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Sample records for bacolod city groundwater

  1. Ion ratios and tritium extents as markers of salinization in the Bacolod City basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium statistics were used in tandem with geochemical information for the characterization of recharge to the Bacolod city basin. Waters were sampled from selected production wells,domestic wells, and surface water sources. The average tritium in the groundwater appeared to be 0.52 TU while surface and rain waters have an average of 0.86 and 0.89 TU, respectively. Physico-chemical properties (pH, conductivity, temperature) of the water were determined on site. Chemical characterization was focused on the determination of major ionic composition Na, K, Mg, Ca, as well as the major anions. Sulfate, (SO4), Chloride (Cl) by ion chromatography and bicarbonate ion by titration. Two portions of the basin displayed salient conductivity and chloride ion values which were strikingly greater than the rest f the other sampling points in the 3 year monitoring period. Tritium extents indicate that wells near the coasts receive potential contribution from modern recharge. Ion mass balance calculations and Br/Cl ratios corroborate tritium results to further validate that sea water intrusion may account for the high conductivities. The salinization and high conductivity of groundwater at points far from the coasts were attributed to connate formation at the deeper layer aquifers. Tritium extents indicated insignificant, sluggish recharge from precipitation before the 1950's, while ion mass balance do not indicate sea water intrusion. Establishment of geochemical data, in tandem with tritium, isotopic and other techniques, help in the identification of the origin and mechanism of recharge to the tapped aquifers which may aid local government units to properly delineate the areas that shall need concerted effort for protection, forest cover preservation and restoration within or outside the reservation area of the watershed. (author)

  2. Review on the Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogens from Tracheal and Endotracheal Aspirates of Patients with Clinical Manifestations of Pneumonia in Bacolod City in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain C. Juayang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological content specifically bacterial and fungal etiologies from tracheal aspirates in a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City was reviewed for baseline information. A total of 130 tracheal aspirates were subjected for culture to isolate and identify the pathogen and determine their susceptibilities to various antibiotics. Productions of certain enzymes responsible for antibiotic resistance like ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase, metallo-β-lactamase, and carbapenemase were also studied. Out of 130 specimens, 69.23% were found to be positive for the presence of microorganisms. Most infections were from male patients aging 60 years and above, confined at the Intensive Care Units (ICU. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be the most frequent bacterial isolates and non-Candida albicans for fungal isolates, respectively. Among the various antibiotics tested, most isolates were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and penicillins, but susceptible to aminoglycoside Amikacin. On the other hand, production of ESBL and carbapenemase was found to be common among members of Enterobacteriaceae especially K. pneumoniae.

  3. Features of groundwater pollution and its relation to overexploitation of groundwater in Shijiazhuang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is characterized by an excess of some components and parameters over permitted values. The main pollutants are originated from the city sewage which is quite typical for groundwater pollution in many cities of China. On the basis of agonizingly features of groundwater pollution, the relationship between the groundwater pollution and the groundwater overexploitation is discussed in this paper, and the mechanism of intensifying the pollution by overexploitation has been revealed. Finally, it is proposed that the overexploitation of groundwater is an important inducing factor leading to the groundwater pollution in cities. (authors)

  4. Modeling falling groundwater tables in major cities of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Erkens, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater use and its over-consumption are one of the major drivers in the hydrology of many major cities in the world, particularly in delta regions. Yet, a global assessment to identify cities with declining groundwater table problems has not been done yet. In this study we used the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (10 km resolution, for 1960-2010). Using this model, we globally calculated groundwater recharge and river discharge/surface water levels, as well as global water demand and abstraction from ground- and surface water resources. The output of PCR-GLOBWB model was then used to force a groundwater MODFLOW-based model simulating spatio-temporal groundwater head dynamics, including groundwater head declines in all major cities - mainly in delta regions - due to escalation in abstraction of groundwater to meet increasing water demand. Using these coupled models, we managed to identify a number of critical cities having groundwater table falling rates above 50 cm/year (average in 2000-2010), such as Barcelona, Houston, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York, Rome and many large cities in China, Libya, India and Pakistan, as well as in Middle East and Central Asia regions. However, our simulation results overestimate the depletion rates in San Jose, Tokyo, Venice, and other cities where groundwater usages have been aggressively managed and replaced by importing surface water from other places. Moreover, our simulation might underestimate the declining groundwater head trends in some familiar cases, such as Bangkok (12 cm/year), Ho Chi Minh City (34 cm/year), and Jakarta (26 cm/year). The underestimation was due to an over-optimistic model assumption in allocating surface water for satisfying urban water needs. In reality, many big cities, although they are located in wet regions and have abundant surface water availability, still strongly rely on groundwater sources due to inadequate facilities to treat and distribute surface water resources.

  5. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  6. ~(15)N Isotope Used for Study of Groundwater Nitrogen Pollution in Shijiazhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shijiazhuang City is the capital of Hebei province, China. Groundwater is the major water supply source for living and industry need of the city. Due to a rapid increase of population and development of industry and agriculture, a series of groundwater environmental problems are created. In the paper, the situation of groundwater pollution in Shijiazhuang city is reported. Based on the groundwater chemical data and ~(15)N measurement results both on groundwater and soils, the reason of groundwater nitra...

  7. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  8. Environmental Effects of Groundwater Development in Xuzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Xuzhou City is located in the most northwestern portion of Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. Karst groundwater in the Ordovician and Cambrian Limestone aquifers is the main source of water supply. There are 527 wells in urban areas to exploit the karst groundwater, yielding up to 35 000 m3 per day. After 1978, urbanization and industrialization of Xuzhou City have continued at a greatly accelerated pace; the population increased from 670 700 (1978) to 1 645 500 (2002), its GDP from 0.71 × 109$ to 42.7×109$ and the urban area from 184 km2 to 1,038 km2 (built-up city area from 41.3 km2 to 81.9 km2). The volume of karst groundwater withdrawal increased yearly before the operation of a supply plant of surface water in 1992, from 3.85×107 m3 (1978) to 1.34×108 m3 (1991) and now maintained at 0.1×109 m3 (2002). Intensive overexploitation of karst groundwater has caused a continuous descending of the piezometric level and the area of the depression cone increases year after year. These changes have increased the vulnerability of the karst groundwater system and have induced environmental problems such as depletion of water resources, water quality deterioration, groundwater contamination and karst collapse. The largest buried depth of karst groundwater is up to 100 m in the dry season in some areas, while 66 exhausted wells have been abandoned. A change in the thickness of the unsaturated zone due to the drawdown of the piezometric level has caused a change of the chemical environment which has an impact on the physical state and major chemical compositions in groundwater. The contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl- in karst groundwater has increased significantly, total hardness (CaCO3 content) rises annually in most pumping wells and exceeds the Standard of Drinking Water of P.R. China. Point source pollution and belt-like pollution along the rivers has caused water quality deterioration. The sudden loss of buoyant support due to rapid drawdown of the

  9. Geological Environment Problems Caused by Controlling Groundwater Exploitation in Jiangyin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Qing-hai; MA Feng-shan; YUAN Ren-mao; YAO Bing-kui

    2007-01-01

    Geological environment effects caused by the control of groundwater exploitation in Jiangyin city are discussed thoroughly, including the dynamic variation of groundwater levels and quality and the development of land subsidence and ground fissures. According to the dynamic characteristics of groundwater levels, some advice about groundwater exploitation is offered. Our research will provide a basis for using groundwater resources and the prevention of geological disasters in Jiangyin city and the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou area. The following results are deduced from our research. First, groundwater levels vary with the exploitation of groundwater in Jiangyin city and are affected by hydrogeological conditions. The groundwater levels remained rather stable before and after the implementation of control of groundwater exploitation in the northwest of Jiangyin city along the Yangtze River. A suitable level of exploitation should be allowed. In the southeast, the speed of recovery of the groundwater level has been rather rapid after the control of exploitation. We conclude that groundwater might be exploited locally after the groundwater level has recovered. In the southwest, the speed of recovery of the groundwater level is rather slow and exploitation of groundwater should be prohibited. Second, groundwater quality is stable in Jiangyin city and the contents of the main chemical indices of groundwater varied only slightly before and after the control of exploitation. Third, after controlling the exploitation, the speed of land subsidence has clearly slowed down and the development of ground fissures has been controlled effectively.

  10. Groundwater Depletion in Dhaka City, Bangladesh: A Spatio-temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerin, T.; Ishtiaque, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka city, having a population of more than fifteen million, exclusively depends on groundwater as a source of quality drinking water. In recent decades the city is encountering groundwater diminution and the declining scenario is dissimilar in different parts of the city. This paper aims to discuss the groundwater depletion in different parts of Dhaka city from 1990 to 2012 along with the causes and consequences. Groundwater level data of different locations of Dhaka city were collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB). The data were processed and analyzed using SPSS and Excel Worksheet; a contour map was generated using ArcGIS 10.0 to outline the contemporary groundwater scenario of Dhaka city and the spatial analyst tool, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) was used to prepare the map. In addition, experts' opinions were collected using an in-depth interview strategy in order to provide a better understanding of the causes and consequences of groundwater depletion. The research results show that groundwater in Dhaka city is depleting at an alarming rate; the central part has the worst situation followed by the south-western part. In contrast, northern part has relatively better groundwater condition. Moreover, the peripheral zone exhibits a better condition because of the existence of rivers and wetlands. The interviews reveal that population density and overexploitation are mainly responsible for groundwater depletion; however, various other factors such as the deliberate establishment of deep tube wells, reduction of recharge capacity due to rapid growth of urban structures altogether results in huge drop of water level throughout the city. Rapid decline in groundwater augments the city's exposure towards multiple risks including land subsidence, groundwater pollution and most importantly, paucity of available fresh water that might ultimately results into an urban disaster. Potential solutions to ameliorate this situation include urban greening

  11. DRASTIC-based vulnerability evaluation for groundwater environment in Kunming City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changming WANG; Jianping CHEN; Pulin LI; Hao ZHANG; Lijian YANG

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater pollution has serious influences on programming and development for a city. So it has a special importance to assess reasonably the vulnerability to pollution for urban groundwater. DRASTIC is an effective method for groundwater vulnerability assessment, which has been adapted in USA and Europe countries. In this paper, DRASTIC method is applied in vulnerability assessment of shallow groundwater environment in Kunming. A total of 1 339 units are divided in this area and the grade of each unit for seven indexes is determined. Then vulnerability zones are divided in the area by DRASTIC value, which has an important meaning to city programming.

  12. Supplementary report on the ground-water supplies of the Atlantic City region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Brunstein, Maurice S.

    1936-01-01

    This report is the second progress report on the ground-water investigations in the Atlantic City region. Many important problems still remain to be solved, however, and it is in no sense a final report.

  13. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater depression cones in Yinchuan City, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater in Yinchuan City has been heavily over-exploited, thus leading to the formation of depression cones in confined and phreatic groundwater environments. The depression cones have an important influence on the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical fields of groundwaters. The evolution of depression cones was analyzed on the basis of the monitoring data on groundwater level accumulated in the past 14 years. The ratio of rCl-/rCa2+ showed that phreatic water circulation was intensified, and confined groundwater was affected by external factors. Mass balance of Cl- showed confined water mixed with about 11% phreatic water. It is shown that the alternative function of confined water was affected by external factors. At last, the evolution of groundwater hydrochemical field on the basis of groundwater chemical composition showed that phreatic water quality has been improved whereas confined water quality has been deteriorated. Saturation indices of minerals with respect to phreatic and confined waters were calculated by using PHREEQC.

  14. Evapotranspiration Within the Groundwater Model Domain of the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    The revised groundwater model includes estimates of evapotranspiration (ET). The types of vegetation and the influences of ET on groundwater hydrology vary within the model domain. Some plant species within the model domain, classified as phreatophytes, survive by extracting groundwater. ET within these plant communities can result in a net discharge of groundwater if ET exceeds precipitation. Other upland desert plants within the model domain survive on meteoric water, potentially limiting groundwater recharge if ET is equivalent to precipitation. For all plant communities within the model domain, excessive livestock grazing or other disturbances can tip the balance to a net groundwater recharge. This task characterized and mapped vegetation within the groundwater model domain at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site, and then applied a remote sensing algorithm to estimate ET for each vegetation type. The task was designed to address five objectives: 1. Characterize and delineate different vegetation or ET zones within the groundwater model domain, focusing on the separation of plant communities with phreatophytes that survive by tapping groundwater and upland plant communities that are dependent on precipitation. 2. Refine a remote sensing method, developed to estimate ET at the Monument Valley site, for application at the Tuba City site. 3. Estimate recent seasonal and annual ET for all vegetation zones, separating phreatophytic and upland plant communities within the Tuba City groundwater model domain. 4. For selected vegetation zones, estimate ET that might be achieved given a scenario of limited livestock grazing. 5. Analyze uncertainty of ET estimates for each vegetation zone and for the entire groundwater model domain.

  15. Land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Suzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongxi; Pei, Shunping; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2002-09-01

    Suzhou City, located at the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in southeastern Jiangsu Province, is one of the few cities in China which suffer from severe ground settlement. A research project was carried out to investigate this problem. Geological and hydrogeological studies show that there is a multi-layered aquifer system with three distinct, soft mud layers of marine and lagoonal origins. An examination of historical records of groundwater extraction, water levels, and ground settlement shows that the ground subsidence is associated with the continuously increasing groundwater extraction in the deep, confined aquifer. It is believed that the consolidation of the soft mud layers, especially the third layer which is thick and close to the main pumped aquifer, contributes to the ground settlement. A three-dimensional finite difference numerical model representing the multi-layered aquifer system was developed to study the ground settlement in response to groundwater extraction. By calibrating the model with both the measured groundwater level and ground settlement, the aquifer parameters were estimated. The model outputs fit reasonably well with the observed results, which indicates that the numerical model can reproduce the dynamic processes of both groundwater flow and soil consolidation. The hydraulic conductivity of the third mud layer near the center of the ground settlement has been reduced by over 30% in the last 14 years. The gradual deterioration in the hydraulic conductivity of the mud may have significant adverse effect on the sustainable groundwater resource of the deep confined aquifer, since the recharge from the shallow aquifers through the mud layer is the only source of water to the deep aquifer. An analysis of the spatial distributions of groundwater drawdown and ground settlement shows that the area with maximum drawdown is not necessarily the area with maximum ground settlement due to the occurrence of the soft mud layer. A simple reallocation

  16. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  17. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  18. Regulatory issues associated with groundwater compliance at the Falls City, Texas, UMTRA site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the problems associated with the application of supplemental standards for groundwater compliance for the disposal of uranium mill tailings at the DOE's Falls City UMTRA Project site. This includes a discussion of the difficulty in determining background water quality at the site. A discussion of the regulating agency's (NRC) concerns and the resolution of the various NRC issues with demonstrating Class III (limited use) groundwater is provided. An additional item of discussion is the problem of the conflict with the UMTRA definition of an uppermost aquifer and the 1986 EPA draft groundwater classification guidelines. (author)

  19. Groundwater salinization mechanism of aquifers beneath Ho Chi Minh City area (Viet Nam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water supplying for domestic and product activities in Hochiminh City is being taken from two both sources: surface water and groundwater. Environmental isotopes technique is emphasized to determine the salinisation mechanism of groundwater. The objectives studied are groundwater of two aquifers mainly being exploited in Hochiminh City area. Based on the national water monitoring wells existing in the studied area and the hydrogeological setting a network of 70 sampling points for both two aquifers was set up. Water samples were collected two times (in rainy season of 2001 and in the end of dry season of 2002). All collected samples were analyzed for hydrochemical and stable isotopes. 30 of them were analyzed for tritium and 15 of them were done for 14C. Analyzing hydrochemical results of collected samples show that the quality of groundwater varies from fresh to saline, soft to very hard and high iron contents in some regions. The analyses of cations and anions by Piper Trilinear Diagram show that in aquifers where saline groundwater distributed the cations are mainly sodium, calcium, and magnesium type while the anions are mainly chloride and sulfate type but in the part where fresh groundwater the cations are mainly sodium, calcium, and type while the anions are mainly bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate type. According to TDS values the distribution of fresh and saline groundwater in studied aquifers is mapped and fresh-saline groundwater boundaries in 1990 and 2000 is also demonstrated. The distribution of groundwater samples collected along the GMWL show that groundwater in this area is recharged directly by rainfall and surface water. High tritium contents and 14C relative radioactivity of groundwater in the area also support this process. Delta values of 18O and Chloride contents plot show that it exists two main salinisation mechanism. The first one is the leaching process and the second one is mixing with seawater process and both these mechanisms are

  20. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  1. Studying the Probability of Using Groundwater in Baghdad City for Human, Animal, and Irrigation Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem J. Channo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is an important source of fresh water especially in countries having a decrease in or no surface water; therefore itis essential to assess the quality of groundwater and find the possibility of its use in different purposes (domestic; agricultural; animal; and other purposes. In this paper samples from 66 wells lying in different places in Baghdad city were used to determine 13 water parameters, to find the quality of groundwater and evaluate the possibility of using it for human, animal and irrigation by calculating WQI, SAR, RSC and Na% and TDS indicators. WQI results showed that the groundwater in all wells are not qualified for human use, while SAR and RSC indicated that most samples are suitable for irrigation use, and TDS showed that 74% of samples are suitable for animal use especially for sheep and meat-livestock animals.

