideration of clonal specificity should be included in future research when attempting to ascertain treatment effects or clinical outcomes. PMID:25031442

  2. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm (A), erm (B), or mef (A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  3. Premedication of patients undergoing dental procedures causing bacteremia after total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoshariae, Anita; Kulild, James

    2010-06-01

    More than 1 million total joint replacements, mostly hip and knee, are performed each year in the United States, and the number is increasing. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons has issued a new information statement that dramatically changes the need for premedication with antibiotics before dental appointments. The prior advisory statements, jointly released in 1997 and 2003 by the American Dental Association and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, recommended premedication for only 2 years after the surgical placement of the implant(s) for patients undergoing total arthroplasty and/or for immune-compromised patients. The current information statement indicates that those patients with total joint replacement should be premedicated for any dental procedure with a risk of causing bacteremia for the lifetime of the patient. There is no well-documented, convincing published evidence with modern molecular methods of species identification in which the reported species was specific to a dental procedure in the orofacial region to the subsequently infected total joint replacement. Further discussions between orthopedic surgeons, general medical practitioners, and dental practitioners should be encouraged to reach a mutual consensus on this controversial issue to provide the best protection for patients receiving dental treatment potentially resulting in transient bacteremia. Moreover, difficult randomized controlled trials must be conducted to determine the best treatment to minimize infections of total joint replacements and reduce morbidity and mortality. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Taniyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus canis (Sc is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A, erm(B, or mef(A, macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  5. [Results of the implementation of the Bacteremia Zero project in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Oliva, Glòria; Ferrer, Joan M; Riera, Alba; Palomar, Mercedes

    2014-07-01

    The nationwide Bacteremia Zero (BZ) Project consists in the simultaneous implementation of measures to prevent central venous catheter-related bacteremia (CVC-B) in critically ill patients and in the development of an integral safety plan. The objective is to present the results obtained after the implementation of the BZ project in the ICUs of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Spain. All patients admitted to ICUs in Catalonia participating in the ENVIN-HELICS registry between January 2009 and June 2010 were included. Information was provided by 36 (92.3%) of the total possible 39 ICUs. A total of 281 episodes of CVC-B were diagnosed (overall rate of 2.53 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). The rates have varied significantly between ICUs that participated in the project for more or less than 12 months (2.17 vs. 4.27 episodes per 1000 days of CVC, respectively; p<.0001). The implementation of the BZ Project in Catalonia has been associated with a decrease greater than 40% in the CVC-B rates in the ICUs of this community, which is much higher than the initial objective of 4 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Assessment of periodontitis and its role in viridans streptococcal bacteremia and infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dhotre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the role of periodontitis in viridans group streptococci (VGS bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE. Methods: A total of 200 subjects including two groups. Group A- 34 subjects undergoing tooth extraction with periodontitis, 46 subjects undergoing tooth extraction without periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Group B: 40 confirmed cases of IE (17 with and 23 without periodontitis and 40 healthy controls. Subgingival plaque and blood samples were obtained and processed by standard procedures. Results: A total of 53 blood samples (66.25% yielded positive cultures after tooth extraction. The relationship between the presence of periodontitis and a positive blood culture was significantly higher (p = 0.05 for tooth extraction cases with periodontitis (79.40% than tooth extraction cases without periodontitis (56.50%. Periodontitis was observed in 42.5% of IE cases. Out of the 40 patients of IE, the blood samples yielded 40 different isolates, majority were viridans streptococci 15 (37.5% and staphylococci nine (22.5%. No statistically significant difference was observed between the subgingival plaque and blood isolates of periodontitis in both the groups, indicating similarity of biotypes of viridans streptococci isolated from the blood and the subgingival plaque. Similarity was also observed between the antibiogram profiles of viridans streptococci from both the groups. Conclusions: Periodontitis enhances viridans streptococcal bacteremia and may be a potential risk factor for IE. Keywords: Infective endocarditis, Periodontitis, Viridans group streptococci

  7. Vibrio Parahemolyticus in the Wastewater of Kermanshah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almasi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available آب و فاضلاب                                                                                                                                                                                                               شماره 51- سال 1383     Municipal wastewater is one of the most important pollution sources for water supply resources. Soil, vegetable, and food material are exposed as well. Identification and enumeration of pathogenic agents particularly pathogenic Vibrios are beneficial for control and prevention planning of the infectious diseases. This research carried out to identify the distribution of the recognized pathogenic Vibrios emphasizing on identification of Vibrio cholerain the wastewater of city of Kermanshah in 2001. Population of city of Kermanshah was estimated over 713000 and produced wastewater was approximately 150 l/cap/d. The method of study was cross-sectional descriptive. Sampling procedure was adopted from standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, and the method for Vibrios identification was according to finegold 1990. There were 8 discharge outlet domestic wastewaters, which had been chosen as sampling sites. Samples were collected weekly in randomized manner in day time. Although 288 samples should be collected statistically, 339 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that site 7 with 5 positives, sites 4 and 8 with 3 positives, site 5 with 2 postitives and sites 2, 3 and 6 with one positive suspected to vibrio pathogens. However, not any Vibrio detected in site 1. The most positive samples were seen in spring, late summer and early autumn. The positive results were detected in May, June, September, and October. Among samples which have been detected as a

  8. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    The two-component quorum sensing (QS) system, first described in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and evolutionarily conserved among members of the genus Vibrio, has been best studied in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (1, 2). In the V. cholerae QS system, the response to the accumulation o...... manner. This mechanism ensures the proper timing of the QS response, which includes the expression of traits critical for virulence and for the formation of biofilms (2-6)....

  9. MR findings of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Na, Jae Boem

    2003-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection is a fatal disease occurring after the consumption of seafood in patients with underlying liver disease. Inflammation of the skin, subcutanous fat and fascia disseminates from the lower extremity to the trunk and upper extremity. Infection myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus is rare, and its MR findings have not been reported. We report these in a case of infectious myositis caused by vibrio vulnificus involving both lower extremities

  10. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Close Relatives Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinum, Terje M; Karataş, Süheyla; Martinussen, Nora Tandstad; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Colquhoun, Duncan J

