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Sample records for bacon

  1. Kevin Bacon and Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected world of actors and movies is a familiar, rich example for graph theory. This paper gives the history of the "Kevin Bacon Game" and makes extensive use of a Web site to analyze the underlying graph. The main content is the classroom development of the weighted average to determine the best choice of "center" for the graph. The…

  2. Radiation preservation of low nitrite bacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium nitrite, a key ingredient of the mix used to cure bacon and other meats, promotes and fixes bacon's characteristic pink color, inhibits lipid peroxidation and prevents growth of micro-organisms, particularly Clostridium botulinum spores. Unfortunately, nitrite leads to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative. Radurization of bacon containing 20 to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 40C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 90 days, as opposed to ∼ 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at temperature of -200 or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable at room temperature for months to years. It has organoleptic qualities comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Various aspects of preservation of bacon are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. (author)

  3. Bringing Home the “Danish” Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, David M.; Mordhorst, Mads

    2015-01-01

    A substantial literature documents the importance of trademarks and brands to business success. How does this relationship change when we enlarge our focus from individual firms to industries and nations? This articles examines the dominance of Danish bacon in Britain between the late nineteenth......, and ultimately negated the efforts of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to promote a “British” bacon brand....

  4. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  5. Ethical traceability in the bacon supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2008-01-01

    The chapter describes how Danish consumers feel a need for more information about bacon production practices,especially about some of the invisible attributes, such as origin, use of medicine and animal welfare, even though there is a long tradition for highly developed traceability systems....... Traceability is reactive in this chain and is not intended to transmit information on the safety, production practices or quality of the final product proactively downstream to firms or end consumers....

  6. Physics of the Bacon Internal Resonator Banjo

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    The internal resonator banjo, patented and first sold by Fred Bacon around 1906, remains something of a cult favorite and is still produced by some independent luthiers. According to enthusiasts, the characteristic design elements produce a sound that is mellower, richer, and of greater complexity and presence than without them. Aspects of that sound are studied here, comparing instruments that are otherwise identical and identifying physics mechanisms that are likely responsible.

  7. Francis Bacon: The Real's Brutality. The Figure and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mannucci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Getting in front of painting by Francis Bacon touches you deeply. I’m talking about aesthetics, sensations: resounding flow that strikes abruptly, making futile any search for meaning. Francis Bacon circumvents the figurative, the meaning, he aims to the figural: to feelings, not words. Beauty, in his paintings, shows itself in the peaceful union of the positive and of its contrary; if the negative wasn’t there, though, his paintings wouldn’t exude such a brutal sense of reality. This essay investigates the figure of Francis Bacon and the spectator – the Other – as he tries to confront the painting. Bacon will be analysed using a purely phenomenological approach, with references that range from Merleau-Ponty to Martin Heidegger; the meeting-collision between the spectator and the painting, instead, will be examined taking inspiration from the Winnicott’s thesis on the relationship between Bacon and mirrors in the painter’s childhood. In order to take distance from Winnicott’s psychoanalytical approach, this essay will focus on the relationship between spectator and painting from a more anthropological point of view. 

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-5 - Davis-Bacon Act-Secondary Site of the Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.222-5 Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work. As prescribed in 22.407(h), insert the following provision: Davis-Bacon Act—Secondary Site of the Work (JUL 2005) (a)(1) The offeror shall notify... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon...

  9. The Prehistory of Serendipity, from Bacon to Walpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Sean

    2015-06-01

    During the past four decades there has developed a burgeoning literature on the concept of serendipity, the name for sudden insights or conceptual breakthroughs that occur by chance or accident. Studies repeatedly note that it was Horace Walpole, the eighteenth-century man of letters, who coined the word. None of them, however, notice that Walpole's term is itself indebted to a much older tradition, invoking a formula developed by Francis Bacon. Recovering the prehistory of the term suggests that "serendipity," rather than being a name for a special mode of discovery invented by Walpole, has all along accompanied empiricism as the name for an essential gap in its epistemology. Serendipity bears directly on the "induction problem," or what has more recently been called the "conceptual leap." Though Walpole gave it its current name, versions of the concept have all along isolated a critical gap in the method of the sciences inaugurated by Bacon. PMID:26353434

  10. Classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon based on physicochemical properties and chemometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Chunjiang; Hu, Honghai; Chen, Wenbo

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-seven pork bacon samples from Hunan, Sichuan Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Yunnan Provinces in China were analyzed to understand their geographical properties. Classification was performed by determining their physicochemical properties through chemometric techniques, including variance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Results showed that certain differences existed in terms of nine physicochemical determinations in traditional Chinese pork bacon. PCA revealed the distinction among Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangdong style bacon. Meanwhile, seven key physicochemical determination criteria were identified in line with DA and could be reasonably applied to the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. Furthermore, the ratio of overall correct classification was 97.76% and that of cross-validation was 91.76%. These findings indicated that chemometric techniques, together with several physicochemical determination, were effective for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon with geographical features. Our study provided a theoretical reference for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. PMID:26994313

  11. Estimating groundwater recharge through glacial till at Bacon Hall, Shropshire

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, D.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to obtain estimates for recharge to groundwater through glacial till. The work was carried out in support of the Hydrogeological Classification of Superficial Clays programme; a cofunded programme of research between BGS and the National Rivers Authority. Estimates were made using data from Bacon Hall, one of a series of sites used to monitor the Shropshire Groundwater Scheme. The sites are instrumented to measure the effect on soil moisture due to the pu...

  12. Francis Bacons Qualification As A Principal Empiricist Philosopher

    OpenAIRE

    Ochulor, Chinenye Leo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding Francis Bacon as a principal empiricist philosopher. This involves effort to determine what constitutes, in essence, the qualities of a principal empiricist philosopher. Are there any criteria that qualify one as a principal empiricist philosopher? Proceeding with this inquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defence of Bacon’s qualification as a principal empiricist philosopher....

  13. Francis Bacon y el atomismo: una nueva evaluación

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Manzo

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad no hay una interpretación unánime acerca de la teoría de la materia de Francis Bacon. Los desacuerdos giran particularmente en torno al atomismo de Bacon y a sus ideas animistas. En este artículo sostengo que a pesar de que Bacon cambió su visión del atomismo repetidas veces, nunca lo rechazó por completo. Reconstruiré las diversas opiniones de Bacon en orden cronológico para establecer su evaluación final del atomismo y las razones sobre las que la justifica. Debido a que Ba...

  14. Radiation preservation with reduced nitrites of bacon and other cured meats - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem caused by nitrite as a preservative is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon and other cured meats. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative to the use of current levels of nitrite. Radurization (radiation pasteurization) of bacon containing 20 to to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 degrees C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 80 days vs. < days 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization (radiation sterilization) of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at -20 degrees or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable for months to years at room temperature (∼ 25 degrees C). It has organoleptic properties comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Lower levels of nitrosamines are formed on cooking irradiated bacon containing presently used commercial levels of nitrite (120-150 mg/kg) and the levels of nitrosamines become negligible with 20 mg/kg of nitrite. Various aspects of preservation of bacon and other cured meats are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. 357 refs

  15. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (Paroma and flavor scores among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for boar aroma or flavor. Intact males had the least (Paroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (Paroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Total slice area of bacon slices from IC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose

  16. Roger Bacon in der Sicht Alexander von Humboldts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Müller

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Articel in german, abstracts in englisch, german and español In his model of the six epochs of the history of science, Alexander von Humboldt sees scarcely any lights able to break through the occidental darkness in the time between the scientific prime of the arabic world and the expeditions of Columbus. The most prominent of these few pioneers to Humboldt is the fransciscan monc Roger Bacon who excelled in almost all disciplines and emphasized on the unity of the sciences. Humboldt honors the Englishman with detailed examinations of his Opus maius in Kosmos and also in his popular speeches in the Berlin Singakademie as well as in the examen critique on the history of geography of the New World.

  17. Francis Bacon y el atomismo: una nueva evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Manzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad no hay una interpretación unánime acerca de la teoría de la materia de Francis Bacon. Los desacuerdos giran particularmente en torno al atomismo de Bacon y a sus ideas animistas. En este artículo sostengo que a pesar de que Bacon cambió su visión del atomismo repetidas veces, nunca lo rechazó por completo. Reconstruiré las diversas opiniones de Bacon en orden cronológico para establecer su evaluación final del atomismo y las razones sobre las que la justifica. Debido a que Bacon nunca sostuvo una teoría atomista ortodoxa de la materia identificable con el atomismo griego, en este trabajo definiré el atomismo en sentido amplio como una teoría corpuscular de la materia que establece la existencia de partículas últimas e indivisibles. Siguiendo esta delimitación semántica, es posible distinguir dos posiciones baconianas sucesivas: la primera considera que el atomismo constituye un principio ontológico y causal-operativo; la segunda priva al átomo de su capacidad causal-operativa pero deja intacta su prioridad ontológica. Además, investigaré la cuestión de la coexistencia del atomismo y el pneumatismo en la teoría baconiana, un punto que ha sido abordado por las influyentes interpretaciones de Kargon y Rees. Sin embargo, argumentaré que Bacon no consideró que esas dos doctrinas fuesen incompatibles.There is no unanimity among recent historians about Francis Bacon's theory of matter. Disagreement exists in particular about Bacon's atomist and animistic ideas. My claim is that although Bacon changed his views on atomism repeatedly, he never rejected it completely. I shall reconstruct Bacon's various opinions in chronological order to establish his final evaluation of atomism and his reasons for it. Because Bacon never held an orthodox atomist matter theory identical with Greek atomism, for this paper I will define atomism in the broadest sense, as a corpuscular matter theory that posits final and indivisible

  18. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  19. Bacon and Freud’s Self-Portraits or the Remains of the Self

    OpenAIRE

    Amselle, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Les autoportraits de Francis Bacon et Lucian Freud sont connus pour leur violence, leur crudité. Entre rupture et continuité, ces portraits de peintres par eux-mêmes frappent parce qu’ils semblent respecter certains codes de l’autoportrait tout en dé-figurant leurs modèles. Peintres et modèles à la fois, Bacon et Freud ne cherchent jamais à se ménager, à rendre confortable leur double position. Au-delà de l’enveloppe d’un corps en ruines, au-delà de la chair et de la viande des corps, ce face...

  20. A ciência nas utopias de Campanella, Bacon, Comenius, e Glanvill

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Jefferson de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo analisa comparativamente o papel que a ciência e a técnica ocupam nas sociedades descritas em A cidade do Sol de Tommasio Campanella, a Nova Atlântida de Francis Bacon, Panorthosia de Jan Amós Comenius e o Complemento à Nova Atlântida de Joseph Glanvill.This article evaluates the role that science and technology plays in the societies described by early modern utopias, making a comparative analysis of Tommasio Campanella's City of Sun, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Jan Amós Comeni...

  1. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...

  2. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows, PC barrows, and gilts were still below 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg of meat, the threshold at which trained panelists may deem a food to be rancid. In conclusion, bacon shelf life characteristics were not altered by the immunological castration management strategy and bacon from IC barrows was similar to bacon from

  3. SECCIÓN TEMÁTICA - 2. DE BACON Y MILL A LA LÓGICA DIFUSA // FROM BACON AND MILL TO FUZZY SETS

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Forni

    2012-01-01

    Ese artículo es el fruto de años de experiencia docente en cursos de metodología y talleres de tesis. Se revisan los orígenes y desarrollo de la lógica subyacente en los estudios comparativos en Ciencias Sociales desde las formulaciones de Bacon y Mill. Se presentan los métodos de la concordancia y la diferencia así como cuestiones relevantes para el diseño de estudios comparativos. Se presentan diferentes usos de los estudios comparativos así como ilustraciones de los mismos y se revisan des...

  4. Studio Habits: Francis Bacon, Lee Krasner, Jackson Pollock and Agnes Martin

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about studio habits. Specifically, it considers what happens in practice in the artist's studio and ways in which creative acts have been visualised and disseminated. The chapters of this thesis are organised around views of the studios of four twentieth century painters: Francis Bacon (1908-1994), Lee Krasner (1909-1984), Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) and Agnes Martin (1913-2005). Each of these artists' studio habits has been fundamental to their respective mythologies and the s...

  5. Beyond Thomas Mun: the economic ideas of Edward Coke, Francis Bacon and Lionel Cranfield

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes to approach the economic ideas which prevailed in England during the early 17th century by moving beyond the historical and analytical exegesis of the printed pamphlets of the time, and focusing instead on the intellectual perspectives brought to bear upon economic matters by three of the most prominent public figures of late Jacobean England: Lionel Cranfield, Francis Bacon, and Edward Coke. As civil servants, all three of them were directly involved in the formulation of...

  6. Francis Bacon and the "Interpretation of Nature" in the late Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serjeantson, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The "interpretation of nature" (interpretatio naturae) is the leading idea in Francis Bacon's natural philosophy. But by contrast with his ideas about method, induction, or experiment, the significance of the "interpretation of nature" has received very little scholarly attention. This essay tests the originality of Bacon's idea by means of a focused survey of existing forms of Renaissance natural knowledge-Aristotelian and anti-Aristotelian natural philosophy, Galenic and Paracelsian medicine, natural magic, physiognomy, natural history-before turning to consider the much more prominent place of "interpretation" in the fields of Renaissance logic, revealed and natural theology, and law. It finds that Bacon's application of the idea of "interpretation" to nature was highly original, but also that certain important aspects of his conception have analogies in Renaissance civil law. The essay concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for a recent body of scholarship in the history of the sciences that invokes the notion of the "interpretation of nature" to characterize pre-Baconian natural philosophy more generally. PMID:25665379

  7. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon...

  8. Francis Bacon: Of Building, Essay 45, aus: Francis Bacon: The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount St. Alban (London: Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, 1625) (FONTES 16)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Together with 'The Elements of Achitecture' by Henry Wotton (1624), Francis Bacon’s essay 'Of Building' (1625, no. 45) constitutes the earliest significant statement of architectural thought both in printed form and in English. With his opening sentence, “A house is to live in, and not to look on”, Bacon gives expression to a new functionalist and empiricist position that anticipates architectural theories of modern times. Bacon discusses the site of the house (“seat”), and he proposes a verb...

  9. Survival and death of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon at three storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2010-08-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon cubes (a(w) 0.910 +/- 0.080), strips (a(w) 0.726 +/- 0.054), and bits (a(w) 0.620 +/- 0.038) was determined during a 25 week storage period at -20, 4.4, and 22 degrees C. Selective enrichment and subsequent enzyme-linked fluorescent antibody (ELFA) detection were used to asses survival on samples inoculated at ca. 1-log(10) CFU/g (LI). Samples inoculated at ca. 5.5-log(10) CFU/g (HI) were analyzed over time by direct plating on modified Oxford medium (MOX). The Baranyi model was fitted to the inactivation curves of HI samples using the DMFit program. At -20 degrees C, a decline of about 1-log(10) CFU/g occurred on all HI cooked bacon types by 14 weeks, although most LI samples remained positive by the ELFA detection method for 25 weeks. At 4.4 and 22 degrees C, some strips and bits LI samples were negative for the pathogen within 3 weeks, and >1.5 log(10) CFU/g reductions occurred on HI strips and bits by 8 weeks. Reductions on cubes at refrigeration and ambient temperature were ca. 0.5 log(10) CFU/g, and cubes remained positive on LI samples for 25 weeks. Rate parameter estimates indicated that the population declined fastest on strips and bits at 22 degrees C compared to all other product and temperature combinations. This study demonstrates that cooked bacon does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen gradually dies off during storage. PMID:20510786

  10. Validation of bacon processing conditions to verify control of Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J; Bartholomew, Gene W

    2005-09-01

    It is unclear how rapidly meat products, such as bacon, that have been heat treated but not fully cooked should be cooled to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacterial pathogens and limit the growth of vegetative cells. Clostridium perfringens spores and vegetative cells and Staphylococcus aureus cells were inoculated into ground cured pork bellies with and without 1.25% liquid smoke. Bellies were subjected to the thermal profiles of industrial smoking to 48.9 degrees C (120 degrees F) and normal cooling of bacon (3 h) as well as a cooling phase of 15 h until the meat reached 7.2 degrees C (45 degrees F). A laboratory-scale bacon smoking and cooling operation was also performed. Under normal smoking and cooling thermal conditions, growth of C. perfringens in ground pork bellies was <1 log regardless of smoke. Increase of S. aureus was 2.38 log CFU/g but only 0.68 log CFU/g with smoke. When cooling spanned 15 h, both C. perfringens and S. aureus grew by a total of about 4 log. The addition of liquid smoke inhibited C. perfringens, but S. aureus still achieved a 3.97-log increase. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected in five of six samples cooled for 15 h without smoke but in none of the six samples of smoked bellies. In laboratory-scale smoking of whole belly pieces, initial C. perfringens populations of 2.23 +/- 0.25 log CFU/g were reduced during smoking to 0.99 +/- 0.50 log CFU/g and were 0.65 +/- 0.21 log CFU/g after 15 h of cooling. Populations of S. aureus were reduced from 2.00 +/- 0.74 to a final concentration of 0.74 +/- 0.53 log CFU/g after cooling. Contrary to findings in the ground pork belly system, the 15-h cooling of whole belly pieces did not permit growth of either pathogen. This study demonstrates that if smoked bacon is cooled from 48.9 to 7.2 degrees C (120 to 45 degrees F) within 15 h, a food safety hazard from either C. perfringens or S. aureus is not likely to occur. PMID:16161681

  11. Algunas consideraciones sobre el problema de la nominación en Bacon

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Zadorojny

    2002-01-01

    La propuesta de Bacon para descifrar el lenguaje de la Naturaleza lo lleva a considerar el problema de la naturaleza del lenguaje, más precisamente, en cuanto a su “pureza” para transmitir nociones. Entre el nombre y la cosa nombrada existe una relación de correspondencia, que según el filósofo, existió "(...) pura e inmaculada ciencia natural por medio de la cual impuso Adán nombre a las cosas según sus propiedades, pero que se ha perdido con la caída del hombre del Edén. Trataremos de señal...

  12. Francis Bacon sob o olhar de Gilles Deleuze: a imagem como intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Fontes Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio de Gilles Deleuze La logique de la sensation é texto que se detém principalmente na prática e na eficácia da imagem. A pintura de Francis Bacon é ali tomada como paradigma de modernidade ao investir contra os clichês expressivos e ao produzir imagem junto à brutalidade dos fatos, como um contra-efeito do narrativo. Em uma obra que conjura todo modelo a representar, toda história a contar, “alguma coisa se passa”, explica Deleuze, “que define o funcionamento da pintura”. Algo se passa, tem lugar: o acontecimento de uma catástrofe e de uma histeria no ato de pintura que acomete a Figura de modo a transmitir uma potencial violência de reação e de expressão. O “Bacon” de Deleuze apresenta a realidade vivida em uma nova e não-convencional ordem de sensação. Neste artigo, são comentados os modos como o filósofo interpreta os atos físicos da pintura de Bacon — marcas aleatórias, varredura da massa pictural, escansão das superfícies —, procedimentos que introduzem no mundo visual da figuração a variedade caótica dos fatos e sentidos. Mostra-se como as faces e as figuras contorcidas, distorcidas, escorchadas de Bacon recebem uma voz conceitual complementar no texto de Deleuze. Consequentemente, focaliza-se a disposição de alguns conceitos do filósofo: diagrama, Figura, diferença, espaço háptico. Locados no espaço afetivo ou na “lógica da sensação” da pintura baconiana, esses conceitos atribuem legitimidade ao entrelaçamento e à co-implicação entre arte e filosofia. Uma última observação dá conta do fato de a prática da imagem em Bacon, apresentada por Deleuze no palco de uma modernidade particularmente solapada por um “dilúvio anestésico de imagens reprimindo a possibilidade de pensar”, evidenciar para o filósofo os rumos necessariamente sinuosos, “reptilíneos”, do pensamento moderno. Tanto o conceito como a forma criam por catástrofe, por conflagração, por varia

  13. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on slices of turkey bacon during extended storage at 4 Degrees and 10 Degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) on the surface of fully-cooked, cured turkey bacon, an increasingly popular product that on a per ounce (28 g) basis is generally lower in fat (ca. 1.0 g), sodium (ca. 200 mg), and calories (40 calories) than its traditional counterpart, that bein...

  14. Los usos políticos del cuerpo: los dos cuerpos del rey en la filosofía política de Francis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Manzo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Como figure destacada en el complejo escenario político de la transición entre la dinastía Tudor y la dinastía Estuardo de Inglaterra, Francis Bacon (1561-1626 adoptó la teoría de los dos cuerpos del rey en sus textos políticos y jurídicos. Su uso de esta teoría tiene una estrecha conexión con conceptos centrales de su filosofía natural que testimonia la profunda conexión que Bacon encuentra entre la política y la naturaleza. En este trabajo, analizaré su utilización de la teoría medieval de los dos cuerpos del rey y la vinculación que esta tiene con el resto de la filosofía baconiana. Tomaré como eje para el análisis su discurso sobre la naturalización de los escoceses nacidos después de la subida al trono de James I, donde Bacon trata el concepto de los dos cuerpos del rey con más profundidad.As a prominent intellectual figure in the complex political arena of England, during the transition from Tudor to Stuart dinasties, Francis Bacon (1561-1626 assumes the medieval King's two bodies theory in his political and juridical writings. His use of this theory is extremely linked to central concepts of his natural philosphy, which testifies to the deep connection that Bacon finds between politics and nature. This paper addresses Bacon's use of the King's two bodies theory and its link to the rest of the Baconian philosophy. The focus of this study will be his discourse on the naturalization of Scots born after James I assumption of power, where Bacon deals more deeply with the King's two bodies theory.

  15. Chemical and isotopic studies of fluids in the Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and isotopic data from springs rainfall and wells have been used to characterize the fluids and to identify the major reservoir processes at Bacon-Manito geothermal field, Philippines. The deep reservoir fluid is postulated to be heated to about 325 deg. C and have 7500-8500 mg/kg chloride. Its chemical and isotopic composition is best characterized by wells OP-3D and OP-4D. Spring isotopic data show that their discharges are predominantly meteoric in origin, with a few following a simple evaporation trend. Chloride-enthalpy and chlorid-δ18O relations reveal that the upflowing geothermal reservoir fluid undergoes: (1) dilution with meteroic water, (2) conductive cooling as these move away, (3) mixing with steam condensate, and (4) vapor gain. Well gas chemistry points to the absence of direct magmatic contributions while it is shown that the equilibrium reaction CH4 + 2H2O = CO2 + 4H2 is likely to be established. The observed positive 18O shifts of well waters relative to the local water meteoric line were considered to be due primarily to mixing of deeply-seated ''andesitic'' and meteoric waters while water-rock interaction could not be ruled out. Finally, a conceptual geochemical model of the geothermal system is proposed. (author). 21 refs, 12 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Extensometer, water-level, and lithologic data from Bacon and Bethel Islands in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, September 1987 to August 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Barry D.; Leighton, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Compaction, water-level, and lithologic data were collected at extensometer sites on Bacon and Bethel Islands, anchored at 436 and 536 feet below land surface, respectively. The data reported here are part of a study of the processes causing subsidence in the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. The depths were selected to ensure that they were well below the peat layer and the primary aquifer, which minimized the effects of peat loss and shallow ground-water withdrawal. Compaction and depth to ground water were measured monthly at Bacon Island from September 1987 through August 1993 and at Bethel Island from August 1988 through August 1993. After automatic digital data loggers were installed at Bacon Island in December 1988 and at Bethel Island in September 1989, hourly readings also were made. Calculated rates of compaction were 0.0015 and 0.0016 feet per year at Bacon and Bethel Islands, respectively. Cumulative compaction at the Bacon Island site from September 1987 to August 1993 was about 0.009 feet. Cumulative compaction at the Bethel Island site from August 1988 to August 1993 was about 0.008 feet.

  17. Francis Bacon: Of Gardens, Essay 46, aus: Francis Bacon, The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount St. Alban (London: Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, 1625) (FONTES 18)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Together with 'The Elements of Achitecture' by Henry Wotton (1624), Francis Bacon’s essay 'Of Gardens' (1625, no. 45) constitutes the earliest genuinely significant statement about the Garden and its form and functioning which was both in printed form and in English. Bacon proposes a plan or plot for the “princely garden”, partly in words with verbal prescriptions and partly with a draught or plan with which he gives the dimensions and layout of the garden. A glossary of technical and archaic...

  18. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus sakei as bio-protective culture to eliminate Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage and improve the shelf life and sensorial characteristics of commercial cooked bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Giuseppe; Andyanto, Debbie; Manzano, Marisa; Iacumin, Lucilla

    2016-09-01

    Cooked bacon is a typical Italian meat product. After production, cooked bacon is stored at 4 ± 2 °C. During storage, the microorganisms that survived pasteurisation can grow and produce spoilage. For the first time, we studied the cause of the deterioration in spoiled cooked bacon compared to unspoiled samples. Moreover, the use of bio-protective cultures to improve the quality of the product and eliminate the risk of spoilage was tested. The results show that Leuconostoc mesenteroides is responsible for spoilage and produces a greening colour of the meat, slime and various compounds that result from the fermentation of sugars and the degradation of nitrogen compounds. Finally, Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis and Lactobacillus sakei were able to reduce the risk of Leuconostoc mesenteroides spoilage. PMID:27217354

  19. Incidence, location and interrelationships between the sites of abscesses recorded in pigs at a bacon factory in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, R J

    1996-05-25

    The position and incidence of all the abscesses detected during post mortem inspection of 75,130 bacon weight pigs were recorded. Abscesses were detected at one site only in 2.87 per cent of the carcases examined, and at more than one site in 0.26 per cent of the carcases. Tail biting was the cause of the infection in 61.7 per cent of all the carcases with lesions at more than one site. In almost all cases there was a statistically significant interrelationship between the visible abscesses at different sites. PMID:8761973

  20. Analysis of nitrosamines in cooked bacon by QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry with backflushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf-life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which are mitigated by the addition of anti-oxidant...

  1. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, microbiological characteristics, and biogenic amines formation in dry-cured bacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (tea polyphenol, grape seed extract, and gingerol) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol significantly...

  2. Effects of the porcine IGF2 intron 3-G3072A mutation on carcass cutability, meat quality, and bacon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D L; Bohrer, B M; Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2014-12-01

    A SNP in a regulatory region of intron 3 within the porcine IGF2 gene (IGF2-G3072A) is associated with increased lean deposition and decreased fat deposition in pigs with paternal A alleles (APat) compared with pigs with paternal G alleles (GPat). However, data regarding fresh and processed meat quality characteristics of pigs with different alleles for this polymorphism are limited. A single heterozygote (AG) boar was bred to homozygous (AA) commercial Yorkshire-cross sows producing F1 barrows and gilts with either GPat or APat. Two farrowing groups of barrows and gilts were group housed, provided ad libitum access to a diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient recommendations throughout production, and slaughtered at 176 d (±4 d) of age. Fresh LM quality and estimated percent fat-free lean measurements were taken on the left side of carcasses, while carcass cutouts were completed with right sides. Fresh belly and bacon processing traits were characterized for only block 1 pigs. Pig was treated as the experimental unit for all analyses. Ending live weight and HCW were not affected by IGF2 allele; however, 10th rib backfat thickness was 0.41 cm less (P=0.01), loin eye area was 4.0 cm2 greater (P=0.01), and predicted fat-free lean was over 2 percentage units greater (Plean cuts from the shoulder, loin, and ham were heavier (Pgreen weight was 1.57 percentage units between bellies from APat pigs (85.83%) and bellies from GPat pigs (87.40%). Pigs with GPat had superior belly quality that may positively impact commercial bacon production. However, pigs with APat yielded a greater amount of lean product at the expense of producing lighter LM color and increased cooking loss. PMID:25367517

  3. Effects of immunological castration (Improvest) on further processed belly characteristics and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D

    2014-09-01

    Objectives were to compare fresh belly characteristics, further processed belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males, and gilts. One hundred eighty-eight bellies from pigs housed in single sex pens (n = 48) slaughtered at 130 kg ending live weight were evaluated for flop distance, length, width, thickness, and fatty acid composition. Bellies were injected, thermally processed, and sliced according to standard protocols at a USDA federally inspected facility. Complete slices were sorted by trained plant personnel. Then, sliced bellies were individually packaged to maintain anatomical orientation. The effects of treatments were analyzed as a generalized linear mixed model with pen of pigs serving as the experimental unit for all comparisons. Belly thickness was not different (P ≥ 0.11) in bellies from IC barrows (3.74 cm) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (3.60 cm), PC barrows (3.94 cm), or gilts (3.64 cm); however, bellies were 0.42 cm thicker (P < 0.01) in IC barrows compared with intact males. Iodine value was not different (P ≥ 0.06) in bellies from IC barrows (68.26) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (69.78), PC barrows (67.55), or gilts (69.45); however, iodine value was 2.32 units less (P < 0.01) in IC barrows compared with intact males. Green weight was not different (P ≥ 0.09) in bellies from IC barrows (4.88 kg) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (5.11 kg), PC barrows (5.10 kg), or gilts (4.79 kg); however, green weight was 0.56 kg greater (P < 0.0001) in IC barrows compared with intact males. Pump uptake and cooked yield was not different (P ≥ 0.15) among treatment groups. Slicing yield (as a percentage of green weight) was decreased (P ≤ 0.01) in bellies from IC barrows (93.61%) compared with bellies from PC barrows (98.42%) or gilts (98.19%); however, slicing yield was not different (P

  4. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  5. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  6. Windmills, Butter, and Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination ...... Grundtvigian movement contributed not only to political and cultural nation building but also to technological modernization and economic growth in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Denmark.......In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination of...... scientific knowledge to the rural population in the decades around 1900. The diffusion of technological innovations such as a decentralized electricity supply system and an automatic cream separator for cooperative dairies had a profound and lasting impact on the development of modern Denmark. Hence, the...