  2. A hydrochemical elucidation of the groundwater composition under domestic and irrigated land in Jaipur City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Dinesh Kumar; Chandel, C P Singh

    2010-07-01

    The study area Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan, is one of the famous metropolises in India. In order to know the suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes in Jaipur City, groundwater samples were composed of 15 stations during post-monsoon time of the year 2007-2008 (Nov 2007 to Feb 2008) and were analyzed for physicochemical characters. The physicochemical parameters of groundwater participate a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. A preliminary characterization, carried out using the piper diagram, shows the different hydrochemistry of the sampled groundwater. This diagram shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of calcium-magnesium-chloride-sulfate type (such water has permanent hardness) of water. Data are plotted on the US Salinity Laboratory diagram, which illustrates that most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of C2S1 and C3S1, which can be used for irrigation on almost all type of soil with little danger of exchangeable sodium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like %Na, SAR, and RSC were calculated which show that most of the samples are good for irrigation. PMID:19479331

  3. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  4. A CORRELATION AND REGRESSION STUDY ON THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ALIGARH CITY, UTTAR PRADESH

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    Ummatul Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the vital source of sustenance and survival of every living organism. The present study aimed at a statistical regression analysis of Groundwater at 16 locations of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. A correlation study has been carried out amongst all possible pairs of 15 physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total acidity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total solid, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid and chloride to assess groundwater quality. The correlation analysis provides an excellent tool for the prediction of parameter values within reasonable degree of accuracy. The existence of strong correlation between Total Hardness & Magnesium and Total Dissolved Solid & Total Solid are ascertained. The analysis reveals that the groundwater of the area needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.

  5. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  6. Application of groundwater sustainability indicators to the Upper Pliocene aquifer in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, T. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Woo, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater plays an importance role for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses in Ho Chi Minh city, Viet Nam. This study is objected to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater by using groundwater sustainability indicators (GWSIs) defined by UNESCO/IAEA/IAH Working Group on Groundwater Indicators at aquifer scale (the Upper Pliocene aquifer). There are four main indicators selected and one new indicator designed for the particular characteristic of Ho Chi Minh city which is under influence of by saline-water intrusion. The results indicated groundwater of the Upper Pliocene aquifer, the main groundwater supply source, is generally in the unsustainable state. The abstraction of groundwater, which was much greater than its capability, is probably causing the serious state of annual groundwater depletion and saline-water intrusion. The GWSIs, which expressed in such a simple way but scientifically-based and policy-relevant, proved its usefulness in evaluating the sustainability of groundwater at the aquifer scale in Ho Chi Minh city, and subsequently should be incorporated in water resource management practices.

  7. Assessment of Groundwater and Surface Water Pollution at Mitm Area, Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from Mitm area to study the possible impact of wastewater treatment percolation into the groundwater and surface water. The objective of the study is to assess the groundwater and surface water pollution due to wastewater treatment at Mitm area of Ibb city, in the Republic of Yemen. The concentrations of various physiochemical parameters include heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, and Dissolved Oxygen (DO, anions and nutrients (F-, Cl-, SO4-2, NO2, NO3-,NH3-N, major cations (Fe, Na, K, Ca, Mg and parameters (COD, BOD5, and coliform group bacteria were measured from the groundwater samples. The results show that three out of five boreholes are contaminated, where the concentration of physic-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's Ministry of Water and Environment (YMWE, 1999. On the other hand, surface water is affected by the discharge of untreated wastewater. The concentrations of physiochemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for irrigation purpose adopted by Yemen's Ministry of Water and Environment (YMWE, 1999. Boreholes 1 and 2 are suitable for drinking water, whereas boreholes 3, 4 and 5 are not suitable for drinking water. Therefore, urgency for wastewater treatment at this site is recommended to prevent further contamination to surface and groundwater.

  8. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Evapotranspiration Dynamics and Effects on Groundwater Recharge and Discharge at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at a former uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. We estimated effects of temporal and spatial variability in evapotranspiration (ET) on recharge and discharge within a groundwater model domain (GMD) as part of this evaluation. We used remote sensing algorithms and precipitation (PPT) data to estimate ET and the ET/PPT ratios within the 3531 hectare GMD. For the period from 2000 to 2012, ET and PPT were nearly balanced (129 millimeters per year [mm yr-1] and 130 mm yr-1, respectively; ET/PPT = 0.99). However, seasonal and annual variability in ET and PPT were out of phase, and spatial variability in vegetation differentiated discharge and recharge areas within the GMD. Half of ET occurred during spring and early summer when PPT was low, and about 70% of PPT arriving in fall and winter was discharged as plant transpiration in the spring and summer period. Vegetation type and health had a significant effect on the site water balance. Plant cover and ET were significantly higher (1) during years of lighter compared to years of heavier grazing pressure, and (2) on rangeland protected from grazing compared to rangeland grazed by livestock. Heavy grazing increased groundwater recharge (PPT > ET over the 13-year period). Groundwater discharge (ET > PPT over the 13-year period) was highest in riparian phreatophyte communities but insignificant in desert phreatophyte communities impacted by heavy grazing. Grazing management in desert upland and phreatophyte communities may result in reduced groundwater recharge, increased groundwater discharge, and could be used to influence local groundwater flow.

  10. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Thieken, A. H.; Grunenberg, H.; Ullrich, K.; Sommer, T.

    2009-07-01

    Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany), resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  11. Chemical response to groundwater extraction southeast of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizar-Alvarez, R.; Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Ángeles-Serrano, G.; Hergt, T.; Cardona, A.

    An alternative procedure of pumping test data interpretation is used through a joint analysis of the standard time-drawdown curve and simultaneous field measurements of total dissolved solids (TDS); additional support is also provided by the temperature of extracted groundwater and the chemical composition of extracted water. The overall information was applied to characterise the groundwater flow system and its sources, the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer and hydraulic response of extraction boreholes. The analysis of this information suggests the presence of: (i) a local flow system that circulates at shallow depth through basalt units interstratified with fine grained sediments and pyroclastics; these materials contain water with TDS of 127-600 mg/L and Na of 24-178 mg/L, and temperature of 18-19.5 °C (ii) intermediate flow in granular material under reducing conditions by the oxidation of organic matter in aquitard sediments; this water has TDS and Na values of 203-940 and 30-370 mg/L, respectively, and temperatures of about 20-22 °C (iii) regional flow through volcanic rocks and limestone, with TDS content of 300-700 mg/L, Na of 80-230 mg/L and temperature of 23.0-24.8 °C. The hydraulic response and the chemical composition of the water produced by some boreholes are affected by the seepage inflow from sewage effluents, the input from an overlying aquitard unit and the inducement of regional flow. The conception of the flow regime thus obtained allowed the recognition of hydraulic conditions which were more consistent with the hydrogeological setting, than if only a time vs. drawdown test analysis would have been carried out. L'interprétation simultanée de pompages d'essais, des données de température et résidu sec (RS) de L'eau souterraine pompée, mesurées simultanément sur le terrain et la composition chimique de L'eau pompée comme un aide additionnelle, est utilisée comme une différent procédure pour interpréter les pompages d'essais. La

  12. Heavy metals contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R C; Verma, S R; Nitnaware, V; Thacker, N P

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuous increase in the demand of water supply in cities due to the industrialization and growing population. This extra supply is generally met by groundwaters or nearby available surface waters. It may lead into incomplete treatment and substandard supply of drinking water. To ensure that the intake water derived from surface and groundwater is clear, palatable, neither corrosive nor scale forming, free from undesirable taste, odor and acceptable from aesthetic and health point of view, the final water quality at Delhi have been evaluated. The final water supply of four treatment plants and 80 tubewells at Delhi were surveyed in 2000-2001 for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium and zinc. The levels of manganese, copper, selenium and cadmium were found marginally above the Indian Standards (IS) specification regulated for drinking water. The data was used to assess the final water quality supplied at Delhi. PMID:15270342

  13. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. A Geo-Environmental Analysis of the Groundwater Resource vis-a-vis Surface Water Scenario in Guwahati City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Das

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Guwahati city is located on a unique geo-environmental setting with an interface of hills and valleys along with a prominent river front. The existence of various surface water sources, geo-hydrological set up and rainfall intensity play a significant role in the ground water regime of the city. However, rapid urbanisation of the city during the last few decades has altered the landscape of the city and disturbed the water retention capacity as well as the flow dynamics of various surface water sources, thereby affecting the infiltration rate to a great extent. Unprecedented rise in the population of the city has exerted more pressure on the various sources of water, particularly the groundwater resource. It has thus become imperative to utilise the various sources of water in a more systematic and scientific manner, giving due emphasis to the water requirement and the prevailing hydrological conditions of the area. Moreover, it is also observed that the city experiences an average annual rainfall of 162 cm with about 110 rainy days per year. The city thus has enough potential for harvesting the rainwater it receives, instead of allowing it to flow untapped. Rainwater can be tapped and utilised to revive the various surface water sources of the city, thereby facilitating natural groundwater recharge, as surface water bodies like wetlands, lakes and ponds do act as potential groundwater recharge zones.

  15. Overflow and microbiological contamination in surface and groundwaters in La Costa city (Canelones department, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of a geological risk study made during 2005 related to overflow and microbiological water contamination at Ciudad de la Costa City (Canelones department) are shown. This city has been showed a great urban growth for the last three decades. New hydrogeological studies looking forward the phreatic level and its bacteriological quality allow to know the level of the risk along 2005´s first semester. The top of the phreatic table in 40% of the studied area is below than 0.50 meter depth. The results of fourteen bacteriologic analyses in groundwater samples show extreme contamination values in faecal colliform, Pseudomona sp. and Aeruginosa content. Both surface drainage and beach water bacteriologic analyses did not show contamination values except those corresponding to Carrasco creek

  16. Overflow and microbiological contamination in surface and groundwaters in La Costa city (Canelones department, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of a geological risk study made during 2005 related to overflow and microbiological water contamination at Ciudad de la Costa City (Canelones department) are shown. This city has been showed a great urban growth for the last three decades. New hydrogeological studies looking forward the phreatic level and its bacteriological quality allow to know the level of the risk along 2005 s first semester. The top of the phreatic table in 40% of the studied area is below than 0.50 meter depth. The results of fourteen bacteriologic analyses in groundwater samples show extreme contamination values in faecal colliform, Pseudo mona sp. and Aeruginosa content. Both surface drainage and beach water bacteriologic analyses did not show contamination values except those corresponding to Carrasco creek

  17. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater in and around Surat City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Viral H; Malik, G M

    2010-10-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from different locations of Surat city, Gujarat (India). These samples from 32 locations of Surat city were analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics involving pH, colour, odour, hardness, chloride, alkalinity, COD, sulfate, TDS, SS, iron, Cu, boron, chromium, temperature and Langelier Saturation Index. On comparing the results against drinking water quality standards laid by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and World Health Organization (WHO), it is found that most of the water samples are non-potable. Most of the samples indicated Total Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and TDS values much higher than the permissible level stipulated by ICMR and WHO. Even at some places Langelier Saturation Index values found higher too. The high values of these parameters may have health implications and therefore these need attention.

  19. 威海市地下水防污性能评价%Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Weihai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉莲; 王振兴; 钟振楠

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability reflects the pollution potentiality of the groundwater .It can provide scientific basis for land use planning ,groundwater resources reservation programs and groundwater quality monitoring ,etc .Adopting DRASTIC ,the groundwater vulnerability evaluation methodology of the US EPA ,an assessment of groundwater vulnerability has been carried out in main urban areas of Weihai city . It can not only provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and utilization of groundwater ,but also is helpful for groundwater resources reservation and coordinated development of city construction .%地下水防污性能评价反映地下水遭受污染的可能性,可以为土地利用规划、地下水资源保护规划、地下水水质监测等提供科学依据。该文采用美国EPA地下水防污染性能评价方法(DRASTIC),对威海市主城区范围内地下水防污性能进行了评价,为政府部门合理开采利用地下水提供了科学依据,有利于地下水资源保护和城市建设协调发展。

  20. The Subsidence Signature Due To Groundwater Extraction as Inferred from Remote Sensing Data in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mexico City is facing a severe water shortage; current drought conditions in the city have led to an increase in the demand for groundwater, the pumping of which can cause significant land subsidence. In this study we explored what new information interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected by the TerraSAR-X satellite could bring to water resource managers in the city so that they can efficiently and sustainably allocate water resources. Previous work done over Mexico City indicates that InSAR can be used to detect deformation due to groundwater pumping. Cabral-Cano et al. (2008) processed InSAR data acquired from ERS between 1996-2000 and from ENVISAT between 2003-2005. They compared the deformation map to geology maps of the region with information obtained by seismic methods. They found that a spatial correlation between the land deformation and the presence of young lacustrine clay beds, which indicate that the subsidence was caused by fluid pressure loss in the aquitard. They also concluded that the subsidence, for the most part, had no seasonal variation and continues to occur at near-constant, high rates. TerraSAR-­X satellite data is known to be more sensitive to small deformations than the data from satellites used in previous studies in the region because of its frequent revisit cycle, short wavelength, and accurate orbital information. For this project, we derived long sequences of crustal deformation time series from TerraSAR-­X data between May 2011 and December 2012 using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method. The resulting time series was then compared to GPS data for calibration and validation. We observed a long-term deformation that was similar to those found in previous studies. The next step in our work is to determine whether the increased sensitivity of the TerraSAR-­X data allows us to detect a seasonal deformation pattern over the study area.

  1. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  2. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yemen one of the developing country suffering from water pollution. Landfill is one of the source of water pollution. There are several boreholes located close to Ibb landfill used for drinking water. A study of composition of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution was conducted at Ibb landfill, which is located at Al-Sahool area, north of Ibb City, Yemen. Approach: The leachate was sampled at three different locations of the landfill, at the landfill itself and 15 and 20 m downstream of this landfill. Groundwater samples collected from 5 boreholes to study possible impact of leachate percolation into groundwater. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected during dry season only, due to the excessive generation of leachate during this season. Objective of this study was significant to assess degree of groundwater pollution due to Ibb landfill leachate at Al-Sahool area. The leachate and groundwater were physically and chemically characterized by using spectrophotometer HACH, BOD Trak HACH, flame photometer (PFP 7 and Inductively Coupled Plasma of Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES model Vista MPX. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Fluoride (F, Chloride (Cl, Sulphate (SO4, Nitrites (NO2, Nitrates (NO3, ammonia-N (NH3-N, heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu, major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe and biological parameters (COD, BOD5 and coliform group bacteria. Results: The results showed that, leachate at landfill most likely in methanogenic phase, based on the alkaline pH value recorded (pH = 8.46. The results also showed that 4 out of 5 boreholes were contaminated, where concentration of physico-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's ministry of water and environment and by word standard. Conclusion: Therefore, landfill is dangerous for environment so

  3. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  4. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  5. Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Khafajeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples.

  6. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  8. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the City of Independence, Missouri, well field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Source contributions to monitoring and supply wells, contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel times, and current (2012) understanding of alluvial water quality were used to develop a groundwater monitoring plan for the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the City of Independence, Missouri well field. The plan was designed to evaluate long-term alluvial water quality and assess potential changes in, and threats to, well-field water quality. Source contributions were determined from an existing groundwater flow model in conjunction with particle-tracking analysis and verified with water-quality data collected from 1997 through 2010 from a network of 68 monitoring wells. Three conjunctive factors - well-field pumpage, Missouri River discharge, and aquifer recharge - largely determined groundwater flow and, therefore, source contributions. The predominant source of groundwater to most monitoring wells and supply wells is the Missouri River, and this was reflected, to some extent, in alluvial water quality. To provide an estimate of the maximum potential lead time available for remedial action, monitoring wells where groundwater travel times from the contributing recharge areas are less than 2 years and predominately singular sources (such as the Missouri River or the land surface) were selected for annual sampling. The sample interval of the remaining wells, which have varying travel times and intermediate mixtures of river and land-surface contributions, were staggered on a 2-, 3-, or 4-year rotation. This was done to provide data from similar contributing areas and account for inherent aquifer variability yet minimize sample redundancy.