    2016-09-15

    The genetic heterogeneity of the close relatives Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii, both serious pathogens of fish causing extensive losses in aquaculture, was studied. Eight housekeeping genes, i.e., atpA, ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, rpoA, topA, and pyrH, were partially sequenced in 116 isolates from diverse fish species and geographical areas. The eight genes appear to be under purifying selection, and the genetic diversity in the total data set was estimated to be 0.767 ± 0.026. Our multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme identified several widespread clonal complexes and resolved the isolates, for the most part, according to serotype. Serotype O2b isolates from diseased cod in Norway, Ireland, and Scotland were found to be extremely homogeneous. Horizontal gene transfer appears to be fairly common within and between clonal complexes. Taken together, MLSA and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) calculations suggest that some isolates previously characterized as V ordalii, i.e., 12B09, FF93, FS144, and FS238, are in fact V. anguillarum isolates. The precise taxonomic situation for two isolates from Atlantic cod that display several traits consistent with V. ordalii, i.e., NVI 5286 and NVI 5918, and a single environmental strain that was previously considered to represent V. ordalii, i.e., FF167, is less clear. It is still being debated whether V. anguillarum and V ordalii represent separate bacterial species. Our study addresses this issue and elucidates the degree of genetic variability within this group of closely related bacteria, based on a substantial number of isolates. Our results clearly illustrate the existence of different populations among putative V ordalii isolates. On the basis of additional full-length genomic analysis, we conclude that most environmental isolates previously identified as V ordalii lie firmly within the species V. anguillarum While bona fide fish-pathogenic V ordalii isolates display a very close genetic relationship with V

  11. Recurrent Bacteremia, a Complication of Cyanoacrylate Injection for Variceal Bleeding: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Galperine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first description of recurrent bacteremia in two patients after cyanoacrylate injection for gastric varices bleeding treated with antibiotics alone. Adapted and prolonged antibiotic treatment allowed a complete resolution of the infection with no relapse after more than 6 months. According to recent data, prophylactic antibiotics should be further investigated for patients with bleeding varices undergoing cyanoacrylate injection.

  12. The associations between socioeconomic status and risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and subsequent endocarditis - a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise Bruun; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2017-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in several countries. Since socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence the risk of infectious diseases in general, we aimed to investigate the association between SES and SAB, and risk...

  13. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Michael Z

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided.

  14. Francisella philomiragia Bacteremia in a Patient with Acute Respiratory Insufficiency and Acute-on-Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relich, Ryan F; Humphries, Romney M; Mattison, H Reid; Miles, Jessica E; Simpson, Edward R; Corbett, Ian J; Schmitt, Bryan H; May, M

    2015-12-01

    Francisella philomiragia is a very uncommon pathogen of humans. Diseases caused by it are protean and have been reported largely in near-drowning victims and those with chronic granulomatous disease. We present a case of F. philomiragia pneumonia with peripheral edema and bacteremia in a renal transplant patient and review the diverse reports of F. philomiragia infections.

  15. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  16. Presence of the KPC carbapenemase gene in Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia, and the correlation with in vitro carbapenem susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    During six months, we obtained Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia at a 1250-bed teaching hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, and compared carbapenem susceptibility with the presence of blaKPC, a transferable carbapenemase gene. Three (1.2%) out of 243 isolates were ...

  17. Does C-reactive protein independently predict mortality in adult community-acquired bacteremia patients with known sepsis severity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim O; Jensen, Thøger G; Kolmos, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether sepsis severity and C-reactive protein (CRP) level on admission prognostically corroborated or annulled each other in adult patients with incident community-acquired bacteremia (Funen, Denmark, 2000-2008). We used logistic regression and area under the receiver operating.......06), thus CRP contributed as much as sepsis severity to prognosis....

  18. GroEL PCR- RFLP - An efficient tool to discriminate closely related pathogenic Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Reshma; Alexander, Deborah; Antony, Ally C; Hatha, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Vibrio sp. are autochthonous to marine and estuarine waters. Several species of Vibrio are pathogens. It is of utmost importance to detect and discriminate the Vibrio sp. that are often involved in food and water borne infections. Since 16S rRNA based identification has limited utility in differentiating the closely related pathogenic species from non pathogenic species, we have evaluated the discriminatory power of groEL PCR-RFLP for identification of closely related Vibrio sp. Accordingly, in the current study, the efficiency of groEL PCR- RFLP for detection and accurate differentiation of known pathogens among Vibrio sp. such as V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. fluvialis, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum was evaluated. PCR amplified groEL gene fragment of each Vibrio sp. was digested separately using 5 restriction enzymes viz. Hha1, Rsa1, Alu1, Dde1 and Mbo1. The accuracy of the method was further validated by insilico restriction analysis of multiple strains of each species using NEBcutter. The method proved to be efficient for detection and differentiation of Vibrio species under study. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed groEL gene to be a better phylogenetic marker for Vibrio compared to 16S rRNA. Hence, the method can be employed for accurate detection of Vibrio sp. including the closely related species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Market survey of Vibrio spp. and other microrganisms in Italian shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Normanno, G; Addante, N; Dambrosio, A; Montagna, C O; Quaglia, N C; Celano, G V; Chiocco, D

    2004-10-01

    A survey was conducted of Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella in 644 molluscan shellfish samples marketed in the Apulia region of southern Italy. Vibrios were found in 278 samples (43%), and levels of E. coli and fecal coliforms were above the Italian legal limit in 27 and 34 samples (4 and 5%), respectively. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. Because the majority of the vibrio isolates were found in samples that were compliant with Italian regulations, there appears to be no relationship between the presence of microorganisms of fecal origin and the presence of vibrios potentially harmful to human health.

  20. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  1. THE ROLE OF CORTICOSTEROIDS IN ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME CAUSED BY VIRIDANS GROUP STREPTOCOCCI BACTEREMIA IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Tareq Yacoub

    2014-09-01

    A retrospective chart review of patients with hematologic malignancy diagnosed with VGS bacteremia admitted to the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida between 1/1/2001 and 4/1/2012 was completed. Data was collected about respiratory symptoms, diagnosis of adult respiratory syndrome, results of blood cultures, medications received and outcome. Results In this study, 70 cases of VGS bacteremia in neutropenic patients were reviewed.  The most common adverse event of VGS bacteremia in this group of patients is the development of serious pulmonary complications such as ARDS. In our study, 7 patients developed ARDS. The most common identifies streptococcal species was Streptococcus mitis, isolated in 4 of 7 patients. All 7 patients received corticosteroids early with the onset of respiratory failure. The most commonly prescribed regimen was methylprednisolone 60 mg intravenously every 12 hour for an average of 3 days.  All patients received comparable supportive care, appropriate antibiotics, ventilation and hemodynamic support. All patients (100 % recovered from respiratory failure after receiving corticosteroids. There were no significant adverse events attributable to steroids use. Conclusion Streptococcus mitis is the species most frequently isolated from the patients who have developed ARDS from Streptococcus viridans bacteremia. Our data suggest that the early administration of corticosteroids to neutropenic patients who develop early signs of respiratory failure with VGS bacteremia can prevent the progression of ARDS and improve mortality.  Moderate doses of steroids with short duration of administration were not associated with significant adverse events in our case series. While the use of corticosteroids in this setting has been described in the literature since the early 1990s, there remains a scarcity of data and our study help shed some light on this area. Moreover there is little recognition among clinicians of the association between ARDS and VGS

  2. The Zymovars of Vibrio cholerae: Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Zymovars analysis also known as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae strains and characterise strains or group of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The mean genetic diversity was 0.339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and non-O1 may be present in several geneticaly diverse (different zymovars strains. Conversely the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup. It is confirmed that the South American epidemic strain differs from the 7th pandemic El Tor strain in locus LAP (leucyl leucyl aminopeptidase. Here it is shown that this rare allele is present in 1 V. mimicus and 4 non-O1 V. cholerae. Non toxigenic O1 strains from South India epidemic share zymovar 14A with the epidemic El Tor from the 7th pandemic, while another group have diverse zymovars. The sucrose negative epidemic strains isolated in French Guiana and Brazil have the same zymovar of the current American epidemic V. cholerae.