  7. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric H. Johnson; Don E. French

    2001-06-01

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  8. INCREASING OIL RECOVERY THROUGH ADVANCED REPROCESSING OF 3D SEISMIC, GRANT CANYON AND BACON FLAT FIELDS, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoil, Inc., of Orange, California, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy has reprocessed and reinterpreted the 3D seismic survey of the Grant Canyon area, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada. The project was supported by Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG26-00BC15257. The Grant Canyon survey covers an area of 11 square miles, and includes Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields. These fields have produced over 20 million barrels of oil since 1981, from debris slides of Devonian rocks that are beneath 3,500 to 5,000 ft of Tertiary syntectonic deposits that fill the basin of Railroad Valley. High-angle and low-angle normal faults complicate the trap geometry of the fields, and there is great variability in the acoustic characteristics of the overlying valley fill. These factors combine to create an area that is challenging to interpret from seismic reflection data. A 3D seismic survey acquired in 1992-93 by the operator of the fields has been used to identify development and wildcat locations with mixed success. Makoil believed that improved techniques of processing seismic data and additional well control could enhance the interpretation enough to improve the chances of success in the survey area. The project involved the acquisition of hardware and software for survey interpretation, survey reprocessing, and reinterpretation of the survey. SeisX, published by Paradigm Geophysical Ltd., was chosen as the interpretation software, and it was installed on a Dell Precision 610 computer work station with the Windows NT operating system. The hardware and software were selected based on cost, possible addition of compatible modeling software in the future, and the experience of consulting geophysicists in the Billings area. Installation of the software and integration of the hardware into the local office network was difficult at times but was accomplished with some technical support from Paradigm and Hewlett Packard, manufacturer of some of the network equipment. A

  9. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P green weight) were 6.10% units less (P lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P green weight) were 4.27% units less (P = 0.05) in IC compared with PC. These data suggested that while bacon slicing yield was reduced in IC barrows fed control and 30% DDGS compared with PC barrow counterparts, withdrawal of DDGS improved bacon slicing yields of IC barrows. PMID:24879762

  10. 低盐低硝腊肉复合抗氧化剂最佳配方的研究%Studies on the optimal combination of antioxidants in low-salt and low-nitrate Chinese bacon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彩平; 刘美玉; 郑立红; 郭慧媛; 任发政

    2012-01-01

    防止、减缓脂肪的氧化是低盐、低硝腊肉急需解决的问题之一,本试验在腊肉制作中添加天然、高效、安全的茶多酚、异抗坏血酸钠、迷迭香作为其抗氧化剂,三种抗氧化剂在腊肉中协同抗氧化,通过测定腊肉酸价、过氧化值以及腊肉色泽的变化,得到抗氧化剂最佳组合为:茶多酚0.3g/kg、异抗坏血酸钠0.3g/ks、迷迭香抗氧化剂0.1g/kg.抗氧化剂以此最佳配比制作腊肉,保质期内酸价及过氧化值均显著低于国家限定标准.%Fat autoxidation is a critical problem in low salt and low - nitrate Chinese Bacon. The natural, efficient and safe antioxidants such as tea polyphenol and sodium erythorbate and rosemary were used as antioxidants complex in Chinese Bacon. By measuring the changes of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV) and red value (a) of Chinese Bacon, the experiment results showed that the best formula was: tea polyphenol 0. 3g/kg, sodium erythorbate 0. 3g/kg and rosemary 0. lg/kg. The AV and PV of vacuum -packaged Chinese Bacon were lower than those of GB during six months storage.

  11. The Construction of Epistolary Identity in a Gentry’s Communication Network of the Seventeenth Century: The Case of Jane Lady Cornwallis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been increasing scholarly interest in early modern correspondence and specifically also in women’s letter writing and reading. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs. It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life. The article focuses on a neglected aspect of women’s correspondence: it investigates not the sender’s epistolary identity, but that of the recipient through the analysis of the personal correspondence of Lady Cornwallis Bacon. The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. 

  12. Detecting of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Longxi Bacon by HS-SPME-GC/MS Method%应用HS—SPME和GC/MS技术检测陇西腊肉中的风味物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师希雄; 魏晋梅; 田甲春; 张丽; 张玉斌; 郭兆斌; 韩玲; 袁懿

    2012-01-01

    应用固相微萃取气相色谱一质谱法(SPME-GC—MS),分析检测了陇西腊肉的挥发性风味成分,共鉴定出42种挥发性风味物质,包括萜烯类化合物(9种),醛类物质(5种),酮类物质(3种),烃类物质(16种),醇类物质(4种),醚类物质(3种),含硫含氮及杂环化合物(2种)。萜烯化合物、醛类物质、含硫含氮及杂环化合物可能是构成陇西腊肉风味的主要挥发性物质。%Volatile flavor compounds of Long Xi Bacon were extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and were analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that total 42 volatile flavor compounds were detected, including terpenes (9kinds) , aldehydes ( 5kinds ) , ketones ( 3kinds ) , hydrocarbons ( 16kinds ) , alcohols ( 4kinds ) , ethers (3kinds) , nitrogenous compounds, sulfurated compounds and heterocyclie compounds(2kinds). The main flavor com- pounds in LONG XI bacon were terpenes, aldehydes, nitrogenous compounds, sulfurated compounds and heterocyclic compounds.

  13. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  14. OrthoImagery Submission for Bacon County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in...

  15. Cured Meats in Ancient and Byzantine Sources: Ham, Bacon and Tuccetum

    OpenAIRE

    Rzeźnicka, Zofia; Kokoszko, Maciej; Jagusiak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present study discusses the role of salt-cured meat in dietetics, medicine and gastronomy demonstrated mainly in ancient and Byzantine medical (Galen, Oribasius, Aetius of Amida, Anthimus, Alexander of Tralles and Paul of Aegina) and agronomic (Cato, Varro, Columella, Palladius, Geoponica) sources written between 2nd and 10th century A.D. The part dealing with culinary application was also based on De re coquinaria. The article consists of three parts. In the first one, concernin...

  16. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Bacon County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. Floodplain Mapping or Redelineation Submission for Bacon County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. DCS Hydrology Submission for Bacon County GA MapMod08

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MUSE 3D view of HDF-S (Bacon+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Drake, A.; Franx, M.; Tacchella, S.; Vernet, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Blaizot, J.; Bouche, N.; Bouwens, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Carton, D.; Caruana, J.; Clement, B.; Dreizler, S.; Epinat, B.; Guiderdoni, B.; Herenz, C.; Husser, T.-O.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnovic, D.; Lilly, S.; Martinsson, T.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Patricio, V.; Schaye, J.; Shirazi, M.; Soto, K.; Soucail, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Urrutia, T.; Weilbacher, P.; de Zeeuw, T.

    2015-04-01

    The HDFS was observed during six nights in July 25-29, 31 and August 2, 3 2014 of the last commissioning run of MUSE. We used the nominal wavelength range (4750-9300Å) and performed a series of exposures of 30min each. (3 data files).

  20. SEVILLE, FREUD, BACON VE TUYMANS’IN PALETİNDEKİ ÇİLELİ BEDEN TEORİSİ / SUFFERING BODY THEORIES AT THE PALETTES OF SEVILLE, FREUD, BACON and TUYMANS

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    ÖZETSanatın nicel ve nitel bir form olarak vazgeçemediği biricik kaynak, kuşkusuz insan bedenidir. Özellikle bedenin bir fenomen olarak çağdaş sanat ekseninde oldukça farklı yaklaşımlarla ele alındığı ve başta resim disiplini olmak üzere tüm sanat disiplinlerinde beden kavramının sürekli devingen biçimde dönüştürüldüğünü ve anlamlandırıldığını görmekteyiz. Teknik olanakların çeşitliliği ve bilg...

  1. 48 CFR 970.2204-1-1 - Administrative controls and criteria for application of the Davis-Bacon Act in operational or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which are designed for studying reactor behavior and performance characteristics of certain reactor... coverage. To illustrate, one of the SPETRs planned for studies of nuclear reactor safety is designed to.... The proving out of investigative findings and theories of a scientific and technical nature...

  2. De Fra Angélico a Francis Bacon: las claves sociológicas de la Anunciación

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Heras, María Angeles

    2004-01-01

    La iconografía de la Anunciación es también una iconografía del poder y la expresión plástica de una teoría sobre el origen y el futuro de la humanidad. Los límites de la biología (la gestación, sus modos y tiempos), la libertad y el destino, la conexión entre el instante y el proceso, el silencio y la rebeldía de las vanguardias, son los temas principales de este artículo.

  3. Mercury and sulphur among the High Medieval alchemists: from Rāzī and Avicenna to Albertus Magnus and pseudo-Roger Bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William R

    2014-11-01

    This essay challenges the often expressed view that the principles of metals, namely mercury and sulphur, were generally viewed by alchemists as being of a 'metaphysical' character that made them inaccessible to the tools and operations of the laboratory. By examining a number of Arabo-Latin and Latin alchemical texts in circulation before the end of the thirteenth century, the author presents evidence that most alchemists of the period considered mercury and sulphur to be materials subject to techniques of purification in the same way that naturally occurring salts and minerals could be freed of their impurities or dross. The article also points to the immense influence of Avicenna and Albertus Magnus in formulating the theory that mercury and sulphur were compounds of different materials, containing both fixed and unfixed components. Finally, the author briefly examines the relationship between this materialist approach to the principles and the chymical atomism of early modern authors who were deeply aware of medieval alchemical literature. PMID:25509633

  4. Casing Tier 529.887-020; Sausage Packer; Skin Peeler 525.884-050; Sliced-Bacon Packer II; Packer 920.887-114 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Book Review on "The Knowledge Grid"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Sun; Qing Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Knowledge is power", written by the English philosopher Francis Bacon in 1597, inspired a great rising in the human consciousness, opened the horizons for the human intelligence activities, and developed such a splendid world with a proliferation of knowledge that even Bacon could hardly imagine.

  6. Trust Us to Do What We Do Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this article Pat Bacon, President of the Association of Colleges, discusses the estimated 200 million British Pounds cut to colleges' adult course budgets. With no flexibility to transfer money from one budget to another, colleges are having to face up to course closures and the threat of redundancies. Bacon contends that it's time ministers…

  7. Update of dietary lysine level and ratio of amino acids to net energy on the production performance of bacon hogs%更新现代瘦肉型猪的日粮赖氨酸水平及其与净能比例以提高生产性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Htoo; 高俊

    2012-01-01

    为了追求最大的生产效率,养猪业不断地通过遗传育种改良猪品种.与十多年前相比,今天的现代猪瘦肉率更高,吃得更少、长得更快,因此,其营养需要也发生了变化.而NRC(1998)的推荐需要量仍被广泛地应用于生产.最近十多年的许多研究表明,现代瘦肉猪的赖氨酸需要量比NRC(1998)推荐值高20%~30%.按理想蛋白模式,更新现代瘦肉猪的氨基酸需要量及其与能量比例,可充分发挥现代瘦肉型猪的生产潜能.%To achieve the best possible production efficiency, swine breeds are being genetically improved. Currently, modern pigs are much leaner, eat less and grow faster than what they did a decade ago. The nutritional requirements change accordingly. The NRC (1998) recommendation is still being widely applied in production. Many recent researches show the lysine requirement of modern pigs is 20%~30% higher than the recommendation of NRC (1998). It is recommended to update the amino acid requirements based on ideal protein ratio and the ratio of amino acids to energy to maximize the possible performance of modern swine.

  8. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older ...

  9. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  10. Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... status in the general Mediterranean population from Tarragona, Spain. Annals of Hematology. 2010;89(8):767–773. ... thank: Bruce R. Bacon, M.D., St. Louis University School of Medicine, Anthony Tavill, M.D., Case ...

  11. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some ...

  12. Irish Food and St. Patrick's Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2015-01-01

    Broad discussion about Irish food history and what food should be eaten on St. Patrick's Day. Discusses why the Americans eat corned beef and cabbage while Irish people are more familiar with Bacon and cabbage.

  13. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

  14. Diet-busting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods include: Fatty cuts of meat, such as sausage, bacon, and ribs Anything with full-fat cheese, ... absorption of carotenoids in humans. Mol Nut Food Res . 2012;56:866. PMID: 22707262 www.ncbi.nlm. ...

  15. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: ... more than the equivalent of 6 teaspoons of oil. Narrator: Remember to adjust these amounts depending on ...

  16. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: ... more than the equivalent of 6 teaspoons of oil. Narrator: Remember to adjust these amounts depending on ...

  17. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacon in there, so that’s just cauterizing that muscle. So, this is a reminder of how the ... eight feet of large intestine, female gynecologic organs, muscles, soft tissue, and so forth. What occupies most ...

  18. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dairy products (whole milk, high-fat cheeses and ice cream), processed meats (bacon, ham and salami)and refined ... researchers collected medical information, family and personal health history and self-reported data about diet. They also ...

  19. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cooked meat (including bacon), fish, poultry, eggs, smooth peanut butter, and tofu. Make sure your meats are tender ... with gristle. Avoid deli meats, hot dogs, crunchy peanut butter, nuts, beans, tempeh, and peas. Fats, oils, and ...

  20. Construction of scientific knowledge in motor learning: history and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Márcio Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims to inquire the construction of scientific knowledge in the motor learning area. A necessary historical retrospective on this study field considers the epistemology of Francis Bacon, Karl Popper, Paul Feyerabend and Thomas Kuhn. Bacon and Popper’s conceptions show to be inadequate to explain the scientific progress of motor learning. Feyerabend’s ideas are also inadequate as they lack coherency, even though in some aspects they are adequate. The Kuhnian approach, however,...

  1. Uddrag af Ph.d.-afhandlingen Den groteske modernisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübker, Henrik

    Om forholdet mellem "det groteske" og "den groteske modernisme" eksemplificeret i en læsning af E.A. Poes "The Fall of the House of Usher" og flere af Francis Bacons malerier.......Om forholdet mellem "det groteske" og "den groteske modernisme" eksemplificeret i en læsning af E.A. Poes "The Fall of the House of Usher" og flere af Francis Bacons malerier....

  2. An investigation into between-meal food desires among hospitalised haematological cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, S. L.; Bredie, Wender; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt;

    2016-01-01

    haematological cancer patients, screened for nutrition-related symptoms, participated. Univariate statistical models were used to investigate the influence of time-of-day and food texture on between-meal desires. Results: Fresh fruit, ice cream, cheese and mashed potatoes with bacon were the most desired food...... inclination for fresh fruit, ice cream, mashed potatoes with bacon, and cheese. Time of the day (morning) and texture (liquid) had the greatest and most positive impact on food desires. The findings may be easily implemented in hospital food service routines for cancer patients, and might positively...

  3. Side bar

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Kennan Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Whitman and Ginsberg are so good at this.All the things that should be discussed you will definitely find here.Dogs playing poker. Homeric waves crashing upon the beach.A man killed his wife because she burnt his bacon.Bring home the bacon! Bring home the Bible!Give me your icons, your little silver crosses, your homey symbols.Cymbals clang. The choir and the orchestra insist we pay attention.Oh, I forgot to mention,a mobile home was flicked upside down by a tornado.There it is, belly up.And ...

  4. Side bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kennan Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitman and Ginsberg are so good at this.All the things that should be discussed you will definitely find here.Dogs playing poker. Homeric waves crashing upon the beach.A man killed his wife because she burnt his bacon.Bring home the bacon! Bring home the Bible!Give me your icons, your little silver crosses, your homey symbols.Cymbals clang. The choir and the orchestra insist we pay attention.Oh, I forgot to mention,a mobile home was flicked upside down by a tornado.There it is, belly up.And ...

  5. 西洋精神と実験科学のユートピア 『ニュー・アトランティス』(F.ベイコン,1627)

    OpenAIRE

    武田,光史

    1993-01-01

    TO THE READER by Bacon's secretary William Rawley when he published New Atlantis after Bacon's death is quoted here as a substitute for the synopsis of this paper : This Fable my Lord devised, to the end that he might exhibit therein, a model or description of a College, instituted for the interpreting of Nature, and the producing of great and marvellous works for the benefit of man ; under the name of Salomon's House, or the College of the Six Days' Works. And even so far his Lordship hath p...

  6. Informationalising matter : systems understandings of the nanoscale.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnes, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Themes of mastery, domination and power are familiar to any scholar of modern technology. Science is commonly cast as enabling the technological control over both the natural and physical worlds. Indeed, Francis Bacon famously equated scientific knowledge with power itself—stating that ‘knowledge itself is a power’ (Bacon in Montagu 1825, 71). Bacon’s now ubiquitous phrase—commonly repeated as the banal ‘knowledge is power’—was an attempt to combat three heresies in scriptural interpretation ...

  7. Making Real Virtual Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Harry E.; Keller, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Francis Bacon began defining scientific methodology in the early 17th century, and secondary school science classes began to implement science labs in the mid-19th century. By the early 20th century, leading educators were suggesting that science labs be used to develop scientific thinking habits in young students, and at the beginning of the 21st…

  8. Computer Cache. The Web Has Tales to Tell: Traditional Literature Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    "Traditional Literature" is defined by Carl M. Tomlinson and Carol Lynch-Brown in "Essentials of Children's Literature (Allyn and Bacon, 2001) as "the body of ancient stories and poems that grew out of the human quest to understand the natural and spiritual worlds and that was preserved through time by the oral tradition of storytelling before…

  9. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Narrator: Think about the foods you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are ... crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the summertime, like ...

  10. The Sin of Science: Ignorance of Ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetz, Jerome R.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the idea of ignorance of ignorance in the scientific culture. Topics discussed include a historical background of ignorance in science, including the ideas of Socrates, Galileo, Descartes, and Bacon; teaching and practice; and philosophical reconstruction and the relationship between knowledge and ignorance. (Contains six references.)…

  11. 7 CFR 1007.51 - Class I differential, adjustments to Class I prices, and Class I price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BACON 13005 1.15 GA BAKER 13007 0.85 GA BALDWIN 13009 0.70 GA BANKS 13011 0.70 GA BARROW 13013 0.70 GA... LA SAINT HELENA 22091 0.30 LA SAINT JAMES 22093 0.20 LA SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST 22095 0.20 LA...

  12. Development of a Content-Valid Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark; Katz, Larry; Butterwick, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Content validation of an instrument that measures student performance in OSCE-type practical examinations is a critical step in a tool's overall validity and reliability [Hopkins (1998), "Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation" (8th ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon]. The purpose of the paper is to outline the process employed to…

  13. Legislation on Freedom of Information : Trends and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2004-01-01

    Coined at the dawn of the scientific age, Bacon's aphorism has taken on new meaning today, when government agencies have at their disposal massive amounts of information about nearly every aspect of modern life. Striking an appropriate balance between the power of government and of citizens to control it demands widespread access to government-held information. As a result there is growing...

  14. Utopias past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, David J.; Blain, Barry

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Robert P Crease's article “Diversifying utopia” (March p29, http://ow.ly/104lZw), which discussed the near-absence of women in the novel New Atlantis, which was written in the 17th century by the natural philosopher Francis Bacon.

  15. Comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and functional investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated (Glenn and Bacon, 2009; Glenn et al., 2010). The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the...

  16. 13 CFR 143.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  17. 22 CFR 135.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  18. 10 CFR 600.236 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  19. 34 CFR 80.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  20. 41 CFR 105-71.136 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  1. 28 CFR 66.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  2. 21 CFR 1403.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  3. 44 CFR 13.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and as supplemented in Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR chapter 60). (All construction... (29 CFR Part 3). (All contracts and subgrants for construction or repair) (5) Compliance with the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a to 276a-7) as supplemented by Department of Labor regulations (29...

  4. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  5. 7 CFR 3560.570 - Construction financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Davis-Bacon Act (published in the Department of Labor regulations 29 CFR parts 1, 2, and 5). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction financing. 3560.570 Section 3560.570... financing. The requirements established in § 3560.71 apply to all applications involving off-farm...

  6. 20 CFR 656.40 - Determination of prevailing wage for labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Basic research is also research that advances scientific knowledge, but does not have specific immediate.... Applied research includes investigations oriented to discovering new scientific knowledge that has... determination in the area under the Davis-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the...

  7. Just Enough for You: About Food Portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheddar cheese, 2 slices bread Work Hungry 363 Potato chips, baked 1 small bag 150 Water 16 fl. oz. — 3 p.m. Chocolate bar 1 bar (5 oz.) Work Not hungry/ Bored 760 8 p.m. Fried potato skins with cheese and bacon 4 each Restaurant/ ...

  8. 29 CFR 4.116 - Contracts for construction activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that Act are intended to govern the compensation payable to the employees of contractors and... involve the employment of persons whose wage rates and fringe benefits are determinable under the Davis... language used in the Davis-Bacon Act to describe its coverage (40 U.S.C. 276a). The legislative history...

  9. Could Spuds Be Bad for Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... And while potatoes are a good source of vitamin C, potassium, minerals, energy and fiber (if not peeled), the reality is most Americans eat potatoes coated in salt, slathered in butter or loaded with sour cream, cheese and bacon bits, Heller said. "It is ...

  10. The analysis and reflection of Bacon’s Of Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟洁

    2015-01-01

    It is an universaly acknowledged truth that of studies is one of the most wel-known prose of Bacon,which is thought-provoking in terms of its directness, terseness, forcefulness. The article attach importance to studying knowledge in the perspective of its practical application towards the individual.

  11. Learning to Trust Our Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Thayer-Bacon uses this opportunity to further explore Ranciere's ideas concerning equality as described in "The Ignorant Schoolmaster" and their connection to democracy, as he explains in "Hatred of Democracy". For Ranciere, intelligence and equality are synonymous terms, just as reason and will are synonymous terms. Ranciere recommends the only…

  12. The Application of textual function in Of Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余硕

    2016-01-01

    Of Studies by Francis Bacon is a classic. It has been widespread since it was published. This paper probes into making a comprehensive description of the essay's textual meaning so as to finding out its application in Of Studies and verify the practicality of functional grammar in this essay.

  13. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant: collector subsystem foundation construction. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-18

    Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act. Instructions to bidders, general provisions and general conditions are included. Technical specifications are provided for the construction. (LEW)

  14. 24 CFR 70.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substitute for compensation and is not tied in any way to productivity. (c) Prevailing wage rates, for... VOLUNTEERS ON PROJECTS SUBJECT TO DAVIS-BACON AND HUD-DETERMINED WAGE RATES § 70.3 Definitions. (a) A... pay prevailing wage rates. (1) Individuals shall be considered volunteers only where their...

  15. The content of nutrients, preservatives and contaminants in selected animal-origin products from different manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Surma-Zadora M.; Sadowska-Rociek A.; Cieślik E.; Walczycka M.; Sieja K.; Wałkowska L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of animal - origin products from different leading manufacturers. The research material were kabanos, black pudding, sausage, luncheon meat, homogenized sausage, liverwurst, headcheese, ham, bacon and minced meat. A dry matter, nutrient content, preserwatives (nitrates, phosphates and salt) and contaminants (heavy metals and pesticides) were determined in all samples. The total phosphorus content (expressed a...

  16. 奇闻趣事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    目标:提高英语闽读和听力水平。 想一想:你喜欢培根的味道吗,为什么?你觉得培根为什么如此受欢迎?你找到工作的秘诀是什么?你觉得雇主想要什么样的应聘者? Smell Like Bacon 培根味剃须膏 新鲜出炉的培根让人垂涎欲滴,但如果有人闻起来像培根,那一定很奇怪。Most people agree that the smell of freshly-cooked bacon is delicious. Just a whiff of it is enough to make your stomach rumble. But would you want to smell like bacon? Entrepreneur Justin Esch thinks it's a good idea,

  17. DESEJO DE LUZ: O CRISTIANISMO E O SURGIMENTO DA FILOSOFIA MODERNA EM LUDWIG FEUERBACH / A DESIRE FOR LIGHT: CHRISTIANITY AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN LUDWIG FEUERBACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysantho Figueiredo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Ludwig Feuerbach’s book introduction Geshichte der Neuern Philosophie von Bacon bis Spinoza. The original text is in German, the review is in Portuguese. However, we present here, attached, the translated text, also unpublished and original. In 1841's The Essence of Christianity, Feuerbach presents in a most complete way his own version of the radical humanism which excited the young hegelians of his generation. However, it is between 1833 and 1838 that Feuerbach formulates his own philosophical point of view from the critique of the major philosophical systems of modernity. The History of Philosophy from Bacon to Spinoza, published in 1833, is the first of his historicalphilosophical works which, apart from the critique of the philosophers indicated by the title, presents also a singular feuerbachian vision of history as a whole, showing how modern philosophy emerges from the inherent contradictions of the Christian religious spirit.

  18. Lung cancer in the meat industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B.; Pippard, E C; Winter, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Routine statistics of occupational mortality and incidence of cancer have consistently shown high rates of lung cancer in butchers. Possible explanations include infection by carcinogenic papilloma viruses, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrites in the preservation of meat, or a confounding effect of tobacco. To explore these possibilities, we have examined the mortality of 1610 men employed at three British companies processing pork, beef, lamb, bacon, and other meat produ...

  19. Advertising and Australian Pig Producers Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2000-01-01

    The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. Impact of advertising on pig meat consumption has been a long-standing argument. So far, there have been several studies done on the effectiveness of generic pork advertising in Australia up to 1988. However, the previous studi...

  20. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in emphasis from the three syntheses to mappings and rhizomatic diagrams that cut across semiotics or “blow apart regimes of signs”. The aim here is the absolute deterritorialization. Deleuze has shown how abstract machines operate in the philosophy of Foucault, the literature of Proust and Kafka......, and the painting of Bacon. We will finish our presentation by showing how these machines apply to architecture....

  1. Coordinated Design In Urban Environments

    OpenAIRE

    KAMALI, Fereshteh Pashaei; RAZMGIR, Akramalsadat; KHOBRO, Babaksimintan; BARADARAN, Alireza Ghandriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In a society in which accepting sociability, consensus and collective product are emphasized, new buildings try to coordinate themselves with the existing patterns. Edmund Bacon (1979) has searched the formation of urban landscape coordinated with manner of relation in which architects have worked in one place but in different times and by stating,the second person’s theory, emphasized that the second designer determines that whether the first architectural work is valuable or recog...

  2. Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    “Knowledge is power” (Sir Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626), Religious Meditations, Of Heresis, 1597) “Science is organised knowledge. Wisdom is organised life” (Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)) The 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection and the third International Conference on ICT for Sustainability, EnviroInfo & ICT4S 2015, took place as a joint conference in Copenhagen in September 7‐9 2015 and was hosted by the University of Copenhagen and the European Enviro...

  3. : Theatricality in early modern alchemical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeir, Koen

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats of early modern alchemy and theatricality. I focus on the theatrical characteristics of some kinds of alchemy, in relation with natural magic and other practices, by exploring a case study: I investigate the story of the baron and baroness of Beausoleil, who were famous for their mining, divining and alchemical practices in the first half of the seventeenth century. First, I show that their contemporary Francis Bacon considered alchemy an 'imaginative science', and that this...

  4. Convex linear combination processes for compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon Shone, John

    2005-01-01

    Aitchison and Bacon-Shone (1999) considered convex linear combinations of compositions. In other words, they investigated compositions of compositions, where the mixing composition follows a logistic Normal distribution (or a perturbation process) and the compositions being mixed follow a logistic Normal distribution. In this paper, I investigate the extension to situations where the mixing composition varies with a number of dimensions. Examples would be where the mixing pr...

  5. On the figures of speech in Of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧青

    2015-01-01

    Of Study is a masterpiece of Francis Bacon,which is worth reading from generation to generation.In a sense,figures of speech make the work worthwhile to read.Figures of speech pervade and embellish the world of language,making language more colorful,forceful,and explicit.Of Study exemplifies it.The thesis appreciates the great work in the perspective of figures of speech to cultivate a wider appreciation of the rhetoric art.

  6. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured. PMID:731029

  7. Francis Bacon’s Qualification As A Principal Empiricist Philosopher

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine if there is any basis for regarding FrancisBacon as a principal empiricist philosopher. This involves effort to determine whatconstitutes, in essence, the qualities of a principal empiricist philosopher. Are thereany criteria that qualify one as a principal empiricist philosopher? Proceeding with thisinquiry, our paper examines, on the one hand, the views of those who argue in defenceof Bacon’s qualification as a principal empiricist philosopher. Here...