  10. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  11. Hydrogeology - MO 2009 Equal Concentration Contours of Total Dissolved Solids in Groundwater of Pennsylvanian Age Kansas City, Lansing, Pedee, Douglas, Shawnee, and Wabaunsee Groups (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains equal concentrations of total dissolved solids of groundwater in the Pennsylvanian age Kansas City, Lansing, Pedee, Douglas, Shawnee, and...

  12. Volatile Short-chain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Groundwater of the City of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijanović-Rajčić, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of the groundwater sampled from private wells and the public water-supply system in terms of estimating the contamination caused by short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, as well as to estimate the exposure of the citizens dwelling in different suburbs to these pollutants of their drinking water (Fig. 1. The aim of the study was also to determine which suburb is supplied through the public water-supply system with water originating from the Sašnak spring that is contaminated with volatile chlorinated short-chain hydrocarbons.Drinking water samples were taken from 3 private wells and 1 public water-supply system situated in 3 Zagreb suburbs - Pešćenica, Trnje, and Trešnjevka. The sampling was carried out during 2003 and was undertaken on a seasonal basis. Short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons - 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene - were determined by gas chromatography, following "liquid-liquid extraction" in pentane. For that purpose, we applied the gas chromatograph equipped with an electron-capture detector, thermo-programmable operations, and a suitable capillary column. The technique applied was that of split-injection.The groundwater of the City of Zagreb was found to be contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons. The concentration level of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, determined in most of the samples, was found to be low (Fig. 2. On the other hand, 1,1,2-trichloroethene was present in all samples in concentrations of about 1 µg l-1- (Fig. 3. Only the drinking water samples taken from private wells in the suburb of Trnje contained somewhat higher mass concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, with the peak value of 19.03 µg l-1, measured in the winter season. In the samples taken from private wells in Trnje, the mass concentrations of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene rangedfrom 15.30 µg l-1 to 18.65 µg l-1, as measured in autumn

  13. Behaviour of the groundwater system in the Santa Catarina area, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the southeast area of Mexico City a line of 14 wells exist and are used as a potable water supply for surrounding towns. The average distance between each well is approximately 400 m. Each well was drilled to an approximate depth of 400 m. The results of vertical electrical soundings, performed as part of another study, indicated the presence of mineralized water down to a depth of approximately 200 m with potable water beneath. The granular aquifer is bounded by basaltic flows related to the Sierras de Santa Catarina in the north and the Chichinautzin in the south. To aid in the determination of the age and origin of the different groundwaters indicated by the geophysics, a geochemical and isotopic monitoring program was completed. Geochemical analysis was limited to the major ions. Isotopic analysis included 18O, 2H, 3H, 34S and 14C. Geochemical and isotopic data was significantly varied within the well field. The geochemical, isotopic and geophysical data was combined to produce a hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical qualitative model for the aquifer that exists around the Santa Catarina well field. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Kansas City plant ultraviolet/ozone/hydrogen peroxide groundwater treatment system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) has committed to the utilization of a groundwater treatment system, for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that discharges a minimal amount of pollutants to the environment. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) system utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide serves in this capacity. Packed tower aeration and activated carbon filtration are listed as best available technologies (BATs) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the removal of VOCs in water. The disadvantage to these BATs is that they transfer the VOCs from the water medium to the air or carbon media respectively. Operation of the system began in May 1988 at a flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (lpm) (6 gallons per minute (gpm)). An additional 102.2 lpm (27 gpm) of flow were added in October 1990. Various efforts to optimize and track the treatment unites efficiency have been carried out. A maximum influent reading of 26,590 parts per billion (ppb) of total VOCs has been recorded. Following the addition of flows, removal efficiency has averaged approximately 95%. Both air and water effluents are factored into this calculation. (author)

  15. Hydro-chemical Survey and Quantifying Spatial Variations of Groundwater Quality in Dwarka, Sub-city of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological and geological aspect of the region play vital role for water resources utilization and development. Protection and management of groundwater resources are possible with the study of spatio-temporal water quality parameters. The study was undertaken to assess the deterioration in groundwater quality, through systematic sampling during post monsoon seasons of the year 2008 by collecting water samples from thirty bore wells located in Dwarka, sub-city of Delhi, India. The average concentrations of groundwater quality parameters namely Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrate (NO3 -), Chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 2-), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity were 300, 178, 26.5, 301, 103, 483, 1042 mg/l and 1909 μS/cm respectively. Estimated physico-chemical parameters revealed that 7 % of the groundwater samples shown nitrate concentrations higher than safe limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Groundwater quality the in study region was poor due to come out result that NO3 - concentration exceeding the threshold value of 50 mg/l, and main cause is disposal of sewage and animal wastes to Najafgarh drain. Dominant cations are Mg2+, Ca2+ and anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The abundance of the major ions in groundwater is in the order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3. TH have strong correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.81), Mg2+ (r = 0.82), Cl- (r = 0.86) but poor correlation with TDS (r = 0.52). Knowledge of correlation values between water quality parameters is helpful to take decision of appropriate management strategy for controlling groundwater pollution.

  16. Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. R.; Gooddy, D. C.; Kanatharana, P.; Meesilp, W.; Ramnarong, V.

    2000-09-01

    Many cities and towns in South and Southeast Asia are unsewered, and urban wastewaters are often discharged either directly to the ground or to surface-water canals and channels. This practice can result in widespread contamination of the shallow groundwater. In Hat Yai, southern Thailand, seepage of urban wastewaters has produced substantial deterioration in the quality of the shallow groundwater directly beneath the city. For this reason, the majority of the potable water supply is obtained from groundwater in deeper semi-confined aquifers 30-50 m below the surface. However, downward leakage of shallow groundwater from beneath the city is a significant component of recharge to the deeper aquifer, which has long-term implications for water quality. Results from cored boreholes and shallow nested piezometers are presented. The combination of high organic content of the urban recharge and the shallow depth to the water table has produced strongly reducing conditions in the upper layer and the mobilisation of arsenic. A simple analytical model shows that time scales for downward leakage, from the surface through the upper aquitard to the semi-confined aquifer, are of the order of several decades. Résumé. De nombreuses villes du sud et du sud-est de l'Asie ne possèdent pas de réseaux d'égouts et les eaux usées domestiques s'écoulent souvent directement sur le sol ou dans des canaux et des cours d'eau de surface. Ces pratiques peuvent provoquer une contamination dispersée de la nappe phréatique. A Hat Yai (sud de la Thaïlande), les infiltrations d'eaux usées domestiques sont responsables d'une détérioration notable de la qualité de la nappe phréatique directement sous la ville. Pour cette raison, la majorité de l'eau potable est prélevée dans des aquifères semi-captifs plus profonds, situés entre 30 et 50 m sous la surface. Cependant, une drainance à partir de la nappe phréatique sous la ville constitue une composante significative de la recharge

  17. Contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel time, and groundwater water quality of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Independence, Missouri, operates a well field in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Contributing recharge areas (CRA) were last determined for the well field in 1996. Since that time, eight supply wells have been installed in the area north of the Missouri River and well pumpage has changed for the older supply wells. The change in pumping has altered groundwater flow and substantially changed the character of the CRA and groundwater travel times to the supply wells. The U.S Geological Survey, in a cooperative study with the City of Independence, Missouri, simulated steady-state groundwater flow for 2007 well pumpage, average annual river stage, and average annual recharge. Particle-tracking analysis was used to determine the CRA for supply wells and monitoring wells, and the travel time from recharge areas to supply wells, recharge areas to monitoring wells, and monitoring wells to supply wells. The simulated CRA for the well field is elongated in the upstream direction and extends to both sides of the Missouri River. Groundwater flow paths and recharge areas estimated for monitoring wells indicate the origin of water to each monitoring well, the travel time of that water from the recharge area, the flow path from the vicinity of each monitoring well to a supply well, and the travel time from the monitoring well to the supply well. Monitoring wells 14a and 14b have the shortest groundwater travel time from their contributing recharge area of 0.30 years and monitoring well 29a has the longest maximum groundwater travel time from its contributing recharge area of 1,701 years. Monitoring well 22a has the shortest groundwater travel time of 0.5 day to supply well 44 and monitoring well 3b has the longest maximum travel time of 31.91 years to supply well 10. Water-quality samples from the Independence groundwater monitoring well network were collected from 1997 to 2008 by USGS personnel during ongoing annual sampling within the 10-year contributing

  18. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  19. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  20. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ramesh,; V.Thirumangai

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras), which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major ...

  1. Multivariate statistical approach for the assessment of groundwater quality in Ujjain City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Vikas; Thakur, Lokendra Singh

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. The variations of water quality are essentially the combination of both anthropogenic and natural contributions. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes this study analyzes 8 chemical and physical-chemical water quality parameters, viz. pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and fluoride recorded at the 54 sampling stations during summer season of 2011 by using multivariate statistical techniques. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish groundwater quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The first three components were chosen for interpretation of the data, which accounts for 72.502% of the total variance in the data set. The maximum number of variables, i.e. turbidity, EC, TDS and chloride were characterized by first component, while second and third were characterized by total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride and pH respectively. This shows that hydro chemical constituents of the groundwater are mainly controlled by EC, TDS, and fluoride. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the sampling stations (cases) as well as hydro chemical variables, which produced four major groupings, suggest that groundwater monitoring can be consolidated.

  2. Impacts of urbanization and climate on groundwater in a growing Africa city: the case of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhouddine, Alihoumadi; Yameogo, Suzanne; Genthon, Pierre; Travi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    African cities are presently facing the combined impacts of growing urbanization and climate change. In several instances; providing safe drinking water for all is still a challenge, especially for cities located on basement aquifers, were groundwater is scarce. Here we assess the effects of climate change and land use change on groundwater amount and quality in the main city of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) taking advantage of the CIEH borehole, where a mostly continuous record lasts since 1978. This record spans most of the Great African Drought (1970-1990) and recovery from the Drought since the 2000s. A piezometric network of 14 wells and boreholes was setup around the CIEH borehole and monitored during the 2013-2014 hydrologic year. The piezometric network spans an old settlement, the Ouagadougou University, a vegetable gardening area and a natural forested area. Water balance estimates are provided by a 1D box model. The study area, although it lies partly on an old settlement in Ouagadougou and on the University area, presents a rather uniform runoff coefficient of 22% and ET amounting to 80-90 % of rainfall, which usually characterizes natural areas. It is suspected that the almost absence of asphalted surfaces, the presence of trees and flow of rainwater from roofs toward bare soils or sumps could be responsible of this budget. However, the two wells located in the forested Bangr Weogo recreational area are characterized by almost no runoff and a nearly 100 % ET. While drinking water can be pumped in several places in the city of Ouagadougou, chemical major analyses show that two mechanisms impact groundwater quality during the rainy season: (i) rise of the water table at pit latrine level, mainly in old settlements, and entrainment of harmful substances from soil to the aquifer in gardening area near some artisan activities. The CIEH borehole is not fully representative of its neighboring area since (i) it lies in a piezometric low, (ii) it presents the

  3. Screening assessment of radionuclide migration in groundwater from the 'Dneprovskoe' tailings impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and evaluation of remedial options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the 'Dneprovskoe' ('D') tailings impoundment - object of the former industrial association of 'Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant', which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine - Dnieper River. The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport). Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the 'D' tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the influence of the 'D' tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dniper River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the 'D' tailings (1954-1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the 'D' tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the 'D' tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed 'zero flux' soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of meteoric waters to the body of

  4. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras, which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major water types in this area. It is inferred that, total hardness falls in hard to very hard category. The water quality index rated as poor to very poor quality except few samples. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions and chromium are exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions and chromium. Tannery uses a large number of chemicals during the process of discharging toxic wastes into open drains and municipality solid waste dumpsite to the nearby land is the major reasons deterioration of water quality in this area. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of tannery effluent on groundwater

  5. Subterranean blue. Sustaining water lifelines for cities. Already half of the world's people live in urban areas, and more are moving in. Many of them depend on groundwater for living. But as cities grow, can subterranean water sources be sustained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities used to be centres of plague and illness. During the past 150 years urban sanitary engineering and medical epidemiology have promoted rapid improvements to human health in the cities of the industrial world. A celebrated example was the pioneering work of Dr. John Snow who, in the mid-19th century, traced the source of a London cholera epidemic to a public water pump on Broad Street. Most cities evolved from small settlements and the availability of a suitable water supply was often the primary factor in their location. Often, though, these original water sources quickly became inadequate in quality or quantity, and sometimes are now completely forgotten. New sources and larger quantities of water were required. Groundwater may have been drawn from deep aquifers, even from beyond city boundaries. Today, groundwater plays a critical but complex (and often largely unrecognized) role in the urban environment

  6. Complex Controls on Groundwater Quality in Growing Mid-sized Cities: A Case Study Focused on Nitrate and Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, C. A.; Godsey, S.; Welhan, J. A.; Larson, D. M.; Lohse, K. A.; Finney, B.; Derryberry, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions rely on quality groundwater to support urban growth. Groundwater quality often responds in a complex manner to stressors such as land use change, climate change, or policy decisions. Urban growth patterns in mid-sized cities, especially ones that are growing urban centers in water-limited regions in the western US, control and are controlled by water availability and its quality. We present a case study from southeastern Idaho where urban growth over the past 20 years has included significant ex-urban expansion of houses that rely on septic systems rather than city sewer lines for their wastewater treatment. Septic systems are designed to mitigate some contaminants, but not others. In particular, nitrates and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, are not removed by most septic systems. Thus, even well-maintained septic systems at sufficiently high densities can impact down gradient water quality. Here we present patterns of nitrate concentrations over the period from 1985-2015 from the Lower Portneuf River Valley in southeastern Idaho. Concentrations vary from 0.03 to 27.09 nitrate-nitrogen mg/L, with average values increasing significantly over the 30 year time period from 3.15 +/- 0.065 to 3.57 +/- 0.43 mg/L. We examine temporal changes in locations of nitrate hotspots, and present pilot data on emerging contaminants of concern. Initial results suggest that high nitrate levels are generally associated with higher septic densities, but that this pattern is influenced by legacy agricultural uses and strongly controlled by underlying aquifer properties. Future work will include more detailed hydrological modeling to predict changes in hotspot locations under potential climate change scenarios.

  7. Discussion on Groundwater Overexploitation Treatment in Hengshui City%衡水市地下水超采治理方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 周波

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic situation of water environment in Hengshui City,analyzes the present situation of water resources utilization and existing problems,finally proposes some effective countermeasures that can guarantee the sustainable using of groundwater resources in Hengshui city.%介绍了衡水市水环境基本情况,分析了该市的水资源利用现状及存在问题,提出地下水资源可持续利用的有效对策。

  8. Groundwater Potential Assessment Using Geographic Information Systems and Ahp Method (case Study: Baft City, Kerman, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinolabedini, M.; Esmaeily, A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to use Geographical Information Systems (GISs) for determining the best areas having ground water potential in Baft city. To achieve this objective, parameters such as precipitation, slope, fault, vegetation, land cover and lithology were used. Regarding different weight of these parameters effect, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used. After developing informational layers in GIS and weighing each of them, a model was developed. The final map of ground waters potential was calculated through the above-mentioned model. Through applying our developed model four areas having high, average, low potential and without required potential distinguished. Results of this research indicated that 0.74, 41.23 and 45.63 percent of the area had high, average and low potential, respectively. Moreover, 12.38% of this area had no potential. Obtained results can be useful in management plans of ground water resources and preventing excessive exploitation.

  9. Geomatics for Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Northern Part of the United Arab Emiratis - Sharjah City

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ruzouq, R.; Shanableh, A.; T. Merabtene

    2015-01-01

    In United Arab Emirates (UAE) domestic water consumption has increased rapidly over the last decade. The increased demand for high-quality water, create an urgent need to evaluate the groundwater production of aquifers. The development of a reasonable model for groundwater potential is therefore crucial for future systematic developments, efficient management, and sustainable use of groundwater resources. The objective of this study is to map the groundwater potential zones in northe...