  3. Assessing outcomes of adult oncology patients treated with linezolid versus daptomycin for bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Khilna; Kabir, Rubiya; Ahmad, Samrah; Allen, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and severity of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus blood stream infections continue to rise and is a significant burden in the healthcare setting. Literature thus far is minimal regarding treatment outcomes in patients with malignancy and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia. Appropriate antibiotic selection is vital to treatment success due to high rates of resistance, limited antimicrobials and mortality in this patient population. We conducted this study to determine whether treatment outcomes differed between cancer patients treated with linezolid and those treated with daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia. This single-center, retrospective study included adult patients hospitalized on the oncology service with documented vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia who received at least 48 h of either linezolid or daptomycin as primary treatment. A total of 65 patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-two patients received daptomycin as primary treatment, and 33 patients received linezolid as primary treatment. Twenty-six (76.5%) patients in the linezolid cohort versus 22 (71%) patients in the daptomycin cohort achieved microbiological cure (p = 0.6141). Median length of stay in days (30 vs. 42, p = 0.0714) and mortality (7/32 (20.6%) vs. 8/33 (25.8%), p = 0.6180) were also similar between the linezolid and daptomycin treated patients, respectively. No differences in microbiological cure, length of stay or mortality were identified between the groups. This study suggests that linezolid and daptomycin are each reasonable options for treating vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia in oncology patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the optimal treatment for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia in this patient population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Predictive model for bacteremia in adult patients with blood cultures performed at the emergency department: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chan-Ping; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Shey-Ying; Ghiang, Wen-Chu; Wu, Grace Hwei-Min; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Lee, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chen, Yee-Chun; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Wen-Jone; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-12-01

    Useful predictive models for identifying patients at high risk of bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) are lacking. This study attempted to provide useful predictive models for identifying patients at high risk of bacteremia at the ED. A prospective cohort study was conducted at the ED of a tertiary care hospital from October 1 to November 30, 2004. Patients aged 15 years or older, who had at least two sets of blood culture, were recruited. Data were analyzed on selected covariates, including demographic characteristics, predisposing conditions, clinical presentations, laboratory tests, and presumptive diagnosis, at the ED. An iterative procedure was used to build up a logistic model, which was then simplified into a coefficient-based scoring system. A total of 558 patients with 84 episodes of true bacteremia were enrolled. Predictors of bacteremia and their assigned scores were as follows: fever greater than or equal to 38.3°C [odds ratio (OR), 2.64], 1 point; tachycardia greater than or equal to 120/min (OR, 2.521), 1 point; lymphopenia less than 0.5×10(3)/μL (OR, 3.356), 2 points; aspartate transaminase greater than 40IU/L (OR, 2.355), 1 point; C-reactive protein greater than 10mg/dL (OR, 2.226), 1 point; procalcitonin greater than 0.5 ng/mL (OR, 3.147), 2 points; and presumptive diagnosis of respiratory tract infection (OR, 0.236), -2 points. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the original logistic model and the simplified scoring model using the aforementioned seven predictors and their assigned scores were 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.806-0.902) and 0.845 (95% confidence interval, 0.798-0.894), respectively. This simplified scoring system could rapidly identify high-risk patients of bacteremia at the ED. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence....... cholerae El Tor strain N16961, showed hemolysis and proteolysis activity but none of them exhibited any hemagglutinin activity on human erythrocytes. The study findings indicate that V. cholerae contamination is mostly originated in and around kitchen area rather than latrine area. Contaminated food...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh...

  6. Bacteriocin production by indigenous marine catfish associated Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Arsalan Saeed; Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2009-04-01

    Fifty strains of genus Vibrio were isolated (identified) from healthy and diseased marine catfish(es). The isolates were screened for bacteriocin (vibriocin) production. About 32% isolates were found bacteriocin producers. The best producer was identified as Vibrio anguillarum AVP10. The maximum production of vibriocin AVP10 was manifested at 29 degrees C at pH 7, after 18-20 h of incubation. Vibriocin activity was enhanced in the presence of citrate-phosphate buffer. The vibriocin AVP10 withstands autoclaving temperature and showed activity even after prolonged chloroform treatment. Proteolytic enzymes inhibited its activity, while lipolytic enzyme had no effect. It was found bioactive only against intrageneric bacterial strains. Mode of action of vibriocin AVP10 varies with the indicator (sensitive) culture used i.e. bactericidal effects was exerted against V. anguillarum AVS9 while bacteriostatic effect was shown against entero-toxigenic E. coli.

  7. Vibrio vulnificus-infektioner i Danmark sommeren 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Brita Grønbech; Frimodt-Møller, N; Dalsgaard, A.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical manifestations and epidemiological data of 11 patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus found in Denmark during the unusually warm summer of 1994 are reported. All patients had been exposed to seawater prior to illness, but none had consumed seafood. Nine patients, including four with...... climates such as the Danish. Exposure to seawater, including handling of fresh seafood, during warm periods carries a risk of infection with V. vulnificus.......The clinical manifestations and epidemiological data of 11 patients infected with Vibrio vulnificus found in Denmark during the unusually warm summer of 1994 are reported. All patients had been exposed to seawater prior to illness, but none had consumed seafood. Nine patients, including four...