  8. Od Bacona do Hume’a – istota i odcienie empiryzmu w nowożytnej Anglii

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, Bolesław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to give a brief overview of English empiricism, particularly in modern philosophy. The paper will firstly examine the pre-enlightenment thought of F. Bacon, upon which it will discuss the empiricism of J. Locke, G. Berkeley and D. Hume. The general conclusion of the paper has it that although empiricism has assumed different shades, it has always permeated English culture.

  9. Storing meat products without refrigeration for several years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation sterilization (radappertization) can be used successfully to store ham, bacon, pork, pork sausage, beef, corned beef, chicken, codfish cakes, and shrimp for long periods under non-refrigerated conditions. he technical feasibility of using ionizing radiations to preserve such highly perishable protein foods has been proven under the U.S. Army Radiation Preservation of Foods Programme, and technology is far enough advanced to carry this out. (author)

  10. Revisiting Australian Pork Sales Response to Advertising 1985 - 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lin; Goddard, Ellen W.

    1999-01-01

    The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. So far, there have been several studies done on the effectiveness of generic pork advertising in Australia up to 1988. However, the previous studies only looked at generic advertising and didn’t account for other media informat...

  11. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  12. Nasolacrimal system aeration on computed tomographic imaging: effects of patient positioning and scan orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Czyz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Craig N Czyz,1 Thomas S Bacon,2 Andrew W Stacey,3 Eva N Cahill,4 Bryan R Costin,5 Boris I Karanfilov,6 Kenneth V Cahill5 1Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth, 2Department of Medical Education, Mount Carmel Health Systems, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Biology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, William H Havener Eye Institute, Oh...

  13. Nasolacrimal system aeration on computed tomographic imaging: effects of patient positioning and scan orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Czyz CN; Bacon TS; Stacey AW; Cahill EN; Costin BR; Karanfilov BI; Cahill KV

    2015-01-01

    Craig N Czyz,1 Thomas S Bacon,2 Andrew W Stacey,3 Eva N Cahill,4 Bryan R Costin,5 Boris I Karanfilov,6 Kenneth V Cahill5 1Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth, 2Department of Medical Education, Mount Carmel Health Systems, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Biology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, William H Havener Eye Institute, Oh...

  14. 向往与心境——尹朝阳的自我叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉骥

    2011-01-01

    誉享遐迩的英国已故画家弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon,1909-1992)曾在一九六二年的访谈当中,坦承自己所受毕加索(Pablo Picasso,1881-1973)的影响。他明确指出,

  15. 向往与心境——尹朝阳的自我叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉骥

    2011-01-01

    誉享遐迩的英国已故画家弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon,1909-1992)曾在一九六二年的访谈当中,坦承自己所受毕加索(Pablo Picasso,1881-1973)的影响。他明确指出,毕加索提供了一整片几乎还没有被探索的处女

  16. 20 CFR 655.10 - Determination of prevailing wage for temporary labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Bacon Act, 40 U.S.C. 276a et seq., 29 CFR part 1, or the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act, 41 U.S.C... the union and the employer, the wage rate set forth in the CBA is considered as not adversely... its H-2B workers and any similarly employed U.S. worker hired in response to the recruitment...

  17. Knowledge Management – The Importance of Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    CRACIUN Bucur-Matei; DUMITRU Stefan Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    „Knowledge is power”. Sir Francis Bacon, Religious Meditations, Of Heresies, 1597 - English author, courtier, & philosopher (1561 - 1626) Knowledge Management is a current topic in the market, which have been treated during the last years from different consideration perspectives. This ongoing subject has fascinated me ever since I had the opportunity to read a paragraph of Hendry Minzberg, in respect of this topic. Knowledge management is a main part of the today's economy. It reflects the e...

  18. From Textual Use-Cases to Component-Based Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimko, V.; Hnětynka, P.; Bureš, Tomáš

    Berlin: Springer, 2010 - (Lee, R.; Ma, J.; Bacon, L.; Du, W.; Petridis, M.), s. 23-37. (Studies in Computational Intelligence . 295). ISBN 978-3-642-13264-3. ISSN 1860-949X. [SNDP 2010. International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence , Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing /11./. London (GB), 09.06.2010-11.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * use-cases * natural language Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  19. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal- and overweight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Fjóla Dröfn Guðmundsdóttir 1984

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal- and in overweight subjects. Methods: Twenty-five healthy volunteers (21-39yrs) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with one week between test days. The conventional fast food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink), the un...

  20. Implications of Electronics Constraints for Solid-State Quantum Error Correction and Quantum Circuit Failure Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, James E.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Ganti, Anand; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Landahl, Andrew J.; Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Carr, Robert D.; Stalford, Harold L.; Nielsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the impact of classical electronics constraints on a solid-state quantum dot logical qubit architecture. Constraints due to routing density, bandwidth allocation, signal timing, and thermally aware placement of classical supporting electronics significantly affect the quantum error correction circuit's error rate. We analyze one level of a quantum error correction circuit using nine data qubits in a Bacon-Shor code configured as a quantum memory. A hypothetical silico...

  1. Knowledge exchange at HKU

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon-shone, J

    2010-01-01

    This talk will explain the KE process in HKU and how we currently answer the following questions: * What is Knowledge Exchange and how is it different from Technology Transfer? * How to identify good KE? * How does good KE benefit the university and its reputation? * How to reward good KE at the individual, department and faculty level? * How to manage our stakeholder relationships from a KE perspective? John Bacon-Shone is currently Associate Director ...

  2. On the figures of speech in Of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧青

    2015-01-01

    Of Study is a masterpiece of Francis Bacon, which is worth reading from generation to generation.In a sense, figures of speech make the work worthwhile to read.Figures of speech pervade and embellish the world of language, making language more colorful, forceful, and explicit.Of Study exemplifies it.The thesis appreciates the great work in the perspective of figures of speech to cultivate a wider appreciation of the rhetoric art.

  3. Knowledge Management – the Key Resource in the Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo NEVADO PEÑA; López Ruiz, Víctor Raúl; Leonardo BADEA; George Ciprian GIJU

    2010-01-01

    The influence of global information and communication technology changes and globalization have transformed our society by favoring the economy and innovation as key driver of global competition. Creation and exploitation of knowledge has become key resource in the new economy. All advanced economies are technologically knowledgebased economy. Many of today's managers and their employees, still guided by the definition given by Francis Bacon (1597) “Knowledge is power” instead of “sharing and...

  4. UTOPIA AND NEW ATLANTIS, UTOPIA REVISED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra DRAGOMIR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparison between two works usuallyascribed to the utopian genre: Thomas More’s Utopia, and Francis Bacon’sNew Atlantis. My major claim is that the two differ mainly in this respect: ifMore’s work is utopian, Bacon’s New Atlantis is only disguised under theclothing of utopian thought. Although Bacon has clearly an ideal ofeducation in mind, through a number of features he completely departsfrom utopian educational programs.

  5. Multipurpose shopping behaviour at planned suburban shopping centres: a space - time analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R G V Baker

    1996-01-01

    There is a continual interest in research on multipurpose shopping (MPS), because it provides a further extension of rational decisionmaking, whereby consumers who combine shopping activities reduce the time and cost of travel. The literature describes the importance of this type of shopping for infrequent trips to higher order centres (Bacon, 1984) or MPS constructed around convenience, supermarket, or comparison trips (West, 1993). A study of MPS at a range of planned suburban shopping cent...

  6. О ПАРАДИГМАХ АКСИОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО МЫШЛЕНИЯ НОВОГО ВРЕМЕНИ

    OpenAIRE

    Булычев, Игорь

    2002-01-01

    The article proposes a classifica-tion of sociophilosophical schools and trends. The axiological trend is divided into the anthropological sub-trend and the scientific one. Anthropologism, in turn, is subdivided into two trends the naturalistic one (Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bentham, Feuerbach, Chernyshevsky, Nietzsche) and the transcendental one (Chaadayev, Fedorov, Solovyov). Scientism is divided into the one of natural sciences (Bacon, Smith) and the one of the humanities (Vico, Diderot, Helv...

  7. DESEJO DE LUZ: O CRISTIANISMO E O SURGIMENTO DA FILOSOFIA MODERNA EM LUDWIG FEUERBACH / A DESIRE FOR LIGHT: CHRISTIANITY AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN LUDWIG FEUERBACH

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysantho Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    This is a review of Ludwig Feuerbach’s book introduction Geshichte der Neuern Philosophie von Bacon bis Spinoza. The original text is in German, the review is in Portuguese. However, we present here, attached, the translated text, also unpublished and original. In 1841's The Essence of Christianity, Feuerbach presents in a most complete way his own version of the radical humanism which excited the young hegelians of his generation. However, it is between 1833 and 1838 that Feuerbach formul...

  8. Models of scientific discovery: what do they explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Heeffer, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the renewed interest in knowledge discovery from data (KDD) by the artificial intelligence community, this paper provides a critical assessment of models of discovery in science. The most influential research program, called BACON, is using the model of data-driven induction. Two of the main claims by this research program, the descriptive and constructive power of data-driven induction, are evaluated by means of two historical cases studies: the discovery of the sine law of refr...

  9. 忘带钥匙的狗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高安柱

    2009-01-01

    @@ A large dog walks into a butcher's shop with a wallet in its mouth.He puts the wallet down and sits in front of the meat case."What is it,boy?"the butcher asks,joking around with his customem."Want to buy some meat? " Woof!."barks the dog. "Hmm,"says the butcher."What kind?Liver,bacon,steak…"

  10. Thomas Aquinas on the Soul: Old problems, New Solutions. Guiding Premises for a Thomistic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yevgeniy Shilov

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two main approaches to the doctrine of the soul: that of Plato and that of Aristotle. Each of these approaches had its own development and its own interpretations. Plato and his school was more important during the Middle Ages. Through the neo-platonic philosophers it reached Saint Augustine and became a part of the western cultural and religious heritage until finally it was taken up by member of the Franciscan order - Roger Bacon and Bonaventure. But this paradigm coul...

  11. 17. stoljeće - prekretnica u razvoju moderne znanosti

    OpenAIRE

    Hebrang-Grgić, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    This paper explains the development of modern science and scientific comunication in the 17th century. Postulates of Modern Age philosophers René Descartes and Francis Bacon are interpreted. The need for scientific communication resulted in organizing scientific guilds as well as in the publishing of the first two scientific journals – Journal des Sçavans and Philosophical Transactions. The beginning of intellectual property protection in European countries and the early development of librar...

  12. 234U/238U and δ87Sr in peat as tracers of paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Paces, James B.; Alpers, Charles N.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Neymark, Leonid; Bullen, Thomas D.; Taylor, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the history of paleosalinity over the past 6000+ years in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta), which is the innermost part of the San Francisco Estuary. We used a combination of Sr and U concentrations, d87Sr values, and 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) in peat as proxies for tracking paleosalinity. Peat cores were collected in marshes on Browns Island, Franks Wetland, and Bacon Channel Island in the Delta. Cores were dated using 137Cs, the onset of Pb and Hg contamination from hydraulic gold mining, and 14C. A proof of concept study showed that the dominant emergent macrophyte and major component of peat in the Delta, Schoenoplectus spp., incorporates Sr and U and that the isotopic composition of these elements tracks the ambient water salinity across the Estuary. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Sr and U in the three main water sources contributing to the Delta (seawater, Sacramento River water, and San Joaquin River water) were used to construct a three-end-member mixing model. Delta paleosalinity was determined by examining variations in the distribution of peat samples through time within the area delineated by the mixing model. The Delta has long been considered a tidal freshwater marsh region, but only peat samples from Franks Wetland and Bacon Channel Island have shown a consistently fresh signal (<0.5 ppt) through time. Therefore, the eastern Delta, which occurs upstream from Bacon Channel Island along the San Joaquin River and its tributaries, has also been fresh for this time period. Over the past 6000+ years, the salinity regime at the western boundary of the Delta (Browns Island) has alternated between fresh and oligohaline (0.5-5 ppt).

  13. COMPARISION OF MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN MEAT PRODUCTS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the concentration of mercury in the Malokarpatska and Lovecka salami during the technological processing with comparison of the raw materials originating from domestic and foreign production was determined. Mercury content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentration of mercury in raw materials (beef, pork, pork bacon was detected in beef from foreign production. Increasing concentrations of mercury was found after the addition of additives, spices and curing compounds causing a threefold increase in the concentration of mercury in final products.

  14. Lead concentration in meat an meat products of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Meat is very rich and convenient source of nutrients including also a large extent of microelements. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. The lead concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and the food production methods. Ingestion of contaminants, especially heavy metals, by animals causes deposition of residues in meat. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead in the Malokarpatska and Lovecka salami during the technological processing with comparison to the raw materials originating from domestic and foreign production. Lead content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The starting materials in the Malokarpatska salami were found to contain the highest level of lead in the beef of foreign production (7.58 ppb, followed pork from foreign production (3.43 ppb, beef from domestic production (3.27 ppb, pork bacon from foreign production (2.41 ppb, pork from domestic production (1.63 ppb and pork bacon from domestic production (1.57 ppb. The average concentration of lead was higher in homogenized samples with addition of additives and spices and ranged between 6.49 to 7.56 ppb. The lead concentration in final product Malokarpatska salami was in the range from 8.57 to 8.89 ppb. The highest mean Pb concentrations in the Lovecka salami in the starting materials were beef from foreign production, beef from domestic production, pork from foreign production, pork bacon from foreign production, pork from domestic production and pork bacon from domestic production (7.31, 3.77, 3.21, 2.40, 2.03, 1.97 ppb, respectively. Increasing concentration of lead was found after the addition of additives, spices and curing compounds causing a threefold increase in the concentration of lead in final products Lovecka and Malokarpatska salami. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in

  15. Chili Cookoff 2016: The Largest Ever | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Johnson decided to bring “the big guns” to the 13th annual Protective Services Chili Cookoff—his wife, Jill. The strategy paid off because Johnson’s chili recipe won first place, standing out against some stiff competition. Johnson, a shuttle bus driver for Protective Services, added his own special touches to the recipe developed by his wife; he used Kielbasa as the main ingredient and increased the smoky flavor, hence the name Jill’s Smoky Kielbasa Chili. The recipe also included crispy bacon, hot pepper seasonings, and a variety of diced tomatoes, from roasted to hot.

  16. The Methodus medendi innovation in Giorgio Baglivi's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M

    2000-01-01

    The need to overcome the critical situation in the medical art of his time and to establish a unifying foundation for medicine urged Giorgio Baglivi to write his De praxi medica. His innovative methodus medendi was achieved by reinstating Hippocrates and adopting Francis Bacon's scientific method. A comparison with T. Sydenham's work evidences further aspects of Baglivi's complex method, in which skepticism towards theoretical medicine is overcome and mechanist theories are embraced. In his solidistic work of physiopathology, De fibra motrice et morbosa, Baglivi goes deeper into the matter, applying to medical knowledge the new scientific concepts of Galilei, Bellini, Borelli, Torricelli, Mayow and Boyle. PMID:11624711

  17. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Piras; Roberta Mazza; Simonetta G. Consolati; Giuseppe Cannas; Daniele Casti; Gianluca Busia; Rina Mazzette

    2013-01-01

    The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3) of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and va...

  18. La ciencia desvelada: marginalidad y reivindicación de la ciencia en México

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Antonio

    1985-01-01

    Se abre el priinei tomo de la obra que acaba de publicar Elias Trabulse con un texto de Francis Bacon en defensa de una nueva disciplina, la historia de la ciencia, que, segíin afirma "...hará a los hombres letrados, juiciosos en el uso 1 administración de la ciencia". Ahora, más de tres siglos después, el Fondo de Cultura Económica, conmemora su primera niedia centuria imprimiendo en gran formato y espléndidamente ilustrada esta reivindicación de una parte significativa de ...

  19. Relevancia de nitrato y nitrito en el jamón curado y sus efectos en el desarrollo del aroma

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción

    2009-01-01

    Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250) and nitrate (E 251 and E 252) are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites ...

  20. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  1. Is project management a required competency for the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Lloyd John

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The hotel industry in Ireland has suffered major turmoil over the last 5 years, and is constantly evolving and reshaping in order to survive (Bacon 2009). The industry comprises of 903 hotels with a total of 60,138 rooms. This is a 35% increase from 2005. That year saw €3.97 Billion in tourism revenue, with this increasing to €4.4 billion in 2007 and dropping to €3.4 billion in 2011 (Ireland 2012). The work of hotel managers involves many projects, from new menu concepts ...

  2. Writing-A Torture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李; 菲

    2000-01-01

    Hey, "writing", are you kidding? Such an abstract, high-sounding, and completely academic title! Who do you think I am, Francis Bacon or William Shakespeare? If I really could elaborate on such a topic easily and clearly, why should I pay so much to sit here and study? I'd have gone and taught at Beijing University or Harvard University (if they accepted me). But, I believe that blue-eyed, big-nosed, blond American writing teacher must have his own reason for hurling such a topic upon me, so I'll try my bes...

  3. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas...... his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is stated, should imply the ability to deal explicitly with these concepts and their interrelations...

  4. Composición esterólica de la fracción insaponificable del aceite de aguacate de distintas variedades

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Nieto, L.; Moreno Romero, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the sterolic composition of the unsaponifiable fraction of oil obtained from several varieties of avocados (Bacon, Fuerte, Hass, and Reed) there is not any difference among several areas, sizes and pick up dates for the same variety, but there are differences that depend on the analysed variety, therefore it is possible to concluir that an itemized analysis of the sterolic composition of the oil may be an avocado variety indicator.

    El estudio de la composición ...

  5. O controle da natureza e as origens da dicotomia entre fato e valor The control of nature and the origins of the dichotomy between fact and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rubén Mariconda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo será refletir sobre uma distinção que é fundamental para a origem de um aspecto central das práticas científicas atuais. Essas práticas, que costumamos chamar de práticas da ciência moderna, representam o desenvolvimento, a complexificação e a especialização (estas últimas já previstas por Bacon na utopia Nova Atlântida de uma prática, de um modo particular de tratar das questões naturais, que surgiu e se consolidou nos séculos XVI e XVII. A articulação dessa prática depende da distinção entre fato e valor, elaborada na primeira metade do século XVII nos trabalhos de Francis Bacon, Galileu Galilei, René Descartes e Blaise Pascal. Como mostrarei, a distinção entre fato e valor está na raiz da concepção moderna de domínio (controle da natureza, concepção que acabou sendo tomada, no desenvolvimento posterior, como um valor central que direciona o conhecimento científico e o desenvolvimento técnico/tecnológico.My objective is to reflect on a distinction that is fundamental to the origin of a central aspect of current scientific practices. These practices, those which we are accustomed to call the practices of modern science, represent the development, and (as foreseen by Bacon in the New Atlantis the complexification and specialization of a practice, a particular way of dealing with questions about nature, which arose and was consolidated in the 16th and 17th centuries. The articulation of this practice depended on the distinction between fact and value, which emerged in the first half of the 17th century in the works of Francis Bacon, Galileo Galilei, René Descartes and Blaise Pascal. I will show that the distinction between fact and value underlies the modern conception of the domination (control of nature, a conception that, following subsequent developments, has ended up being taken to be a central value that orients scientific knowledge and technical/technological development.

  6. The Art of Community Building the New Age of Participation

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, Jono

    2009-01-01

    Online communities offer a wide range of opportunities today, whether you're supporting a cause, marketing a product or service, or developing open source software. The Art of Community will help you develop the broad range of talents you need to recruit members to your community, motivate and manage them, and help them become active participants. Author Jono Bacon offers a collection of experiences and observations from his decade-long involvement in building and managing communities, including his current position as manager for Ubuntu, arguably the largest community in open source softwa

  7. Use of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of processed meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research studies are reviewed, concerning the use of ionizing radiation to extend the shelf life and improve the safety of processed meats. Topics include: the historical background of food irradiation research; the determination of fractional destruction (D) values for a microorganism at a given irradiation dose; the effect of chilling and of NaCl on D values; and a brief review of the irradiation research for different cured and uncured meats (bacon; ham; frankfurters; corned beef and pork sausage; and beef, chicken, and pork). Guidelines for producing safe processed meats through irradiation are included

  8. Studies of the behavior of a reactor neutron beam at the sample position of a diffractometer using silicon monochromators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F. U.; Ahsan, M. H.; Khan, Aysha A.; Kamal, I.; Awal, M. A.; Ahmad, A. A. Z.

    1992-02-01

    A computer program TISTA has been developed for calculation of different aspects of designing a double axis neutron spectrometer at the TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The mathematical algorithms used in this program are based on the formalisms used by Fischer, Sabine and Bacon. Angle and energy resolutions and flux density as functions of neutron wave length, beam collimation, crystal asymmetry and deviation from zero-Bragg-angle position for different silicon crystal planes (111, 220, 311) have been calculated.

  9. Protecting Quantum Information Encoded in Decoherence Free States Against Exchange Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Lidar, D A; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    The exchange interaction between identical qubits in a quantum information processor gives rise to unitary two-qubit errors. It is shown here that decoherence free subspaces (DFSs) for collective decoherence undergo Pauli errors under exchange, which however do not take the decoherence free states outside of the DFS. In order to protect DFSs against these errors it is sufficient to employ a recently proposed concatenated DFS-quantum error correcting code scheme [D.A. Lidar, D. Bacon and K.B. Whaley, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol 82, 4556 (1999)

  10. Utopia em Jonas e Levinas =Utopia in Jonas and Levinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrara, Ozanan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonas e Levinas são dois nomes intimamente associados à ética contemporânea. Embora não sejam nomes ligados, de maneira inequívoca, ao pensamento utópico, contribuem, no entanto, de maneira decisiva, para repensar a utopia. Proponho-me buscar nos dois autores e em seus textos os elementos de sua leitura crítica que permitem analisar e repensar a questão da utopia tal como ela se encontra formulada pelos pensadores a ela mais diretamente associados como Bloch, Buber e Bacon.

  11. {11-bar 01} twin dislocation structures in evaporated titanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution transmission electron micrographs of { 11-bar 01} interfacial twin dislocations in Ti thin films are reexamined. Computer simulations of the experimental images were obtained using atomic models deduced by Pond, Bacon and Serra (Phil Mag Letts, 1995). Two twin dislocations were analysed, with step heights of 4 x d(K1) and 2 x d (K1), where d(K1) is the spacing of the { 11-bar 01 } planes. Reasonable agreement with the predicted structures was obtained at about 0.17nm resolution. 10 refs., 2 figs

  12. Dall'esperienza corsa utili suggerimenti per la diffusione dell'avocado (P. americana mill.) in Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Dettori, Sandro; Pala, Mario

    1986-01-01

    Avocado's diffusion in Southern Sardinia can profit of scientific data from near Corsica island obtained by the «San Giuliano, Station de Recherques Agronomiques I.N.R.A.» during a period of twenty years. The research suggests Mexican cultivars («Zutano»), Mexican x Guatemaltec hybrids («Bacon», «Fuca», «Fuerte », «Nowles» and «Regina») and Guatemaltec («Hass» and «Nabal») cultivars. The last two in warmest microclimates. Moreover there are fiorai biology and technical information...

  13. Introduction à la première partie

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Giusy

    2013-01-01

    L’archéologie de l’image projetée coïncide, par bien des aspects, avec le mythe de la conservation du son. Si les observations du soleil dans une chambre obscure effectuées par le moine anglais Roger Bacon, dal grande Leonardo da Vinci, par le physicien italien Giambattista Della Porta ou encore par le jésuite allemand Athanase Kircher constituent l’archéologie des projections lumineuses, les expériences sur le son de ces mêmes savants représentent également la base archétypique des recherche...

  14. Simplified Procedures for Obtaining Clearances of Foods Preserved by Ionizing Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After thirteen years of intensive research, using high doses of ionizing energy, highly acceptable wholesome shelf-stable bacon, ham, pork, beef, chicken and shrimp can be produced in the laboratory. Using doses below 1 Mrad, the shelf life of highly acceptable wholesome fish, wheat and wheat products, oranges, and white potatoes can be extended. Before production in the United States can be scaled up to commercial quantities for the broad consumer market, approvals are required from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and, for meats from mammals and birds, from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These agencies have approved bacon, wheat and wheat products, and white potatoes, following receipt and evaluation of petitions containing all pertinent information including description of the process to be used and the food-package combination to be cleared, the proposed radiation source, the dose range, dosimetry methods, wholesomeness and nutritional data, positive proof of microbiological safety, absence of measurable induced radioactivity, acceptance data from taste panelists, and storage and shipping data where applicable. Collecting the data required for successful petitions has proved to be both time-consuming and expensive. To improve this situation, the whole process of data collection and of writing the petitions is being reexamined in the interest of streamlining and expediting the process. Recommendations are offered relative to some of the means helpful in achieving this end. (author)

  15. Technological feasibility of preserving meat, poultry and fish products by using a combination of conventional additives, mild heat treatment and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radappertization is particularly applicable to precooked meat, poultry, fin fish, and shellfish, as well as to dry foods, animal feed, and spices. The resulting radappertized products are free from food spoilage microorganisms and organisms of public health significance, including the pathogens such as C. botulinum, salmonellae, trichinae, etc. The radappertized products can be stored without refrigeration for long periods (years), the limiting factor being the integrity of the primary packaging material. Irradiation sterilization of cured meats allows complete elimination or a drastic reduction of incoming nitrite to the levels needed only for characteristic colour and flavour of the items while providing protection against C. botulinum by irradiation. The irradiated-cured products with the low levels of added nitrite are free from residual nitrite and nitrosamines, including nitrosopyrrolidine in fried bacon. In recent co-operative research with the US Department of Agriculture, it was shown that irradiation also destroys pre-formed nitrosamines in bacon. The technology of the process was developed by the US National Food Irradiation Program and the US Army from 1953 to 1980. The US Army spearheaded the development of this new technology to the point where the food irradiation potentials have become meaningful within the broad scope of national and international interests. Therefore, it was highly appropriate that, effective 1 October 1980, the responsibility for the programme at this stage was transferred to the US Department of Agriculture which has been designated as the leading agency for the US Federal food and nutrition programmes

  16. [Little histories of magnetic cures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Men were very early fascinated by magnetism because of its manifest and particular working at distance, which looked different of gravity. It was tryed to be explained by mecanism, for exemple Descartes and Boyle. Paracelse valued the therapeutics with magnets and conceived medicines as working by a magnetic virtue. Gilbert limited the medicinal properties of magnet but helded it to be animated. Many authors praised remedies that work at distance of the evil as Bacon, Van Helmont, Croll, Porta, Goclenius, Digby. Such a belief related to magic ideas of this time. In the Bacon's way Boyle collected facts of magnetic cures, and his actual testing of the divisibility of bodies led him to conceive imponderable corpuscles. Newton supposed a subtil and universel fluid going through every solid body. Mesmer misappropriated this idea by founding the animal magnetism of which physical working was only proceeding from the inside of the patient by an effect of suggestion (psychosomatic). Homeopathy took again the notion of remedies having an infinite or a magnetic virtue, which partly issued from Paracelse's and Mesmer's doctrines, which were extolled in Germany at the time of Hahnemann. The latter decided in favour of a spiritualist and not corpuscular interpretation of the working of his homeopathic medicines. PMID:19579649

  17. Composición esterólica de la fracción insaponificable del aceite de aguacate de distintas variedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Nieto, L.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the sterolic composition of the unsaponifiable fraction of oil obtained from several varieties of avocados (Bacon, Fuerte, Hass, and Reed there is not any difference among several areas, sizes and pick up dates for the same variety, but there are differences that depend on the analysed variety, therefore it is possible to concluir that an itemized analysis of the sterolic composition of the oil may be an avocado variety indicator.

    El estudio de la composición esterólica de la fracción insaponificable de aceite obtenido de distintas variedades de aguacates (Bacon, Fuerte, Hass y Reed pone de manifiesto que no existen diferencias para una misma variedad incluso para distintas zonas, calibres y fechas de corte, pero si existen diferencias que dependen de la variedad analizada, pudiéndose concluir que un análisis detallado de la composición esterólica puede ser indicativo de la variedad de aguacate de que procede un aceite.