  10. Interaction between the geothermal outflow of southern Negros geothermal field and the shallow groundwater aquifer in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    minor dilution effect from precipitation. Drawdown in the deep geothermal reservoir have induced more than 500 meters of drawdown in the center of the resource but not enough to revert the naturally outflowing fluids from the Palinpinon thermal springs. Hence, there exists continuous natural migration of slightly mineralized geothermal fluids into the shallow groundwater aquifer of Dumaguete City. (author)

  11. Groundwater flow in a transboundary fault-dominated aquifer and the importance of regional modeling: the case of the city of Querétaro, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Hernández, J. J.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Cerca-Martínez, M.; Levresse, G.

    2016-03-01

    The city of Querétaro, located near the political boundary of the Mexican states of Querétaro and Guanajuato, relies on groundwater as it sole water supply. Groundwater extraction in the city increased from 21 × 106 m3/yr in 1970 to 104 × 106 m3/yr in 2010, with an associated drawdown of 100 m in some parts of the aquifer. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater-flow model has been developed that represents the historical evolution of the aquifer's potentiometric levels and is used to simulate the effect of two scenarios: (1) a 40 % reduction in the extraction rate from public water supply wells in early 2011 (thus reducing the extraction to 62 × 106 m3/yr), and (2) a further reduction in 2021 to 1 × 106 m3/yr. The modeling results project a temporary recovery of the potentiometric levels after the 40 % reduction of early 2011, but a return to 2010 levels by 2020. If scenario 2 is implemented in 2021, the aquifer will take nearly 30 years to recover to the simulated levels of 1995. The model also shows that the wells located in the city of Querétaro started to extract water from part of the aquifer beneath the State of Guanajuato in the late 1970s, thus showing that the administrative boundaries used in Mexico to study and develop water resources are inappropriate, and consideration should be given to physical boundaries instead. A regional approach to studying aquifers is needed in order to adequately understand groundwater flow dynamics.

  12. Shallow groundwater temperatures and the urban heat island effect: the first U.K. city-wide geothermal map to support development of ground source heating systems strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, A.M.; Farr, G.J.; Boon, D.P.; James, D R; Williams, B; Newell, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    U.K. Government aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 (Climate Change Act, 2008). Ground source heating systems could contribute to the U.K.’s energy future but uptake has been slow due to a lack of case studies. The aim of this work was to produce the 1st U.K. city-wide heat map to support the development of ground source heating. We also sought to describe groundwater temperature variation with lithology & estimate the available thermal energy beneath the cit...

  13. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  14. Simulation of Groundwater Contaminant Transport at a Decommissioned Landfill Site—A Case Study, Tainan City, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Shi; Tu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Contaminant transport in subsurface water is the major pathway for contamination spread from contaminated sites to groundwater supplies, to remediate a contaminated site. The aim of this paper was to set up the groundwater contaminant transport model for the Wang-Tien landfill site, in southwestern Taiwan, which exhibits high contamination of soil and groundwater and therefore represents a potential threat for the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek. Groundwater Modeling System software, which is the most sophisticated groundwater modeling tool available today, was used to numerically model groundwater flow and contaminant transport. In the simulation, the total mass of pollutants in the aquifer increased by an average of 72% (65% for ammonium nitrogen and 79% for chloride) after 10 years. The simulation produced a plume of contaminated groundwater that extends 80 m in length and 20 m in depth northeastward from the landfill site. Although the results show that the concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and chlorides in most parts are low, they are 3.84 and 467 mg/L, respectively, in the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek. PMID:27153078

  15. Simulation of Groundwater Contaminant Transport at a Decommissioned Landfill Site—A Case Study, Tainan City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Shi Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant transport in subsurface water is the major pathway for contamination spread from contaminated sites to groundwater supplies, to remediate a contaminated site. The aim of this paper was to set up the groundwater contaminant transport model for the Wang-Tien landfill site, in southwestern Taiwan, which exhibits high contamination of soil and groundwater and therefore represents a potential threat for the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek. Groundwater Modeling System software, which is the most sophisticated groundwater modeling tool available today, was used to numerically model groundwater flow and contaminant transport. In the simulation, the total mass of pollutants in the aquifer increased by an average of 72% (65% for ammonium nitrogen and 79% for chloride after 10 years. The simulation produced a plume of contaminated groundwater that extends 80 m in length and 20 m in depth northeastward from the landfill site. Although the results show that the concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and chlorides in most parts are low, they are 3.84 and 467 mg/L, respectively, in the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek.

  16. Geomatics for Mapping of Groundwater Potential Zones in Northern Part of the United Arab Emiratis - Sharjah City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruzouq, R.; Shanableh, A.; Merabtene, T.

    2015-04-01

    In United Arab Emirates (UAE) domestic water consumption has increased rapidly over the last decade. The increased demand for high-quality water, create an urgent need to evaluate the groundwater production of aquifers. The development of a reasonable model for groundwater potential is therefore crucial for future systematic developments, efficient management, and sustainable use of groundwater resources. The objective of this study is to map the groundwater potential zones in northern part of UAE and assess the contributing factors for exploration of potential groundwater resources. Remote sensing data and geographic information system will be used to locate potential zones for groundwater. Various maps (i.e., base, soil, geological, Hydro-geological, Geomorphologic Map, structural, drainage, slope, land use/land cover and average annual rainfall map) will be prepared based on geospatial techniques. The groundwater availability of the basin will qualitatively classified into different classes based on its hydro-geo-morphological conditions. The land use/land cover map will be also prepared for the different seasons using a digital classification technique with a ground truth based on field investigation.

  17. Deep Groundwater Water Quality Evolution in Dezhou City%德州市深层地下水水质演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全升; 冯娟; 安乐生

    2009-01-01

    德州市属于典型的黄河下游冲积平原孔隙水水文地质区,这一地区地下淡水的天然水环境条件非常敏感和脆弱.由于持续开采地下水,使该区域地下水的水动力场和水化学场发生了较大变化.根据德州市地下水水质监测数据,本文论述了深层地下水的水质特征,分析研究了深层地下水的水质演化.结果表明:在开采条件和自然条件的共同作用下,HCO_3~-和Na~+浓度呈现出持续升高趋势,矿化度、总硬度及其它主要水质指标的浓度变化较小.深层地下水水质演化的特点表现为水化学动态并不随季节变化,而是在开采条件下,随着深层地下水系统压力、氧化-还原环境条件的改变有所变化.地下水水质指标浓度的历年变化主要受到水文地球化学环境的影响.针对研究区地下水水质的演化趋势,提出了应进行深层地下水人工回灌和降氟改水的水质改善措施.%Dezhou City is in a typical alluvial plain pore water hydrogeology area in Yellow River downstream, where the natural aquatic environment condition of underground fresh water is rather sensitive and fragile. The continuous exploitation of the groundwater brings great changes in the hydrodynamic force field and hydrochemi-cal field in this area. Based on the monitoring data of groundwater quality in Dezhou City, the paper discusses water quality characteristic and analyzes the water quality evolution of deep groundwater. Results indicate that under the combined effects of exploitation and natural condition, the concentration of HCO_3~- and Na~+ takes on a steady increase while the degree of mineralization, total hardness and the concentration of other major water quality index change little. The character of deep groundwater evolution is as follows: the hydrochemical regime does not alter with season, but does with the change of pressure and oxidation reduction of deep groundwater system. The change of groundwater

  18. 贵阳市岩溶地下水污染风险与防控监管%Karst Groundwater Vulnerability and Pollution Risk Control in Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁贞玉; 孙宁; 孙运海; 储成君

    2015-01-01

    In view of the particularities of karst landform and urban development in Guiyang City, along with the full consideration of groundwater vulnerabilities, pollution factors and value functional attributes of bare karst areas, an effective analysis method and parameter system of groundwater pollution risks is used for discussion of a multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method that can differentiate groundwater vulnerabilities and pollution risks. The results show that the distribution of groundwater areas with high pollution risks is jointly determined by such factors as groundwater vulnerability, pollution source and functional value. In Guiyang City, the key areas of groundwater pollution control account for 96.3% of the total area, and the karst areas are with high vulnerabilities. Therefore, source control should be taken as the working focus and relevant relocation, prevention and monitoring solutions for major pollution sources existing in the nature reserves and areas for prior control should be developed. Pollution risks should be reduced maximally and policy regulation, risk investigation and emergency capacity building should be strengthened within the drinking water source protection areas. As karst groundwater is one of the special resources and environmental elements, it is required that pollution control regionalization should be integrated into the docking of urban planning, land planning and industrial planning, and policies should be proposed to guide the integration of urban development and groundwater pollution control.%针对贵阳市岩溶地貌及城市发展的特殊性,充分考虑裸露岩溶区地下水脆弱性、污染源要素及价值功能属性,应用有效的地下水污染风险分析方法与参数体系,探讨了岩溶区地下水脆弱性及污染风险分区的多因素综合评价方法。结果表明,地下水脆弱性、污染源及功能价值因素的共同作用决定了地下水高污染风险区分布。贵阳

  19. Screening Assessment of Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater from the “Dneprovskoe” Tailings Impoundment (Dneprodzerzhynsk City) and Evaluation of Remedial Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of the hydrogeological conditions at the “Dneprovskoe” (“D”) tailings impoundment –object of the former industrial association of “Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant”, which contains uranium ore processing wastes. This radioactively polluted site is located in a densely populated region (at the outskirts of Dneprodzerginsk City) near the major watercourse of the Ukraine — Dnieper River.The mathematical modeling utilized Visual Modflow (for groundwater flow) and Ecolego (Facilia AB, Sweden) radioecology modeling software (for radionuclide transport).Modeling results indicate the possibility of essential radioactive contamination in future of the phreatic aquifer in alluvial deposits between the “D” tailings and the Dnieper River (mainly due to migration of uranium). Therefore long-term management strategies should preclude water usage from the aquifer in the zone of the in-fluence of the “D” tailings. Filtration discharge of uranium to the Dnepr River does not represent a significant risk due to large dilution by surface waters. The important modeling conclusion is that besides the uranium ore processing wastes inside the tailings, the major source of radionuclide migration to groundwater is represented by contaminated geological deposits below the tailings. This last source was formed due to leakage of wastewaters during the operational period of the “D” tailings (1954–1968). Therefore an exemption and re-disposal of wastes from the “D” tailings to a more safe storage location (proposed by some remedial plans) will not provide significant benefit from the viewpoint of minimizing of radionuclide transport to the groundwater and Dnieper River (especially in short-and medium-term perspective). The rational remedial strategy for the “D” tailings is conservation of tailing wastes in-situ by means of specially designed “zero flux” soil screen, which would minimize infiltration of

  20. Urban groundwater baseflow influence upon inorganic river-water quality: The River Tame headwaters catchment in the City of Birmingham, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O.; Ellis, Paul A.; Mackay, Rae

    2011-03-01

    SummaryUnderstanding the linkage between urban land, groundwater, baseflow and river contamination at the city scale is lacking. This study evaluates the influence of inorganic (major/minor ions and metals) groundwater contamination in the Triassic sandstone-Quaternary deposits aquifer system underlying the City of Birmingham, UK upon the baseflow and water quality of the river Tame. Baseflow water-quality data have been collected from a riverbed piezometer network installed in the 7.4 km reach crossing the effluent unconfined sandstone aquifer and compared to river and aquifer water-quality data. Overall, the inorganic chemical quality of the baseflow was not as poor as potentially surmised from the urbanisation present. Baseflow impact upon river-water quality was also low. These conclusions were underpinned by evidences of: limited river-water quality changes along the reach; some river concentrations being diluted by better quality baseflow; only occasional breaching of water-quality criteria; limited impact upon river-reach quality local to elevated baseflow dicharges; natural attenuation occurrence within the riverbed; and, modest, albeit somewhat uncertain, baseflow mass fluxes. Baseflow fluxes to the reach were in the ranges 100-3500 t/yr for major ions, 1-50 t/yr for minor ions and 1-500 kg/yr for toxic metals with zinc and nickel most prominent. The sporadic occurrence of elevated baseflow concentrations was ascribed to discrete groundwater plume discharges. More detailed sub-reach studies would be required to fully resolve discrete plume baseflow contributions and improve mass flux estimates. Not uncommonly, the urban river studied was already contaminated and hence persistent baseflow fluxes may assume more importance if the river became cleaner through other control measures. Future research should hence consider the emergent significance of urban baseflows. There are needs to: conduct similar studies to investigate if city-scale baseflow impacts are

  1. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  2. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  3. 阆中市思依镇地下水水化学特征分析%Hydrochemistry characteristics of groundwater in Siyi Town,Langzhong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙厚云; 张艳; 杨军

    2016-01-01

    阆中市思依镇地处四川红层缺水地区,居民饮用水水源主要为浅层地下水,分析总结地下水水化学特征对地区供水具有重要意义.运用Piper三线图、Durov图、Scholler图等水化学分析图解,因子分析、聚类分析统计学方法确定研究区地下水水化学类型、地下水主要离子组分的分布特征,总结研究区地下水水化学特征.研究表明,研究区水化学类型主要为HCO3 -Ca型、HCO3 ﹢SO4 -Ca型、HCO3 -Ca﹢Mg型三类,占水样总量的94. 34%;地下水多为硬水,地下水主要阳离子为Ca2﹢,主要阴离子为 HCO3 - ﹢CO3 2-;区内地下水化学形成过程中溶滤作用为主导作用.%Siyi Towan,Langzhong city is located in Sichuan red layer where suffers water shortage while water source here is mainly shallow groundwater. The analysis about hydrochemistry characteristics of groundwater will play a important role in water supplying in this area. Here we analyzed the hydrochemistry characteristics of groundwater,Using Piper diagram,Durov diagram,Scholler diagram and Factor analysis and Cluster analysis method to determine the hydrochemistry type of groundwa-ter and the distribution characteristics of main ion components of groundwater. The results showed that the hydrochemistry types can be classified into HCO3 -Ca type、HCO3 ﹢SO4 -Ca type and HCO3 -Ca﹢Mg type,which accounting for 94. 34%of the total water sample. The Ca2﹢and HCO3 - ﹢CO3 2-dominant among cations and anions. Leaching effect played a leading role in the process of the formation of the hydrochemistry in the area.

  4. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  5. 淄博大武地下水源地污染风险评价%Pollution risk evaluation of Dawu groundwater source site in Zibo City, Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松霖; 魏江; 沈莹莹; 赵丰昌; 吴萌萌

    2013-01-01

    根据淄博大武地区的水文地质条件,对大武水源地北方型裂隙岩溶特点进行分析,结合欧洲方法和《地下水污染源清单:方法指南》并进行修改,制定了符合研究区实际情况的指标,利用ArcGIS叠加分析法对该地区的水源脆弱性、地下水资源污染风险和地下水水源污染风险进行了评价.结果表明,研究区南部石灰岩裸露区脆弱性高;北部平原区中段位于目标水源汇水区或过渡区,对目标水源的脆弱性影响较大,但凭借第四系沉积物的保护,其水源脆弱性为中等.南部和北部工业企业园区的地下水资源/水源污染风险均为高,极易被附近的工业企业污染,因此必须做好污染物处理和工业区地面防渗工作,以确保水源地的饮水安全.%In this paper, we would like to present our analysis results of the characteristic features of Dawu groundwater source in Zibo City, Shandong, based on the analysis of the local realistic hydro-geological conditions. Dawu Well Field is a scarcely found super-sized fracture-karst groundwater source in the north of China, which can be said of strategic significance and is expected to provide plenty of drinking water for the local people as well as an abundant water energy resource for the social and economic development of the city. However, since the water source suffers from some kind of complicated pollution, it tends to bring about harm and risk to the local public health. Thus, it has become one of the urgent tasks for the local government and people to harness the pollutants from the water source to guarantee the sustainable development of the city. For this purpose, we have done careful studies of the "Groundwater Contamination Inventory: a Methodological Guide" issued by the UNESCO in 2002 and properly accommodated it to the actual need of ours. While referring to the above said guide, it has become clear that the groundwater source of Zibo is good like gold, yet

  6. Assessment of Groundwater Resources Carrying Capacity in Xi'an City Based on Principal Component Analysis%基于主成分分析法的西安市地下水资源承载力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢旭光; 史文娟; 张译丹; 谢金宇

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of groundwater resources carrying capacity is full of great significance for maintaining the local ecological environment security and promoting sustainable socio-economic development.This paper evaluated the groundwater resources carrying capacity in Xi'an City using seven evaluation indexes, such as rate of groundwater development, modulus of groundwater supply, groundwater recharge modulus, groundwater discharge modulus, per capita consumption of groundwater, water consumption per unit of GDP and water resources recycling, based on principal component analysis.The results show that the groundwater resources in Xi'an City has a certain carrying capacity, but its rate of exploitation is too high in total and the potential of further development is small.The evaluated value of urban in Xi'an City is 70.816, and its groundwater resources carrying capacity nearly saturates and the potential of further development is the smallest.The evaluated value of Zhouzhi County is -240.998 and the potential of further development is the largest.The results provide reference for rational use of groundwater resources.%区域地下水资源承载力评价对于维护区域生态环境安全和促进社会经济可持续发展具有重要意义.运用主成分分析法,根据地下水开发率、地下水供水模数、地下水补给模数、地下水排泄模数、人均地下水占有量、单位GDP用水量和水资源重复利用率等7项评价指标,对西安市地下水资源承载力进行评价.综合评价结果表明:西安市地下水资源有一定的承载力,但整体上地下水开发率过高,继续开发利用的潜力甚小.其中城六区综合评价值为70.816,地下水承载力趋于饱和且继续开发潜力最小,周至县综合评价值为-240.998,地下水开发潜力最大.评价结果为地下水资源的合理开发利用提供参考.