  8. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGICAL ROLE OF VIBRIO FETUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Little, R B; Taylor, M S

    1920-11-30

    The data bearing on these three cases are quite sufficient to rule out Bacillus abortus as the agent. Not only the cultures and guinea pig tests of fetal tissues and contents of the digestive tract, but also the agglutination and guinea pig tests of the milk, were negative. The same is true of the agglutination tests of the blood serum. Only in one case was the placenta obtained in part. The stained films and the sections from various regions showed no abortion bacilli. Guinea pig tests of placental tissue were negative for Bacillus abortus. On the other hand) minute organisms resembling vibrios were detected in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells within capillaries in the edematous subchorionic tissue. Subsequently the agglutination titer of the blood serum of one of these cases rose to a level indicating infection with Bacillus abortus during the second pregnancy. The peculiar distribution of abortions due to Vibrio fetus among older cows and heifers in this herd, resulting at first in cases among older cows and latterly passing to young stock, may be explained by certain occurrences in the herd itself. It may be assumed that the infection was originally brought in by purchased cows. The young stock is kept segregated from these in a special barn, and when 6 months old it is pastured on outlying farms until returned in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The heifers during the first pregnancy were thus kept away from vibrio carriers until after the first calf was born. In June and July, 1919, 55 older cows, purchased and native, were placed on the young stock pasture. The three cases of abortion in heifers due to Vibrio fetus occurred October 24, November 9, and December 2, 1919. The age and condition of the fetuses accord very well with the assumption that Vibrio fetus was introduced among the young stock in June or July of the same year. The information gathered thus far concerning vibrionic abortion in this herd enables us to formulate a tentative hypothesis

  9. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  10. Quorum Regulated Resistance of Vibrio cholerae against Environmental Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mozammel Hoque; Iftekhar Bin Naser; S. M. Nayeemul Bari; Jun Zhu; John J. Mekalanos; Shah M. Faruque

    2016-01-01

    Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found t...

  11. Sources of Vibrio mimicus contamination of turtle eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Bolaños, H; Barquero, C; Sánchez, O; Sánchez, L M; Mora, G; Chaves, A; Campos, E

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary.

  12. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  13. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass. Derya Erdog˘ an a. , Yasemin Ta ¸scı Yıldız b. , Esin Cengiz Bodurog˘lu c and Naciye Go¨nu¨l Tanır d. Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual ...

  14. Degenerated uterine leiomyomas mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yi Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Seo Youn; Chung, Soo Ho [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms. Undegenerated uterine leiomyomas are easily recognizable by the typical imaging findings on radiologic studies. However, degenerated fibroids can have unusual and variable appearances. The atypical appearances due to degenerative changes may cause confusion in diagnosis of leiomyomas. In this article, we report a case of a patient with extensive cystic and myxoid degeneration of uterine leiomyoma, mimicking malignant bilateral ovarian surface epithelial tumors.

  15. Localized IgG4-related Cholecystitis Mimicking Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a case of localized IgG4-cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer with focal/segmental type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). In this case, we were unable to exclude a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and thus performed radical cholecystectomy. Type1 AIP is often associated with gallbladder lesions, accompanied by generally diffuse, circumferential thickening of the gallbladder wall. Although localized IgG4-related cholecystitis is extremely rare, differentiating this condition from gallbladder cancer is often very difficult.

  16. A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwaljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder.

  17. Glioblastoma mimicking a cerebral contusion: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XINWEI; WANG, KUN; ZHANG, ANLING; SONG, ZHENGFEI; YANG, SHUXU; QIAN, CONG; WANG, YIRONG

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old male presented with a rare case of glioblastoma mimicking a cerebral contusion subsequent to collapsing. The patient had been medicated for hypertension for seven years and diabetes for eight years prior to hospitalization. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a cerebral contusion and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left temporal region. The patient was initially administered intravenous drugs to reduce the intracranial pressure following the diagnosis of a cerebral con...

  18. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  19. Sarcoidosis breaching the fascia and mimicking a sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hajime; Ikeda, Mitsuaki; Shimofusa, Ryouta [Department of Radiology, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan); Terauchi, Masami [Department of Plastic Surgery, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan); Eguchi, Masanobu [Department of Pathology, Numazu City Hospital, 550 Harunoki-aza, Higashishiiji, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0302 (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman complained of a subcutaneous mass in her left buttock. MR images revealed an ill-defined soft tissue mass that crossed the fascia of the gluteus maximus muscle. Some surrounding edema was noted. The lesion showed some contrast uptake after administration of Gd-DTPA. An excisional biopsy revealed sarcoidosis involving both the muscle and subcutaneous tissue across the fascia, mimicking a sarcoma. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene J. Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Here we investigated the presence of virulence factors and genetic diversity of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from water, oyster, and sediment samples from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Of more than 2,350 presumptive Vibrio collected, more than half were confirmed through PCR as V. parahaemolyticus, with 10 encoding both tdh and trh and 6 encoding only trh. Potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were then serotyped with O1:KUT and O3:KUT predominant. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed and the constructed dendrogram displayed high diversity, as did results from multiple-locus VNTR analysis. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was readily isolated from Chesapeake Bay waters but was less frequently isolated from oyster and sediment samples collected during this study. Potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was isolated in fewer numbers and the isolates displayed expansive diversity. Although characteristics of the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were highly variable and the percent of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus detected was low, it is important to note that, pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus are present in the Chesapeake Bay, warranting seafood monitoring to minimize risk of disease for the public, and to reduce the economic burden of V. parahaemolyticus related illness.

  1. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  2. Crystal structures of the isochorismatase domains from Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiansen; Deng, Tian; Ma, Qingjun

    2017-08-26

    Antibiotic resistance is becoming a global threat and overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture disease control worsens the situation. To reduce the risk of drug resistance developed in aquaculture, safer biocontrol programs are needed. Antivirulence therapy, with less chance for developing drug resistance, is a promising approach. To facilitate antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum, a serious aquaculture pathogen, we present crystal structures for isochorismatase domains of AngB and VabB, which are required to synthesize siderophore, a critical virulence factor. Both structures are highly similar to known isochorismatases in fold and active site, therefore we conclude inhibitors for isochorismatases can be developed in a common framework. The structural information will improve design of virulence inhibitors against Vibrio anguillarum. We also firstly report that isochorismatase family could bind endogenous metabolite during the hetero-expression process, which is likely nicotinic acid, nicotinamide or pyrazinic acid, based on structural analysis and affinity prediction. Taken together, our results provide precise structural information of isochorismatase domains for antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, M E C; Plummer, J M; Leake, P A; Powell, L; Chand, V; Chung, S; Tulloch, K

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute viral disease, which usually presents as a mild febrile illness. Patients with severe disease present with dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue toxic shock syndrome. Rarely, it presents with abdominal symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. We present a case of a male patient presenting with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis that was later diagnosed with dengue fever following a negative appendicectomy. A 13-year old male patient presented with fever, localized right-sided abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound was not helpful and appendicectomy was performed due to worsening abdominal signs and an elevated temperature. A normal appendix with enlarged mesenteric nodes was found at surgery. Complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia with leucopenia. Dengue fever was now suspected and confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against dengue virus. This unusual presentation of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis should be suspected during viral outbreaks and in patients with atypical symptoms and cytopenias on blood evaluation in order to prevent unnecessary surgery. This case highlights the occurrence of abdominal symptoms and complications that may accompany dengue fever. Early recognition of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis will avoid non-therapeutic operation and the diagnosis may be aided by blood investigations indicating a leucopenia, which is uncommon in patients with suppurative acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Kirchberger, Paul C; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2015-10-09

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86-87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93-94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  5. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia: A multi-national population-based assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin B; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    -2008. RESULTS: The overall annual incidence rate was 1.31 per 100,000 population and type specific rates were 0.08 for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib), 0.22 for H. influenzae serotypes a, c-f (Hiac-f), and 0.98 per 100,000 for non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). Very young and old patients were at highest risk......OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited. METHODS: Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000...... independently associated with death at 30-days in logistic regression analysis included male gender, hospital-onset disease, older age, and lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, or unknown focus of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality...