  18. “Tenía corazón”: Dulce dueño de Emilia Pardo Bazán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnon-Deutsch, Lou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Pardo Bazán´s dialogue with realist representational fiction, with its voyeuristic obsessions, by revisiting certain passages in the novel Dulce Dueño and reviewing recent feminist scholarship (Bieder, Bacon, Medina and Kirkpatrick that sees the novel to varying degrees as subversive of the male gaze. While these critics correctly see the novel as gesturing towards modernity, this article examines also its backward glance at earlier woman-plots in relation to feminine subjectivity that imagine various ways to demonstrate that woman tenía corazón.Este ensayo explora el diálogo de Pardo Bazán con la ficción representativa realista, con sus obsesiones voyeuristas, revisitando ciertos pasajes de la novela Dulce Dueño y revisando investigaciones feministas recientes (Bieder, Bacon, Medina y Kirkpatrick que consideran la novela como una subversión, en distintos grados, de la mirada masculina. Mientras que estos críticos ven en la novela, acertadamente, un ademán hacia la modernidad, se examina también aquí su ojeada retrospectiva hacia anteriores tramas que exploran la subjetividad femenina y que imaginan varias maneras de demostrar que la mujer tenía corazón.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 22...... mu g/kg in smoked mackerel prepared in an electric oven to 1387 mu g/kg in herring smoked by direct smoking. The concentration of benzo[a] pyrene for all sample types were below the maximum level of 5 mu g/kg for smoked fish and meat set by the European Commission. Results from this survey confirm...... that the actual level of individual PAH in fish products is dependent on variables such as the type of wood used in the smoking process. Furthermore, the use of the benzo[a] pyrene approach for estimation of the carcinogenicity of PAH in food is confirmed. The Danish intake of benzo[a] pyrene from...

  20. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational

  1. The Duhem-Quine thesis and the dark matter problem

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, M A

    2015-01-01

    There are few opportunities in introductory physics for a genuine discussion of the philosophy of science, especially in cases where the physical principles are straightforward and the mathematics is simple. Terrestrial classical mechanics satisfies these requirements, but students new to physics usually carry too many incorrect or misleading preconceptions about the subject for it to be analyzed epistemologically. The problem of dark matter, and especially the physics of spiral galaxy velocity rotation curves, is a straightforward application of Newton's laws of motion and gravitation, and is just enough removed from everyday experience to be analyzed from a fresh perspective. It is proposed to teach students about important issues in the philosophy of physics, including Bacon's induction, Popper's falsifiability, and the Duhem-Quine thesis, all in light of the dark matter problem. These issues can be discussed in an advanced classical mechanics course, or, with limited simplification, at the end of a first ...

  2. Mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas no cromossomo 6, associados às características de carcaça e de órgãos internos de suínos Mapping of quantitative trait loci for carcass traits and internal organs in swine chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Vieira Pires

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de mapear locos de características quantitativas (QTLs associados às características de carcaça e de órgão internos, uma população composta de 550 animais F2 foi produzida a partir do intercruzamento da geração F1, obtida pelo cruzamento divergente de dois machos da raça nativa brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas comerciais. Os animais foram genotipados para 13 marcadores microssatélites distribuídos no cromossomo 6. As características avaliadas foram: comprimento de carcaça pelos métodos brasileiro e americano, peso e rendimento de carcaça, espessura de toucinho na região da copa, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, espessura de toucinho entre a última e a penúltima vértebra lombar, menor espessura de toucinho na região acima da última vértebra lombar, espessura de toucinho imediatamente após a última costela, a 6,5 cm da linha dorso-lombar, espessura de toucinho média (geral = estimada a partir da média de todas as espessuras de toucinho citadas anteriormente; e dorso-lombar = estimada a partir das espessuras de toucinho tomadas na linha dorso-lombar do animal, espessura de bacon, profundidade de lombo, área de olho-de-lombo, pesos de órgãos internos (coração, pulmões, fígado, baço e rim e comprimento de intestino. Utilizou-se o método de regressão por intervalo de mapeamento por meio do programa QTL Express. Foram encontrados QTLs sugestivos para as características de comprimento de carcaça pelo método brasileiro e espessura de bacon e QTL significativo para peso do rim. Nos intervalos dos picos da estatística F em que se encontraram QTLs sugestivos, devem ser incluídos mais marcadores para se confirmar a real presença de QTL.A total of the 550 F2 animals produced by divergent cross using two sires of the native Brazilian breed named Piau and 18 commercial dams were genotyped for 13 microsatellite markers in swine chromosome 6. The traits evaluated were: carcass

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors

  4. Fragmentos da construção histórica do pensamento neo-empirista

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    1998-01-01

    O presente trabalho procura identificar as idéias principais na construção histórica do pensamento neo-empirista a partir da visão mecânica do mundo e do método hipotético-dedutivo de Descartes. O método indutivo moderno é apresentado por Bacon e os empiristas ingleses colaboram na questão do pensamento “a posteriori”. No século XIX surge o positivismo que exclui a metafísica e considera a explicação dos fatos apenas como relações de sucessão e similidade. É nesse âmbito que se constroem as b...

  5. Educação e justiça nas utopias renascentistas Education and justice in the utopias of the renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Egidio Leal e Silva; Marlon Rodrigo Alberto dos Santos; Franciely Vicentini Herradon; Cézar de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    1998-01-01

    A peculiar leitura de Platão feita no século XVI é uma das chaves para compreensão da gênese do pensamento moderno. Os utopistas são o melhor exemplo disso. More, autor da Utopia, Tomás Campanella, com sua Cidade do Sol e Francis Bacon e sua Nova Atlântida, tematizam as questões relativas à projeção de uma sociedade ideal, alguns dos temas mais importantes da filosofia política do período. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a idéia de justiça nos três autores e, para tal, será necessário ...

  6. O controle da natureza e as origens da dicotomia entre fato e valor The control of nature and the origins of the dichotomy between fact and value

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Rubén Mariconda

    2006-01-01

    Meu objetivo será refletir sobre uma distinção que é fundamental para a origem de um aspecto central das práticas científicas atuais. Essas práticas, que costumamos chamar de práticas da ciência moderna, representam o desenvolvimento, a complexificação e a especialização (estas últimas já previstas por Bacon na utopia Nova Atlântida) de uma prática, de um modo particular de tratar das questões naturais, que surgiu e se consolidou nos séculos XVI e XVII. A articulação dessa prática depende da ...

  7. MODELS OF THE CITIES OF THE FUTURE - FROM TECHNOPOLIS TO ECOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor' Petrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the models of future cities and evaluating their suitability in terms of biosphere compatible human environment. The following two models of cities are analyzed: technopolis (techno-park and ecocity (garden city. Ecological aspects of the urban life are considered. The author demonstrates how the solutions based on the biosphere-compatible urban planning can serve to optimize the development of the cities. In the first part of the article the examples illustrating the history of urban planning are presented; in particular, Thomas More’s political project for future is considered, as well as New Atlantida of F. Bacon and Tommaso Campanella’s tractate “Città del Sole”. Then the author touches upon the key signs of technopolis and ecocity (Garden City.

  8. Investigación en nutrición: de la clínica a la mejor evidencia científica

    OpenAIRE

    A. Miján de la Torre; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Producción Científica La investigación en Nutrición se asienta en elmétodo científico, iniciado por pensadores como Bacon, Descartes y Peirce, y existe consenso de la comunidad científica sobre la validez de sus reglas. Este método se basa en el concepto de hipótesis, y de que ésta ha de ser reproducible y comprobable. Pese a que el método científico es el más usado por la comunidad científica, también existe el denominado método científico anarquista tipo “Fishing Expedition” postulado...

  9. Perceived fit of different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients and its effect on purchase intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2011-01-01

    ingredients are accepted by consumers in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté. Intentions to purchase different carrier/ingredient combinations are explained by perceived fit of a particular carrier......-ingredient combination, as well as respondents' general attitudes towards functional foods and their health concerns. A sample of Danish consumers (n=959) participated in a survey. Results show that perceived carrier-ingredient fit is strongly related to purchase intentions. In addition, small effects of attitudes......Scientific research that can support the consumer-oriented development of functional food products is still scarce. Up until now, only few studies have investigated consumer acceptance of different carrier/ingredient combinations in food products. The present study aims to identify which functional...

  10. Description of Microvelia urucara sp. nov. and new distributional data on veliids (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae: from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. F Moreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on material collected on streams and lakes from the Amazon River floodplain, Brazil, Microvelia urucara sp. nov. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. The new species, like many other Neotropical Microvelia Westwood, 1834, does not present striking modifications on the body or appendages, but can be separated from its congeners by features of the male genitalia. Distributional data is presented for other veliids collected along the Amazon River, and Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian & Rúdio, 2010 and Microvelia summersi Drake & Harris, 1928 are recorded for the first time from the Brazilian Amazon. Rhagovelia jubata Bacon, 1948 is newly recorded from the state of Amazonas, and Microvelia mimula White, 1879, M. pulchella Westwood, 1834 and M. venustatis Drake & Harris, 1933 are recorded for the first time from the state of Pará.

  11. Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traceability – the ability to track a product from farm to plate – is now widely used in the food sector for a range of purposes: it allows companies to improve efficiency, facilitates product recall, and helps producers flag the specific characteristics of their goods. But traceability systems...... are mainly designed and used by the people directly involved in the food chain. The people at the end of the food chain – food consumers – have little say in which attributes are traced, and can rarely access the information stored in traceability systems. This book draws on philosophical discourses (like...... ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of law) around food ethics and empirical research in three important food chains (UK bread, Danish bacon and Greek olive oil) to argue that ethical traceability systems could be used to communicate food information to consumers, allowing them not only to make...

  12. Music and the emergence of experimental science in early modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Gouk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century witnessed major advances in physics and experimental science. This paper argues that while the role of new visual technologies (e.g. the microscope has been well studied, less attention has been paid to acoustic technologies in early modern natural philosophy. In particular, I attend to the relationship between making music, a specific form of organised sound mediated through instruments, and the production of new scientific knowledge. On the one hand, this relationship developed in the context of acoustics, a new discipline first mapped out by Francis Bacon. On the other hand, music’s relationship to natural philosophy was also more fundamental, since harmony was understood as an organising principle of the universe, the laws of musical strings providing a model for other forms of vibrative motion. I also show the importance of musical training for Galileo’s experiments and the significance of harmony for Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke.

  13. Leonardo da Vinci: Ingeniero

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras López, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Leonardo comprendió y utilizó el auténtico método experimental un siglo antes de que Francis Bacon filosofase sobre él, y antes de que Galileo lo pusiese en práctica. Leonardo no escribió tratados metodológicos, pero en sus cuadernos de apuntes nos dejó esparcidas sus ideas. Decía que las matemáticas, la geometría y la aritmética, podían llegar a la certeza absoluta dentro de su propio ámbito, pues manejan conceptos mentales ideales de valor universal. En cambio, la verdadera ciencia (refirié...

  14. MODIFIED SCREEN-PRINTED CARBON ELECTRODES WITH TYROSINASE FOR DETERMINATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN SMOKED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dragancea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase (SPCE-Tyr/Paa/Glut has been developed for the determination of phenol concentration in real samples. The resulting SPCE-Tyr/Paa/Glut was prepared in a one-step procedure, and was then optimized as an amperometric biosensor operating at 0 mV versus Ag/AgCl for phenol determination in flow injection mode. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinone produced by tyrosinase activity. The possibility of using the developed biosensor to determine phenol concentrations in various smoked products (bacon, ham, chicken and salmon was also evaluated. Gas chromatography (GC method was used for result validation obtained in flow injection mode using amperometric biosensor. The result showed good correlation with those obtained by flowinjection analysis (FIA.

  15. Ham and belly processing characteristics of immunological castrated barrows (Improvest) fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Overholt, M F; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2016-02-01

    Effects of sex class (physically castrated, PC or immunologically castrated, IC) and diet (0 or 5mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride, RAC) on characteristics of ham and bellies were determined from pigs slaughtered in three groups with similar ending live weights. One carcass per pen per marketing group (n=8) was selected to evaluate further processing characteristics. Data were analyzed as a 2×2 factorial design with a split plot in time and fixed effects of sex, diet, marketing group, and their interactions. IC fresh bellies were thinner (P0.05) fresh ham or belly characteristics but decreased (P<0.01) fat in cured PC bellies. Marketing group affected (P<0.05) fresh quality, processing characteristics, and composition of hams and bellies. Immunological castration and RAC produced leaner finished products but did not alter processing yield of hams or bacon. PMID:26584399

  16. La fascination et l'action à distance : questions médiévales (1230-1370)

    OpenAIRE

    Delaurenti, Béatrice

    2008-01-01

    Le terme fascinatio désignait à l'époque scolastique le pouvoir qu'un homme ou un animal pouvait exercer, à distance, par l'intermédiaire de son regard. Ce phénomène prodigieux a suscité les interrogations des auteurs médiévaux : dans quelle mesure la fascination pouvait-elle avoir une cause naturelle ? De 1230 à 1370, Guillaume d'Auvergne, Roger Bacon, Thomas d'Aquin puis Nicole Oresme ont intégré cette question dans leur réflexion philosophique sur les pouvoirs de la nature. Il s'agissait p...

  17. PPCCT-2000. Perspectiva Histórica de la Bioquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Municio, Ángel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Una de las parcelas de la sabiduría se ha atribuido tradicionalmente a la historia y, en la presentación del estado general del saber, se refería Bacon al valor de la historia de esta manera: «Una historia correcta del saber, donde se contengan las antigüedades y orígenes de los conocimientos; sus invenciones, sus tradiciones, sus florecimientos, decadencias y olvidos, con las causas y ocasiones de los mismos, y todos los demás sucesos relacionados con el saber, a lo largo de las edades del mundo, puedo afirmar con certeza que no existe».…

  18. 抽象绘画的时间与空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文睿

    2012-01-01

    <正>刚刚结束的伦敦佳士得"2012战后及当代艺术夜场",让2011年整体气氛比较低靡的欧美现当代艺术拍卖多少振奋了一下。培根(Francis Bacon)1963年作Portrait of HenriettaMoraes(165×142厘米),以2132万英镑成交,合人民币2.11亿元。弗洛伊德(Lucian Freud)的一件小油画SmallFigure,尺寸仅为22.5×33厘米,估价150-200万英镑,

  19. The Renaissance Conception Regarding Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Arnăutu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renaissance creates a clear-cut distinction between mechanical arts, which will come to be considered applied science by Bacon and Descartes, and fine arts. Dealing with the Renaissance approach to technology, this paper will focus, on the one hand, on those domains that combine theoretical and practical skills in order to create artifacts or to transform materials, and, on the other hand, with authors who debate the status of technological practices and knowledge. Thus, we will look at the developments and arguments regarding mechanics, alchemy, natural magic, mining and metallurgy, and at authors such as Georgius Agricola, Paracelsus, Masilio Ficino, Nicholas of Cusa, Galileo Galilei. The aim is to reconstruct the arguments regarding technology that challenged the established Scholastic-Aristotelian framework and made possible the Modern approaches.

  20. Discovery and problem solving: Triangulation as a weak heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Recently the artificial intelligence community has turned its attention to the process of discovery and found that the history of science is a fertile source for what Darden has called compiled hindsight. Such hindsight generates weak heuristics for discovery that do not guarantee that discoveries will be made but do have proven worth in leading to discoveries. Triangulation is one such heuristic that is grounded in historical hindsight. This heuristic is explored within the general framework of the BACON, GLAUBER, STAHL, DALTON, and SUTTON programs. In triangulation different bases of information are compared in an effort to identify gaps between the bases. Thus, assuming that the bases of information are relevantly related, the gaps that are identified should be good locations for discovery and robust analysis.

  1. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  2. Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  5. 当知识化为权力——论鲁迅小说中的"知识型"话语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱崇科

    2008-01-01

    @@ 从培根(Francis Bacon,1561-1626)的"知识就是力量"[1],到福柯(Michel Foucault 1926-1984)意义上的"知识就是权力"(英文没有变化,Knowledge is power),或许变化的不只是中文字眼,意义的窄缩,而更多是一种思维范式的变迁:知识如何从一个貌似透明或积极的推动力角色摇身一变为中性词汇,里面密布了新颖而又复杂的文化逻辑[2],无疑耐人寻味.

  6. Phänomenologie des Raumes bei Descartes und Husserl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granz, Holger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this text, spatiality will be discussed from a philosophical point of view, in examining the positions of Descartes and Husserl. On the one hand, the philosophy of Descartes marks the beginning of the modern era. Next to Francis Bacon, he is the one to pave the way for the upcoming sciences, especially physics, by an analytical geometry that roots in his philosophy. On the other hand, Husserl shall be examined,a quite different approach to spatiality than the one employed by Descartes. Because Husserl’s phenomenology centers upon the analysis of experience,intending that the objects themselves shall “tell” us what they are. Both approaches became influential for attempts to comprehend spatiality, since other conceptions to follow are referring to them.

  7. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  8. The Art of Memory and the Growth of the Scientific Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    I argue that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling the growth of the scientific method. After giving a historical overview of the development of the memory arts from ancient Greece through 17th century Europe, I describe how the Baconian viewpoint on the scientific method was fundamentally part of a culture and a broader dialogue that conceived of memorization as a foundational methodology for structuring knowledge and for developing symbolic means for representing scientific concepts. The principal figures of this intense and rapidly evolving intellectual milieu included some of the leading thinkers traditionally associated with the scientific revolution; among others, Francis Bacon, Renes Descartes, and Gottfried Leibniz. I close by examining the acceleration of mathematical thought in light of the art of memory and its role in 17th century philosophy, and in particular, Leibniz' project to develop a universal calculus.

  9. SANIFICATION PROTOCOLS EVALUATION IN BUTCHER SHOPS AND FISH MARKETS WITH LABORATORY FOR COOKED AND/OR READY TO COOK PRODUCTION – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of sanification protocols is a pre-requisite for safety and hygienic quality assurance of foodstuff. At the moment food business operators establish own hygienic standards based on literature or internal standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols in 57 butcher shops and 27 fish markets in Fermo and Ascoli Piceno. During the routine official inspections, from March and December 2008, 272 environmental samples were collected by swab method on sanitized surfaces (table, cutting board and working plan ... and equipment (balances, mincers, bacons, slicers ... and examined for total aerobic mesophilic count (CMT and Enterobacteriaceae. The results obtained were ranked into three microbiological classes (CMT Log CFU/cm2 class A:

  10. Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?

    CERN Document Server

    Jeng, M

    2005-01-01

    We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more ...

  11. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Durango, Colorado, conducted in April 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented together with descriptions of the instruments and techniques used to obtain the data. Direct above-ground gamma measurements and analysis of surface soil and sediment samples indicate movement of tailings from the piles toward Lightner Creek on the north and the Animas River on the east side of the piles. The concentration of 226Ra in the former raffinate pond area is only slightly above the background level. Two structures in Durango were found to contain high concentrations of airborne radon daughters, where tailings are known to have been utilized in construction. Near-background concentrations of radon daughters were found in a well-ventilated building close to the tailings

  12. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters. PMID:11640512

  13. Hasat Zamanı ve Hasat Sonrası Olgunluğa Bağlı Olarak Bazı Avokado (Persea americana Mill) Çeşitlerinin Bileşimindeki Değişimler

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Feramuz; Topuz, Ayhan; Demirkol, Aliye; Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2004-01-01

    Bu araştırmada Bacon, Fuerte, Hass ve Zutano çeşidi avokado (Persea americana Mill) meyvelerinin bazı fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerinin hasat zamanı ve hasat sonrası olgunlaşma periyoduna göre değişimi belirlenmiştir. Ortalama meyve eti oranı %81.3 olan örneklerde toplam kuru madde %21.88-26.25, yağ %12.22-17.28, protein %1.63-2.42, kül %0.94-1.27 ve titre edilebilir asit miktarı %0.08-0.11 (sitrik asit) değerleri arasında değişmiştir. Avokado yağında en fazla oleik asit {%49.66-66.51) bulu...

  14. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  15. Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  16. Knowledge Management – The Importance of Learning Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRACIUN Bucur-Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available „Knowledge is power”. Sir Francis Bacon, Religious Meditations, Of Heresies, 1597 - English author, courtier, & philosopher (1561 - 1626Knowledge Management is a current topic in the market, which have been treated during the last years from different consideration perspectives. This ongoing subject has fascinated me ever since I had the opportunity to read a paragraph of Hendry Minzberg, in respect of this topic. Knowledge management is a main part of the today's economy. It reflects the expressive representation to the demand of the knowledge society, within the scope of the globalization and the continuous learning. Organizational learning and learning organization are two concepts often confused. If knowledge processes, knowledge contained change occurs through the process of learning. By learning we understand, in this context, an increase of possibilities of action of various sources of personal knowledge.

  17. Influence of intense scavenging on Pa-Th fractionation in the wake of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Venchiarutti, C.; Roy-Barman, M.; Freydier, R.; P. van Beek; Souhaut, M.; Jeandel, C.

    2011-01-01

    ISI Document Delivery No.: 862ZI Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 71 Cited References: ANDERSON RF, 1983, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V66, P73, DOI 10.1016/0012-821X(83)90127-9 ANDERSON RF, 1983, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V62, P7, DOI 10.1016/0012-821X(83)90067-5 ANDERSON RF, 1990, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V96, P287, DOI 10.1016/0012-821X(90)90008-L Armand LK, 2008, DEEP-SEA RES PT II, V55, P653, DOI 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.12.031 BACON MP, 1982, J GEOPHYS RES-OC ATM, V87, P2045, DOI 10.1029/JC087iC03p02...

  18. Knowledge Management – the Key Resource in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo NEVADO PEÑA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of global information and communication technology changes and globalization have transformed our society by favoring the economy and innovation as key driver of global competition. Creation and exploitation of knowledge has become key resource in the new economy. All advanced economies are technologically knowledgebased economy. Many of today's managers and their employees, still guided by the definition given by Francis Bacon (1597 “Knowledge is power” instead of “sharing and managing knowledge is power”. Knowing taken alone may not bring value if not shared before and then managed in an efficient manner. This article seeks to demonstrate what knowledge, what the knowledge management is and what are its main implications in the new economy, a knowledge-based economy.

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  20. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of 226Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of 226Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc

  1. 高考英语听力十大必备场景词汇精选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    (1)餐馆场景:order 点菜 serve 上菜 change 零钱 Keep the change!不用找零钱了! Here is your change这是你的零钱 tip 小费 treat 请客(This is my treat!我请客! It’s on me.)go Dutch AA 制(Let’s go fifty.)steak牛排 cheese 奶酪 sandwich 三明治 bacon 腌肉 soup 汤 自来水(西餐中洗手用的) appetizer 开胃物 dessert 甜品。

  2. Fashioning Anti-Semitism: Virginia’s Woolf’ “The Duchess and The Jeweller” and the readers of Harper’s Bazaar

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger Henderson, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Depuis sa parution dans le Harper’s Bazaar en 1938, “The Duchess and the Jeweller” a été dénoncée comme étant ouvertement raciste. Pourtant, si l'agent littéraire, Jacques Chambrun, a au départ rejeté “The Duchess and the Jeweller”, c'est à cause de l'anti-sémitisme du lectorat américain. Woolf révisa la nouvelle et enleva toutes les allusions directes à la judéité d' Oliver Bacon qui, malgré tout, ressort encore dans la caricature. En fait, ce que la description d'une rencontre subversive de...

  3. Technological Feasibility of Preserving Meat, Poultry and Fish Products by Using a Combination of Conventional Additives, Mild Heat Treatment and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radappertization, or irradiation sterilization of meats and other protein foods (poultry, seafoods) is a new processing method applicable to pre-cooked (enzyme inactivated) foods that are hermetically sealed (either in metal cans, flexible pouches, or metal or plastic trays) and involves irradiation to sterilizing doses of either gamma rays (from a cobalt-60 or caesium-137 source) or by X-rays and electrons. The process is particularly applicable to pre-cooked meat, poultry, fin fish, and shellfish, as well as to dry foods, animal feed, and spices. The resulting radappertized products are free from food spoilage microorganisms and organisms of public health significance, including the pathogens such as C. botulinum, salmonellae, trichinae, etc. The radappertized products can be stored without refrigeration for long periods (years), the limiting factor being the integrity of the primary packaging material. Irradiation sterilization of cured meats allows complete elimination or a drastic reduction of incoming nitrite to the levels needed only for characteristic colour and flavour of the items while providing protection against C. botulinum by irradiation. The irradiated-cured products with the low levels of added nitrite are free from residual nitrite and nitrosamines, including nitrosopyrrolidine in fried bacon. In recent co-operative research with the US Department of Agriculture, it was shown that irradiation also destroys pre-formed nitrosamines in bacon. The technology of the process was developed by the US National Food Irradiation Program and the US Army from 1953 to 1980. The US Army spearheaded the development of this new technology to the point where the food irradiation potentials have become meaningful within the broad scope of national and international interests. Therefore, it was highly appropriate that, effective 1 October 1980, the responsibility for the programme at this stage was transferred to the US Department of Agriculture which has been

  4. The Franciscans in Cathay: memory of men and places. A Contribution for the genealogy of geographical knowledge of Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Buffon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary The study analyzes the process that leads to the elaboration of the thesis of a continuity between the Medieval Asia mission and the New World mission. This effort, undertaken by the Catholic historiography of the mission during the XIX century, is the result of the impulse provided by Alexander von Humboldt’s studies about the discovery of America (Examen critique. The data about the geography of Asia collected by the missionaries-travelers working in the territory between Karakorum and Khanbalik during the XIII e XIV century reaches Christopher Colombus with the mediation of Roger Bacon, whom Humboldt himself esteems as a true cultural mediator. The conclusion of the article tries to identify reasons and modalities of the secularization of the missionary concept, i.e. the shift from the ideal of the propagation of the Christian message to a prevailing interest for cartography and topography, transformations arranged by a late medieval historiography that introduces into martyrolagia the loca toponomastica. Sommario Lo studio analizza il processo che conduce all’elaborazione della tesi di una continuità tra missione asiatica medievale e missione nel Nuovo Mondo. L’impegno, assunto dalla storiografia missionaria cattolica lungo il corso del XIX secolo, costituisce l’esito dell’impulso proveniente dagli studi svolti da Alexander von Humboldt intorno all’esplorazione delle Americhe (Examen critique. Le informazioni sullo spazio asiatico trasmesse dai missionari operanti durante il XIII e il XIV secolo tra Karakorum e Khanbaliq pervengono a Cristoforo Colombo mediante Ruggero Bacone (Opus majus, che Humlbodt stesso stima mediatore culturale per antonomasia. La parte conclusiva della ricerca si occupa di stabilire modalità e ragioni della secolarizzazione del concetto di missione, cioè del trasferimento all’interesse cartografico dell’anelito alla propagazione del messaggio cristiano fino agli estremi confini della terra

  5. Sulphur isotope ratios in Philippine geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data on sulfur isotope ratios in dissolved sulfate, H2S gas, anhydrite and pyrite minerals in four Philippine geothermal fields - Palinpinon, Mahanagdong, Mt. Apo and Bacon-Manito. Isotope ratios are used to determine the source of sulfur species in each geothermal system. Fluid temperature estimates using sulfur pairs are also included in the discussion. Finally, oxygen isotope distribution in dissolved sulfate, anhydrite and water is introduced. Dissolved sulfate sulfur isotope ratios can be divided into three groups: heavy (δ34S>15 per mille CDT), light (∼ 0 per mille) and transitional or mixed ratios (1-15 per mille). The heavy samples represent waters that have attained some degree of isotopic equilibrium with co-existing sulfides, either in the present geothermal environments or at deeper, hotter levels of the hydrothermal systems. Most of the well fluids in Palinpinon, Mahanagdong and Bacon-Manito belong to this group. Light fluids, on the other hand, are typical of surface and shallow thermal features, where H2S gas is oxidized and converted to SO4. The δ34SSO4 ratios here mirror that of the source H2S. Slightly heavy ratios, characteristic of Mt. Apo well waters, are apparently produced by dilution of 'heavy' fluids with 'light' waters, in this specific case the light end-member being steam condensate. δ34SH2S of well samples in Palinpinon, Mahanagdong and Bacon-Manito are in the vicinity of 0 per mille, similar to that of magmatic H2S and H2S produced from SO2 disproportionation. This implies that geothermal H2S in these fields are derived either directly or indirectly from a magmatic source. In Mt. Apo, δ34SH2S are depleted at -3 to -4 per mille. Although the ultimate source is still magmatic in origin, the depleted ratios are thought to be effects of extensive degassing of an originally δ34S-enriched reservoir fluid. Sulfur ratios in anhydrite are similar to those of dissolved SO4, suggesting that dissolved sulfate is the

  6. Pellets de trigo e soja produzidos por extrusão Wheat and soybean pellets produced by extrusion-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Huei Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A mistura de trigo e soja representa uma importante fonte calórico-protéica com proteínas de boa qualidade. Apesar disso, a utilização da soja como ingrediente tem sido limitada pelo seu sabor de feijão cru (beany flavor, o qual é melhorado pelo processo de extrusão. Foram estudados os efeitos de umidade da mistura, Temperatura de Barril (TB e Velocidade de Rotação de Parafuso (VRP, Nº 5 do extrusor no Índice de Expansão (IE, no Índice de Solubilidade em Água (ISA e nas características sensoriais de pellets produzidos com mistura de trigo e soja (90:10, objetivando a otimização deste processo para a obtenção de pellets fritos com melhores qualidades sensoriais. A farinha mista crua foi extrusada em 2 umidades (32 e 35%, 4 TB (60 a 90 °C e 4 VRP (60 a 150 rpm, totalizando 32 tratamentos. O pellet frito, preparado com a farinha mista com 32% de umidade e extrusada em 60 rpm a 80 °C, apresentou o maior IE e as melhores qualidades sensoriais (aparência, sabor e textura, sendo preferido pela equipe de provadores não treinados, tanto com sabor de bacon como com sabor de queijo.The mixture of wheat with soybean represents an important calorie-protein source with good protein quality. In spite of this, the use of soybeans as an ingredient has been limited by their beany flavor, which is improved by the extrusion process. Effects of mixture moisture, Barrel Temperature (BT and Screw-Speed (SS, Nº 5 on Expansion Index (EI, Water Solubility Index (WSI and sensory characteristics of pellets produced with a wheat-soybean (90:10 mixture were studied, in order to optimize this process for obtaining fried pellets with better sensory qualities. Raw mixed flour was extruded at two moisture contents (32 and 35%, four BT (60 to 90 °C and four SS (60 to 150 rpm, totalizing 32 treatments. The fried pellets, prepared with the mixed flour with 32% moisture and extruded at 60 rpm and 80 °C, presented the greatest EI and the best sensory

  7. Reduction of Listeria innocua contamination in vacuum-packaged dry-cured Italian pork products after high hydrostatic pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to present the results of the application of a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP on Italian fermented and dry-cured pork products. The products used in this study were portioned cured ham, portioned bacon and salami, vacuumpackaged and produced by a single processing company. Two studies were conducted on a single batch of the three products by means of an artificial contamination with Listeria innocua as a surrogate of L. monocytogenes. In the first trial a superficial contamination was obtained by immersion for 3 min in the culture broth with a concentration of approximately 9 log cfu/mL. At the end of the inoculum step, the pieces were dred at room temperature and vacuum packaged. In the second trial 50 kg of minced pork meat were contaminated before production of salami. In both cases the inoculum contained 5 strains of L. innocua. Subsequently, in both trials, 10 samples were randomly divided into two groups of 5 pieces each: i TH group, samples treated with HHP; ii group C, control samples, not subjected to any treatment. All samples were stored at refrigeration temperature at the end of HHP treatments (if applied, and analyzed for the determination of the surface (1st trial and deep (2nd trial quantitative contamination of L. innocua. pH and aW were also determined on 3 pieces of each products belonging to group C. The difference between the medians of the log cfu/cm2 or g established between controls and treated were compared using the non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test with P<0.01. In all products and in both trials the level of contamination detected in treatment groups was always significantly lower than in controls (P<0.01. In particular, in vacuum-packaged ham, bacon and salami viability logarithmic viability reductions equal to -2.29, -2.54 and -2.51 were observed, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate a not-thermal treatment on Italian cured or fermented pork products. The results of

  8. SOMOS O QUE FAZEMOS, MAS SOMOS PRINCIPALMENTE, O QUE FAZEMOS PARA MUDAR O QUE SOMOS

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    Dalmo Valério Machado De Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da história, o homem sempre procurou justificar suas ações individuais ou coletivas com base naquilo que poderia ser revertido para o próprio indivíduo ou classe. Nessa esteira, a discussão sobre o conceito e aplicabilidade do conhecimento renderia um debate que transcende os fins a que se destina esse editorial.A fim de demarcar uma linha do tempo e de pensamento ao longo da construção que ora se apresenta não se pode deixar de tomar como referência basilar o grego Platão, para quem o conhecimento consiste de crença verdadeira e justificada. Posteriormente, revendo e aprofundando as lições de seu mestre, Aristóteles desmembra o conhecimento em três áreas: científica, prática e técnica. Na Idade Média, o bom frade Roger Bacon, o maior prócer do chamado empirismo aristotélico, estabeleceu as bases de um tipo de investigação científica ainda hoje vigente centrada no esquema da tentativa e do erro, além de, em suas "horas vagas", travestir-se de propagandista dos "benéficos" efeitos do uso da pólvora no trato dos problemas internos e externos de um reino ou feudo.  Com o surgimento da ciência moderna, entre os séculos XVI e XVII, um período denominado Revolução Científica, sedimentam-se e proliferam as ideias de Isaac Newton, Galileu Galilei, René Descartes, Francis Bacon, Nicolau Copérnico, Louis Pasteur e Francesco Redi entre outros, que, reorganizando o pensamento científico, apontam para um campo novo de conhecimento científico cujas implicações são sentidas até os dias de hoje. 