  7. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  8. 城市化对地下水补给的影响 ——以石家庄市为例%The Impact of Urbanization on Groundwater Recharge: a Case Study of Shijiazhuang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开宁

    2001-01-01

    城市化对地下水补给的影响对研究城市水循环、水资源供需平衡及地下水超采、防治地下水水质恶化,以及揭示两大主要地下水环境问题(地下水超采与水质恶化)之间的有机联系都具有重要意义。石家庄城市化与地下水之间的相互作用机理研究具有典型示范性。本文以石家庄市为例,在分析地下水在城市供水中的作用及其开发利用基础上,通过研究城市化影响地下水补给的变化规律,进一步探讨了城市化对地下水补给的影响机理,最终建立城市化影响下地下水补给增量的诱发机理框图。研究结果表明,城市化会导致地下水补给量的增加;地下水开采诱发产生对城市周围井场和地表水的袭夺以及城市供、排水系统渗漏所造成的新补给源的引入是城市化诱发产生地下水补给增量的重要机理。%With the rapid urbanization, groundwater has been playing a more and more important role. The study on the impact of urbanization upon groundwater recharge is of great significance not only in studying the hydrologic cycle, supply-demand balance and groundwater overexploitation but also in preventing and controlling the deterioration of groundwater quality and in revealing the relationship between overexploitation and water quality deterioration, the two main problems in groundwater environment. The study on the interaction mechanism between urbanization and groundwater constitutes a typical example. In this paper, based on the analysis of the importance of groundwater in water supply of the city as well as the exploitation and utilization of groundwater, the author studied the change of groundwater recharge under the impact of urbanization, and then discussed the impact mechanism of urbanization on groundwater recharge. On such a basis, a frame-figure on the mechanism inducing the increment of groundwater recharge was constructed. The results show:① urbanization

  9. 渭河陕西"二华"段浅层地下水水化学特征%Hydrochemical Properties of Shallow Groundwater along the Weihe River in Huaxian County and Huayin City, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖坤容; 姜军; 刘秀花; 周维博

    2011-01-01

    渭河流经陕西华阴、华县(二华)段,通过对"二华"地区浅层地下水取样分析,系统研究其地下水化学成分的空间变化及演变规律.结果表明:"二华"地区浅层地下水主要接受秦岭山前地下水的补给,靠近渭河沿岸地区,接受渭河的侧向补给.地下水的补给、径流、排泄区水化学类型主要从HCO3·S04-Ca·Mg经S04·HC03-Na·Ca过渡到S04·Cl-Na型;其矿化度、硬度逐渐升高,在地下水漏斗处达到最大值;Cl-,Mg2+和Na+高盐分离子逐渐累积,水质总体向咸化方向发展.%The Weihe River flows through Huayin City and Huaxian County. According to the analyzed results of shallow groundwater samples collected in Huayin City and Huaxian County, in this paper the spatial hydrochemical properties and their evolution of groundwater are studied systemically. The results show that shallow groundwater in the study area is mainly recharged by groundwater from the Qinling Piedmont, and it in the areas along the river-banks relies mainly on the lateral recharge of the Weihe River. The hydrochemistry type in the areas of groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge changes from HCO3 · SO4 - Ca · Mg to S04 · HCO3 - Na · Ca and then to SO4 · Cl - Na; the salinity and hardness of groundwater increase gradually and reach to their maximum values in the funnel-shaped zone of groundwater; Cl- , Mg + and Na+ are gradually accumulated, and groundwater quality trends to salinization. The study results can provide the references for understanding the effect of the Weihe River on ground-water quality in the areas along the river and for rationally utilizing groundwater resources in the study area.

  10. Simulation of groundwater flow, effects of artificial recharge, and storage volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near the city of Wichita, Kansas well field, 1935–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Pickett, Linda L.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer is a primary water-supply source for Wichita, Kansas and the surrounding area because of shallow depth to water, large saturated thickness, and generally good water quality. Substantial water-level declines in the Equus Beds aquifer have resulted from pumping groundwater for agricultural and municipal needs, as well as periodic drought conditions. In March 2006, the city of Wichita began construction of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project to store and later recover groundwater, and to form a hydraulic barrier to the known chloride-brine plume near Burrton, Kansas. In October 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, began a study to determine groundwater flow in the area of the Wichita well field, and chloride transport from the Arkansas River and Burrton oilfield to the Wichita well field. Groundwater flow was simulated for the Equus Beds aquifer using the three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model MODFLOW-2000. The model simulates steady-state and transient conditions. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated by adjusting model input data and model geometry until model results matched field observations within an acceptable level of accuracy. The root mean square (RMS) error for water-level observations for the steady-state calibration simulation is 9.82 feet. The ratio of the RMS error to the total head loss in the model area is 0.049 and the mean error for water-level observations is 3.86 feet. The difference between flow into the model and flow out of the model across all model boundaries is -0.08 percent of total flow for the steady-state calibration. The RMS error for water-level observations for the transient calibration simulation is 2.48 feet, the ratio of the RMS error to the total head loss in the model area is 0.0124, and the mean error for water-level observations is 0.03 feet. The RMS error calculated for observed and simulated base flow gains or losses for the

  11. Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Tangier city and its impact on groundwater (Tangier - Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bader1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from municipalities’ landfills represents a potential health risk to ecosystems in generally and human populations in particularly. This study which was taken during year from 2010 to 2011was focused to study the physicochemical evaluation of the leachate from the landfill of the Tangier city (north of Morocco. The analyses of the sampled leachate revealed strong content of biodegradable organic matter (BOD =166.78 mg/l, COD=2397.25 mg/l and BOD/COD=0.069 and of SM (SM = 577.97 mg/l. Contents in nitrate (NO3=199.77 mg/l were also revealed. The discharge of the Tangier city is characterized by an old leachate. The long-term monitoring of the evaluation of physicochemical parameters in polluted leachate, on how environmental conditions change over time, could then lead to models useful in the prediction of natural attenuation in aquifers. Therefore, an adaptable and efficient treatment process must be used to eliminate the wide range of pollutants present in leachate.

  12. Occurrence patterns of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater, surface water and groundwater of Nairobi and Kisumu city, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K'oreje, K O; Vergeynst, L; Ombaka, D; De Wispelaere, P; Okoth, M; Van Langenhove, H; Demeestere, K

    2016-04-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have not received a lot of attention in developing countries, particularly Africa, although problems regarding water quantity and quality are often even more severe than in more developed regions. This study presents general water quality parameters as well as unique data on concentrations and loads of 24 pharmaceuticals including antibiotic, anti(retro)viral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and psychiatric drugs in three wastewater treatment plants, three rivers and three groundwater wells in Nairobi and Kisumu. This allowed studying removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment, identifying important sources of pharmaceutical pollution and distinguishing dilution effects from natural attenuation in rivers. In general, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, being important in the treatment of common African diseases such as HIV and malaria, were in all matrices more prevalent as compared to the Western world. Wastewater stabilization ponds removed pharmaceuticals with an efficiency between 11 and 99%. Despite this large range, a different removal is observed for a number of compounds, as compared to more conventional activated sludge systems. Total concentrations in river water (up to 320 μg L(-1)) were similar or exceeded concentrations in untreated wastewater, with domestic discharges from slums, wastewater treatment plant effluent and waste dumpsites identified as important sources. In shallow wells situated next to pit latrines and used for drinking water, the recalcitrant antiretroviral nevirapine was measured at concentrations as high as 1-2 μg L(-1). Overall, distinct pharmaceutical contamination patterns as compared to the Western world can be concluded, which might be a trigger for further research in developing regions. PMID:26859608

  13. Application of Set Pair Analysis Method Based on Entropy Weight in Groundwater Quality Assessment -A Case Study in Dongsheng City, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important roles in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. However, most traditional water quality comprehensive assessment methods which have complicated formulas are difficult to apply in water quality assessment. In this paper, a novel method for groundwater quality assessment called set pair analysis was introduced and entropy weight was assi...

  14. 台州地区地下水环境承载力评价研究%Study on the evaluation of groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李垚奎; 张征; 娄华君; 梅兴新

    2012-01-01

    The present article intends to introduce a case study result of groundwater environmental carrying capacity by taking Taizhou, Zhejiang, as an example. It is known that there is no uniform concept of groundwater environmental carrying capacity. On the base of conceptual studies proposed by former researchers, we define groundwater environmental carrying capacity as the maximum sustainable-development level of human society that a regional water environment can support under a certain period of time and technical level. In order to evaluate the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city, we have adopted a well-known method of analytic hierarchy process to build up three-grade-evaluation index system, which consists of die target layer, the rule layer and the index layer. The rule layer includes natural index and social index. The index layer is made of 10 indexes, which are aquifer thickness of groundwater, groundwater level, net groundwater charge, nature of unsaturated zone, topographic slope, treatment efficiency of discharged water, population density, per capita GDP, per capita groundwater extraction and water consumption per 10000 industrial production. The judgment matrix of AHP is used to get the weights of all indexes in the system. The geographic information system (GIS) is used to obtain the digital distributions of every index. The results of our study show that the groundwater environmental carrying capacity in Taizhou city ranges from 0.380 4 to 0.743 2. The average capacity is 0.548 1, which belongs to the medium level. The maximum constraint to groundwater environmental carrying capacity changes in different areas, which is natural index in west but social in east. In all areas of Taizhou City, it is necessary to accelerate industrial restructuring and strengthen the planning and management of groundwater. It is an effective way to develop water-saving industry, which can promote the sustainable development of economy, population and

  15. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  16. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  17. 基于多变量时间序列模型的大安市地下水埋深预测%Groundwater table forecast in Da’an City based on multivariate time series model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真真; 卞建民; 韩宇; 张琳

    2015-01-01

    At first ,the influencing factors which had great relevance with groundwater table were determined by the principal component analysis (PCA ) method ,then established the groundwater table forecast model by using the multi-variate time series CAR model , according to the information as rainfall , evapovation , groundwater exploitation and groundwater tables and so on from 2000 to 2009 in Da’an City .Also the model was validated and applied to forecast the groundwater tables .The result shown that :The correlation coefficients of agricultural water consumption ,precipitation and evaporation with the groundwater table were 0 .56 ,0 .46 and -0 .13 , respectively .The contributions of the three factors with the groundwater table were 43 .09% ,27 .45% and 21 .39% ,respectively .The total contribution rate was 91 .93% and they were the major factors affecting the groundwater table .The relative error between forecasting value and measured value for confined and unconfined water tables was less than 5% .According to the forecast scheme ,when the rainfall was reduced 10% and evaporation was increased 9% , and the agricultural water consumption was increased 11% ,the confined water table will be reached 8 .70 m ,and the unconfined water table will be reached 4 .55 m .So in drought period ,the agricultural exploitation should be reduced properly ,the surface water irrigation should be increased , to reduce the possibility of soil desertification .%依据大安市2000—2009年的降水、蒸发、地下水开采量和地下水埋深等数据资料,首先利用主成分分析法确定了与地下水埋深相关性较大的影响因素,然后利用多变量时间序列CAR模型建立了大安市地下水埋深预测模型,并对模型进行验证,利用模型预测了地下水埋深。结果表明,农业用水量、降水量和蒸发量与地下水埋深的相关系数分别为:0.56,0.46,-0.13,三者对地下水埋深的贡献率分别为:43.09

  18. A preliminary investigation of lithogenic and anthropogenic influence over fluoride ion chemistry in the groundwater of the southern coastal city, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S

    2015-03-01

    A total of 72 groundwater samples were collected from open wells and boreholes during pre- and post-monsoon periods in Tuticorin. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major cations, and anions in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The fluoride concentration was analyzed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatography. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. The fluoride concentration ranges between 0.16 mg/l and 4.8 mg/l during pre-monsoon and 0.2-3.2 mg/l during post-monsoon. Alkaline pH, low calcium concentrations, high groundwater temperatures, and semiarid climatic conditions of the study area may cause elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwater, by increasing the solubility of fluoride-bearing formations (fluoride). Linear trend analysis on seasonal and annual basis clearly depicted that fluoride pollution in the study area is increasing significantly. Fluoride concentrations showed positive correlations with those of Na(+) and HCO3 (-) and negative correlations with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The alkaline waters were saturated with calcite in spite of the low Ca(2+) concentrations. Northwestern parts of the study area are inherently enriched with fluorides threatening several ecosystems. The saturation index indicates that dissolution and precipitation contribute fluoride dissolution along with mixing apart from anthropogenic activities. PMID:25666649

  19. The city as a participant in the protection of groundwater in Brazil; O municipio como participe na protecao das aguas subterraneas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro de Souza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Brazilian environmental legislation aims to ensure the protection and preservation of the environment, and particularly its natural resources, in search of a better quality of life for all. The lack of force in existing statutes, however, sometimes renders the purpose of the law ineffective. Our water sources, providing this vital and essential element for life, are suffering pollution and contamination. Our focus here is on the subject of groundwater, which is widely relied upon in Brazil as a water source, but treated in some places in an uncontrolled way, and due to different forms of pollution and contamination arriving at the vulnerable areas of the aquifers, may easily be compromised both in quality and quantity. Constitutional authority to legislate on groundwater has been given to the Member States, since it falls outside the legal remit of individual municipalities. Studies show, however, that pollutants are reaching the aquifers from the overlying soil, which leads to a demand that the municipalities should use their constitutional authority to legislate on land use and its management to protect and preserve these important water sources, especially in the area of the Guarani aquifer. To this effect, we propose the creation of a Special Environment Zoning tool (ZEA) to limit land use in areas of aquifer vulnerability, by which municipalities become active participants in the protection process aimed at preventing harm to the groundwater of the Guarani aquifer. (Author)

  20. Analysis on over-exploited area evolution of groundwater in Tianjin city based on numerical simulation%基于数值模拟的天津市地下水严重超采区演变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海珍; 李国敏; 黎明; 杨建青; 柴成繁

    2011-01-01

    Tianjin is a typical water-shortage city in the north plain of China.The environmental issues including land subsidence have been caused due to the long-term overexploitation of groundwater.In order to analyze the status of the groundwater exploitation and to predict the evolution of the over-exploited areas,the three-dimensional transient flow model is developed by using the software MODFLOW based on the principle of finite difference method,which could reflect the fluctuations in groundwater levels accurately after the identification and calibration.The evolution of the drawdown during the simulated period(2003~2008) is calculated based on the model.The scheme for decreasing groundwater exploitation is also predicted,and the development of the over-exploited areas is analyzed.The prediction provides an access to the remediation of the groundwater in Tianjin after the execution of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project.The predicted results show that the groundwater levels would rebound obviously after decreasing groundwater extraction,the funnel zones in the second and the third layers which are the main mining aquifers basically disappear,and the evapotranspiration is the main discharging pattern.%天津市是华北地区典型的水资源短缺城市,地下水的长期超采已引发地面沉降等环境问题。为科学分析地下水开采现状,并预测压采条件下的地下水严重超采区演化趋势,本文采用基于有限差分原理的MODFLOW软件,建立了天津市平原区地下水流动的三维非稳定流数值模型,经识别和校正过的模型能准确反映人工开采引起的各承压层地下水位波动。基于该模型,分析了模拟期内(2003~2008年)地下水超采区的分布及演变过程;同时,预测分析了水资源配置制定的地下水限采方案,进一步剖析严重超采区的演变趋势,为南水北调实施后对天津市地下水的修复作用提供了可靠的分析手段和科学依据