  6. Laboratory experience with radiometric detection of bacteremia with three culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicher, K.; Koscinski, D.

    1984-01-01

    In two long-term studies, the BACTEC radiometric system for detection of bacteremia was evaluated with three culture media each: (i) BACTEC media 6A (for aerobes) and 7B (for anaerobes) plus a thioglycolate medium and (ii) BACTEC media 6A, 7B, and 8A (hypertonic). In study 1, clinically significant isolates were identified in 1,873 (13.9%) of 13,432 blood cultures with all three media. The thioglycolate medium revealed 143 (1.1%) organisms not recovered from the 6A and 7B media. In study 2, isolates were identified in 1,135 (12.9%) of 8,759 cultures with all three media; 104 (1.2%) organisms were isolated only from the hypertonic medium. The increased yield of positive cultures in the three-medium system is likely due to the larger volume of blood cultured

  7. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. METHODS: Experimental meningitis in rats was induced by intracisternal injection of live......-pneumococcal antibodies (n = 14). T2 and diffusion weighted MR images were used to analyze changes in hippocampus volume and water diffusion (ADC). The results were correlated to ADC of the cortex, to ventricular volume, and to the extent of hippocampal apoptosis. RESULTS: Both ADC and the volume of hippocampus were...... and the volume and size of brain ventricles were positively correlated (Spearman Rank, p  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In experimental meningitis increase in volume and water diffusion of the hippocampus are significantly...

  8. Polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia due to Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas micra in a patient with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Borrego, Jaime; Rojo, Mª Dolores; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2018-02-06

    Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas micra are both Gram-positive anaerobes involved infrequently in human infections. We report a polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia caused by these microorganisms. A 43-year-old woman receiving coadjuvant chemotherapy due to a retroperitoneal leiomiosarcoma presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever (38 °C). The two blood cultures resulted in isolation of A. rimae and P. micra, being identified at species level by matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology with high log scores. The microorganisms were susceptible to penicilllin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, imipenem, and moxifloxacin. Treatment with levofloxacin was started and subsequently it was changed to piperacillin/tazobactam plus metronidazole and completed for 10 days, but the patient died days later due to her underlying disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobilization of endothelial progenitors by recurrent bacteremias with a periodontal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Kebschull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal infections are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this link are yet unclear. Here, we evaluate the in vivo effects of bacteremia with a periodontal pathogen on endothelial progenitors, bone marrow-derived cells capable of endothelial regeneration, and delineate the critical pathways for these effects. METHODS: 12-week old C57bl6 wildtype or toll-like receptor (TLR-2 deficient mice were repeatedly intravenously challenged with 10⁹ live P. gingivalis 381 or vehicle. Numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, circulating angiogenic cells, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were measured by FACS/culture. Endothelial function was assessed using isolated organ baths, reendothelization was measured in a carotid injury model. RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels were assessed by ELISA/qPCR. RESULTS: In wildtype mice challenged with intravenous P.gingivalis, numbers of Sca1+/flk1+ progenitors, CAC, CFU-Hill, and late-outgrowth EPC were strongly increased in peripheral circulation and spleen, whereas Sca1+/flk1+ progenitor numbers in bone marrow decreased. Circulating EPCs were functional, as indicated by improved endothelial function and improved reendothelization in infected mice. The osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was increased after P. gingivalis challenge in the bone marrow niche of wildtype mice and late-outgrowth EPC in vitro. Conversely, in mice deficient in TLR2, no increase in progenitor mobilization or osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio was detected. CONCLUSION: Recurrent transient bacteremias, a feature of periodontitis, increase peripheral EPC counts and decrease EPC pools in the bone marrow, thereby possibly reducing overall endothelial regeneration capacity, conceivably explaining pro-atherogenic properties of periodontal infections. These effects are seemingly mediated by toll-like receptor (TLR-2.

  10. Validating severity of illness scoring systems in the prediction of outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Szpunar, Susan; Khatib, Riad

    2013-08-01

    Severity of illness scores are helpful in predicting mortality; however, no standardized scoring system has been validated in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). The modified Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), the CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age 65) and the Charlson weighted index of comorbidity (CWIC) were compared in predicting outcomes at the onset of SAB. All adult inpatients with SAB from July 15, 2008, to December 31, 2009, were prospectively assessed. The 3 scoring systems were applied: REMS, CURB-65 and CWIC. The end points were attributable and overall mortality. A total of 241 patients with SAB were reviewed during the study period. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.8% and attributable mortality 14.1%. Patients who died had higher mean CURB-65 score and REMS than those who lived, whereas the difference in the CWIC score was not significant. Two logistic regression models based on CURB-65 score or REMS, after controlling for CWIC, revealed that both scores were independent predictors of mortality, with an odds ratio of 3.38 (P < 0.0001) and 1.45 (P < 0.0001) for CURB-65 and REMS, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a cutoff point of 3.0 (CURB-65) and 6.0 (REMS) provided the highest sensitivity and specificity. The area under the curves for all-cause mortality were 0.832 and 0.806, and for attributable mortality 0.845 and 0.819, for CURB-65 and REMS, respectively. REMS and CURB-65 scores outperformed CWIC as predictors of mortality in SAB and may be effective in predicting the severity of illness at the onset of bacteremia.

  11. Clinical presentation, management and outcomes of Staph aureus bacteremia (SAB) in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Dafna; Schlesinger, Agata; Shaked, Hila; Goldberg, Elad; Paul, Mical; Bishara, Jihad; Leibovici, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) increases with advancing age with higher mortality reported in older adults. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of older patients with SAB. We analyzed data from a retrospectively collected database including 1692 patients with SAB, and compared 1158 older patients (≥65 years) with 534 younger patients (management of infection, and outcomes. Older patients were significantly less likely to be febrile on presentation, with 37.5 % (415/1106) of older patients presenting with normal body temperature [versus 29.2 % (152/520) of younger patients]. Older patients were however, more likely to have leukocytosis, septic shock, lower heart rate and lower diastolic blood pressure compared with younger patients. Management of older patients included significantly less imaging studies, performance of transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) and infectious diseases consultation. TEE was performed less in older patients [124/726 (17.1 %) versus 72/285 (25.3 %)]. Mortality was significantly higher in older patients [550/1158 (47.5 %) versus 124/534 (23.2 %)], with predictors for mortality for the entire cohort in multivariate analysis including older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index, female sex, impaired functional capacity, pneumonia or primary bacteremia, and non-performance of TEE. Mortality rates in older patients with SAB are higher compared with younger patients. Several diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of SAB were less likely to be performed in older patients in our cohort. These may have implications on outcome and should not be dismissed on the basis of age alone.