  9. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del caracter

  10. Mudanças no consumo alimentar de mulheres do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1995-2005 Changing in dietary intake by women in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1995 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Compara-se o consumo alimentar de mulheres de 35 anos e mais investigado em dois estudos transversais de base populacional desenvolvidos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 1995-1996 (n = 1.014 e 2004-2005 (n = 1.001. Utilizou-se questionário de freqüência do consumo de alimentos para estimar o consumo de alimentos e o índice de massa corporal (IMC = peso/estatura² para avaliar o estado nutricional. A prevalência da obesidade (IMC 30kg/m² aumentou no período de 10 anos (16,6% para 24%. O consumo de diversos alimentos com alta densidade energética sofreu incremento, como: biscoitos salgados, doces, bacon, lingüiça/salsicha e hambúrguer. Outros foram relatados com menor freqüência: manteiga/margarina, maionese, batata frita ou chips, e açúcar. Frutas, leite, feijão, raízes e tubérculos, e carnes tiveram redução do consumo. Mulheres com escolaridade elevada apresentaram maior redução no consumo de frutas e carnes. As mudanças na prevalência da obesidade parecem estar relacionadas com as modificações do consumo de alimentos e dependentes do grau de escolarização.This article compares food intake by women 35 years or older in two population-based cross-sectional studies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1995-1996 (n = 1,014 and 2004-2005 (n = 1,001. Food intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and nutritional status was defined according to body mass index (BMI = weight/height². Prevalence of obesity (BMI 30kg/m² increased in the ten-year period (16.6% to 24%. Many high energy density (kcal/g foods showed a statistically significant increase in the period, such as crackers, candies, bacon, sausage, and hamburger. Some high energy density items were reported less frequently: butter, mayonnaise, potato chips, and sugar. The intake of fruits, milk, beans, roots and potatoes, and meat decreased in the 10-year period. Women with more education showed a larger reduction in fruit and meat intake and a smaller reduction

  11. Slim by design: serving healthy foods first in buffet lines improves overall meal selection.

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    Brian Wansink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Each day, tens of millions of restaurant goers, conference attendees, college students, military personnel, and school children serve themselves at buffets--many being all-you-can-eat buffets. Knowing how the food order at a buffet triggers what a person selects could be useful in guiding diners to make healthier selections. METHOD: The breakfast food selections of 124 health conference attendees were tallied at two separate seven-item buffet lines (which included cheesy eggs, potatoes, bacon, cinnamon rolls, low-fat granola, low-fat yogurt, and fruit. The food order between the two lines was reversed (least healthy to most healthy, and vise-versa. Participants were randomly assigned to choose their meal from one line or the other, and researchers recorded what participants selected. RESULTS: With buffet foods, the first ones seen are the ones most selected. Over 75% of diners selected the first food they saw, and the first three foods a person encountered in the buffet comprised 66% of all the foods they took. Serving the less healthy foods first led diners to take 31% more total food items (p<0.001. Indeed, diners in this line more frequently chose less healthy foods in combinations, such as cheesy eggs and bacon (r = 0.47; p<0.001 or cheesy eggs and fried potatoes (r= 0.37; p<0.001. This co-selection of healthier foods was less common. CONCLUSIONS: Three words summarize these results: First foods most. What ends up on a buffet diner's plate is dramatically determined by the presentation order of food. Rearranging food order from healthiest to least healthy can nudge unknowing or even resistant diners toward a healthier meal, helping make them slim by design. Health-conscious diners, can proactively start at the healthier end of the line, and this same basic principle of "first foods most" may be relevant in other contexts - such as when serving or passing food at family dinners.

  12. Blind suffering: Ribera’s non-visual epistemology of martyrdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Sapir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the oft-neglected aspects of early Baroque painting is its critical stance vis-à-vis renaissance’s ideal of pure and perfect visibility. The origins of this standpoint can be traced to the art of Caravaggio, but it is the Hispano-Neapolitan painter Jusepe de Ribera who brings it to a culmination of sorts, in a sustained pictorial quest for a novel sensorial pragmatics. Ribera’s representations of martyrdom, in particular, create a fascinating play between saints’ tactile experience of their suffering, their complex, often-deficient visual perception, and the viewer’s limited access to visual information when reconstructing the narrative on the basis of pictorial evidence. In this article, I analyse Ribera’s creation of mock-tactile textures through purely visual techniques, and the implications of such an artistic method for the hierarchy of the senses in the devotional context of Neapolitan culture in the first half of the seventeenth century. Gilles Deleuze’s analysis of Francis Bacon in The Logic of Sensation and Steven Connor’s observations on skin’s place in modern culture are brought also to bear on Ribera’s epidermal painting and its subversion of ocularcentrism.

  13. Effect of fat score on the quality of various meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, R; Eberhard, P; Guggisberg, D; Piccinali, P; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H

    2008-11-01

    In the larger Swiss abattoirs the fat score (FS) is determined by default as an indicator of fat quality. The FS refers to the iodine number and is related to the degree of unsaturation of the outer layer of backfat. In a feeding trial with Large White gilts, the FS was determined in 47 carcasses. Meat and fat tissues were prepared for the production of salami (SAL), raw-cured bacon (RCB), pork hamburger (PHB) and Vienna sausage (VIS). In the different meat products, the FS was closely related to the percentage of saturated (SFA: r=-0.49 to -0.79) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, r=0.36 to 0.79) for RCB, SAL and PHB (p⩽0.05), but not for VIS. For RCB, significant correlations with FS were seen for the meat:fat-ratio (r=0.39), fat firmness (r=-0.31) and one fat oxidation marker (1-octen-3-ol: r=0.51). The texture (r=-0.60), a(w)-value (r=0.63) and one fat oxidation marker (1-octen-3-ol: r=0.46) were significantly correlated with FS in SAL. On the whole, only a few variables correlated significantly with FS for SAL and RCB and the corresponding relationships were always linear. No significant correlation between FS and any of the technological and sensorial parameters were found for VIS or PHB. PMID:22063595

  14. KOGNITÍVNE SKRESLENIA AKO SÚČASŤ SPRISAHANECKÝCH TEÓRIÍ

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    Imrich Ruisel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of modern Greek philosophy have already indicated that man is not a reliable information processor, because he is unable to completely encompass the real world at a cognitive level. Thus, already Plato distinguished between the knowledge of the real true belief (epistémé and opinion (doxa. F. Bacon assumed that human senses are not the measure of reality. Psychologists A. Tversky and D. Kahneman pointed out that people do not follow rational arguments and set rules in their judgments. Rather, they use heuristics, which are simplified judgment rules that enable quick judgments, often biased by individual’s subjective beliefs. These wrong conclusions induce false ideas or fallacies. There are deductive and inductive fallacies. We contemplate the ratio of cognitive fallacies in forming and existence of conspiracy theories. Deliberate use of fallacies and biases is characteristic of the use of conspiracy theories in propaganda. Wrong judgments are made due to wrong understanding of coincidental events, insufficient processing of the laws of statistical regression and the tendency to search for confirmation. Preferred are verbal techniques in the form of naive and ritualized terms and statements based on unidentifiable fallacies.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings new and old Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Rifle, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 3.1 million tons of tailings at the two Rifle sites, constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The 15 alternative remedial action options presented range from millsite decontamination and off-site remedial action (Options I and IV), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II, V, VI and VII), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present sites (Options III and VIII through XV). Cost estimates for the first 14 options range from $224,000 to $20,300,000. Option XV, estimated at $32,200,000, includes the cost for moving both Rifle tailings piles and the Grand Junction tailings pile to DeBeque for long-term storage and site decontamination after removal of the piles. Reprocessing of the tailings for uranium appears to be economically attractive at present.

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Naturita site, Naturita, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, the performance of radiometric measurements to determine the extent of radium contamination, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 704,000 tons of tailings at the Naturita site constitutes the most significant environmental impact although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. Ranchers Exploration and Development Company has been licensed by the State of Colorado to reprocess the tailings at a location 3 mi from the present site where they will be stabilized for long-term storage. The remedial action options include remedial action for structures in Naturita and Nucla (Option I) at an estimated cost of $270,000 and remedial action for structures and open land adjacent to the tailings site (Option II) at an estimated cost of $950,000.

  17. Biodiversity, biotechnologies and the philosophy of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleni, Lodovico

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that in front of the development of biotechnology and of the capacity of techniques of altering the living, there is still a very old philosophy of biology. A rapid historical view is given where the rise and diffusion of the reductionistic paradigm is presented and the connections between this paradigm and biotechnologies are traced. Curiously biotechnologies are still based on the philosophy of F. Bacon. Then the necessity of a new paradigm in biology based on the recent discoveries of complexity is underlined. It is reminded that the main discovery of science of the XX century is that we are living in a small planet of limited resources and frail equilibriums. This discovery asks for a different view of the scientific progress, more linked to the conservation of the Biosphere than to its alteration. Stability is the task for the future interactions of human-kind with nature. For this reason the relationships between stability and diversity are summarised. Finally, as the species is the main step of Biodiversity, a brief discussion of the problems posed by the altering of species barriers is presented. PMID:15612188

  18. The Relationship Among Fans’ Involvement, Psychological Commitment, and Loyalty in Professional Team Sports

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    Stavros Tachis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on consumer behavior in leisure settings has proposed the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Nonetheless, very little attention has been given to the conceptualization of the relationship among these constructs in a sport spectator context. The present study examined the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment, and two dimensions of loyalty, namely the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of sport fans. The participants of this study were 800 soccer fans. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the involvement scale which was developed for leisure participants by Kyle, Graefe, Manning and Bacon (2003. A structural equation modeling examined the proposed relationship model among involvement, commitment and loyalty. It was found that fans’ involvement affects psychological commitment. Psychological commitment, in turn, influences attitudinal loyalty, and eventually attitudinal loyalty has direct effects on behavioral loyalty. The findings of the study indicate the mechanism through which sport fans become loyal to their team. It is suggested that sport managers should develop involvement, psychological commitment and attitudinal loyalty through marketing strategies in order to maximize sport fans’ behavioral loyalty.

  19. Federal communication about obesity in the Dietary Guidelines and checkoff programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Parke E

    2006-06-01

    The new Dietary Guidelines for Americans focus on obesity prevention. They recommend increased consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and low-fat dairy products, within a balanced diet whose total calories have been moderately reduced. Meanwhile, other well-known and well-funded federally sponsored consumer communications promote increased total consumption of beef, pork, and dairy products, including energy dense foods such as bacon cheeseburgers, barbecue pork ribs, pizza, and butter. These latter communications are sponsored by the federal government's commodity promotion programs, known as "checkoff" programs. The programs are established by Congress, approved by a majority of the commodity's producers, managed jointly by a producer board and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and funded through a tax on the producers. The federal government enforces the collection of more than 600 million US dollars annually in mandatory assessments, approves the advertising and marketing programs, and defends checkoff communication in court as the federal government's own message-in legal jargon, as its own "government speech." Federal support for promoting fruits and vegetables is small by comparison. The checkoff programs recently have become more clearly identified as federal programs. After a recent decision by the U.S. Supreme Court upholding the constitutionality of the checkoff programs, calls for consistency with the Dietary Guidelines may get louder. The current inconsistencies in federal communication undermine the effectiveness of the Dietary Guidelines as an antidote to the shortcomings of the private sector market for information about weight and obesity. PMID:16861600

  20. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world. PMID:24843926

  1. Controlling Listeria monocytogenes on Pork Meat with Combinations of Lyophilized Cell-adsorbed Bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 and Organic Acids or Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privat Kouakou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to see if the antilisterial action of lyophilized cell-adsorbed bacteriocin from Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 might be reinforced by simultaneous treatment with an organic acid or salt. Slices of raw pork (lean bacon inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (at 102 cfu/g meat were either vacuum packaged directly and stored at 4°C or treated prior to packaging with a solution containing either lyophilized cell-adsorbed bacteriocin from Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 (at 1 g/100 mL, an organic acid or salt, or both. The organic acids/salts used were acetic acid, lactic acid, sodium acetate, sodium diacetate, potassium sorbate, and potassium benzoate and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions were calculated so as to treat each slice with approximately 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg acid/salt. Of the antimicrobials used alone, LCaB had the strongest inhibitory effect (a 1-Log reduction in the Listeria cfu count after two weeks, followed by an increase. In combination with LCaB, three antimicrobials had a much more drastic effect: acetic acid, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate. At the highest acid/salt concentration tested in such combinations, Listeria became undetectable after one or two weeks and remained so until the end of the 6-week experiment.

  2. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

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    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  3. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  4. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author)

  5. Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)

  6. Inventory of Polonium-210 in the world's oceans and implications for the Po/Pb isotope pair as carbon export tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Shannon and Orren (1970) published 'A rapid method for the determination of polonium-210 and lead-21 in seawater', there have been only a few studies that have published depth-resolved profiles of dissolved an particulate 210Po in the ocean. In this paper we will present a synthesis of published inventories in various ocean basins, and discuss the general global distribution of the natural radionuclide. Using data from Nozaki, Bacon Turekian, Cochran, Kadko, Stewart, Verdeny and others, the residence times of particulate and dissolved polonium in the surface ocean will be calculated, and implications for using the 210Po/210Pb isotope pair as a carbon export tracer from the surface ocean will be discussed. Further, the polonium distributions throughout the entire water column (surface to sediment) will be interpreted in the context of physical, chemical, geological and biological features of each basin. For example, is the 'missing' 210Po in the mid-depths of oligotrophic oceans due to it biological uptake. What is the relationship between oxygen minimum zones and 210Po. And, how do hydrothermal vents influence the cycling and partitioning of dissolved and particulate polonium. (author)

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Naturita site, Naturita, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Naturita, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings, the performance of radiometric measurements to determine the extent of radium contamination, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 704,000 tons of tailings at the Naturita site constitutes the most significant environmental impact although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. Ranchers Exploration and Development Company has been licensed by the State of Colorado to reprocess the tailings at a location 3 mi from the present site where they will be stabilized for long-term storage. The remedial action options include remedial action for structures in Naturita and Nucla (Option I) at an estimated cost of $270,000 and remedial action for structures and open land adjacent to the tailings site (Option II) at an estimated cost of $950,000

  8. Effect of human auditory efferent feedback on cochlear gain and compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Drga, Vit; Plack, Christopher J

    2014-11-12

    The mammalian auditory system includes a brainstem-mediated efferent pathway from the superior olivary complex by way of the medial olivocochlear system, which reduces the cochlear response to sound (Warr and Guinan, 1979; Liberman et al., 1996). The human medial olivocochlear response has an onset delay of between 25 and 40 ms and rise and decay constants in the region of 280 and 160 ms, respectively (Backus and Guinan, 2006). Physiological studies with nonhuman mammals indicate that onset and decay characteristics of efferent activation are dependent on the temporal and level characteristics of the auditory stimulus (Bacon and Smith, 1991; Guinan and Stankovic, 1996). This study uses a novel psychoacoustical masking technique using a precursor sound to obtain a measure of the efferent effect in humans. This technique avoids confounds currently associated with other psychoacoustical measures. Both temporal and level dependency of the efferent effect was measured, providing a comprehensive measure of the effect of human auditory efferents on cochlear gain and compression. Results indicate that a precursor (>20 dB SPL) induced efferent activation, resulting in a decrease in both maximum gain and maximum compression, with linearization of the compressive function for input sound levels between 50 and 70 dB SPL. Estimated gain decreased as precursor level increased, and increased as the silent interval between the precursor and combined masker-signal stimulus increased, consistent with a decay of the efferent effect. Human auditory efferent activation linearizes the cochlear response for mid-level sounds while reducing maximum gain. PMID:25392499

  9. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  10. Kaftas prepared with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to smoking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaftas with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were developed and the effects of the smoking technique on the characteristics of chemical composition, microbiological, sensory and benzo(apyrene were investigated. The filleting chips were ground and filleting included condiments and bacon. Kaftas were molded, frozen and distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T 1 = baked in a grid; T 2 = smoked by friction and T 3 = smoked by liquid smoke with 10 replications. The kaftas subjected to hot smoke had lower moisture content (13.97%, whereas the no-smoking kaftas had the highest content (20.49%. Kaftas with liquid smoke had high crude protein content (48.06% and ash (9.49%, whereas the ash content was different only from no-smoking kaftas (8.79%. There was no significant difference in sensory parameters, except for flavor; smoked kaftas with liquid smoke were more accepted by the judges and the worst kaftas were no-smoked kaftas. Microbiological analysis showed that kaftas developed were appropriate to feed human beings within the required standards. Chips filleting is an alternative for the development of kaftas and those subjected to liquid smoke were considered the best.

  11. Alliesthesia to food cues: heterogeneity across stimuli and sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Rigaud, Daniel; Martin, Sylviane; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Brondel, Laurent; Schaal, Benoist

    2008-10-20

    Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While negative alliesthesia was observed only for food stimuli, it did not equally affect all food categories in either sensory modality. The stimuli representing foods eaten in typical local main dishes or having high energy density (e.g., pizza, bacon, beef, cheese) evoked clear negative alliesthesia, whereas this was not the case for those less consumed within a customary meal or associated with desserts (i.e., fruits). Furthermore, the visual food stimuli triggered a more negative shift in liking than did the food odours. Finally, the shift in wanting between pre- and post-meal state was more important than the shift in liking. These results suggest that alliesthesia may be influenced by both metabolic and non-metabolic factors. PMID:18675834

  12. Boundary processes traced by neodymium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, C.; Lacan, F.

    2003-04-01

    Continental margins have been identified as preferential sites for removing of reactive elements from the ocean, on the base of U-series measurements (more specifically 231Pa/230Th). This process is called boundary scavenging (Bacon, 1988). Five years of neodymium isotopes data in water masses along the ocean margins (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Greenland-Scotland ridge and Labrador Sea) suggests that Nd is transferred from the sediments to the ocean but the reverse also occurs via the so-called boundary scavenging. These processes are only detectable by isotopic ratio measurements because they affect the isotopic signature of the water mass coming in contact with the margin, without changing its concentration. They can involve much higher fluxes than net input processes: for example, the modification of the AAIW signature along the Papua New Guinea slope involves exchange processes only (Lacan and Jeandel, 2001). Since we suspect that such processes not only affect the Nd oceanic chemistry but also the chemical fate of other reactive elements in the ocean, we suggest that the concept of boundary scavenging should be extended to "boundary exchange".

  13. Piecewise linear regression splines with hyperbolic covariates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consider the problem of fitting a curve to data that exhibit a multiphase linear response with smooth transitions between phases. We propose substituting hyperbolas as covariates in piecewise linear regression splines to obtain curves that are smoothly joined. The method provides an intuitive and easy way to extend the two-phase linear hyperbolic response model of Griffiths and Miller and Watts and Bacon to accommodate more than two linear segments. The resulting regression spline with hyperbolic covariates may be fit by nonlinear regression methods to estimate the degree of curvature between adjoining linear segments. The added complexity of fitting nonlinear, as opposed to linear, regression models is not great. The extra effort is particularly worthwhile when investigators are unwilling to assume that the slope of the response changes abruptly at the join points. We can also estimate the join points (the values of the abscissas where the linear segments would intersect if extrapolated) if their number and approximate locations may be presumed known. An example using data on changing age at menarche in a cohort of Japanese women illustrates the use of the method for exploratory data analysis. (author)

  14. CINE CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    CINE CLUB

    2010-01-01

    Thursday 7 October 2010 at 20:30 Jeudi 7 Octobre 2010 à 20:30 CERN Main Auditorium Amphithéâtre Principal Mystic River   By/de : Clint Eastwood (USA, 2003) 132 min With/avec : Sean Penn, Tim Robbins, Kevin Bacon, Laurence Fishburne, Marcia Gay Harden, Laura Linney   During a summer in 1975, Dave Boyle and two friends, Jimmy and Sean, are playing on a sidewalk in Boston when Dave is abducted by two men and subjected to sexual abuse over a period of several days. Eventually escaping, but haunted into adulthood by his trauma, Dave becomes a primary suspect when Jimmy's daughter, Katie, is found murdered. Sean, assigned to investigate the crime, finds himself facing both demons from the past and demons in the present as the circumstances surrounding Katie's death are uncovered.   Original version english with english subtitles Version originale anglaise soutitrée en anglais * * * * * * * Thursday 14 October 2010 at 20:30 ...

  15. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. PMID:26296626

  16. Heterocyclic amine content in commercial ready to eat meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2011-06-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are produced in meats cooked at high temperature, which are potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of HCAs in some commonly consumed ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. The RTE products were purchased from a local grocery store, and HCA were analyzed using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (not detected-7.9 ng/g) and MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.6 ng/g). Products ranked in order of increasing total HCA content: pepperoni (0.05 ng/g)bacon (1.1 ng/g)

  17. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  18. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size LxL with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d2=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd2=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  19. Effects of auditory enhancement on the loudness of masker and target components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningyuan; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Auditory enhancement refers to the observation that the salience of one spectral region (the "signal") of a broadband sound can be enhanced and can "pop out" from the remainder of the sound (the "masker") if it is preceded by the broadband sound without the signal. The present study investigated auditory enhancement as an effective change in loudness, to determine whether it reflects a change in the loudness of the signal, the masker, or both. In the first experiment, the 500-ms precursor, an inharmonic complex with logarithmically spaced components, was followed after a 50-ms gap by the 100-ms signal or masker alone, the loudness of which was compared with that of the same signal or masker presented 2 s later. In the second experiment, the loudness of the signal embedded in the masker was assessed with and without a precursor using the same method, as was the loudness of the entire signal-plus-masker complex. The results suggest that the precursor does not affect the loudness of the signal or the masker alone, but enhances the loudness of the signal in the presence of the masker, while leaving the loudness of the surrounding masker unaffected. The results are consistent with an explanation based on "adaptation of inhibition" [Viemeister and Bacon (1982). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1502-1507]. PMID:26805025

  20. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art. PMID:23050367

  1. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  2. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  3. Nasolacrimal system aeration on computed tomographic imaging: effects of patient positioning and scan orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz CN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craig N Czyz,1 Thomas S Bacon,2 Andrew W Stacey,3 Eva N Cahill,4 Bryan R Costin,5 Boris I Karanfilov,6 Kenneth V Cahill5 1Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth, 2Department of Medical Education, Mount Carmel Health Systems, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Biology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, William H Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; 6The Sinus Institute of Ohio, Dublin, OH, USA Purpose: To determine the impact of patient positioning and scan orientation on the appearance of air in the nasolacrimal drainage system on computed tomography (CT imaging, and the repeatability of the observations.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of CT images for 92 patients.Results: Air was found to be present more fully in the upright-position group as compared with the supine-position group. Comparing axial and coronal scan orientation, no difference in aeration was found, except for the nasolacrimal duct in the upright-position group.Conclusion: Patient position should be accounted for in diagnostic conclusions and treatment decisions based on CT. Keywords: axial, coronal, nasolacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct

  4. Measurement of Multiple Vitamin K Forms in Processed and Fresh-Cut Pork Products in the U.S. Food Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueyan; Shen, Xiaohua; Finnan, Emily G; Haytowitz, David B; Booth, Sarah L

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin K food composition data have historically been limited to plant-based phylloquinone (vitamin K1). The purpose of this study was to expand analysis of vitamin K to animal products and to measure phylloquinone and 10 forms of menaquinones (vitamin K2) in processed and fresh-cut pork products. Nationally representative samples of processed pork products (n = 28) were obtained through USDA's National Food and Nutrition Analysis Program, and fresh pork (six cuts; n = 5 per cut) and bacon (n = 4) were purchased from local retail outlets. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (phylloquinone and menaquinone-4) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (menaquinone-5 to menaquinone-13). Although low in phylloquinone (pork products and fresh pork cuts contained menaquinone-4, menaquinone-10, and menaquinone-11 (range: [35.1 ± 11.0]-[534 ± 89.0] μg of menaquinones per 100 g). The total menaquinone contents of processed pork products were correlated with fat contents (r = 0.935). In summary, processed and fresh-cut pork products are a rich dietary source of menaquinones that are currently unaccounted for in assessment of vitamin K in the food supply. PMID:27191033

  5. CONSUMERS PREFERENCES IN SMOKE-DRIED MEAT PRODUCTS OF OSIJEK-BARANYA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jelušić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional taste of smoke-dried meat products, its quality and special flavour that marks they are characterized with attracted to many people of various purchasing power. For the purpose of resarch, a survey on consumption of smoke-dried meats was carried out among inhabitants of the Osijek-Baranya County. Despite high prices of smoke-dried meat products even 95% of examinees consume the same products. Most of them (50% exclusively buying smoke-dried meat products in specialized stores, while 35% of them produce and buy the same ones whereas only 15% consume home made products. Data shows that large number of people consume all smoke-dried meat products buying them exclusively from different stores (50%, where most attention is devoted to price and quality (75%. The brand is also essential to consumers (68%, along with the valid declaration and inevitable examination by authorized inspection. 62% of persons expressed trust in sanitary-toxic validity of smoke-dried meat products. Among examinees, all smoke-dried meats are most preferred (40% followed by sausage (22%, ham (20%, kulen sausage (10%, bacon (5% and scraps (3%. The result show that large number of people do not know a real offer on the market and/or are not informed on difference between industrial and real domestic products.