  1. 荆州市浅层地下水环境质量综合评价与分区%SHALLOW GROUNDWATER ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND ZONING IN JINGZHOU CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓青军; 唐仲华; 周璐; 罗其海

    2014-01-01

    通过实地调查荆州市浅层地下水环境,合理选择评价指标集(16项),分别采用模糊数学综合评价法和F值法对该浅层地下水环境质量进行综合评价,分析对比两种方法的评价结果,对浅层地下水环境进行分区和污染分析.评价结果表明:浅层地下水环境质量不容乐观,整体状况较差.浅层地下水中主要超标组分为Fe、Mn、NO3-、NO2-、As、Ba等,对比分析荆州市2006~2011年主要超标组分的平均含量,可知6 a来,Fe、Mn、NO2的平均含量均超过地下水Ⅲ类水质标准,NO3-、As、Ba的平均含量虽然均未超过地下水Ⅲ类水质标准,但其平均含量呈现随着年份递增的趋势.浅层地下水环境质量分区结果显示:严重区面积为2 623 km2约占30.5%,较严重面积为1 331.28 km2约占15.48%,合格区面积为3 071.92 km2约占35.72%,较好区面积为1 573.8 km2仅占18.3%.浅层地下水环境质量在很大程度上不仅受当地特有的区域原生地质环境影响,还与人类活动有密切关系.%Groundwater environment is facing more and more dynamic and complex factors caused by human economic activities.The present study was carried out aiming at a better understanding of the present situation of groundwater environment and a reasonable utilizzation on the groundwater resources in Jingzhou City.According to the field investigation on shallow groundwater environment,sixteen evaluation indexes were selected to form the index set.Fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation method and F value method were successively used to complete the comprehensive assessment.Based on the previous analysis and comparison of the two methods assessment result,this paper accomplished the shallow groundwater environmental zoning and pollution analysis.Assessment result showed that shallow groundwater environmental quality was not optimistic,with Ⅳ or Ⅴ class in quite a part of the monitoring point and the overall situation was in poor

  2. Spatial patterns and temporal variability in water quality from City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells and piezometer nests, with implications for the ground-water flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality data for 93 City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 7 deep piezometer nests, and selected additional wells were examined to improve understanding of the regional ground-water system and its response to pumpage. Plots of median values of several major parameters showed discernible water-quality differences both areally and with depth in the aquifer. Areal differences were sufficiently large to enable delineation of five regions of generally distinct water quality, which are consistent with areas of separate recharge defined by previous investigators. Data for deep piezometer nests indicate that water quality generally degrades somewhat with depth, except in areas where local recharge influenced by evapotranspiration or contamination could be affecting shallow water. The orientations of the five water-quality regions indicate that the direction of ground-water flow has historically been primarily north to south. This is generally consistent with maps of predevelopment hydraulic heads, although some areas lack consistency, possibly because of differences in time scales or depths represented by water quality as opposed to hydraulic head. The primary sources of recharge to ground water in the study area appear to be mountain-front recharge along the Sandia Mountains to the east and the Jemez Mountains to the north, seepage from the Rio Grande, and infiltration through Tijeras Arroyo. Elevated concentrations of many chemical constituents in part of the study area appear to be associated with a source of water having large dissolved solids, possibly moving upward from depth. Hydraulic-head data for deep piezometer nests indicate that vertical head gradients differ in direction and magnitude across the study area. Hydraulic-head gradients are downward in the central and western parts of the study area and upward across much of the eastern part, except at the mountain front. Water-quality data for the piezometers indicate that the ground water is not

  3. Simulating and forecasting of groundwater exploitation,land subsidence and ground fissure in Cangzhou City%沧州市地下水开采与地面沉降地裂缝模拟预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆祖江; 王琰; 田小伟; 田俊花

    2013-01-01

    To further improve the accuracy of groundwater exploitation-induced ground deformation simula⁃tion, based on the Biot’s consolidation theory and combined with the nonlinear rheological theory of soil, a three-dimensional full coupling mathematic model was set up,in which the constitutive relation in Biot’s consolidation theory was extended to viscoelastic plasticity,the porosity,permeability coefficient and parame⁃ters of soil deformation dynamic relations with the effective stress were considered,and the Galerkin finite element method was taken to solve the model. On that basis,the groundwater seepage field,ground subsid⁃ence and ground fissures development trend was simulated and forecasted in Cangzhou City, Hebei Prov⁃ince. The results show that when the cone of groundwater depression and land subsidence occurred due to over pumping,the horizontal displacement totally directing to cone of groundwater depression of soil will be caused, and the large value of horizontal displacement is concentrated at the edge of cone of groundwater depression,where is the ground fissure high incidence area.%  为进一步提高地下水开采诱发地面变形模拟的准确性,以比奥固结理论为基础,结合土体非线性流变理论,将比奥固结理论中的本构关系推广到黏弹塑性,并考虑孔隙度、渗透系数、土体的变形参数随有效应力的动态变化关系,建立了地下水开采与地面沉降三维全耦合数学模型,并应用伽辽金有限单元法对模型进行求解,模拟了河北省沧州市地下水开采引起的地下水渗流场、地面沉降、地裂缝发生发展趋势。结果表明:抽水引起地下水位降落漏斗和地面沉降的同时,将导致土体发生总体指向地下水位降落漏斗中心的水平位移,水平位移较大的地区集中分布在地面沉降漏斗的边缘,是地裂缝的高发区。

  4. 淮北市地下水资源可持续利用%Groundwater Resources Sustainable Development in Huaibei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic situation of water environment of Huaibei City, analyzed the present situation of water resources utilization and existing problems, including unreasonable underground water use, water pollution led to the deterioration of the ecological environment, the serious waste of water resource and the low level of supervision, finally puts forward some countermeasures and the effective utilization of water resources can guarantee the sustainable development of Huaibei city.%  介绍了淮北市水环境基本情况,分析了该市的水资源利用现状及目前存在问题,包括地下水利用不合理、水污染导致生态环境恶化、水资源浪费严重及监管水平低下,最后提出对策有效利用水资源来保障淮北市经济社会可持续发展。

  5. 郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区浅层地热能资源量评价%The Shallow Geothermal Energy Resource Evaluation on the Suitable Area of Groundwater Source Heat Pump in Zhengzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田良河; 闫震鹏; 刘新号

    2011-01-01

    By numerical simulation, we determine the best distance between wells of the groundwater source heat pump in Zhengzhou City, and evaluate the shallow geothermal energy resource in the suitable areas. It can provide important basis for urban development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Zhengzhou City.%采用数值模拟法确定了郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区最佳井间距,评价了郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区浅层地热能资源。

  6. Parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and inversion: an investigation using groundwater modeling of the surface-mined Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, Francesco; Hill, Mary C.; Rossetto, Rudy; Mazza, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    With respect to model parameterization and sensitivity analysis, this work uses a practical example to suggest that methods that start with simple models and use computationally frugal model analysis methods remain valuable in any toolbox of model development methods. In this work, groundwater model calibration starts with a simple parameterization that evolves into a moderately complex model. The model is developed for a water management study of the Tivoli-Guidonia basin (Rome, Italy) where surface mining has been conducted in conjunction with substantial dewatering. The approach to model development used in this work employs repeated analysis using sensitivity and inverse methods, including use of a new observation-stacked parameter importance graph. The methods are highly parallelizable and require few model runs, which make the repeated analyses and attendant insights possible. The success of a model development design can be measured by insights attained and demonstrated model accuracy relevant to predictions. Example insights were obtained: (1) A long-held belief that, except for a few distinct fractures, the travertine is homogeneous was found to be inadequate, and (2) The dewatering pumping rate is more critical to model accuracy than expected. The latter insight motivated additional data collection and improved pumpage estimates. Validation tests using three other recharge and pumpage conditions suggest good accuracy for the predictions considered. The model was used to evaluate management scenarios and showed that similar dewatering results could be achieved using 20 % less pumped water, but would require installing newly positioned wells and cooperation between mine owners.

  7. Study on Artificial Groundwater Recharge of Changxiao Water Source By Pumping Test in Jinan City%由抽水试验成果谈济南长孝水源地回灌补源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽爽; 于大潞; 赵宇辉

    2015-01-01

    通过4.5万m3/d开采性抽水试验的观测表明长孝水源地具有较好的富水性及调蓄能力,开采潜力巨大。为保证长孝水源地的长期开采,应尽早采用外引内拦等工程措施,在孝里铺洼地地区实现地表水的回灌补源。这对提高城市供水保证率,恢复当地生态环境均具有十分深远的意义。%Through exploitation pumping test observation with the water amount of 45000 m3/d of No.1 Changxiao water source , it is showed that Changxiao water source has a good water enrichment and storage capacity and exploi -tation potentiality .In order to ensure long term extraction of Changxiao water source , some countermeasures should be adopted, such as outward water diversion and internal water stop .Thus, artificial groundwater recharge of sur-face water in Xiaolipu depression area can be realized .It will have a very significance in improving rate of water supply in city , and recoverying local ecological environment .

  8. Modelling of groundwater flow in the vicinity of tunnel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Valentová, Jana; Valenta, Petr

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with determination of the effect of newly built driven road tunnels within the capital city of Prague on the groundwater flow pattern and groundwater table position. In order to assess the changes in groundwater flow in the vicinity of these underground structures, a numerical model was used. Despite the three-dimensional nature of groundwater flow in the vicinity of tunnel structures, under certain conditions the flow may be simulated as two-dimensional flow in a vertical pla...

  9. Evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points in old Jammu City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Meenakshi; Dutta, S P S

    2011-10-01

    To assess water quality of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points, viz. Parade Ground, Mohalla Paharian, Purani Mandi, Malhotrian Street, Raghunathpura and Hari Market in old Jammu city of India, water parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, free carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, phosphate, iron, copper, zinc, lead and chromium were analyzed during the years 2000-2001/2001-2002. There was alteration in water quality parameters in the distribution system caused by entry of sewage, soil, etc. through dislocation, cracks, valve regulators/turncock, defective joints, breakage, etc. in the pipes through crossing and deposits of biofilms inside the pipes, dead ends and their degradation through microbes. Comparison of water quality with National and International Standards revealed that all the parameters were within permissible limits of drinking water standards. Water Quality Index (WQI) of various physico-chemical parameters revealed that the water of Company Bagh pumping station and its six distribution points was fit for human consumption as it was found under the category of good (WQI < 50). PMID:23505827

  10. 汾阳市地下水资源开发现状与对策%Current Situation and Measures for Groundwater Exploitation in Fenyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成武

    2012-01-01

    随着国民经济的快速发展,地下水越来越成为汾阳市工、农业生产以及生活用水必不可少的供水水源.就汾阳市地下水开发利用现状、存在问题进行了分析,并提出了合理开发利用地下水资源的对策与建议,对合理配置汾阳市的地下水资源,促进汾阳市地下水开发的良性发展有重要意义.%Along with the development of national economy, ground water becomes essential water resource for Fenyang local industry, agriculture and people's living. In the paper, current utilization state and existing problem were analyzed, and measures and suggestion were purposed, which was of great importance to rational local ground water resources disposition and to promote positive growth of Fenyang city ground water.

  11. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2 the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3 an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

    The investigations conducted in the city of Basel (Switzerland focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the aquifer as well as the thermal influence of river-groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include: (1 short- and long-term data analysis; (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring; as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows quantifying the thermal influence on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and additional heat from urbanization. Subsequently, management strategies for minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal use potential are discussed.

  12. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  13. The influence of Zihe Stream on the groundwater resources of the Dawu well field and on the discharge at the Heiwang iron mine, Zibo City area, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Yu; Liu, Jian-Li; Qian, Xiao-Xing

    The Dawu well field, one of the largest in China, supplies most of the water for the Zibo City urban area in Shandong Province. The field yields 522,400-535,400m3/d from an aquifer in fractured karstic Middle Ordovician carbonate rocks. Much of the recharge to the aquifer is leakage of surface water from Zihe Stream, the major drainage in the area. Installation of the Taihe Reservoir in 1972 severely reduced the downstream flow in Zihe Stream, resulting in a marked reduction in the water table in the Dawu field. Since 1994, following the installation of a recharge station on Zihe Stream upstream from the well field that injects water from the Taihe Reservoir into the stream, the groundwater resources of the field have recovered. An average of 61.2×103m3/d of groundwater, mostly from the Ordovician aquifer, is pumped from the Heiwang iron mine, an open pit in the bed of Zihe Stream below the Taihe Reservoir. A stepwise regression equation, used to evaluate the role of discharge from the reservoir into the stream, confirms that reservoir water is one of the major sources of groundwater in the mine. Résumé Le champ captant de Dawu, l'un des plus importants de Chine, fournit l'essentiel de l'eau à la communauté urbaine de Zibo, dans la province de Shandong. Ce champ captant fournit entre 522,400 et 535,400m3/j à partir d'un aquifère fracturé karstique des carbonates de l'Ordovicien moyen. La plupart de la recharge de cet aquifère est assurée par des pertes d'eau de surface de la rivière Zihe, principal cours d'eau de la région. La mise en eau du réservoir de Taihe en 1972 a sévèrement réduit en aval l'écoulement de la Zihe, ce qui a provoqué une diminution nette du niveau de la nappe dans le champ captant de Dawu. Depuis 1974, après la mise en fonctionnement d'une station de recharge sur la rivière Zihe, injectant, en amont du champ captant, de l'eau du réservoir de Taihe dans la rivière, les ressources en eau souterraine ont été reconstitu

  14. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  15. Thermal management of an unconsolidated shallow urban groundwater body

    OpenAIRE

    J. Epting; Händel, F.; Huggenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the development of tools for the sustainable thermal management of a shallow unconsolidated urban groundwater body in the city of Basel (Switzerland). The concept of the investigations is based on (1) a characterization of the present thermal state of the urban groundwater body, and (2) the evaluation of potential mitigation measures for the future thermal management of specific regions within the groundwater body. The investigations focus on thermal processes downgradient...

  16. Groundwater flood or groundwater-induced flood?

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.; Finch, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A number of ‘groundwater flood’ events have been recorded over the Chalk aquifer in southern England since the 1994 occurrence at Chichester, Sussex. Reporting of this event and subsequent groundwater floods indicates that there are two types of groundwater flood event. Type 1 is the true groundwater flood in which the water table elevation rises above the ground elevation, and Type 2 occurs when intense groundwater discharge via bourne springs and highly permeable shallow horizons discharges...

  17. Groundwater Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Llamas

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction and operation of these structures was a powerful factor in the birth of an urban or civil society – the designated water civilizations. The difference between people taking advantage of groundwater, quasi-individually, and those of surface water, where people work in a group, has continued to the present day. Whereas earlier, this difference did not bring about any special problems, the technological advances of this century, especially theturbine pump, have led to a spectacular increase in the use of roundwater. This advance has significantly contributed to reducing hunger in the world and has provided potable water in developing countries. However, the almost generalized lack of planning and control in the exploitation of these groundwaters reflects that they are little or badly understood by the managers of water policy in almost every country. As such, problems have occurred which have often become exaggerated, giving rise to water-myths. These problems, though, should be addressed if the aim is the sustainable usage of surface water as well as groundwater. To counter any misconceptions and to seek solutions to the problems, distinct plans of action can be highlighted: educating the public; fomenting a system of participative management and decisive support for the communities of users of subterranean waters; integrating a sufficient number of experts in hydrology in the various water management organizations;and assuring transparency of the data on

  18. Groundwater Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Llamas; Emilio Custodio

    1999-01-01

    The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction a...

  19. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  20. Designing groundwater visualization interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Médard De Chardon, Cyrille

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater systems are inherently complex owing to their three-dimensional nature. The impacts of land use activities on groundwater quality and quantity, groundwater pumping, and the interaction of groundwater with surface waters are fundamental hydrogeologic concepts that require effective communication strategies. Using interactive visual interfaces may improve upon current educational techniques and encourage increased public participation in groundwater protection, conservation, and man...