  12. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Karauzum, Hatice; Sarwar, Jawad; Abaandou, Laura; Mahmoudieh, Mahta; Boroun, Atefeh R; Vu, Hong; Nguyen, Tam; Devi, V Sathya; Shulenin, Sergey; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC). Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE) that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG) protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  13. Ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bryan Pinckney; Barber, Katie E; Stover, Kayla R

    2017-02-15

    The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents. In multiple studies, ceftaroline has displayed rapid bloodstream eradication, even in the setting of refractory MRSAB or infective endocarditis. The clinical resolution of MRSAB or SAB in patients who received ceftaroline ranged from 31.0% to 83.3%; studies used varying definitions for clinical resolution and included differing proportions of patients with endocarditis. The use of ceftaroline in treatment-refractory patients and assorted populations makes absolute effectiveness difficult to determine. Ceftaroline has been shown to be effective in patients who have not responded to other agents for MRSAB, making it an attractive option for such patients. Although the approved dosing regimen for ceftaroline fosamil is 600 mg every 12 hours for patients with normal renal function for the treatment of ABSSSIs and CABP, there is some debate about whether more frequent doses (i.e., every 8 hours) are needed for MRSAB. Ceftaroline has been used to successfully treat SAB, including endocarditis. Therapy with ceftaroline may be considered when antibiotic resistance or previous treatment failure precludes the use of first-line agents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg during therapy for bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Chiun; Chan, Oi-Wa; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2016-02-01

    The majority of nontyphoid Salmonella infection is identified in children. When an invasive or severe Salmonella infection is encountered, ceftriaxone is recommended for such patients. A 2-year-old girl was hospitalized for the treatment of Salmonella bacteremia and discharged with standard ceftriaxone treatment. She was readmitted to the hospital after 2 days due to the recurrence of the Salmonella bacteremia. The study aimed to unveil the mechanism for the relapse. Six isolates (4 blood and 2 stool) were recovered from the patient, with the last two blood isolates being ceftriaxone-resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. Ceftriaxone resistance genes and transferability of the resistance plasmid were examined by molecular methods. All isolates were identified as Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg. Five isolates demonstrated almost identical electrophoresis patterns, except that in the two ceftriaxone-resistant isolates an extra band (>100 kb) was noted. A blaCMY-2 gene, carried by a 120-kb conjugative IncI1 plasmid of the sequence type 53, was identified in the two ceftriaxone-resistant isolates. Transfer of the resistance plasmid from one blood isolate to Escherichia coli J53 resulted in the increase of ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentration from 0.125 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL in the recipient. Ceftriaxone is the standard therapeutic choice for invasive or serious Salmonella infections in children. Pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of resistance development during therapy, especially in areas with a widespread of ceftriaxone resistance genes that are carried by a self-transferrable plasmid, such as the blaCMY-2-carrying IncI1 plasmid identified herein. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  16. Demographic and clinical characteristics of Campylobacter bacteremia in children with and without predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Carmi, Adi; Greenberg, David

    2013-11-01

    Campylobacter, a common cause of childhood gastroenteritis, rarely causes bacteremia, which is reported mainly in immune-compromised children. Our aim was to compare demographic and clinical characteristics of childhood campylobacter bacteremia (CB) between children with and without risk factors for CB. A retrospective, population-based study, conducted between 1989 and 2010. Risk factors were defined as immunodeficiency, malignancy, extreme prematurity or chronic diseases with malnutrition. Seventy-six CB episodes (1 per child/month) were identified in 14 children with risk factors (30 episodes) and 46 children without risk factors (46 episodes). Children with risk factors were older (mean age 120.0±72.8 vs. 16.2±27.6 months) with higher proportion of males (90.0% vs. 60.9%), less gastrointestinal symptoms (43.3% vs. 69.9%) and higher hospitalization rates (96.7% vs. 69.6%) compared with children without risk factors. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli (46/47 of identified species) were the most common species in both groups. Positive campylobacter stool cultures were found only in children without risk factors (0% vs. 38.5%). No mortality cases were observed. All isolates tested for antibiotic susceptibility were sensitive to macrolides and carbapenems. Childhood CB is rare in southern Israel. The disease manifests as a single gastroenteritis complication in a previously healthy young child or as recurrent episodes in an older, immune-compromised child, usually without gastrointestinal symptoms. This disparity may reflect pathogenesis differences, with disease in the immune-competent being dependent on pathogen virulence, whereas disease in the immune-compromised being host dependent. Disease outcome is usually favorable, and macrolides remain the antibiotic treatment of choice.

  17. Beta-lactam combination therapy for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species bacteremia: A summary and appraisal of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal bacteremia and enterococcal bacteremia are prevalent in hospitalized or recently instrumented patients, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat due to the pathogenicity of the organisms, poor response to antibiotics, and increasing development of multidrug resistance. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in combination therapy for the treatment of these infections. The aim of this review was to summarize and assess the evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for both Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species blood stream infections. Currently, there is promising in vitro data but little clinical evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for this indication. Further clinical investigations are needed to elucidate the potential benefits of beta-lactam combination therapy over monotherapy for Gram-positive bacteremia, although combination therapy may be useful in refractory cases of bacteremia that do not respond to standard antibiotic therapy.

  18. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-07

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  19. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  20. Onderzoek pathogene vibrio soorten in Nederlandse mosselen en oesters in augustus en september 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van de hoge weerstemperatuur in augustus 2003 zijn in de kweek- en verwatergebieden van mosselen en oesters in Nederland enkele monsters onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van voor de mens pathogene vibrio soorten. In geen van de 18 monsters is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, vulnificus of

  1. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some

  2. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunla, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens. PMID:28991153

  3. Vibrio Pathogens: A Public Health Concern in Rural Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osunla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Vibrio genus are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments and play vital roles in sustaining the aquatic milieu. The genus comprises about 100 species, which are mostly of marine or freshwater origin, and their classification is frequently updated due to the continuous discovery of novel species. The main route of transmission of Vibrio pathogens to man is through drinking of contaminated water and consumption inadequately cooked aquatic food products. In sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing world, some rural dwellers use freshwater resources such as rivers for domestic activities, bathing, and cultural and religious purposes. This review describes the impact of inadequately treated sewage effluents on the receiving freshwater resources and the associated risk to the rural dwellers that depends on the water. Vibrio infections remain a threat to public health. In the last decade, Vibrio disease outbreaks have created alertness on the personal, economic, and public health uncertainties associated with the impact of contaminated water in the aquatic environment of sub-Saharan Africa. In this review, we carried out an overview of Vibrio pathogens in rural water resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and the implication of Vibrio pathogens on public health. Continuous monitoring of Vibrio pathogens among environmental freshwater and treated effluents is expected to help reduce the risk associated with the early detection of sources of infection, and also aid our understanding of the natural ecology and evolution of Vibrio pathogens.