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation.

  8. Turning coo-coo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The pairing of commeal and okra, which pops up everywhere in the Caribbean, nicely captures the amalgam of African and American resources that has produced so much of the region's cultures, and bears witness to the earliness of culinary creolization - on both sides of the Atlantic. Corn(maize is, of course, native to the New World, and okra (gumbo to the Old. The Dictionary of Jamaican English includes back-to-back entries on oka and okra - the former from a Yoruba word for corn, though in Jamaica it refers to a cassava mush served with an okra sauce (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:328. And while the Ewe word kukü means "corn dumpling" (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:135, its Caribbean cognates generally signal the presence of okra - as in Bahamian cuckoo soup (Holm 1982: 55. Just to the north in the United States, that classic of southern cuisine, fried okra, is made by coating the pods in cornmeal before dropping them in the bacon drippings. At the southern end of the Caribbean, the Brazilian dish called angu (from Yoruba - see Schneider 1991:14 is made with cornmeal (or cassava-flour; its Saramaka namesake (angu, though made with rice- or banana-flour, is usually served with an okra sauce. And in Barbados, cornmeal and okra comprise the essential ingredients of a national culinary tradition, which we will spell coo-coo.2

  9. Optimizing a mobile robot control system using GPU acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Nat; McGuinness, Michael; Martin, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our attempt to optimize a robot control program for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) by running computationally intensive portions of the system on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). The IGVC Autonomous Challenge requires a control program that performs a number of different computationally intensive tasks ranging from computer vision to path planning. For the 2011 competition our Robot Operating System (ROS) based control system would not run comfortably on the multicore CPU on our custom robot platform. The process of profiling the ROS control program and selecting appropriate modules for porting to run on a GPU is described. A GPU-targeting compiler, Bacon, is used to speed up development and help optimize the ported modules. The impact of the ported modules on overall performance is discussed. We conclude that GPU optimization can free a significant amount of CPU resources with minimal effort for expensive user-written code, but that replacing heavily-optimized library functions is more difficult, and a much less efficient use of time.

  10. A short history of the soil science discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Hartemink, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Since people have cultivated the land they have generated and created knowledge about its soil. By the 4th century most civilizations around had various levels of soil knowledge and that includes irrigation, the use of terraces to control soil erosion, methods to maintain and improve soil fertility. The early soil knowledge was largely empirical and based on observations. Many famous scientists, for example, Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Charles Darwin, and Leonardo da Vinci worked on soil issues. Soil science became a true science in the 19th century with the development of genetic soil science, lead by the Russian Vasilii V. Dokuchaev. In the beginning soil science had strong ties to both geology and agriculture but in the 20th century, soil science is now being applied in residential development, the planning of highways, building foundations, septic systems, wildlife management, environmental management, and many other applications. The discipline is maturing and soil science plays a crucial role in many of the current issues that confront the world like climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity and environmental degradation.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tube City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to rterial (Option I), to rema densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation

  12. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Durango Site, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Durango site in order to revise the November 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Durango, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the nearly 1.6 million tons of tailings at the Durango site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the seven options range from about $10,700,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $21,800,000 for disposal at a distance of about 10 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Durango tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing

  13. Summary of the Phase II, Title I, engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado. The Phase II--Title I services include the preparation of topographic measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 0.5 million tons of tailings at the Gunnison site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The nine alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through IX). Cost estimates for the nine options range from $480,000 to $5,890,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  14. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Durango site, Durango, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Durango, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.555 million tons of tailings at the Durango site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from vegetative stabilization (Option I), to contouring and stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II and III), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V to VIII). All options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimated for the eight options range from $4,340,000 to $13,590,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is sufficiently economically attractive to justify reprocessing in conjunction with each of the options

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  17. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Tuba City site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Tuba City, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 0.8 million tons of tailings at the Tuba City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to rema densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation

  18. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings, Bowman Site, Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues from the burning of uranium-bearing lignite at Bowman, North Dakota. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 97,000 tons of ash and contaminated materials at the Bowman site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although windblown ash and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the contaminated materials to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the ashing site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,740,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $3,060,000 for disposal at a distance of about 4 mi. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U3O8 content

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U3O8 content

  20. I awake, she slept. Sor Juana Ines and Juan Rulfo or the new Latin American poetic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover Delgado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz and Juan Rulfo, in dialogue with the literary tradition –especially with the work of Dante, Gongorism and the modern tradition– build a Latin American poetic condition. To that end, it studies the long oneiric ascent of Sor Juana, in First Dream; and Susana San Juan’s story, in Pedro Paramo. For the analysis, it goes to the concepts of resistance when suffering and the signals to transcendence provided by Maria Zambrano in her reflections on the essential condition of the human. It explains how Sor Juana and Susana San Juan offer such resistance: Sor Juana through the journey of knowledge, the sovereignty of the body, the exposure of the precariousness of life and the metaphor of the ascent; Susana, through the fall, madness and eroticism. Finally, it interprets in both characters, the appropriation of the signs of transcendence: the revaluation of the moment, of dreams and the creation-destruction of the divine. It concludes by showing how Sor Juana takes the momentum that starts in Europe with Montaigne, Bacon, the Renaissance and the Golden Age and proposes significant transformations that allow speaking of a different poetic condition. And how Rulfo, starting from the American mythic-religious condition, the non-place, the ontological indefiniteness, stops at the image of Purgatory: showing there the luminous consciousness, the unleashed eroticism and the sacralized madness of Susana as a relief, a possibility of leakage and human of redemption of the sentence.

  1. Quality and safety assessment of meat products obtained by traditional romanian recipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meat products obtained following traditional recipes are considered healthy foods, with superior sensory characteristics, being highly appreciated by consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the quality and safety of 18 meat products obtained by traditional receipts, including raw/smoked pork sausages (n=3, loin (n=1, bacon (n=2, kaizer (n=1, ham (n=1, spareribs (n=1, pork pastrami (n=1, and sausages prepared from edible meat offal of pork (n=8. All samples were bacteriologically examined (Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and E. coli. Also, moisture, fat, total protein, salt and nitrite contents were quantified. All products were Salmonella and L. monocytogenes free. E. coli was recovered in two samples (11.1%, a smoked pork sausage and a sausage prepared from edible meat offal of pork, at levels between 1.5 log and 3.25 log cfu/g. Moisture ranged from 17.21 to 67.46%, fat 17.37–62.18%, protein 8.13–23.18%, sodium chloride 1.50–6.39%, and nitrites <10–35 ppm, respectively. In two samples (11.1% of smoked meat products the salt content exceeded the maximum limits allowed by law. These results have shown that meat products obtained by traditional recipes are nutritive and safety. However, some varieties of meat products with high salt concentrations should be avoided by persons with dietary salt restriction.

  2. Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    1996-01-01

    Long one of nature''s most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe, traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the first discovery of magnets in Greece, to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. The book begins with the early debunking of superstitions by Peter Peregrinus (Pierre de Maricourt), whom Roger Bacon hailed as one of the world''s first experimental scientists (Perigrinus held that "experi...

  3. Seaweeds for umami flavour in the New Nordic Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouritsen Ole G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of the term 'umami' for the fifth basic taste and for describing the sensation of deliciousness is finding its way into Western cuisine. The unique molecular mechanism behind umami sensation is now partly understood as an allosteric action of glutamate and certain 5'-ribonucleotides on the umami receptors. Chefs have started using this understanding to create dishes with delicious taste by adding old and new ingredients that enhance umami. In this paper, we take as our starting point the traditional Japanese soup broth dashi as the 'mother' of umami and demonstrate how dashi can be prepared from local, Nordic seaweeds, in particular the large brown seaweed sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima and the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata, possibly combined with bacon, chicken meat or dried mushrooms to provide synergy in the umami taste. Optimal conditions are determined for dashi extraction from these seaweeds, and the corresponding glutamate, aspartate and alaninate contents are determined quantitatively and compared with Japanese dashi extracted from the brown seaweed konbu (Saccharina japonica. Dulse and dashi from dulse are proposed as promising novel ingredients in the New Nordic Cuisine to infuse a range of different dishes with umami taste, such as ice cream, fresh cheese and bread.

  4. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  5. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 800C (bacon to 530C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-400C to -200C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  6. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  7. [Epistemology and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Holguín, H D

    1998-01-01

    Within a conceptualization concerning the health-disease process as a whole (which systematically correlates its biological, psychological, social and historical aspects), it becomes very difficult to find something in the universe involving humankind, without any direct or indirect relationship with that vital process. This fact had expanded medicine toward a very extensive and complex field of knowledge and practices. Just considering it from the scientific perspective, different and opposing acquaintances and research methods vie with each other, equally claiming their own worth and stature within science. Because of all this and from its origin, allopathic medicine has required the assistance and support of philosophy and, in particular, from one specific branch: epidemiology. Nevertheless, since Bacon's empiricism (17th century) and, above all, since Comte's positivism (19th century), there had predominated until now (Piaget) a scientific current which was the enemy of philosophical thinking. In spite of the fact that it constituted, in itself, an epistemological position, being generalized also among biomedical scientists, there is in medicine at least disdain against the philosophy of science. Nevertheless, it is objectively indispensable. So, the present essay is presented in this sense, through the analytic characterization of the prototypic epistemologies and their relationships with medicine throughout history. PMID:9618998

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U3O8 content

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado. Summary of the Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. The Phase II-Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiometric measurements to determine radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.6 million tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented range from fencing and maintenance (Option I), to placing the tailings in an open-pit mine and adding 2 ft of stabilization cover material (Option III). Cost estimates for the three options range from $250,000 to $4,520,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium does not appear to be economically attractive at present.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Spook site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings 48 mi northeast of Casper, in Converse County, Wyoming. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 187,000 tons of tailings at the Spook site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover makes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation

  12. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  13. Differences between Lipids Extracted from Five Species Are Not Sufficient To Explain Biomagnification of Nonpolar Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Holmbäck, Jan; Andersson, Rina Argelia;

    2015-01-01

    Lipids are the major sorptive phase for many organic chemicals that bioaccumulate in foodwebs. However, “lipids” are usually operationally defined by the extraction protocol. Large differences in sorptive capacities between species would violate assumptions implicit in widely used lipid-normaliza......Lipids are the major sorptive phase for many organic chemicals that bioaccumulate in foodwebs. However, “lipids” are usually operationally defined by the extraction protocol. Large differences in sorptive capacities between species would violate assumptions implicit in widely used lipid......-normalization procedures and invalidate generic bioaccumulation factors. We extracted lipids from five species from different trophic levels and domains and determined fractions of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol. We passively dosed the lipids with cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes and chlorobenzenes via...... headspace from spiked olive oil to determine their sorptive capacities. Lipids from seal blubber and pork bacon solely composed of triglycerides had capacities similar to that of olive oil; lipids from mussels, herring, and guillemot egg had quantifiable fractions of phospholipids and cholesterol and showed...

  14. [William Harvey revisited ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood is often described as a product of the Scientific Revolution of the Seventeenth Century. Modern research has, however, shown thatHarvey followed the Aristotelian research tradition and thus tried to reveal the purpose of the organs through examination of various animals. His publication of 1628 has to be read as an argument of natural philosophy, or, more precisely, as a series of linked observations, experiments and philosophical reasonings from which the existence of circulation has to be deduced as a logical consequence. Harvey did not consider experiments as superior to philosophical reasoning nor intended he to create a new system of medicine. He believed in the vitality of the heart and the blood and rejected Francis Bacon's empirism and the mechanistic rationalism of Descartes. Harvey's contribution and originality lied less in his single observations and experiments but in the manner how he linked them with critical reasoning and how he accepted, presented and defended the ensuing radical findings. PMID:26111837

  15. Analysis of Obstacle Hardening Models Using Dislocation Dynamics: Application to Irradiation-Induced Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Cameron; Bertin, Nicolas; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation hardening in -iron represents a critical factor in nuclear reactor design and lifetime prediction. The dispersed barrier hardening, Friedel Kroupa Hirsch (FKH), and Bacon Kocks Scattergood (BKS) models have been proposed to predict hardening caused by dislocation obstacles in metals, but the limits of their applicability have never been investigated for varying defect types, sizes, and densities. In this work, dislocation dynamics calculations of irradiation-induced obstacle hardening in the athermal case were compared to these models for voids, self-interstitial atom (SIA) loops, and a combination of the two types. The BKS model was found to accurately predict hardening due to voids, whereas the FKH model was superior for SIA loops. For both loops and voids, the hardening from a normal distribution of defects was compared to that from the mean size, and was shown to have no statistically significant dependence on the distribution. A mean size approach was also shown to be valid for an asymmetric distribution of voids. A non-linear superposition principle was shown to predict the hardening from the simultaneous presence of voids and SIA loops.

  16. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-31

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.7 million tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The 11 alternative actions presented range from completion of the present ongoing EPA site decontamination plan (Option I), to stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II-IV), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V-XI). All options include remedial action costs for off-site locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimates for the 11 options range from $540,000 to $12,500,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible.

  18. A kind of carbon whiskers in new structure and morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Jian

    2001-01-01

    [1]Endo, M., Saito, R., Dresselhaus, M. S. et al. From carbon fibers to nanotubes, in Carbon Nanotubes Preparations and Properties (ed. Ebbesen, T. W.), New York: CRC Press Inc., 1997, 54-66.[2]Baker, R. T. K., Baker, M. A., Harris, P. S. et al., Nucleation and growth of carbon deposits from the nickel catalyzed de-composition of acetylene, J.Catal., 1972, 26(7): 51.[3]Audier, M., Coulon, M., Kinetic and microscopic aspects of catalytic carbon growth, Carbon, 1985, 23(3): 317.[4]Oberlin, A., Endo, M., Koyama, T., High resolution microscope observations of graphitized carbon fibers, Carbon, 1976, 14(1): 133.[5]Bacon, R., Growth, structure, and properties of graphite whiskers, Journal of Applied Physics, 1960, 31(2): 283.[6]Murayama, H., Maeda, M., A novel form of filamentous graphite, Nature, 1990, 345(28): 791.[7]Pimpinelli, A., Villain, J., Physics of Crystal Growth, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 62-64.[8]Minkoff, I., Solidification and Cast Structure, Chichester: Wiley, 1986, 42-47.[9]Pierson, H. O., Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond, and Fullerenes: Properties, Processing, and Applications, Park Ridge: Noyes Publications, 1993, 151.[10]Bennema, P., Spiral growth and surface roughing: Developments since Burton, Cabrera and Frank, Journal of Crystal Growth, 1984, 69(2): 182.

  19. Políticas de Gestão de Pessoas, Confiança e Bem-estar: Estudo em uma Multinacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Horta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main authors in the area of Human Resource Management (HRM, including Legge (2006 and Wilkinson,Bacon, Redman and Snell (2010, agree that people have an important and strategic role in organizations. Since HRM policies need to contribute to greater well-being and strengthen the confidence of employees in organizations (Mariotti & Souza, 2009; Nishii, Lepak, & Schneider, 2008; Turner, Huemann, & Keegan, 2008, this study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables, as perceived by 141 employees in a multinational company in the field of information technology. Multiple linear regression analysis, structural equation modeling and maximum likelihood method were conducted to test the proposed models of relationships between the variables cited above. Thus, it was possible to identify and confirm the influence HRM policies have on both confidence in the organization and employee well-being at work, as well as the influence of confidence on well-being at work. This research contributes to the advancement of studies in the areas of Human Resources Management and Organizational Behavior by analyzing a previously unexplored relationship between a set of variables and also served as a diagnostic for the studied organization, assisting company managers in their decision-making in order to improve employee well-being.

  20. QTL alleles on chromosome 7 from fatty Meishan pigs reduce fat deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    For detecting QTL in the whole swine genome, 1068 pigs from three F2 populations constructed by crossing European Wild boar and Pietrain (WxP), Meishan and Pietrain (M×P),and Wild Boar and Meishan (W×M) were genotyped for genetic markers evenly spaced at approximately 20 cM intervals. A QTL analysis was performed using a least-squares method. Here the results of the QTL analysis on the porcine chromosome 7 are presented. QTL for carcass composition (e.g. head weight, carcass length, backfat depth, abdominal fat and bacon meat) were mapped in the chromosomal region CYPA/CYPD-TNFB-S0102 in M×P and W×M, but not in W×P.The QTL explained 5.3%-27.2% of the F2 phenotypic variance in the two F2 populations. Most traits affected by the mapped QTL were related to carcass fatness. The mode of gene action of QTL was additive. Surprisingly, in contrast to the parental phenotype, the QTL alleles from fatty Meishan were associated with thinner backfat than Pietrain and Wild Boar alleles, suggesting that the genome of the fatty Meishan pig contains genes which can reduce fat content of carcass substantially.

  1. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001, and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005. The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001 over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001 was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD process.

  2. Anatomical and histological researches on rootstock and scion compatibility in early period after grafting in avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BAYRAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seedling rootstocks are used entirely due to easier and cheaper production in conditions of our country. However, a study on compatibility of scion and rootstock of varieties used as seedling rootstock, have not been produced in our country yet. Thus, seedlings of the 'Bacon', 'Fuerte', 'Hass' and 'Zutano' varieties produced as commercial varieties along with 'Topa Topa' and 'Mexicola' varieties used as a source of seedling rootstocks were studied under greenhouse conditions between the years 2009-2011. Determination of the scion and rootstock compatibility was purposed in the graft sections during certain periods after grafting of 'Hass' variety with these seedlings. As a result; graft union formations in samples of all combinations successfully realized in the anatomical and histological studies after 30 and 90 days from grafting and a negative finding regarding to incompatibility were not met. However, more studies should be made for determination of incompatibility that may arise in between rootstocks and scions in the later years.

  3. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  4. Development and validation of a UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap-MS method for the simultaneous determination of androstenone, skatole and indole in porcine meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Boar taint is an off-odour that entails negative consumer reactions. In this study two extraction and UHPLC-HRMS analysis methods, valuable for evaluation of consumer acceptance towards boar meat, were developed for quantification of indole, skatole, and androstenone in different meat products. Sample pretreatment consisted of extraction with methanol and a homogenising step (cooked ham, minced meat, tenderloin, bacon, cutlets, blade loin, uncooked ham) or a melting step (salami sausage and liver paste). Both methods were validated according to CD 2002/657/EC and ISO 17025 guidelines. Good performance characteristics were obtained. Good linearity (R(2) ⩾ 0.99) and no lack of fit was observed (95% confidence interval; F-test, p > 0.05). Also good recovery (89-110%) and satisfactory precision: repeatability (RSD ⩽ 14.9%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD ⩽ 17.2%) were obtained. Analysis of cooked ham and salami sausage samples proved the applicability of both methods for routine analysis. PMID:26213060

  5. Effect of compressive prestress on the Young's modulus and strength of isotropic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that properties, such as Young's modulus, strength and so on, change when compressive or tensile prestresses are applied to graphite materials at room temperature. It is important from the designer's standpoint in the sense that it should be taken into consideration for the structural design of the graphite components if there is an effect of prestresses at high temperature on the mechanical properties. In this study compressive prestresses were applied to an isotropic fine-grained graphite at room temperature (RT) and high temperature (2010 deg. C). As a result decrease in Young's modulus due to high temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to RT prestressing. This finding was considered to be due primarily to difference in degree of preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stress becomes anisotropic. It is concluded that it should be considered in the design stage of the reactors that the anisotropy may change after long term operation of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  7. [On Academics and Academicians. Historical sketch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    First Academies originated in Italy at the beginnings of the Renaissance. Their works were of encyclopedic extent. Regarding to scientific academies, the first was the "Accademia dei Lincei" founded in Rome on August 17, 1603, due to the initiative of four young men; three naturalists and a physician. Later, several distiguished scientists were admitted, such as Giambattista della Porta, inventor of the dark chamber (1610) and Galileo Galilei (1611). This Academy sponsored the publication of a compendium of Francisco Hernández manuscripts, prepared by the Italian physician Antonio Nardo Recchi. Many years later, other scientific academies arose, such as the "Accademia del Cimento", established in 1657 in Florence and inspired by Galilean thought. In 1662, the "Royal Society" of London, was formally recognized, following Bacon's empirical line, and in 1666 the "Académie Royale des Sciences" was created in Paris, which followed the mechanicist orientation of Descartes. These scientific societies aspired to become centers of information and exchange ideas. Therefore, the "Philosophical Transactions" in London and the "Journal des Savants" in Paris began to be published in 1665. Both publications often included medical articles and notes. Regarding New Spain, the worthy "Academia médico-quirúrgica" of Puebla, mentioned since 1802, must be considered. In independent Mexico, two successive medical academies were established that paved the way for our National Academy of Medicine (1864). This society, since its birth, has been publishing the "Gaceta Médica de México", dean of the Mexican medical journals. PMID:12872422

  8. Association between leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcass traits in pigs Associação entre polimorfismos de base única no gene da leptina e características de carcaça em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane de Oliveira Peixoto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the association between leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs T2411C and T3266G with carcass traits in F2 pigs obtained by crossing native Brazilian Piau with commercial sows composed of Landrace, Large White and Pietrain breeds. Association analyses were performed using a statistical model that included genotype, sex, and batch as fixed effects, sire and error as random effects. The T2411C SNP was associated with skinless and fatless boston shoulder weight (BSW, backfat thickness at last rib, 6.5 cm from the midline (P2, skinless and fatless picnic shoulder weight, and sirloin weight (SLW. The T3266G mutation was associated with slaughter age, bacon weight, BSW, midline backfat thickness between last and last but one lumbar vertebra, midline backfat thickness at last rib, P2 and rib weight. Phenotypic associations were also performed by combining genotypes for both SNPs. Associations with P2, carcass yield, total boston shoulder weight, and SLW were observed. The results obtained demonstrate that the SNPs analyzed have potential to be explored as markers for carcass composition in pigs.Foi investigada a associação entre os polimorfismos de base única (SNPs T2411C e T3266G da leptina e as características de carcaça em suínos F2 procedentes do cruzamento de machos da raça Piau com matrizes comercias de composição genética Landrace, Large White e Pietrain. As análises de associação foram feitas usando um modelo estatístico que incluía genótipo, sexo e lote como efeitos fixos, e pai e erro como efeitos aleatórios. O SNP T2411C esteve associado ao peso da copa sem pele e sem gordura (BSW, à espessura de gordura subcutânea na altura da última costela a 6,5 cm da linha média (P2, ao peso da paleta sem pele e sem gordura e ao peso do filezinho (SLW. O SNP T3266G foi associado a idade de abate, peso do bacon, BSW, espessura da gordura subcutânea entre a última e a penúltima vértebra lombar, na

  9. Silicic magma accumulation beneath Mount Mazama, Oregon, 71 ka to 24 ka constrained by SHRIMP measurements of dissolved volatile concentrations in melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. M.; Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Sisson, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved volatile contents of melt inclusions trapped in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from 7 silicic eruptions preceding the climactic ~7.7 ka Mazama eruption were measured by SIMS with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG. Melt inclusions in crystals were intersected, polished, and crystals were mounted in indium in Al mounts. A 1.2-3.0 nA (depending on the session), O2- primary beam was accelerated and focused to a 15-25 μm spot on the sample surface, which generated positive secondary ions of analyzed Li, Be, B, C, OH, F, Mg, Si, SiH, S, Cl, Ca, AlO, KO, Rb, and Sr. Measurements were made at high mass resolution (6000-7000). Trace element and volatile concentrations were calculated using a best-fit regression to count rate ratios (normalized to 30Si) vs. variable known concentrations in experimental and natural rhyolite glass standards. Pumiceous samples were chosen from dacitic to rhyodacitic eruptive deposits, consisting of the 71ka dacite of Pumice Castle, 70ka dacite below Llao Rock, 50ka dacite of the Watchman, 35ka dacite of Munson Valley, 35ka Williams Crater tephra, 27ka Redcloud Cliff rhyodacite, and 24ka andesite S of Bear Bluff. Melt inclusions are abundant in spongy, mineral-inclusion-rich interiors of pyroxene crystals in early (71-35ka) eruptive deposits and are less abundant throughout pyroxenes from later eruptions (35-24ka) and in plagioclase crystals. Over the entire time interval, most trace element and volatile concentrations remain approximately constant between melt inclusion populations. However, there are some variations in water and carbon dioxide concentration. A large proportion of inclusions in the smaller eruptive deposits (0.003-0.4 km3) of the dacite of the Watchman, dacite of Munson Valley, and Williams Crater tephra have low water contents, ~1 wt% H2O, corresponding to a saturation pressure of 25MPa, or ~1km depth (at 870°, approximate average temperature for these deposits, e.g., Druitt and Bacon, Contrib Mineral Petrol 1989

  10. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  11. Fragmentos da construção histórica do pensamento neo-empirista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura identificar as idéias principais na construção histórica do pensamento neo-empirista a partir da visão mecânica do mundo e do método hipotético-dedutivo de Descartes. O método indutivo moderno é apresentado por Bacon e os empiristas ingleses colaboram na questão do pensamento “a posteriori”. No século XIX surge o positivismo que exclui a metafísica e considera a explicação dos fatos apenas como relações de sucessão e similidade. É nesse âmbito que se constroem as bases do método experimental moderno. No início do século XX, se desenvolve a ciência neoempirista cujas principais proposições são (1 a idéia da verificabilidade como forma de conferir a veracidade das teorias a partir da indução e das probabilidades e (2 o crescimento contínuo e acumulativo do conhecimento científico. Popper apresenta a impossibilidade de se obter grandes teorias oriundas da indução e sugere a substituição da indução pela dedução e da verificabilidade pela falseabilidade. Kuhn afirma que o conhecimento científico depende de paradigmas convencionais e Lakatos explica que a ciência não é uma sucessão temporal de períodos normais e revoluções, e sim sua justaposição.

  12. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  13. Storia del pensiero statistico con alcune osservazioni sull'insegnamento della statistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Cristofaro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical thinking changed in a striking way since its birth. From the descriptive statistics, linked up the research of statistical regularity, until the investigative statistics in the first part of XX century. Successively, the change was much quicker. First of all, statisticians put sampling and inference as the central core of the matter. Fisher came up with a revolutionary idea to solve the problem of inductive reasoning, by preliminarily designing the experiments in the process of data generation. However, Fisher's inference was no longer probabilistic, involving conclusions and choices which are outside the scope of probability theory. Then, Neyman substituted inductive behavior for Fisher's inductive reasoning, who he considered as a basic concept of philosophy of science. Later on, Neyman's ideas were further developed by Wald, who, in turn, transformed statistics in decision theory. Finally, Savage logically supported the Bayesian paradigm, prominent in all Statistics. Recently, statisticians promoted some pedagogical reasons to hesitate in introducing Bayesian paradigm to beginners. In particular, they placed variability (or "variation" as the essential mark in statistical teaching and in empirical enquiry, linked up a revaluation of the causal research and even of the old investigative statistics. The present paper compares the development of statistical thinking with respect to the similar change in philosophy of science from Galileo and Bacon until nowadays. Besides, it suggests coming back in placing phenomena considered from a non-deterministic viewpoint (collective phenomena as the study subject of the matter, with a revaluation of all phases of statistical method, from the initial definition of a phenomenon until the final decision. Likewise, the essential mark in statistical teaching should be the method of scientific research rather than the pure and simple study of variation.

  14. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in different types of meat products on the Belgian retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; De Troy, P; Debevere, J

    1999-12-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the incidence and numbers of L. monocytogenes in a variety of meat products (cooked meat products, raw cured meat products (dried or not), mayonnaise based salads and prepared meals). As expected, raw cured meat products were significantly higher contaminated with L. monocytogenes than cooked meat products, 13.71% (113/824) and 4.90% (167/3405), respectively. Also a larger proportion of raw cured meat product samples contained a high initial level of the pathogen ( > 10 cfu/g). Higher incidence rates were obtained for whole cooked meat products (e.g. cooked ham, bacon) after slicing than before slicing, 6.65 and 1.56%, respectively, indicating cross-contamination. Due to multiple handling and processing steps, the incidence rate of the pathogen was higher for cooked minced meat products than for whole cooked meat products, 6.14 and 3.96%, respectively. No significant differences were obtained in the incidence of L. monocytogenes in whole cured meat products (e.g., raw ham) and minced cured meat products (e.g., dry fermented sausage), 14.92 and 11.69%, respectively. Lower incidence rates of L. monocytogenes were obtained for raw, cured meat products using beef or horse meat, 4.65 and 5.88%, respectively, A high incidence rate of L. monocytogenes was noted for the mayonnaise based salads (21.28% (186/874)) as well as for prepared meals (11.70% (92/786)), the latter especially due to contamination of vegetarian meals. PMID:10598117

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U3O8 whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive

  18. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U3O8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  19. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock Site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of the stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and(c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Tuba City millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact to the inhabited area near the site. In the downwind direction, to the northeast of the site, airborne radioactivity is greater than Federal guidelines but there are no dwellings in that direction in the area of concern. Gamma radiation is significant over the tailings but is near background levels in the housing area. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the four alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with cover material (Options II, III, and IV). Fencing around the site or the tailings pile and the removal or decontamination of mill buildings is included in all options. Option II provides 2 ft of cover material on the tailings, Option III provides 4 ft of cover, and Option IV provides 13 ft of cover. Costs of the options range from $671,000 to $2,904,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is only marginally feasible and would require a more detailed economic evaluation before any action was taken

  1. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73 and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65 meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57, bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61, ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06, and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52. When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99 but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17 for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.