  1. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever......, any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  2. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  3. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  4. Ideal Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Meitner, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  5. Groundwater flooding in an urbanised floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Peach, D.; Dixon, A.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, risk management associated with groundwater flooding has been recognised as an area requiring improved understanding in the United Kingdom. Government figures suggest as many as 1.6 million properties may be at risk from this form of flooding. Further, the recently enforced EU Floods Directive requires hazard mapping associated with groundwater flooding to be undertaken. The city of Oxford is situated within a narrow valley in the upper reaches of the River Thames in the south of the United Kingdom. Although much of the city sits above the current floodplain of the River Thames, approximately 3600 properties are located within the 1 in 100 year return flood envelope. The floodplain is underlain by a shallow alluvial aquifer in good hydraulic connection with the River Thames and its tributaries. The city suffers from recurrent floods, most recently in July 2007, when a 1 in 20 year event impacted over 200 properties. A significant number of these properties were affected by flooding from rising groundwater which was either the sole cause of flooding or the initial cause prior to inundation from fluvial waters. A study has been undertaken by the British Geological Survey, in collaboration with the environment regulator and linked with the local flood risk management scheme, to assess the role of groundwater in flooding in Oxford. The study has shown that groundwater flooding in the city occurs in low-lying areas protected from direct fluvial flooding, at least in the early stages of an event, by high ground associated with urbanisation. Although direct rainfall recharge associated with extreme events can cause significant groundwater level rise in these low-lying areas, the primary mechanism for groundwater flooding is the movement of water through the permeable subsurface from fluvial flooded zones. Groundwater flooding is often the only form of flooding for the isolated low-lying areas for medium-to-high probability flood events. As a result

  6. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  7. Thermal management of an unconsolidated shallow urban groundwater body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Epting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of tools for the sustainable thermal management of a shallow unconsolidated urban groundwater body in the city of Basel (Switzerland. The concept of the investigations is based on (1 a characterization of the present thermal state of the urban groundwater body, and (2 the evaluation of potential mitigation measures for the future thermal management of specific regions within the groundwater body. The investigations focus on thermal processes down-gradient of thermal groundwater use, effects of heated buildings in the subsurface as well as the thermal influence of river–groundwater interaction. Investigation methods include (1 short- and long-term data analysis, (2 high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring, as well as (3 3-D numerical groundwater flow and heat transport modeling and scenario development. The combination of these methods allows for the quantifying of the thermal influences on the investigated urban groundwater body, including the influences of thermal groundwater use and heated subsurface constructions. Subsequently, first implications for management strategies are discussed, including minimizing further groundwater temperature increase, targeting "potential natural" groundwater temperatures for specific aquifer regions and exploiting the thermal potential.

  8. Groundwater ecology literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, L.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater ecology is the study of ecosystems that occur in the subsurface within groundwater. Groundwater often contains a diverse range of organisms, and those that live in groundwater and generally do not live above the ground surface are called Stygobites. Stygobites species come from several different taxonomic groups of animals. Many animals found in groundwater are Crustaceans (Copepoda, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Syncarida, Cladocera) but species of Oligocheata and...

  9. The coupled social-hydrology of Bangalore city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddu, S.; Mehta, V. K.; Malghan, D.; Kemp-Benedict, E.

    2012-12-01

    India's 370 million urban population exceeds the total population of all countries except China. Water supply has not kept up with increasing urban demand. As utilities reach farther out to increase extraction and supply, and private self-supply from groundwater increases apace , there is no doubt that local water balances are dramatically impacted. Despite this, very little research has emerged on the modified water balance in urban India, which is essential to understanding sustainability of the resource base. This paper, taking Bangalore city as a case study, illustrates the possible impacts of domestic water supply and consumption. Spatial patterns in population growth and current piped water supply from the utility were developed from utility and municipal data. GIS analysis shows the spatial mismatch between the growth of the city and the piped water supply. In the past decade, Bangalore's population grew by almost 3 million people, with most of the additions in the outer areas where piped water supply infrastructure is most inadequate. In these areas, which account for large parts of the city with hundreds of thousands of residents, piped water supply is below 40 lpcd (liters per capita per day). Residents in these areas rely largely on groundwater from tankers and private borewells. Estimates of self-supply from groundwater were derived, which were then used with lumped and distributed simulations of groundwater balances. Lumped model results show that a severe lack of systematic data on actual groundwater extraction drives large uncertainty in the magnitude of net recharge change on a city-wide scale. Despite this uncertainty, the direction of net groundwater recharge is negative. Artificial recharge from leaking pipes and return flows exceed natural rainfall recharge by two-fold; however, private groundwater pumping is the largest component of the groundwater balance, leading to an overall groundwater overdraft estimate of 130%. Distributed groundwater

  10. Study & Evaluation on Soil Resistance on Wetland Groundwater in Zhangye City%张掖城市湿地地下水防污性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺斌英; 巴建文; 张雁; 张彦莉

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on analysis on evaluation of the soil resistance on wetland groundwater in the urban area of Zhangye,using DRASTIC and taking seven influencing factors including depth of groundwater lever,net recharge,aquifer medium,soil medium,terrain,aeration zone medium and osmotic coefficient to evaluate the pollution of groundwater.The wetland groundwater with the best soil resistance mainly distribute on the southern part of the studied area,20 mile village of Xindun town.The groundwater lever of this distribution is much deeper,usually over 10m.The litho-logical characters of aeration zone are mainly sand loam and gravel.The evaluation of groundwater soil resistance must base on the sufficient geology and hydrogeololgy data.The classification of evaluation factors must base on reality and emphasize the relativity of the factors.%通过系统分析张掖城市湿地水文地质条件,采用DRASTIC法,选取了地下水位埋深、净补给量、含水层介质、土壤介质、地形、包气带介质和渗透系数共七项影响因子对张掖城市湿地城市区地下水防污性进行了评价。结果表明,张掖城市湿地地下水防污性较好地带主要分布在研究区南部新墩镇——二十里铺一带地下水深埋区,水位埋深一般大于10 m,包气带岩性以亚砂土及砂砾卵石为主。进行地下水防污性评价要在充分掌握工作区的地质及水文地质条件基础上,根据实际情况选取评价因子,在对评价因子进行分级量化时,要根据实际情况强调评价因子的相对性。

  11. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Taylor, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36-1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1-0.3 l s-1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s-1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level.

  12. Groundwater system analysis of south Yishu geosyncline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-lei; CHI Bao-ming; YI Shu-ping; LI Zhi-jun

    2004-01-01

    South Yishu geosyncline is 50 km southeast of Changchun City of Jilin Province, where an aquifer is thick,surface runoff is abundant and it has potential to develop water resources preferably. By means of system analysis, the authors analyse the structural characteristics, I/O characteristics, function characteristics and boundary and environment characteristics of the groundwater system, so as to search for a way of optimizing water resources arrangement and enhancing water resources'bearing capacity. Based on the analysis results, the authors abstract conceptual model and mathematical model of the groundwater system. The simulation results certify and enrich the knowledge about south Yishu geosyncline.

  13. 上海市域地下水环境氯离子含量的时空演化特征研究%Study on the Temporal and Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Chloride Ion Content in the Groundwater Environment of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide distribution of Chloride Ion in groundwater, so it is of great significance to probe into the temporal and spatial dynamic evolution of Chloride content in groundwater environment. The results showed there existed a relevantly great change in the annual content of Chloride Ion in the groundwater of Shanghai City, presenting a regular quadric curve or cubic curve. Furthermore, the change in each aquifer presented a significant difference. From the perspective of its vertical distribution, the average content of Chloride Ion from height to lowness in turn was the second confined aquifer , the fifth confined aquifer, the unconfined aquifer, the fourth and the third confined aquifer.%鉴于氯离子在地下水中的分布很广,因此,探究地下水环境氯离子含量时空动态演化规律具有重要意义。研究发现,上海市地下水环境 Cl-含量年际演化幅度比较大,且呈现规律性的二次曲线或三次曲线,各个含水层之间的变化呈显著性差异。从其垂直方向分布看,氯离子平均含量由高到低依次为第二承压含水层,第五承压含水层,潜水含水层,第四承压含水层和第三承压含水层。

  14. 石家庄市地下水资源的过量开采引发的思考及对策%Thoughts and Counter-measures on Excessively exploration of Ground-water Resources in Shiji-azhuang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓莉

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exploitation of groundwater means actual yield exceeds allowable yield, which leads to various problems of environment and geology, such as deterioration of water quality, saline intrusion and land subsidence, etc.. In this paper, water supply status and water demand of Shijiazhuang City were analyzed, harms of excessively ex-ploration were elaborated. And some prevention measures against excessively exploration of groundwater were pro-posed.%地下水的过量开采是指地下水的实际开采量超过了允许开采量,易引发了水质恶化、海水入侵、地面沉降等一系列环境地质问题。在对石家庄市供水现状和需水量进行分析的基础上,阐述了过量开采带来的一系列危害,并从分区控制开采、加强信息监控管理等方面对地下水过量开采提出了一些防治措施。

  15. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  16. 环境同位素在某市水源地 勘探中的应用%APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPE TO THE PROSPECTING OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN A CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉梅; 李巨芬; 孙建平

    2001-01-01

    该文就环境同位素在保定市红旗苗圃水源地勘探中的应用,基于环境同位素(D、18O、3H)理论,通过建立相应的数学—物理模型,分析研究了保定市地区地下水补给组成和地下水运动规律%With the application of environmental isotope to the prospecting of groundwater resouces at Baoding Hongqi nursery, based on the theory of the environmental isotope (D, 18O, 3H),by establishing corresponding math-physical model, in the paper, the recharge constituent and the movement regularities of groundwater in Baoding region have been analyzed and studied.

  17. Towards sustainable ground water management in Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater pollution in urban areas is a worldwide growing environmental problem in this millennium. Many major cities in the world depend on groundwater for water supplies. However, urbanization processes threaten its quality. The problem is more pronounced in urban areas in developing countries like Tanzania, which are characterized with inadequate infrastructure for waste management. In Tanzania, the situation is more threatening in Dar Es Salaam City, which experiences acute deficiency in infrastructure provision: housing, water supply, sanitation, transportation and energy. The existing challenge is to protect groundwater resources amidst rapid growing Dar Es Salaam city, of which failure can lead to escalating costs for provision of drinking water with overall results of decreased public health conditions. A research conducted from 1997 to 2002, revealed that almost 50% of the water supply in Dar Es Salaam city comes from groundwater and that groundwater is being threatened by indiscriminate disposal practices of both domestic and industrial wastes. For example about 88% of the urban population use on-site sanitation systems, which discharge partially treated sewage to the groundwater. About 60 tonnes/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) are transported to the groundwater through domestic sewage. Analysis of groundwater quality in the city indicated that the unconfined aquifer is starting to degrade. For instance, more than 40% of groundwater samples analysed for nitrate, chloride and faecal coliform bacteria, did not comply with the national standards for drinking water. Recognising the fact that demand for groundwater is on the increase in the city and that the aquifers have shown signs of degradation, a groundwater management plan is required to ensure sustainable utilization of the resource. This paper discusses the groundwater situation in Dar Es Salaam city and finally puts forward measures towards establishment of a management strategy. (author)

  18. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater quality (project summary report)

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, B L; Lawrence, A.R.; Stuart, M E

    1994-01-01

    Urban populations in developing counties are growing rapidly and are largely concentrated in the marginal-slum housing districts where access to sanitation and piped water supply is often limited.Many of these cities are dependent upon groundwater for a significant proportion of their water supply and even in areas where the piped water supply is largely derived from surface water , the use of groundwater can still be significant as piped coverage is often limited (

  19. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  20. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  2. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev,

    2016-06-16

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  3. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...

  4. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  5. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  6. Beautiful city

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  7. City Beautiful

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  8. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    M Batty

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  9. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation methods for the semi-arid Nyamandhlovu area, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibanda, T.; Nonner, J.C.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Nyamandhlovu aquifer is the main water resource in the semi-arid Umguza district in Matebeleland North Province in Zimbabwe. The rapid increase in water demand in the city of Bulawayo has prompted the need to quantify the available groundwater resources for sustainable utilization. Groundwater r

  10. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  11. Sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  12. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Benmenni; K. Benrachedi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21...

  13. Linking Surface Urban Heat Islands with Groundwater Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Goettsche, Frank M; Olesen, Folke S; Blum, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Urban temperatures are typically, but not necessarily, elevated compared to their rural surroundings. This phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) exists both above and below the ground. These zones are coupled through conductive heat transport. However, the precise process is not sufficiently understood. Using satellite-derived land surface temperature and interpolated groundwater temperature measurements, we compare the spatial properties of both kinds of heat islands in four German cities and find correlations of up to 80%. The best correlation is found in older, mature cities such as Cologne and Berlin. However, in 95% of the analyzed areas, groundwater temperatures are higher than land surface temperatures due to additional subsurface heat sources such as buildings and their basements. Local groundwater hot spots under city centers and under industrial areas are not revealed by satellite-derived land surface temperatures. Hence, we propose an estimation method that relates groundwater temperatures to mean annual land-surface temperatures, building density, and elevated basement temperatures. Using this method, we are able to accurately estimate regional groundwater temperatures with a mean absolute error of 0.9 K. PMID:26595444

  14. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  15. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation.......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...

  16. Groundwater-flow and land-subsidence model of Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Rewis, Diane L.; Martin, Peter; Phillips, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley groundwater basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, groundwater provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most groundwater pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley groundwater basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Groundwater-level declines of more than 270 feet in some parts of the groundwater basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may increase reliance on groundwater.

  17. Nonlinearity in groundwater flow

    OpenAIRE

    Barends, F.B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1856 when Darcy laid the basis for the calculation of the flow of water through sands, researchers have been interested in groundwater flow. Groundwater is essential for agriculture and water supply, but it also plays an important role when soil is used as a construction element, such as for dykes, roads and foundations. The mechanical behaviour of saturated or dry, fine graded or coarse soils are quite different. The theory of groundwater mechanics must be based on the system: water-so...

  18. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  19. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  20. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  1. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  2. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  3. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  4. City Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  5. Will Jakarta Be The Next Atlantis? Excessive Groundwater Use Resulting From A Failing Piped Water Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colbran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the connection between a failing piped water network and excessive groundwater use in Jakarta. It discusses the political history of the city's piped water network, which was privatised in 1998, and how privatisation was intended to increase access to clean, safe water for its residents. The article asserts that this has not eventuated, and that tap water remains costly, unreliable and does not provide noticeable benefits when compared with groundwater. The result is that households, industry, businesses, luxury apartment complexes and hotels choose alternative water sources and distribution methods, in particular groundwater. This is having an unsustainable impact on groundwater levels and Jakarta 's natural environment, causing significant land subsidence, pollution and salinisation of aquifers, and increased levels of flooding. The effect is so severe that the World Bank has predicted much of Jakarta will be inundated by seawater in 2025, rendering one third of the city uninhabitable and displacing millions. The article concludes by discussing and assessing the steps the government has taken to address excessive and unlicensed groundwater use. These steps include new regulations on groundwater, a public awareness campaign on the importance of groundwater and a commitment to improve the raw water supplied to the piped water network. However, the article observes that the government is yet to develop long term policies for improvement of the network itself. The question therefore remains, has the government done enough, or will groundwater use continue unabated making Jakarta the next lost city of Atlantis?

  6. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  7. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  8. Groundwater in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L.; Penick, John E.; Dawkins, Karen R.; Van Sickle, Meta

    2007-01-01

    Although clean, potable groundwater constitutes one of our most valuable resources, few students or science educators hold complete and appropriate understandings regarding the concept. Recent studies that focus on secondary students' and preservice science teachers' understandings of groundwater found little difference between the groups'…

  9. Basin wide Nitrate-Nitrogen pollution of groundwater, Miyakonojo, Japan, with the relation of the regional Groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, K.; Shimada, J.; Zikuzono, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Miyakonojo basin is well-known agriculture area in Southern Kyushu, Japan and highly depends on groundwater resources for their everyday use. Local unconfined groundwater aquifer is widely polluted by Nitrate-Nitrogen originated from agriculture. It will become serious problem if this unconfined Nitrate pollution enlarges into the confined aquifer system which is used for local city water source. However, the detailed groundwater flow system between unconfined and confined aquifer system has not been cleared yet. The detailed three dimensional groundwater flow system study has been done by using existing wells in a basin to understand the three dimensional distribution pattern of Nitrate-Nitrogen in the aquifer. The field sampling for unconfined, intermediate and confined groundwater was done in July, 2005 and February, 2006 for about 200 wells to analyze inorganic water chemistry, hydrogen / oxygen stable isotopes and tritium. For the unconfined groundwater, there exists clear difference for the groundwater flow pattern between the eastern and western basin, which is mostly affected by the surface topography. The unconfined groundwater flowed into the confined aquifer at the eastern part of a basin, while in the western part of a basin the unconfined groundwater on a plateau flowed into the confined aquifer somehow, but most part of the unconfined groundwater has been discharge out to small river valleys between plateaus. While for the confined groundwater, the topographic effect has been disappeared and basin scale groundwater flow from the basin margin toward the basin center is dominated. In the unconfined aquifer, basin wide distribution of Nitrate-Nitrogen content has been recognized and it is relatively higher in the western basin where the cattle farming are dominated. While in the confined aquifer, there are some high Nitrate-Nitrogen spots but do not have regional trend. It is considered that some part of the basin has not distributed the welded tuff

  10. Study on the Status Quo and Prevention-control Measures of Seawater Intrusion in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Jian-ming; LI; Jia-jia; GAO; Zong-jun

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the general situation, influencing factors and damage of seawater intrusion in Qingdao City, Shandong Province were analyzed, and then some appropriate remedial measures were put forward, such as improving groundwater monitoring system in costal areas, exploiting groundwater reasonably, building underground cut-off walls and strengthening river management, which would provide a new approach for the prevention and control of seawater intrusion in Qingdao City.