  4. Comparison of Outcomes among Adult Patients with Nosocomial Bacteremia Caused by Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Hsu, Le-Yin; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Fan, Wen-Chien; Wang, Fu-Der

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that patients with bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have worse outcomes than those with bacteremia caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). However, only a limited number of studies have stratified the MRSA isolates into healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA-) MRSA strains in such a comparison. This three-year retrospective cohort study, enrolling adult patients with nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), was designed to investigate whether CA-MRSA and/or HA-MRSA strains were associated with different outcomes in comparison to MSSA in such a setting. The drug susceptibilities and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types were determined for all of the causative isolates available. The MRSA bacteremia was further categorized into those caused by CA-MRSA strains (CA-MRSA-S bacteremia) when the causative isolates carried the type IV or V SCCmec element, those caused by HA-MRSA strains (HA-MRSA-S bacteremia) when the isolates carried the type I, II, or III SCCmec element, or unclassified MRSA bacteremia when the isolates were not available. The relevant demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected by reviewing the patients’ charts. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. A total of 353 patients were studied. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32.6%, with 23.3% in MSSA, 30.5% in CA-MRSA-S, 47.5% in HA-MRSA-S, and 35.3% in unclassified MRSA bacteremia, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that HA-MRSA-S, but not CA-MRSA-S, bacteremia was associated with a significantly worse outcome compared with MSSA. The other risk factors independently associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality included the Charlson co-morbidity index, septic shock, thrombocytopenia, and persistent bacteremia. Resistance to linezolid and daptomycin was found among the MRSA isolates. The present study showed that bacteremia caused by HA

  5. Genomic diversity of vibrios associated with the Brazilian coral Mussismilia hispida and its sympatric zoanthids (Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, L A; Brocchi, M; Gondo, M; Thompson, C C; Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L

    2009-06-01

    A taxonomic survey of the vibrios associated with the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida and the sympatric zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi). Mucus of 54 cnidarian specimens collected in three different places at São Sebastião in two consecutive years (i.e. 2005 and 2006) was used for taxonomic characterization of the cnidarian microbiota. Ninety-eight of the 151 vibrio isolates fell within the vibrio core group according to partial 16S rDNA sequences. We performed the sequencing of recA and pyrH genes of all vibrio isolates. The most abundant taxa belonged to the vibrio core group (Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio rotiferianus, Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio alginolyticus), Vibrio mediterranei (=Vibrio shillonii) and Vibrio chagasii. With the exception of V. chagasii which was found only in the mucus of M. hispida, the other species appeared in different hosts with no evidence for the presence of host-specific clones or species. Using rep-PCR analysis, we observed a high genomic heterogeneity within the vibrios. Each vibrio isolate generated a different rep-PCR fingerprint pattern. There was a complete agreement between the grouping based on rep-PCR and concatenated sequences of pyrH, recA and 16S rDNA, but the pyrH gene has the highest discriminatory power for vibrio species identification. The vibrio core group is dominant in the mucus of these cnidarians. There is a tremendous diversity of vibrio lineages within the coral mucus. pyrH gene sequences permit a clear-cut identification of vibrios. The taxonomic resolution provided by pyrH (but not recA) appears to be enough for identifying species of vibrios and for disclosing putative new taxa. The vibrio core group appears to be dominant in the mucus of the Brazilian cnidarians. The overrepresentation of these vibrios may reflect as yet unknown ecological functions in the coral holobiont.

  6. Incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia according to the focus of infection and antibiotic sensitivity of the causative microorganism in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia according to the causative focus and classified by the antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganism.Patients admitted to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona from 2005 to 2012 were included. We analyzed the total hospital costs of patients with nosocomial bacteremia caused by microorganisms with a high prevalence and, often, with multidrug-resistance. A control group was defined by selecting patients without bacteremia in the same diagnosis-related group.Our hospital has a cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to estimate per-patient costs. A logistic regression was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia (propensity score) and was used for propensity-score matching adjustment. This propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients with bacteremia with differentiation of the causative focus and antibiotic sensitivity.The mean incremental cost was estimated at &OV0556;15,526. The lowest incremental cost corresponded to bacteremia caused by multidrug-sensitive urinary infection (&OV0556;6786) and the highest to primary or unknown sources of bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (&OV0556;29,186).This is one of the first analyses to include all episodes of bacteremia produced during hospital stays in a single study. The study included accurate information about the focus and antibiotic sensitivity of the causative organism and actual hospital costs. It provides information that could be useful to improve, establish, and prioritize prevention strategies for nosocomial infections.

  7. The Comparative Efficacy of 0.12% Chlorhexidine and Amoxicillin to Reduce the Incidence and Magnitude of Bacteremia During Third Molar Extractions: A Prospective, Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    hygiene activities of chewing, toothbrushing, and flossing to dental treatment procedures. Of particular 2 significance with regards to bacteremia...173. Carroll, G. C., & Sebor, R. J. (1980). Dental flossing and its relationship to transient bacteremia. Journal of Periodontology, 51(12), 691-692...Bacteraemia due to dental flossing . Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 36(4), 323-332. Daly, C. G., Mitchell, D. H., Highfield, J. E., Grossberg

  8. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO BACTERIA CAUSED VIBRIOSIS ON FRESHWATER PRAWN LARVAE (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man farming in Bali needs to be supported by the provisionof healthy prawn larvae. Vibriosis infection can be a limiting factor on larval production system which cause highmass mortality in larvae. Therefore a bacteriological study is very important to identify of Vibrio species whichcan cause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. Screening of Vibrio bacteria carried on larval rearing water atUPT Pembenihan Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Provinsi Bali which located in Pesinggahan Village, Klungkung.During study, 5 Vibrio isolates can be characterized (VSP01, VSP02, VSP04, VSP05 and VSP06 which wereisolated as dominant Vibrio bacteria in larval rearing water. Koch postulate test results showed that VSP06 cancause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. The result of identification by BBL Cystal™ Identification Systems andidentification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 wasidentified as Vibrio anguillarum.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO BACTERIA CAUSED VIBRIOSIS ON FRESHWATER PRAWN LARVAE (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man farming in Bali needs to be supported by the provisionof healthy prawn larvae. Vibriosis infection can be a limiting factor on larval production system which cause highmass mortality in larvae. Therefore a bacteriological study is very important to identify of Vibrio species whichcan cause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. Screening of Vibrio bacteria carried on larval rearing water atUPT Pembenihan Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Provinsi Bali which located in Pesinggahan Village, Klungkung.During study, 5 Vibrio isolates can be characterized (VSP01, VSP02, VSP04, VSP05 and VSP06 which wereisolated as dominant Vibrio bacteria in larval rearing water. Koch postulate test results showed that VSP06 cancause vibriosis in freshwater prawn larvae. The result of identification by BBL Cystal™ Identification Systems andidentification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 wasidentified as Vibrio anguillarum.