  2. Simulating the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the landscape through a coupled soil-hillslope model (Be2D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Meteoric 10Be allows for the quantification of vertical and lateral soil fluxes over long time scales (103-105 yr). However, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the soil system makes a translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates complex. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model simulating the behaviour of meteoric 10Be on a hillslope. The model consists of two parts. The first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile, and the second component describes lateral soil and meteoric 10Be fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering as well as downslope fluxes of soil due to creep, water and tillage erosion. Synthetic model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can be related to erosion and deposition across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. Our results also show that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to detect human impact on soil fluxes for soils with a high affinity for meteoric 10Be. However, the quantification of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed variations in meteoric 10Be profiles and inventories. Application of the Be2D model to natural conditions using data sets from the Southern Piedmont (Bacon et al., 2012) and Appalachian Mountains (Jungers et al., 2009; West et al., 2013) allows to reliably constrain parameter values. Good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories is obtained with realistic parameter values. Furthermore, our results provide detailed insights into the processes redistributing meteoric 10Be at the soil-hillslope scale.

  3. From Alec and Angel to see Tess’s tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晨爽

    2014-01-01

    “Love is ever matter of comedies, and how and then tragedies.” says the prose writer and philosopher Francis Bacon. Love is beautiful, while the unfortunate love is destined to a tragedy. The love of Tess with Angle Clare and Alec d' Urbervil e is also the tragedy in Tess of the D' urbervil es of Thomas Hardy who is a cross-century literary giants. He is one of the most famous writers in the Victorian era, and is known as“Shakespeare in the English novels”. Tess of the D' urbervil es is one of his famous novels and it is the combination of Hardy’ pessimism and fatalism. Of course, Tess’ tragic fate has thousands of thousands contact with Alec and Angle Clare. In Hardy’ writing, Tess is a pure, beautiful, kind-hearted, and nearly a perfect peasant girl and a series of happenings make the girl go to death. Tess lives in the capital society. The self-supporting peasants are displaced and impoverished, and are forced to work under capitalist exploitation. Her parents’ vanity makes her go to work in Alec’s farm where she loses the most precious chastity of women. While when she begins to choose the new life and struggles to get rid of the moral bound, her husband Angel Clare leaves her after he knows the impurity past of Tess. The two men in Tess’ life help to create the tragedy. Tess ruins herself by a extreme way. This thesis is trying to make comments on the influences of the two men--Alec and Angle to Tess’ tragedy. If the ravages of body by Alec is the beginning of the tragedy, then the mental torture ultimately destroyed Tess and make her to despair and destruction.

  4. Characterizing Land Surface Change and Levee Stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using UAVSAR Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.

  5. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Mexican Hat Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Mexican Hat site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.2 million tons of tailings at the Mexican Hat site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $15,200,000 for stabilization in place, to about $45,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Mexican Hat tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $115/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Mexican Hat tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive under present conditions.

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Shiprock site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Shiprock site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Shiprock, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.5 million dry tons of tailings at the Shiprock site constitutes the most significant environental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The eight alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $13,400,000 for stabilization in place to about $37,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 16 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Shiprock tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $230/lb by heap leach and $250/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present.

  8. CSciBox: An Intelligent Assistant for Dating Ice and Sediment Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlinson, K.; Bradley, E.; White, J. W. C.; Anderson, K. A.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; de Vesine, L. R.; Jones, T. R.; Lindsay, C. M.; Israelsen, B.

    2015-12-01

    CSciBox is an integrated software system for the construction and evaluation of age models of paleo-environmental archives. It incorporates a number of data-processing and visualization facilities, ranging from simple interpolation to reservoir-age correction and 14C calibration via the Calib algorithm, as well as a number of firn and ice-flow models. It employs modern database technology to store paleoclimate proxy data and analysis results in an easily accessible and searchable form, and offers the user access to those data and computational elements via a modern graphical user interface (GUI). In the case of truly large data or computations, CSciBox is parallelizable across modern multi-core processors, or clusters, or even the cloud. The code is open source and freely available on github, as are one-click installers for various versions of Windows and Mac OSX. The system's architecture allows users to incorporate their own software in the form of computational components that can be built smoothly into CSciBox workflows, taking advantage of CSciBox's GUI, data importing facilities, and plotting capabilities. To date, BACON and StratiCounter have been integrated into CSciBox as embedded components. The user can manipulate and compose all of these tools and facilities as she sees fit. Alternatively, she can employ CSciBox's automated reasoning engine, which uses artificial intelligence techniques to explore the gamut of age models and cross-dating scenarios automatically. The automated reasoning engine captures the knowledge of expert geoscientists, and can output a description of its reasoning.

  9. Past, present and future of fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Though the fuel cell was invented by Grove in 1839,there are no commercially viable products at present.The development of fuel cells can be conveniently divided into three phases-exploratory phase(1839-1967).The main emphasis of the work is to increase the area of the three-phase interface at the electrode.The problem was solved by Bacon who invented the dual porosity,biporous nickel electrode.He demonstrated the first H2/O2 fuel cell(180℃,20atm).This cell was later improved and scaled up to power the Apollo lunar mission.However,the cost is too high for civilian applications and we come to the development phase (1967-2001).The main emphasis has been on the use of Teflon bonded electrodes and novel catalysts(PtRu,Pt/WO3 and Pt-Ru/WO3 anode catalyst for the anodic oxidation of impure H2 and methanol.In addition,the recent discovery of gadolinium doped ceria has reduced the operating temperature of solid oxide electrolytes to ~500℃ instead of 1 000℃.From 2001 onwards,we may be entering the breakthrough phase where the most favourable candidates are direct methanol vapor fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells.In the former case,there is a need to reduce the cross-over of methanol to the cathode compartment and the development of air cathode catalyst which are less affected by methanol and in the latter case,there is a need to improve the activity of the anode and cathode catalysts.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  11. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  12. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U3O8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  14. [By way of a synthesis of its conceptual evolution towards scientific medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    1999-01-01

    A historic outline of the evolution of medical thought toward scientific medicine is presented. Galen from Pergamon, one of science's first philosophers, wrote an Institutio logica, which can be considered as an introduction to the scientific method. Later, the Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate, but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution formented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the last century, Claude Bernard dominated scientific medicine, but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine from particular groups of facts, that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally, a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. PMID:10204312

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible.

  16. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Falls City site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Falls City site in order to update the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranum mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrolgy and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,700,000 for stabilization in place, to about $35,100,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Falls City tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The tailings piles are presently being rewashed for uranium recovery by Solution Engineering, Inc. The cost for further reprocessing would be about $250/lb of U3O8. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive for the foreseeable future

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the two millsites in Slick Rock, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. The Union Carbide site has 350,000 tons of tailings and the North Continent site now owned by Union Carbide has 37,000 tons of tailings. Both tailings piles have been stabilized in accordance with regulations of the State of Colorado. Radon gas release from the tailings on the sites constitute the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact. Hence the three alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the sites (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the piles and stabilizing the piles with cover material (Option II), and consolidating the two piles on the UC site and stabilizing with 2 ft of cover (Option III). Fencing around the tailings piles is included in all options. Options II and III provide 2 ft of cover material on the tailings. Costs of the options range from $370,000 to $1,100,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  18. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Falls City site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Falls City site in order to update the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranum mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrolgy and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,700,000 for stabilization in place, to about $35,100,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Falls City tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The tailings piles are presently being rewashed for uranium recovery by Solution Engineering, Inc. The cost for further reprocessing would be about $250/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive for the foreseeable future.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Tuba City site, Tuba City, Arizona. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-31

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Tuba City millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact to the inhabited area near the site. In the downwind direction, to the northeast of the site, airborne radioactivity is greater than Federal guidelines but there are no dwellings in that direction in the area of concern. Gamma radiation is significant over the tailings but is near background levels in the housing area. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the four alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Option I), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with cover material (Options II, III, and IV). Fencing around the site or the tailings pile and the removal or decontamination of mill buildings is included in all options. Option II provides 2 ft of cover material on the tailings, Option III provides 4 ft of cover, and Option IV provides 13 ft of cover. Costs of the options range from $671,000 to $2,904,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is only marginally feasible and would require a more detailed economic evaluation before any action was taken.

  20. 知识就是力量?--兼谈人的核心素养教育%Is knowledge power-Also on people′s key competency education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴陈兵

    2016-01-01

    Since Francis Bacon came up with the slogan that "knowledge is power" many of us regarded knowledge as a criterion. However knowledge may not be power only it is transformed into people's key competences and then it will make people′s life powerful. To cultivate people′s key competences mainly relies on people′s key competency education which is not only conforming to the goal of talent cultivation but also an important way to improve the comprehensive quality of our people. There are three steps to construct people′s key competency education first is to set the goal second is how to implement the people′s key competency teaching the last but not least is to establish the evaluation system for people′s key competency educa⁃tion.%自从培根提出“知识就是力量”的口号以后,人们便把知识奉为圭臬。可知识未必就是力量,只有知识转化为人的核心素养,知识才使人的生命具有力量。培育人的核心素养要靠人的核心素养教育,人的核心素养教育不仅符合我国人才培养目标,而且也是提高我国人民综合素质的重要途径。建构人的核心素养教育必须先确定人的核心素养教育目标,其次是如何实施人的核心素养教学,最后是合理制定人的核心素养教育评价体系。

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U3O8 by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present

  2. The role of KIR2DL3/HLA-C*0802 in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester Eidi Nishimura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis is a polygenically controlled systemic autoimmune disease. Rheumatoid vasculitis is an important extra-articular phenotype of rheumatoid arthritis that can result in deep cutaneous ulcers. The objective of this study was to establish a correlation between the frequency of major histocompatibility complex class I/II alleles and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes in patients with cutaneous rheumatoid vasculitis. METHODS: Using the Scott & Bacon 1984 criteria to diagnose rheumatoid vasculitis and after excluding any other causes such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, adverse drug reactions, infection, and smoking, patients who met the criteria were selected. All of the selected rheumatoid vasculitis patients presented deep cutaneous ulcers. Identification of the major histocompatibility complex class I/II and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes was performed by polymerase chain reaction assays of samples collected from the 23 rheumatoid vasculitis patients as well as from 80 controls (40 non-rheumatoid vasculitis RA control patients and 40 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: An association between the presence of the HLA-DRB1*1402 and HLA-DRB1*0101 alleles and cutaneous lesions in rheumatoid vasculitis patients and a correlation between the inhibitor KIR2DL3 and the HLA-C*0802 ligand in rheumatoid vasculitis patients were found. CONCLUSION: An association was found between the presence of the HLA-DRB1*1402 and HLA-DRB1*0101 alleles and the development of cutaneous lesions in rheumatoid vasculitis patients. Additionally, the HLA-C*0802 ligand protects these individuals from developing cutaneous lesions.

  3. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Maybell Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Maybell site in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Maybell, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Maybell site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The two alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to disposal of the tailings in a nearby open pit mine and decontamination of the tailings site (Option II). Cost estimates for the two options are about $11,700,000 for stabilization in-place and about $22,700,000 for disposal within a distance of 2 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Maybell tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $125 and $165/lb of U3O8 by heap leach and conventional plant processes, respectively. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present

  5. Thomas Aquinas on the Soul: Old problems, New Solutions. Guiding Premises for a Thomistic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Shilov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two main approaches to the doctrine of the soul: that of Plato and that of Aristotle. Each of these approaches had its own development and its own interpretations. Plato and his school was more important during the Middle Ages. Through the neo-platonic philosophers it reached Saint Augustine and became a part of the western cultural and religious heritage until finally it was taken up by member of the Franciscan order - Roger Bacon and Bonaventure. But this paradigm could not solve a host of problems connected with the soul and many of them remained unresolved. The end of the twelfth century brought the growth of the universities and the teaching of Aristotle - a new paradigm - transmitted by the Arabic philosophers which was rediscovered by the West. Two commentators on Aristotle - Averroes and Avicenna -were the most important for the West, especially since Avicenna exerted a great influence on Albert the Great. But both Plato and Aristotle, when taken separately, proved to be quite useless in resolving certain problems. But Thomas Aquinas was able to splice the Gordian knot concealing a solution to the problem of the soul. By combining the psychology of Plato with the metaphysics of Aristotle, Thomas succeeded in creating a new concept of the human person. The author of this article has tried to explain the difficulties which faced Thomas and the way in which Thomas was able to resolve a problem which had troubled philosophy through the ages - the problem of reconciling Plato with Aristotle and finding a way to make their conflicting philosophies agree with each other

  6. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P Angus and Angus x Hereford steers (initial BW 245 kg; SD = 20) grazed infected or uninfected tall fescue in Virginia that was treated (3.4 kg/ ha) or untreated with Tasco in April and July, 1995. Steers that grazed infected tall fescue had lower (P Angus steers and was replicated at Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P < 0.05) serum vitamin E by the end of the grazing season. At both locations Tasco increased (P < 0.05) activity of superoxide dismutase in both infected and uninfected fescue. The endophyte in tall fescue seemed to decrease antioxidant activity in grazing steers, whereas Tasco seemed to increase antioxidant activity in both the forage and the grazing ruminant. Tasco may provide opportunities to reduce oxidative stress in plants and animals. PMID:11325175

  7. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Griscom

    2012-02-01

    during reentry.

    An idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10–20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed, preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal upland deposits and the (proximal Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation.

    Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor.

    The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major

  8. A salute to the pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    An historical account is given of the pioneers who were instrumental in opening up the electrical frontier and paved the way for its phenomenal growth over the past century. The work of Franklin, Volta and Faraday, experimenters of the 18. and 19. century, is mentioned, along with the musings of Roger Bacon, a 13. century philosopher and scientist who postulated theories about magnetism, and that of William Gilbert of some three centuries later who formulated the definition of 'frictional electricity', noting the properties of attraction created by rubbing together amber and other substances. Mention is also made of the discoveries in the 18. and 19. centuries of Andre Marie Ampere of France, Luigi Galvani of Italy, Georg Simon Ohm and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark, Joseph Henry of the United States, William Grove and James Clerk Maxwell of Britain, and Aubrey Fessenden of Canada. An account is given of the discoveries of the Yugoslavian-born Nikola Tesla, whose work bridged the 19. and 20. centuries and who made singularly important contributions to the theory of electrical distribution systems, transformers, arc lights, dynamos, electric motors, steam turbines, thermomagnetics and radio systems. His invention of the polyphase alternating current system in 1888 was the turning point for the age of electricity that pushed the geographical distribution boundaries of electricity beyond the restrictive limitations of direct current used for Thomas Edison's electric light system. His work, with the timely support of George Westinghouse, opened the floodgates to electrical progress to bring new levels of productivity to business and industry and a higher standard of living for everyone. Many of the artifacts and memorabilia associated with the development of electrical technology are preserved in special exhibits and museums throughout the country. Brief accounts of some of the publicly accessible exhibits are

  9. Vessels of Transfer: Allegories of Afrofuturism in Jeff Mills and Janelle Monáe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 228 1304 bacon 10 3 1529 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performances, music, and subjectivities of Detroit techno producer Jeff Mills—radio turntablist The Wizard, space-and-time traveller The Messenger, founding member of Detroit techno outfit Underground Resistance and head of AXIS Records—and Janelle Monáe—android #57821, Cindi Mayweather, denizen and “cyber slavegirl” of Metropolis—are infused with the black Atlantic imaginary of Afrofuturism. We might understand Mills and Monáe as disseminating, in the words of Paul Gilroy, an Afrofuturist “cultural broadcast” that feeds “a new metaphysics of blackness” enacted “within the underground, alternative, public spaces constituted around an expressive culture . . . dominated by music” (Gilroy 1993: 83. Yet what precisely is meant by “blackness”—the black Atlantic of Gilroy’s Afrodiasporic cultural network—in a context that is Afrofuturist? Monáe’s Cindi Mayweather is an android on the run from human authorities, and Mills has become The Messenger, a time-and-space traveller returning from the future to forewarn Earth of catastrophic first contact with extraterrestials. The repetitious signature of electronic music, through its sonic affect, likewise appears to amplify nonrepresentational strategies. At stake is the role of allegory and its infrastructure: does Afrofuturism, and its incarnates, “represent” blackness? Or does it tend toward an unhinging of allegory, in which the coordinates of blackness, but also those of linear temporality and terrestial subjectivity

  10. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  11. Production of 131-I iodide capsules in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that 131I iodide capsules are better suited to be taken by the patient than the corresponding solution. Therefore most Pharmacopeias have monographs for 131I in both pharmaceutical forms: solution or capsules, for diagnosis but principally for therapeutic purposes. In Argentina this radiopharmaceutical has been made commercially available in November 2007. At this time Bacon Laboratories SAIC started its production, authorized by the Health and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities. 131I, in the pharmaceutical form of capsules, have evident advantages in radioprotection for the patients and the personnel involved in its administration. The intake of a 131I provokes frequently that the external part of the mouth (principally if there is a beard and/or a moustache) undergoes an external contamination. This problem is enhanced if the patient has some motor difficulties to take the glass with the solution. In this case he will need assistance from the medical or technical staff, who will receive a much greater radiation dose than in normal cases. In the capsule of 131I iodide, the solution is adsorbed on a sodium phosphate matrix. The capsule is in a plastic tube contained in an appropriate lead shielding. To take the capsule, the patient inclines the open lead shielding containing the capsule in the direction of the mouth. Once the capsule is in the mouth it is swallowed with a little portion of water. After its intake, the radiopharmaceutical is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. If a patient is unable to carry out the intake, the assistance by medical or technical staff is easy with practically no radiation harm, since the 131I is shielded by an adequate lead thickness. It is evident that the hands and external face of the patient are also protected since no possibility of contamination exists. The aim of this work is to present the production procedure, the packaging of the capsules and the decrease of the dose received by the involved personnel

  12. Development of megapixel HgCdTe detector arrays with 15 micron cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, William J.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Dorn, Meghan L.; Pipher, Judith; Cabrera, Mario S.

    2016-06-01

    I. HistoryHgCdTe is a versatile II-VI semiconductor with a direct-bandgap tunable via the Hg:Cd ratio. Hg:Cd ratio = 53:47 (2.5 micron cutoff) was used on the NICMOS instrument on HST and the 2MASS. Increasing Hg:Cd ratio to 70:30 leads to a 5.4 micron cutoff, utilized in NEOWISE and many JWST instruments. Bailey, Wu et al. (1998) motivated extending this technology to 10 microns and beyond. Bacon, McMurtry et al. (2003, 2004) indicated significant progress toward this longwave (LW) goal.Warm-Spitzer has pioneered passive cooling to below 30 K in space, enabling the JWST mission.II. CurrentNASA's proposed NEOcam mission selected HgCdTe with a 10.6 micron cutoff because it promises natural Zodiacal background limited sensitivity with modest cooling (40 K). Teledyne Imaging Systems (TIS) is producing megapixel arrays with excellent performance (McMurtry, Lee, Dorn et al. (2013)) for this mission.III. FutureModest cooling requirements (circa 30 K) coupled with megapixel arrays and LW sensitivity in the thermal IR make HgCdTe attractive for many infrared instruments. For instance, the spectral signature of a terrestrial planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a nearby star will be the deep and wide absorption by CO_2 centered at 15 microns (Seager and Deming, 2010). LW instruments can enhance Solar System missions, such as exploration of the Enceladus geysers (Spencer, Buratti et al. 2006). Passive cooling will be adequate for these missions. Modern ground-based observatories will benefit from infrared capability out to the N band (7.5-13.6 microns). The required detector temperatures (30-40 K) are easily achievable using commercially available mechanical cryo-coolers (refrigerators).IV. Progress to dateTIS is developing megapixel HgCdTe arrays sensitive out to 15 microns under the direction of the University of Rochester. As a first step, we have produced arrays with a 13 micron cutoff. The initial measurements indicate very promising performance. We will present the

  13. Biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine in aminoethoxyvinylglycine-resistant avocado tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J E; Anderson, J D; Adams, D O; Apelbaum, A; Lieberman, M

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) insensitivity in avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lula, Haas, and Bacon) tissue was due to an alternate pathway of ethylene biosynthesis from methionine. AVG, at 0.1 millimolar, had little or no inhibitory effect on either total ethylene production or [(14)C] ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue at various stages of ripening. However, aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), which inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (the AVG-sensitive enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis), inhibited ethylene production in avocado tissue. Total ethylene production was stimulated, and [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine was lowered by treating avocado tissue with 1 millimolar ACC. An inhibitor of methionine adenosyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.6), l-2-amino-4-hexynoic acid (AHA), at 1.5 millimolar, effectively inhibited [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue but had no effect on total ethylene production during a 2-hour incubation. Rates of [(14)C]AVG uptake by avocado and apple (Malus domestica Borkh., Golden Delicious) tissues were similar, and [(14)C]AVG was the only radioactive compound in alcohol-soluble fractions of the tissues. Hence, AVG-insensitivity in avocado tissue does not appear to be due to lack of uptake or to metabolism of AVG by avocado tissue. ACC synthase activity in extracts of avocado tissue was strongly inhibited (about 60%) by 10 micromolar AVG. Insensitivity of ethylene production in avocado tissue to AVG may be due to inaccessibility of ACC synthase to AVG. AVG-resistance in the avocado system is, therefore, different from that of early climacteric apple tissue, in which AVG-insensitivity of total ethylene production appears to be due to a high level of endogenous ACC relative to its rate of conversion to ethylene. However, the sensitivity of the avocado system to AOA and AHA, dilution of labeled ethylene production by ACC

  14. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 A - 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 A - 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 A - 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by (1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  15. Reducing the uncertainty of the primary damage production in Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    these are clearly smaller than the variations between previous potentials. The remaining differences between the fractions are ascribed to the different descriptions of the melting point and of the interstitial mobility in the potentials, and may be so small that they would not have consequences for the later stages of damage evolution. [1] Bjiirkas, Nordlund, Malerba, Terentyev, Olsson, J. Nucl. Mater., submitted for publication. [2] Bacon, J. Nucl. Mater. 216 (1994) 275. [3] Malerba, J. Nucl. Mater. 351 (2006) 28-38. [4] Ackland, Mendelev, Srolovitz, Han, Barashev, J. Phys: Cond. Mat. 16 (2004) S2629-42. [5] Dudarev, Derlet, J. Phys.: Cond. Mat. 17 (2005) 1-22. [6] Mueller, Erhart, Albe, Phys. Rev. B., submitted for publication. (authors)

  16. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  17. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  18. Estimation of groundwater recharge to chalk and sandstone aquifers using simple soil models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Finch, J.; Harding, R.

    1997-03-01

    On the assumption that the water draining below the root zone is potentially available for groundwater recharge, two current UK methods for estimating annual groundwater recharge have been compared with a new soil model using data from four sites under permanent grass in the UK: two sites representative of the Chalk aquifer at Bridgest Farm (Hampshire) and Fleam Dyke (Cambridgeshire), and two sites on the Triassic sandstone at Bicton College (Devon) and Bacon Hall (Shropshire). A Four Root Layers Model (FRLM), the Penman-Grindley model and the UK Meteorological Office Rainfall and Evaporation Calculation System (MORECS) were used. The new soil model was run with potential evaporation as input both from the MORECS and from the Penman-Monteith equation. The models were run for the Chalk sites both with and without a bypass flow of 15% of rainfall. Bypass was not considered for the sandstone sites. The performance of the models was tested against neutron probes measurements of soil moisture deficits. In addition, the annual groundwater recharge estimated from the models was compared with the published values obtained from the 'zero flux plane' method. Generally, the Penman-Grindley model was more successful in predicting the time for soil to return to its field capacity than in predicting the magnitude of the soil moisture deficit. The annual groundwater recharge was predicted with reasonable accuracy. The MORECS relatively tended to overestimate the soil moisture deficits and to delay the time at which the soil returns to its field capacity. The consequences were underestimates of annual groundwater recharge, owing either to the higher values of potential evaporation calculated from the MORECS or tothe high available water capacity values associated with the soils under consideration. The new soil model (FRLM) predicts the soil moisture deficits successfully and hence is reliable in estimating the annual groundwater recharge. The model is capable of doing this with

  19. Governing boards and profound organizational change in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, M L; Alexander, J A

    1989-01-01

    Over the past decade the importance of governing boards as policy-making setting and oversight units within organizations has increased dramatically. Although this is true for both corporate- and private-sector organizations (Bacon and Brown 1977; Gelman 1988), it is particularly relevant to the health sector. Hospital governing boards, long considered inconsequential in hospital management, have recently become subject to closer scrutiny. The role of governing boards in decisions affecting hospital strategy and hospital performance is once again a topic of some interest in boardrooms and hospital trade journals. Impressive evidence of the renewed interest in governance is provided by the funding of an instructional consortium by the S.K. Kellogg Foundation to help strengthen trusteeship and governing board decision making, and to improve education for health services managers in the area of governance. Members of the consortium include the Hospital Research and Educational Trust, the American Hospital Association, the American College of Healthcare Executives, and the Association for University Programs in Health Administration. Among the activities being undertaken by this consortium is the development of a self-assessment tool/methodology for boards, a bibliography and reference guide on effective governance for practicing trustees, research workshops for faculty in health administration programs, and a teaching guide on governance and trustee leadership. Despite this interest, the question with which we began this article persists. Do governing boards make a difference? In the course of our review of previous work on governance we found that, more often than not, that question has been transformed into: how do boards influence hospital performance? And very often that question has been further narrowed into: which board structure leads to better hospital performance? We have argued for a respecification of the initial question. Rather than pursuing a definition

  20. Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Linear and Non-Linear Clustering Methods to “Shakespeare Authorship Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Aljumily

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few literary scholars have long claimed that Shakespeare did not write some of his best plays (history plays and tragedies and proposed at one time or another various suspect authorship candidates. Most modern-day scholars of Shakespeare have rejected this claim, arguing that strong evidence that Shakespeare wrote the plays and poems being his name appears on them as the author. This has caused and led to an ongoing scholarly academic debate for quite some long time. Stylometry is a fast-growing field often used to attribute authorship to anonymous or disputed texts. Stylometric attempts to resolve this literary puzzle have raised interesting questions over the past few years. The following paper contributes to “the Shakespeare authorship question” by using a mathematically-based methodology to examine the hypothesis that Shakespeare wrote all the disputed plays traditionally attributed to him. More specifically, the mathematically based methodology used here is based on Mean Proximity, as a linear hierarchical clustering method, and on Principal Components Analysis, as a non-hierarchical linear clustering method. It is also based, for the first time in the domain, on Self-Organizing Map U-Matrix and Voronoi Map, as non-linear clustering methods to cover the possibility that our data contains significant non-linearities. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to convert texts into vectors in a high dimensional space. The aim of which is to compare the degrees of similarity within and between limited samples of text (the disputed plays. The various works and plays assumed to have been written by Shakespeare and possible authors notably, Sir Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, John Fletcher, and Thomas Kyd, where “similarity” is defined in terms of correlation/distance coefficient measure based on the frequency of usage profiles of function words, word bi-grams, and character triple-grams. The claim that Shakespeare authored all the disputed

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  2. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, 'Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective', University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  3. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management To Safely And Effectively Complete Nuclear Construction Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  4. Review of the United States Army Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food Program (1955-1966)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    irradiated with 60Co or with 10-MeV electrons; (d) Irradiated foods are, in general, as acceptable as non-irradiated foods. In the light of these conclusions, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved irradiation of the following foods: bacon with 4.5 Mrads - 60Co or 10 MeV electrons; wheat and wheat products with 50 krads - 60Co; potatoes with 10 krads - 2-MeV electrons. Other petitions are pending or are being prepared. (author)