  11. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønneseth, A.; Castillo, D.; D'Alvise, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae infections are a major obstacle for marine larviculture; however, little is known about virulence differences of Vibrio strains. The virulence of Vibrio strains, mostly isolated from vibriosis outbreaks in farmed fish, was tested in larval challenge trials with cod (Gadus morhua...... effects on survival. Some Vibrio strains were pathogenic in all of the larva species, while some caused disease only in one of the species. Twenty-nine of the Vibrio anguillarum strains increased the mortality of larvae from at least one fish species; however, pathogenicity of the strains differed...... markedly. Other Vibrio species had no or less pronounced effects on larval mortalities. Iron uptake has been related to V. anguillarum virulence; however, the presence or absence of the plasmid pJM1 encoding anguibactin did not correlate with virulence. The genomes of V. anguillarum were compared (D...

  12. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  13. The complete genome sequence and analysis of vB_VorS-PVo5, a Vibrio phage infectious to the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio ordalii ATCC-33509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría-Vega, Alex; Morales-Vicencio, Pablo; Saez-Saavedra, Camila; Ceh, Janja; Araya, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio ordalii is best known as the causative agent of vibriosis outbreaks in fish and thus recognized for generating serious production losses in aquaculture systems. Here we report for the first time on the isolation and the genome sequencing of phage vB_VorS-PVo5, infectious to Vibrio ordalii ATCC 33509. The features as well as the complete genome sequence and annotation of the Vibrio phage are described; vB_VorS-PVo5 consists of a lineal double stranded DNA totaling ~ 80.6 Kb in length. Considering its ability to lyse Vibrio ordalii ATCC 33509, the phage is likely to gain importance in future aquaculture applications by controlling the pathogen and as such replacing antibiotics as the treatment of choice.

  14. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghnieh, Rima; Estaitieh, Nour; Mugharbil, Anas; Jisr, Tamima; Abdallah, Dania I; Ziade, Fouad; Sinno, Loubna; Ibrahim, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO)-associated bacteremia. This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012. It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP), and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN). GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias). Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms) and Klebsiella pneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms) were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS) bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p < 0.05). Our findings have major

  15. Clinical study of carbapenem sensitive and resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients: The first series from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafur, A K; Vidyalakshmi, P R; Kannaian, P; Balasubramaniam, R

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance is a growing global concern. There is a lack of published clinical studies on the topic from Indian subcontinent. Aim of this study was to analyze clinical profile of patients with carbapenem sensitive and resistant bacteremia among neutropenic and nonneutropenic patients. Retrospective analysis of 141 patients who had carbapenem resistant or sensitive Gram-negative bacteremia, identified over a period of 1-year was done by medical records review, in Apollo Specialty Hospital, a 300-bedded tertiary care Oncology, neurosurgical and orthopedic center in South India. Of the total 141 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia, 44 had carbapenem resistant ones. Of these 44 patients, 17 were neutropenics (resistant neutropenic group) and 27 nonneutropenic patients (resistant nonneutropenic group). Of the 97 patients with carbapenem sensitive bacteremia, 43 were neutropenic (sensitive neutropenic group) and 54 nonneutropenics (sensitive nonneutropenic group). The 28 days mortality was significantly higher in carbapenem resistant bacteremic group compared to the sensitive one (P = 0.008). This is the first study from India comparing clinical features of patients with carbapenem sensitive and resistant blood stream infections. Patients with carbapenem resistant bacteremia had higher mortality compared to patients with sensitive bacteremia.

  16. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  17. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J.; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J.; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs. PMID:26528464

  18. Temperature-dependent inhibition of opportunistic Vibrio pathogens by native coral commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenborg, Beck R; Krediet, Cory J; Teplitski, Max; Ritchie, Kim B

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria isolated from the mucus layer of a healthy elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are capable of inhibition of opportunistic pathogens, Vibrio shiloi AK1 and Vibrio coralliilyticus. These vibrios are known to cause disease in corals and their virulence is temperature dependent. Elevated temperature (30 °C) increased the cell numbers of one commensal and both Vibrio pathogens in monocultures. We further tested the hypothesis that elevated temperature favors pathogenic organisms by simultaneously increasing the fitness of vibrios and decreasing the fitness of commensals by measuring growth of each species within a co-culture over the course of 1 week. In competition experiments between vibrios and commensals, the proportion of Vibrio spp. increased significantly under elevated temperature. We finished by investigating several temperature-dependent mechanisms that could influence co-culture differences via changes in competitive fitness. The ability of Vibrio spp. to utilize glycoproteins found in A. palmata mucus increased or remained stable when exposed to elevated temperature, while commensals' tended to decrease utilization. In both vibrios and commensals, protease activity increased at 30 °C, while chiA expression increased under elevated temperatures for Vibrio spp. These results provide insight into potential mechanisms through which elevated temperature may select for pathogenic bacterial dominance and lead to disease or a decrease in coral fitness.

  19. VibrioBase: A MALDI-TOF MS database for fast identification of Vibrio spp. that are potentially pathogenic in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, René; Wichels, Antje; Heinemeyer, Ernst-August; Hauk, Gerhard; Hippelein, Martin; Reyes, Nadja Torres; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-02-01

    Mesophilic marine bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae, specifically V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are considered to cause severe illness in humans. Due to climate-change-driven temperature increases, higher Vibrio abundances and infections are predicted for Northern Europe, which in turn necessitates environmental surveillance programs to evaluate this risk. We propose that whole-cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is a promising tool for the fast and reliable species classification of environmental isolates. Because the reference database does not contain sufficient Vibrio spectra we generated the VibrioBase database in this study. Mass spectrometric data were generated from 997 largely environmental strains and filed in this new database. MALDI-TOF MS clusters were assigned based on the species classification obtained by analysis of partial rpoB (RNA polymerase beta-subunit) sequences. The affiliation of strains to species-specific clusters was consistent in 97% of all cases using both approaches, and the extended VibrioBase generated more specific species identifications with higher matching scores compared to the commercially available database. Therefore, we have made the VibrioBase database freely accessible, which paves the way for detailed risk assessment studies of potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. from marine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.