  5. Tasco-Forage: II. Monocyte immune cell response and performance of beef steers grazing tall fescue treated with a seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, K E; Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Effects of applying Tasco-Forage, an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product prepared by a proprietary process, to endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in each of 3 yr (1995, 1996, and 1997) in Virginia and in 1996 and 1997 in Mississippi. There were 48 steers at each location in each year (n = 240) in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two replications at each location. Steers in Virginia were Angus and Angus x Hereford with initial weights of 245 kg (SD = 20), 234 kg (SD = 9), and 265 kg (SD = 5) in yr 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers in Mississippi were 3/4 Angus and 1/4 Brahman and weighed 230 kg (SD = 8) and 250 kg (SD = 2) in yr 2 and 3, respectively. Tasco (3.4 kg/ha) was dissolved in water and applied to pastures in April before grazing was begun and again in July at the same rate. The grazing period was from mid-April to late September or mid-October. Total gains were higher (P < 0.05) for steers grazing uninfected than for those grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Rectal temperatures were increased (P < 0.05) due to endophyte infection at both locations; Tasco application decreased temperature of steers grazing infected fescue in Virginia (interaction, P < 0.07) but increased temperatures of steers grazing infected fescue in Mississippi (interaction, P < 0.05). Presence of the endophyte resulted in rough hair coats and loss of hair color, but the effect was partially offset (P < 0.05) by Tasco application in Virginia in 1995. Both monocyte phagocytic activity (all years and locations) and major histocompatibility complex class II expression (1995 only) were decreased (P < 0.05) in steers due to endophyte infection, but this effect was reversed (P < 0.05) by application of Tasco to pastures. Application of the extract from A. nodosum seems to have use in alleviating adverse effects of endophyte on immune function

  6. Analysis of the survey result of the coal-burning endemic fluorosis in Hongya County of Sichuan Province in 2006%2006年四川省洪雅县燃煤污染型氟中毒监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 杨志明; 伍子江; 罗志宇; 颜琼; 张健

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the fluoride content in foods and drinking water in Hongya County,Sichuan Province.Methods Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride were suveyed in children of 8~12 years old in two schools which repectively located in Gaomiao and Wawushan Town.The adults above 20 years old underwent clinical examination.At the same time,fifty adults above 20 years old in Garden Village were chosen to take forearm and calf X-ray films to find out the evidence of skeletal fluorosis.The content of fluoride in food such as bacon,corn,dry capsicum in Sanxing Village in Gaomiao Town and Futian Village in Wawushan Town as well as drinking water in five families in Sanxing Village were determined.Results The dental fluorosis rate of children was 40.76%(161/395),the dental fluorosis index was 0.86 in Gaomiao Town.The dental fluorosis rate of children was 14.36%(82/571),the dental fluorosis index was 0.31 in Wawushan Town.The medium value of the urine fluoride was 0.81 mg/L.ranged 0.16~3.89 mg/L.The positive rate oi the clinical examination of skeletal fluorosis was 5.27%(27/512),the X-rays detective rate was 4.00%(2/50).The medium value in bacon,corn,dry capsicum were 6.00,0.64,1.49 mg/kg.The averaged content of the fluoride in drinking water(0.14±0.06)mg/L of local household was within the eligible limitation.Conclusions It is currently a mild endemic disease in Hongya Country,its incidence is reduced apparently,pathogenetic environmental fluoride content is reduced.The main source of fluoride is from the preserved ham contaminated with fluoride,which is epidemiologically significant in endemic area of Hongya County.Defluoriding countermeasures should be taken in the endemic areas.%目的 了解四川省洪雅县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区病情现况及食物、饮水含氟量.方法 对高庙镇和瓦屋山镇两所中心小学8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查和尿

  7. Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among adult asthmatics: results from a randomized controlled pilot feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoie KL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kim L Lavoie,1–3 Gregory Moullec,1,2,4 Catherine Lemiere,2 Lucie Blais,2 Manon Labrecque,2 Marie-France Beauchesne,2 Veronique Pepin,2,4 André Cartier,2 Simon L Bacon1,2,41Montreal Behavioural Medicine Centre, 2Research Centre, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal – A University of Montreal Affiliated Hospital, Montréal, 3Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM, Succursale Center-Ville, Montreal, 4Department of Exercise Science, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Daily adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS regimens is one of the most important factors linked to achieving optimal asthma control. Motivational interviewing (MI is a client-centered communication style that focuses on enhancing intrinsic motivation to engage in appropriate self-management behaviors. MI has been shown to improve a variety of health behaviors including medication adherence in other disorders, but its efficacy for the improvement of ICS adherence in asthmatics has yet to be examined. This pilot “proof of concept” trial assessed the feasibility of MI to improve daily ICS adherence and asthma control levels in adult asthmatics.Methods: Fifty-four poorly controlled (Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score ≥1.5, highly nonadherent (filled <50% of ICS medication in the last year adult asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient asthma clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Participants underwent baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to MI (3×30 minutes sessions within a 6-week period, n=26 or a usual care (UC control group (n=28. ICS adherence (% pharmacy refills and asthma control (ACQ, Asthma Control Test [ACT] were measured at 6 and 12 months postintervention. Mixed model repeated measure analyses for both intent-to-treat and per-protocol were used. Results were adjusted for a priori-defined covariates including baseline adherence. Patients in the MI group also reported their impressions of

  8. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  9. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  10. La Galicia que vio nacer y crecer a Gregorio Fernández

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra, Pegerto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The great sculptor Gregorio Fernández was born in Galicia; that territory was very different from the city of Valladolid, where he worked and died. Fhe changes caused by the Catholici Reformation progressed slowly and with difficulty en the old Galician Kingdom. The absence of towns prevailed in that period, and most of Glaician people lived in small villages that were far from urban civilization. They were not instructed in Christian doctrine and besides they had their peculiar customs, such as feeding on brown bread and bacon. This cultural and social context generated a negative opinion about Galicia and Galician people in the middle of the XVIth century. Don Diego Samiento de Acuña, first earl of Gondomar, and Don Pedro Fernández de Castro, seventh earl of Lemos, were opposed to this negative opinion, although they had an unfortunate outcome. First, Gondomar -who owned an important library in his house in Valladolid- and his circle wrote spirited chorographical and historiographical works. On the other hand, Gondomar and Lemos presented several claims in the Royal Court from Galician nobility and clergy al the end of XVIth century and at the beginning of the XVIIth century.

    La Galicia en la que nació el formidable escultor Gregorio Fernández tenía poco que ver con la ciudad de Valladolid, en la desarrolló su trabajo y falleció. El viejo Reino gallego era un territorio ruralizado, en el que los cambios ligados a la reforma tridentina avanzaban con lentitud y dificultad. La ausencia de grandes núcleos de población y la rudeza de unos campesinos que vivían en minúsculos asentamientos dispersos, alejados de la civilización por su ignorancia de los rudimentos de la catequesis y por sus costumbres, entre ellas la de alimentarse de pan negro y tocino, son realidades que están en el origen de la caudalosa corriente de tópicos negativos que desde mediados del XVI comenzó a correr sobre el Reino y sus habitantes, y que, con poco

  11. Food Irradiation. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of perishable food products. Different radiation sources, particularly 60Co and electron accelerators, can be used. Different types of foodstuffs react differently: ripening is delayed in some fruit, the cooking time of dehydrated vegetables can be shortened, and the shelf life of fish and some varieties of fruit and vegetables can be more than doubled. The applicability of irradiation depends on economic factors, as well as on climatic, technological, transport and food-growing conditions in given areas. The main subjects covered at the Symposium were: radiation sources and dosimetry, the wholesomeness of irradiated food, the chemical and physical effects of ionizing radiation, microbiology, virology and quarantine problems, the status of various irradiated commodities, including meat and meat products, poultry and eggs, grain and stored food products, fish and sea foods, and fruit and vegetables. In the broader application of radiation to food preservation, the participants discussed present programmes in operation, facilities used, and economics, together with national legislation and clearances for irradiated items. Some countries are already using radiation for the prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions and for the sterilization of bacon. In the near future its use for the disinfestation of grain will be implemented. The irradiation of food - described as the first truly novel food preservation method since Nicolas Appert well over one hundred years ago invented food preservation by bottling - will doubtless play a very important role in the life of mankind, in many instances in conjunction with conventional food treatment methods, such as heat and refrigeration.

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available -Michael D. Olien, Edmund T. Gordon, Disparate Diasporas: Identity and politics in an African-Nicaraguan community.Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. xiv + 330 pp. -Donald Cosentino, Margarite Fernández Olmos ,Sacred possessions: Vodou, Santería, Obeah, and the Caribbean. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997. viii + 312 pp., Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert (eds -John P. Homiak, Lorna McDaniel, The big drum ritual of Carriacou: Praisesongs in rememory of flight. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. xiv + 198 pp. -Julian Gerstin, Gerdès Fleurant, Dancing spirits: Rhythms and rituals of Haitian Vodun, the Rada Rite. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1996. xvi + 240 pp. -Rose-Marie Chierici, Alex Stepick, Pride against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1998. x + 134 pp. -Rose-Marie Chierici, Flore Zéphir, Haitian immigrants in Black America: A sociological and sociolinguistic portrait. Westport CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1996. xvi + 180 pp. -Luis Martínez-Fernández, Rosalie Schwartz, Pleasure Island: Tourism and temptation in Cuba. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. xxiv + 239 pp. -Jorge L. Giovannetti, My footsteps in Baraguá. Script and direction by Gloria Rolando. VHS, 53 minutes. Havana: Mundo Latino, 1996. -Gert Oostindie, Mona Rosendahl, Inside the revolution: Everyday life in socialist Cuba. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997. x + 194 pp. -Frank Argote-Freyre, Lisa Brock ,Between race and empire: African-Americans and Cubans before the Cuban revolution. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. xii + 298 pp., Digna Castañeda Fuertes (eds -José E. Cruz, Frances Negrón-Muntaner ,Puerto Rican Jam: Rethinking colonialism and nationalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. x + 303 pp., Ramón Grosfoguel (eds -Helen I. Safa, Félix V. Matos Rodríguez ,Puerto Rican Women's history: New perspectives. Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. x + 262 pp., Linda C. Delgado (eds

  13. L'Utopie comme esquisse d'un avenir meilleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Ondoua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le postmodernisme se donne explicitement comme une philosophie de la mondialisation. En occident, Jacques Derrida, par sa déconstruction, est l’un des penseurs qui anime le débat postmoderne en considérant que notre ère manque la fin de rationalité, du progrès et de la recherche d’un sens. La déconstruction se définit comme l’ensemble des techniques et stratégies utilisées par Derrida pour démonter, fissurer et déplacer toute logique universelle. Par le mécanisme de la différance, l’homme sort de tout cadre originaire (grands ensembles, méta récits, seul demeure la trace. L’homme pris dans la trace marque son refus de solidarité avec tout centre, tout principe, toute origine, etc. Cette idée est radicalisée par le légiste, personnage emblématique dans l���Utopie de Thomas More. En effet, le légiste fait l’éloge de la justice sévère anglaise. Partant de la théorie socio-biologiste selon laquelle les comportements sociaux sont génétiques, le légiste dans l’Utopie de More soutient qu’il faut une justice sévère, inflexible, rigide pour nettoyer la cité de ces maux. Dans ce sens, il faut condamner autant d’individus à la potence, car les maux sociaux sont naturels et innées. C’est contre cette approche néolibérale que s’insurge Thomas More. Tout comme les mouvements de gauches, l’Utopie de More explique les maux sociaux par les injustices sociales, la démission de la société, et surtout le manque de l’éducation. Du coup, avec l’Utopie, il s’agit de relativiser le monde dans lequel nous vivons : un autre monde est possible que celui dans lequel nous vivons. Partant delà, l’utopie notamment celle de Francis Bacon ou Thomas More, n’est-elle pas un genre littéraire altermondialiste ? Si la logique néolibérale impose son diktat et pose le principe selon lequel il n’y a pas d’alternative autre que ce que nous offre le capitalisme, ne faut-il pas voir dans l’Utopie, un

  14. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Caponi

    2007-01-01

    Departamento de Educação da Universidade Rawalpindi do Paquistão, apresenta um estudo empírico referido a uma amostra de mil estudantes de vinte universidades chegando a conclusões inesperadas sobre o papel dos pais e professores na conquista das habilidades dos estudantes universitários. O estudo destaca a importância dos primeiros na consolidação da formação dos futuros profissionais. Continuando com a temática da educação, Roberto Carlos Simões Galvão, Mestre em fundamentos da Educação pela Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM, apresenta uma análise do pensamento de Francis Bacon (1561-1626 e suas contribuições para a educação, especificamente o autor analisa o desejo de Bacon de promover uma reorganização do domínio do conhecimento humano, e o impacto que essa reorganização do saber pode ter no domínio da educação. A seguir, Clarissa Franzoi Dri, Doutoranda do Instituto de Estudos Políticos da Universidade Montesquieu – Bordeaux IV, interroga-se pelas perspectivas do Protocolo Constitutivo do Parlamento do Mercosul, assinado em 2005. Avaliando as dificuldades e as perspectivas desse fato à luz dos modelos políticos existentes na América do sul. O quinto artigo, de Antônio Manoel Elíbio Júnior, Doutor em História Social pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, com o sugestivo nome de: “Sem uma reação não estaremos condenados à ruína?”, aborda as “intrigas” políticas da revolução constitucionalista que em 1932, partindo de São Paulo, se espraiou até o Rio Grande do Sul. O artigo analisa os embates da assembléia nacional constituinte do Rio Grande do Sul, e a recomposição das forças políticas entre os anos de 1932 e 1934. O próximo artigo de autoria de Izabel Cristina dos Santos Teixeira, Professora de Literatura e Língua Portuguesa da Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT analisa os conceitos de “alta” e “baixa” literatura a partir dos pontos de vista apontados por Leyla Perrone-Moisés em

  15. Endowment and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-05-01

    The 1998 annual report of the Research Corporation ( http://www.rescorp.org) contains fascinating reading for anyone with an interest in science education at private institutions. An article titled "The Midas Touch: Do Soaring Endowments Have Any Impact on College Science" concludes that "college science is seldom more than an incidental beneficiary of endowment resources, even when they are conspicuously plentiful." Written by Research Corporation director of communication W. Stevenson Bacon, the article reports on a survey of leading undergraduate institutions, dividing them between those with endowments above and below 300 million. The first surprise to me was that Harvard's endowment of 727,522 per full-time equivalent (FTE) student is exceeded by Grinnell's 760,404, and Yale's 612,015 per FTE student is far exceeded by Agnes Scott's 692,914 (much of it in Coca-Cola stock and somewhat restricted) and closely rivaled by Swarthmore's 608,955. Of the eleven institutions in the Research Corporation survey, seven were above 300,000 per FTE student and only four were below. Private-college endowments have soared along with a soaring stock market. The Research Corporation report asks whether this increased endowment income is helping colleges to provide improved education in the sciences. A major use of endowment income and gift funds is for construction of buildings. Seven of the eleven institutions surveyed had building programs under way or planned for the sciences, and three of the four remaining expected to stress science facilities in upcoming campaigns. In some cases new buildings are designed to support science effectively, but in others, according to Research Corporation Vice President Michael Doyle, "the building is an elegant shell without modern instrumentation or flexibility for future uses." New construction serves to make a campus attractive to prospective students who will bring in the tuition fees that support most of a college's budget. An "elegant

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1999-01-01

    : Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1993. xxvi + 321 pp. -Andrés Serbin, Jorge Rodríguez Beruff ,Security problems and policies in the post-cold war Caribbean. London: :Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's, 1996. 249 pp., Humberto García Muñiz (eds -Alex Dupuy, Irwin P. Stotzky, Silencing the guns in Haiti: The promise of deliberative democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. xvi + 294 pp. -Carrol F. Coates, Myriam J.A. Chancy, Framing silence: Revolutionary novels by Haitian women. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997. ix + 200 pp. -Havidán Rodríguez, Walter Díaz, Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz ,Island paradox: Puerto Rico in the 1990's. New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 1996. xi + 198 pp., Carlos E. Santiago (eds -Ramona Hernández, Alan Cambeira, Quisqueya la Bella: The Dominican Republic in historical and cultural perspective. Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996. xi + 272 pp. -Ramona Hernández, Emilio Betances ,The Dominican Republic today: Realities and perspectives. New York: Bildner Center for Western Hemisphere studies, CUNY, 1996. 205 pp., Hobart A. Spalding, Jr. (eds -Bonham C. Richardson, Eberhard Bolay, The Dominican Republic: A country between rain forest and desert. Wekersheim, FRG: Margraf Verlag, 1997. 456 pp. -Virginia R. Dominguez, Patricia R. Pessar, A visa for a dream: Dominicans in the United States. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995. xvi + 98 pp. -Diane Austin-Broos, Nicole Rodriguez Toulis, Believing identity: Pentecostalism and the mediation of Jamaican ethnicity and gender in England. Oxford NY: Berg, 1997. xv + 304 p. -Mary Chamberlain, Trevor A. Carmichael, Barbados: Thirty years of independence. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 1996. xxxv + 294 pp. -Paul van Gelder, Gert Oostindie, Het paradijs overzee: De 'Nederlandse' Caraïben en Nederland. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1997. 385 pp. -Roger D. Abrahams, Richard D.E. Burton, Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition, and Play in the Caribbean. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1997. x

  17. Mudanças no padrão de alimentação da população urbana brasileira (1962-1988 Changing diet patterns in Brazil (1962-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    1994-12-01

    undertaken in the mid-70' s (1974-75. The analysis is restricted to the seven metropolitan areas represented in the three surveys. Food patterns are described on the basis of the relative consumption of different food groups, proportion of energy from carbohydrates, protein and lipids, proportion of animal and vegetable protein and fats, proportion of complex and simple carbohydrates, ratio between poly-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and relative consumption of cholesterol. Main food changes were similar in the Northeastern and Southeastern cities and involved: 1 reduction in the relative consumption of cereals, beans, roots and tubercles; 2 replacement of lard, bacon and butter by vegetable oils and margarine: and 3 increase in the relative consumption of eggs, milk and dairy products. As a net result of these changes there was, simultaneously, a decrease in the carbohydrate content of the Brazilian diet and an increase in its fat content. Total protein content of the diet remained at around 12% in the three surveys but animal protein increased. Changes in the fat content of the diet involved an increased proportion of vegetable fat, an increased ratio of poly-unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and a reduction in cholesterol intake. Health implications of dietary changes are discussed based on the World Health Organization's dietary guidelines.

  18. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, John A.

    equatorial Indo-Pacific region, for example, has recently been compared to the terrane map of the North American Cordillera. The position of eastern Indonesia within the plate-tectonic framework is the key to resolving contradictory views on the tectonics of the Banda Sea. For example, did the Indonesian orogeny take place at the Gondwana margin or the Asian margin, are Timor and Seram a tectonic melange and thus part of the Tertiary Indonesian island arcs, or are these two islands a part of the passive Australian margin? Oceanic magnetic stripes from the Sulu, Celebes and Banda Seas all trend NE-SW. These new data suggest that the Sulu, Celebes and probably the Banda Sea represent areas of trapped Indian Ocean crust. Deep sea drilling in the Banda Sea can resolve much controversy. The Banda Sea occupies a critical position in the complex convergent zone between Australia, Southeast Asia and the Philippine Sea Plate. The determination of the stratigraphy and basement ages of the Banda Sea will constrain evolutionary models which have been proposed. Another unsolved question of key importance in our understanding of the evolution of Sulawesi and the Moluccas is the function and timing of events of the Birdhead 'bacon slicer', or the tectonic shaving in Irian Jaya. Once this mechanism is understood, the development and timing of the various structural features of Sulawesi, Halmahera and the Banda Arc will be classified. Opinions still differ regarding the 'birthplace' of the micro-continents in the Banda Sea. Some regard them as a result of Jurassic rifting of Gondwana in northwestern Australia while others consider them displaced westward from northern Irian Jaya along the Sorong transform fault. Several authors suggested that the eastern parts of Sulawesi, Buru and Seram represent micro-continents which originated from Irian Jaya, while others considered East Sulawesi and north Sulawesi remnants of ophiolite belts or fragments of island arcs that originate from the Pacific

  19. [Science in the crosshairs of enlightenment. Significance of hypothetical thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    To further the enlightenment primarily or even only by means of science was the hope of most representatives of the movement of the enlightenment which gave its name to a whole period of European cultural history. Only a few of its representatives, like Montesquieu and Rousseau, doubted for good reasons, whether and how the goals of the enlightenment can be reached at all by the means of science alone. In his Discours préliminaires to the Encyclopédie D'Alembert still wanted to limit science proper to the narrower field of those kinds of research which were strictly based on observations and calculations alone. In this way he remained committed to Descartes' ideal method of receiving authentic knowledge only by deduction from evident axioms or fundamental theorems. Pascal's casual discovery of the calculation of probabilities allowed to apply mathematics on the hidden laws of the apparent casualties of the human life world. Bacon's project of empirical science as a rational and methodological art of conducting experiments could replace the methodological ideal of science more geometrico. Lichtenberg's refined sensibility for the subjunctive linguistic forms of hypothetical thinking indicates a new understanding of inventing and testing hypotheses as the two most important methods of the experimental sciences when compared to the formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Whoever is studying the history of science of modern times in the cross wire of the enlightenment, will realize soon that science has always been in need of being illuminated about its own chances, risks and side effects. The project of enlightenment through science had to be complemented by the project of an enlightenment about science right from its beginning. Because of the implicit risks and side effects the project of enlightenment has to be enlightenment despite of science and because of science. On the one hand, as a special form of human practice the sciences are directed towards

  20. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua

    2005-01-01

    Elements, 1 (ed. Ahrens, L.H.), Oxford: Pergamon, 1968, 889-910.[25]Jocobsen, S. B., Wasserburg, G. J., Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of chondrites, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1980, 50: 139.[26]He Liangbiao, Clay minerals in Chinese seas and their adjacent area, Science in China, Series B (in Chinese), 1989, 1: 75-83.[27]Liu Zhifei, Trentesaux, A., Clemens, S. C. et al., Quaternary clay mineralogy in the northern South China Sea (ODP Site 1146)-Implications for oceanic current transport and East Asian monsoon evolution, Science in China, Series D (in Chinese), 2003, 46(12): 1223-1235.[28]Zhang Haiping, Shi Xuefa, Chen Jin et al., Mineralogy of smectites in the surface sediments from the East Pacific and its significance, Chinses Science Bulletin, 2003, 48(Supp.): 110-116.[29]Liu Jihua, Liang Hongfeng, Hydrothermal activities recorded in surface sediments from the eastern Pacific, Marine Geology Letters (in Chinese), 1996, 9: 4-6.[30]De Baar, H. J. W., Bacon, M. P., Brewer, P. G. et al., Rare-earth elements in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1985, 49: 1953-1959.[31]Zhang, J., Amakawa, H., Nazaki, Y., The comparative behaviors of yttrium and lanthanides in the seawater of the North Pacific, Geophysics Research Letters, 1994, 21: 2677-2680.[32]Liu Jihua, REE geochemistry of pelagic sediments from the central Pacific, Marine Geology Quaternary Geology (in Chinese), 1992, 2(2): 33-42.[33]Wen Qizhong, Geochemistry of Chinese Loess (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1989, 66-114.[34]Piepgras, D. J., Wasserburg, G. J., Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1980, 50: 128-138.[35]Goldstein, S., O'Nions, R. K., Nd and Sr isotopic relationships in pelagic clay and ferromanganese deposits, Nature, 1981, 292: 324-327.[36]Aplin, A., Michard, A., Albrede, F., 143Nd/144Nd in Pacific ferromanganese encrustations and nodules, Earth Planet Sci. Lett., 1987, 81: 7-14.[37]Albarede, F

  1. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.; F.; Bouwman

    2005-01-01

    [1]Bouwman,A.F.,Lee,D.S.,Asman,W.A.H.et al.,A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,1997,11:561-587.[2]Mosier,A.R.,Kroeze,C.,Nevison,C.et al.,Closing the global atmospheric N2O budget:nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,1998,52:225-248.[3]IFA/IFDC/FAO,Fertilizer use by crop.5th edition,Rome:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,2003.[4]Van Drecht,G.,Bouwman,A.F.,Knoop,J.M.et al.,Global modeling of the fate of nitrogen from point and nonpoint sources in soils,groundwater and surface water,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,2003,17(4):1115.[5]Galloway,J.N.,Schlesinger,W.H.,Levy_Ⅲ,H.et al.,Nitrogen fixation:Anthropogenic enhancement-environmental response,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,1995,9:235-252.[6]Nakicenovic,N.,Alcamo,J.,Davis,G.et al.,Special Report on emissions scenarios,in IPCC Special Reports,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2000,599.[7]Peoples,M.B.,Freney,J.R.Mosier,A.R.,Minimizing gaseous losses of nitrogen,in Nitrogen fertilization and the environment (ed.Bacon,P.E.),New York:Marcel Dekker Inc.,1995,565-602.[8]FAO/IFA,Global Estimates of Gaseous Emissions of NH3,NO and N2O from Agricultural Land,Rome:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA),2001,106.[9]Van Breemen,N.,Burrough,P.A.,Velthorst,E.J.et al.,Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall,Nature,1982,299:548-550.[10]Bouwman,A.F.,Van Vuuren,D.P.,Derwent,R.G.et al.,A global analysis of acidification and eutrophication of terrestrial ecosystems,Water,Air and Soil Pollution,2002,141:349-382.[11]IPCC,Third assessment report,Working Group I,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,2001.[12]Johnes,P.J.,Burt,T.P.,Nitrate in surface waters,in Nitrate:Processes,Patterns and Management (eds.Burt,T.P.,Trudgill,S.T.),Chichester:Wiley and Sons,1993,269-317.[13]Heathwaite

  2. Evaluation and analysis of urban public spaces using TOPSIS model (Case Study: Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Poormohammadi

    2013-01-01

    the recent decades and the imbalance and inequality of public spaces in 9 different urban areas of Tabriz, study and assessment of population density in all of the 9 urban areas by related organizations and finding and executing proper strategies that produce balance between public spaces and the present population of a given urban area, is more urgent than before. So regarding the lack of urban public spaces in Tabriz in most of the introduced indices, it is imperative to produce required spaces in each one of the regions that, based on the indices, suffers a lack of urban public spaces. Urban traffic is one of the problems that can be seen in most of the cities, in Tabriz, especially in downtown and the old parts of town, there is a heavy traffic during daylight time. It can be inferred that if the distribution of public spaces is done properly, it is only logical that the number of the people who, because of the lack of a required space, go from one region to another district, will decrease.Keyword: Public Urban Spaces, Area and the Area for each Individual, Development Space Tabriz, TOPSIS Method. ReferencesArsee, C. E. (1994. Comprehensive Plan of Tabriz, The Way and Urbanism Organization of East Azarbayjan Province.Arsee, C. E. (1994. Designing of Development and Civil, Sphere of Influence of Tabriz.Azimi, N. (2010. Position of Public Spaces and Urbanism With An Emphasis Urbanism India.Bacon, E. (1967. Design of Cities, Tehran, The Research and Study Center of the Architecture and Urbanism of Iran.Calthorpe, P. (1993. The next American Metropolis, Princeton Architectural Press, Dissent 479- 485.Goodmann, W. (1968. Principles and Practice of Urban Planning, International City Managers Association, Washington.Habibi, M. (1996. Dela Cite a La Ville, Tehran University.Hafeznia, M. R. (2010. An Introduction to the Research Method in Humanities, Samt Publishers, Seventeenth Edition, Center of Human Sciences Research and Development.Harvey, D. (1997. Social Justice and

  3. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbaszadegan

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing spatial structure weaknesses by space syntax theory is necessary in neighbourhoods with low level of development quality and damaged areas, before intervention (renovation, reconstruction, improvement in the fabric.Evaluating renovation and improvement plans by space syntax theory for less developed and undeveloped neighborhoods Uisng space syntax tools to evaluate new development plans before implementation.Keywords: Spatial Structure, Space Syntax, Spatial Integration, DevelopementReferencesAkbari, N, Zahedi K.M, (2006, Ranking methods and multi criteria decision, Iran: municipalities OrganizationBacon, E. (1974, Design of cities, London, Thames & HudsonBazargan. L. A, (2005, Applied Statistics, Shiraz: Shiraz University, Seventh EditionBazregar. M, (2003, Urban Planning and Urban Main Structure, Shiraz: KooshamehrFainstein, S., Campbell, S., (1997, Readings in Urban Theory, Blackwell PublishersHamidi. M, Sirous Sabri. R, Habibi. M, Salimi.J, (1997, Tehran Urban Structure, Tehran: Tehran Consulting Engineers, first volume.Hillier, B. 2007(. Space is the machine, A configurational theory of architecture Space Syntax. This electronic edition published http//www.spacesyntax.comMinistry of Housing and Urban Development, (1991, Urban development indicators, Iran: Department of Housing and Urban Development PublishersMomeni. M, Ghayumi. F. A, (2007, Statistical Analysis with SPSS, Tehran: KetbenoUnited Nations, 2007(, Indicators of Sustainable Development:Guidelines and Methodologies, Third Edition. United Nations publication http://www.un.org/esa/sustdevAgrawal, A. W., Schlossberg, M. & Irvin, K, (2008, How Far, by Which Route and Why? A Spatial Analysis of Pedestrian Preference, Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 13. No. 1, pp. 81–98, FebruaryAlan. P, (2003, Space Syntax And Spatial Cognition Or Why the Axial Line?, Environment and Behavior January 2003 vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 30-65 Figueiredo, L., 2005(, Mindwalk 1.0 – Space Syntax Software, Brazil, Laboratório de Estudos