  11. Assessment of Groundwater Quality by Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Kella, Sotiria; Lokkas, Filotheos; Dinouli, Dimitra; Papakonstantinou, Argiris; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Plageras, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric methods were used to analyze large data sets of groundwater quality from 18 wells supplying the central drinking water system of Larissa city (Greece) during the period 2001 to 2007 (8.064 observations) to determine temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality and to identify pollution sources. Cluster analysis grouped each year into three temporal periods (January-April (first), May-August (second) and September-December (third). Furthermore, spatial cluster analysis was conducted for each period and for all samples, and grouped the 28 monitoring Units HJI (HJI=represent the observations of the monitoring site H, the J-year and the period I) into three groups (A, B and C). Discriminant Analysis used only 16 from the 24 parameters to correctly assign 97.3% of the cases. In addition, Factor Analysis identified 7, 9 and 8 latent factors for groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:27329059

  12. Drugs of abuse in urban groundwater. A case study: Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, A.; Mastroianni, N.; Vazquez-Suñe, E.; Carrera, J.; Tubau, I.; Pujades, E.; Postigo, C.; Lopez de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.

    2012-04-01

    This study is concerned with drugs of abuse (DAs) and their metabolites in urban groundwater at field scale in relation to (1) the spatial distribution of the groundwater samples, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the presence of DAs in recharge sources, and (4) the identification of processes affecting the fate of DAs in groundwater. To this end, urban groundwater samples were collected in the city of Barcelona and a total of 21 drugs were analyzed including cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opioids, lysergics and cannabinoids and the prescribed drugs benzodiazepines. Overall, the highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected DAs were found in zones basically recharged by a river that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In contrast, the urbanized areas yielded not only lower concentrations but also a much smaller number of drugs, which suggests a local origin. In fact, cocaine and its metabolite were dominant in more prosperous neighbourhoods, whereas the cheaper (MDMA) was the dominant DA in poorer districts. Concentrations of DAs estimated mainly from the waste water fraction in groundwater samples were consistently higher than the measured ones, suggesting that DAs undergo removal processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  13. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this

  14. Urban and rural groundwater use in Zhengzhou, China: challenges in joint management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ronglin; Jin, Menggui; Giordano, Mark; Villholth, Karen G.

    2009-09-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the total water supply of much of China, particularly in the north. It has contributed substantially to both agricultural growth and urban and industrial expansion. However, overexploitation and poor management have contributed to infamous groundwater depletion problems and less publicized groundwater quality deterioration. One of the key challenges for China will be how to make groundwater use sustainable while still meeting increased food needs as well as the industrial and domestic demands of a rapidly urbanizing society. Zhengzhou City, one of China’s test cities for building a “water saving society” highlights both the difficulties and potential solutions to northern China’s joint rural and urban groundwater challenges. Based on secondary data and a primary survey of groundwater management in the region, this report provides an overview of Zhengzhou’s groundwater development and use as well as the ongoing institutional and policy reform processes within the water sector. The results highlight how a deepening of ongoing reforms, which simultaneously consider groundwater as an integral rural and urban issue and a fundamental economic and social asset, may improve groundwater outcomes, not only in Zhengzhou but in China, as the country’s economy and demography continue to change.

  15. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  16. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this work was to develop and improve tools to detect trends in groundwater quality considering the reactive transport of pollutants from the ground surface to the monitoring screen. The study area of th...

  17. Analysis on the Chemical Characteristics of Shallow Groundwater and Causes of Formation in the Area around Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing the chemical characteristics of shallow groundwater and causes of formation around Poyang Lake area. [Method] The quality of shallow groundwater under seven counties or cities around Poyang Lake was investigated in 2010, and compared different regions from salinity, hardness, conductivity, hydrochemistry types and so forth, so as to reveal the status quo, change characteristics and reasons of shallow groundwater. [Result] Except for pH, other water quality indicators...

  18. Groundwater data network interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, Boyan; Booth, Nathaniel; Boisvert, Eric; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Water data networks are increasingly being integrated to answer complex scientific questions that often span large geographical areas and cross political borders. Data heterogeneity is a major obstacle that impedes interoperability within and between such networks. It is resolved here for groundwater data at five levels of interoperability, within a Spatial Data Infrastructure architecture. The result is a pair of distinct national groundwater data networks for the United States and Canada, and a combined data network in which they are interoperable. This combined data network enables, for the first time, transparent public access to harmonized groundwater data from both sides of the shared international border.

  19. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  20. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  1. 基于TM数据的土壤湿度指数预测半干旱地区浅层地下水的研究--以朝阳地区为例%Study on Predicting Shallow Groundwater in Semi-arid Area Based on Soil Humidity Index of TM Data:Taking Chaoyang City as A Study Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑璞; 邓正栋; 王大庆; 许春华; 邓非凡

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the water information quickly in arid and semi-arid areas, Chaoyang City of Liaoning Province was taken as a study area. The soil humidity information was acquired by taking use of MNDWI and based on TM multi-spectral data. The soil humidity information classification map was made by classify the soil information with vegetation, rock and surface water being processed. At the same time, in order to compare the groundwater information of the area with higher soil humidity, investigation was executed to compare the the hydrological and geological data. The basic conclusion was consistent with the remote sensing, so as to prove that this method is feasibility and validity in arid and semi-arid areas.%为更方便、有效的勘察干旱半干旱地区的浅层地下水信息,以辽宁省朝阳市区域为研究区,以2004~2010年TM多光谱数据为基础,利用修正归一化水体差异指数提取了多年的地表土壤湿度信息。通过对土壤湿度信息分级并对植被、岩石以及地表水体进行掩模处理,得到了土壤湿度信息的分级图。同时,为了比较土壤湿度较大地区地下水的赋存信息,进行了实地考察并对比水文地质资料,认为基本与遥感所得结论一致,证明了该方法在半干旱地区的可行性与有效性。

  2. Water for cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa has entered the new Millennium with a sense of hope and renewed confidence. With widening and deepening of political reforms, economic liberalization and a strengthened civil society, an increasing number of African countries are striving towards economic recovery and sustainable development. But also Africa is a continent of paradox. Home to the world's longest river, the Nile, and the second largest freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. Africa has abundant water resources contributed by large rivers, vast stretches of wetlands and limited, but widely spread, groundwater. Yet only a limited number of countries are beneficiaries of this abundance. Fourteen African countries account for 80% of the total water available on the continent, while 12 of the countries together account for only 1% of water availability. Some 400 million people are estimated to be living in water-scarce condition today. Indeed my home country, Tanzania, claims over 40% of Africa's water resources from Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganaika and other major water bodies. Water in Africa is not only unfairly distributed by nature but, due to backward technology and underdevelopment, it remains also inadequately allocated by man. At the turn of the new Millennium, over 300 million people in Africa still do not have access to safe water. But perhaps nowhere is the challenge more complex and demanding than in the rapidly growing African cities. With an average growth rate of 5% per annum, Africa is the fastest urbanizing region in the world today. Between 1990 and 2020, in many of our life times, urban populations in Africa will rise fourfold from 138 to 500 million. The 'Water for African Cities Programme' is demonstrating, in seven African countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia), how to put in place an integrated urban water resource management strategy that could bring three key sectors -- urban, environment and water -- to work together. Tanzania is the

  3. Evidence and implications of groundwater mining in the Lusaka urban aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpamba, N. H.; Hussen, A.; Kangomba, S.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Nyambe, I. A.; Mdala, C.; Wohnlich, S.; Shibasaki, N.

    The Lusaka Plateau hosts some of the most productive karstic carbonate aquifers, which are historically a dependable water supply source for the city of Lusaka. While it has been an important and cheap groundwater source for various users, the schist aquifer on the other hand compliments the supply. The present and future water demand pose the greatest challenge for the Lusaka city aquifers and is recognised to be the reason for high private prospecting for groundwater as a result of the ever increasing demand. Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC), the water utility company responsible for water supply to the city, abstracts about 50% of its water requirements from aquifers in the Lusaka urban and adjacent areas. Current abstraction is estimated to be in the range of 50.265 × 10 6-65.385 × 10 6 m 3 year -1, which is already well over the annual recharge of 45.44 × 10 6 m 3 year -1 at 8% of the annual rainfall. However, groundwater resources availability in terms of quantity, quality, as well as annual recharge, and recharge mechanisms have been more difficult to establish largely due to inadequate hydrogeological data. Although the recharge values are on record, these vary widely from 8% to 35% of the annual rainfall. Recent monitoring of groundwater levels shows evidence of groundwater mining that is reflected by a steady decline of groundwater table during the dry months. Preliminary observations suggest that the main recharge area south of Lusaka city offers dilution effect to groundwater recharged from other parts of the city where anthropogenic influences are significant. Continued groundwater monitoring is recommended so that the resource is managed effectively and sustainably for the social and economic benefit of Zambia.

  4. Groundwater Capture Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Source water protection areas are delineated for each groundwater-based public water supply system using available geologic and hydrogeologic information to...

  5. Groundwater and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Luís; Stigter, Tibor; Chambel, António; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Monteiro, José Paulo; Medeiros, Albino

    2013-01-01

    Scientific contributions in 24 chapters of authors of different parts of the World, with great diversity of areas and investigation topics on the important temathic of groundwater and its dependent ecosystems.

  6. Human health and groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Candela Lledó, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    Strategic overview series of the International Association of Hydrogeologists-IAH. This Series is designed both to inform professionals in other sectors of key interactions with groundwater resources and hydrogeological science, and to guide IAH members in their outreach to related sectors. The naturally high microbiological and chemical quality of groundwater, captured at springheads and in shallow galleries and dugwells, has been vital for human survival, wellbeing and development from o...

  7. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  8. Shallow ground-water conditions, Tom Green County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the water needs of Tom Green County, Texas, are supplied by ground water; however, the city of San Angelo is supplied by surface water. Groundwater withdrawals during 1980 (latest year for which data are available) in Tom Green County totaled about 15,300 acre-feet, all derived from shallow aquifers. Shallow aquifers in this report refer to the ground-water system generally less than 400 feet deep that contains water with less than a 10,000 milligrams per liter concentration of dissolved solids; aquifers comprising this system include: The Leona, Comanche Peak, Trinity, Blaine, San Angelo, Choza, Bullwagon, Vale, Standpipe, and Arroyo aquifers.

  9. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  10. Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Tsai, F. H.; Shen, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Data-Driven Techniques for Regional Groundwater Level Forecasts Fi-John Changa, Li-Chiu Changb, Fong He Tsaia, Hung-Yu Shenba Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC. b Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan, ROC..Correspondence to: Fi-John Chang (email: changfj@ntu.edu.tw)The alluvial fan of the Zhuoshui River in Taiwan is a good natural recharge area of groundwater. However, the over extraction of groundwater occurs in the coastland results in serious land subsidence. Groundwater systems are heterogeneous with diverse temporal-spatial patterns, and it is very difficult to quantify their complex processes. Data-driven methods can effectively capture the spatial-temporal characteristics of input-output patterns at different scales for accurately imitating dynamic complex systems with less computational requirements. In this study, we implement various data-driven methods to suitably predict the regional groundwater level variations for making countermeasures in response to the land subsidence issue in the study area. We first establish the relationship between regional rainfall, streamflow as well as groundwater levels and then construct intelligent groundwater level prediction models for the basin based on the long-term (2000-2013) regional monthly data sets collected from the Zhuoshui River basin. We analyze the interaction between hydrological factors and groundwater level variations; apply the self-organizing map (SOM) to obtain the clustering results of the spatial-temporal groundwater level variations; and then apply the recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (R-NARX) to predicting the monthly groundwater levels. As a consequence, a regional intelligent groundwater level prediction model can be constructed based on the adaptive results of the SOM. Results demonstrate that the development

  11. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  12. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  13. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  14. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......). But what is it that is driving these urban transformations? Clearly, there are many probable answers to this complex question and in what follows we will focus on one particular catalyst of change – urban design competitions. Considered as field changing events (Lampel and Meyer 2008, Anand and Jones 2008......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning...

  15. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  16. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use.

  17. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  18. Internet Portal For A Distributed Management of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, U. F.; Rueppel, U.; Gutzke, T.; Seewald, G.; Petersen, M.

    The management of groundwater resources for the supply of German cities and sub- urban areas has become a matter of public interest during the last years. Negative headlines in the Rhein-Main-Area dealt with cracks in buildings as well as damaged woodlands and inundated agriculture areas as an effect of varying groundwater levels. Usually a holistic management of groundwater resources is not existent because of the complexity of the geological system, the large number of involved groups and their divergent interests and a lack of essential information. The development of a network- based information system for an efficient groundwater management was the target of the project: ?Grundwasser-Online?[1]. The management of groundwater resources has to take into account various hydro- geological, climatic, water-economical, chemical and biological interrelations [2]. Thus, the traditional approaches in information retrieval, which are characterised by a high personnel and time expenditure, are not sufficient. Furthermore, the efficient control of the groundwater cultivation requires a direct communication between the different water supply companies, the consultant engineers, the scientists, the govern- mental agencies and the public, by using computer networks. The presented groundwater information system consists of different components, especially for the collection, storage, evaluation and visualisation of groundwater- relevant information. Network-based technologies are used [3]. For the collection of time-dependant groundwater-relevant information, modern technologies of Mobile Computing have been analysed in order to provide an integrated approach in the man- agement of large groundwater systems. The aggregated information is stored within a distributed geo-scientific database system which enables a direct integration of simu- lation programs for the evaluation of interactions in groundwater systems. Thus, even a prognosis for the evolution of groundwater states

  19. Sister Cities Flourish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  20. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  1. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  2. Redox potential of shallow groundwater by 1-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yota

    2016-06-01

    One-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements of redox potential (Eh) were used to investigate the dominant redox processes in the shallow groundwater (i.e., fit was found between measured Eh values and Eh values calculated using thermodynamic data of fine-grained goethite. This suggests that Fe redox system is related to the Eh values of shallow groundwater in the Aomori City aquifer.

  3. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  4. Tehran Groundwater Chemical Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Shariatpanahi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy eight wells water sample of Tehran plain were examined to determine r its groundwaters chemical pollution. Tehran s groundwaters are slightly acidic and their total dissolved solids are high and are in the hard water category."nThe nitrate concentration of wells water of west region is less than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the nitrate concentration of some of the other regions wells exceed W.H.O. standard which is indication of pollution"nwith municipal wastewaters. The concentration of toxic elements Cr, Cd, As, Hg and"ni Pb of some of the west, east and south regions wells of Tehran is more than per¬missible level of W.H.O. standard, whereas, the concentration of Cu, Zn,Mn and detergents is below W.H.O. standard."n1"nIn general, the amount of dissolved materials of Tehran s groundwaters and also"ni the potential of their contamination with nitrate is increased as Tehran s ground-"nwaters move further to the south, and even though, Tehran s groundwaters contamination with toxic elements is limited to the industrial west district, industrial-residential east and south districts, but»with regard to the disposal methods of"nt municipal and industrial wastewaters, if Tehran s groundwaters pollution continues,"nlocal contamination of groundwaters is likely to spread. So that finally their quality changes in such a way that this water source may become unfit for most domestic, industrial and agricultural uses. This survey shows the necessity of collection and treatment of Tehran s wastewaters and Prevention of the disposal of untreated wastewaters into the environment.

  5. Groundwater in Urban Development : Assessing Management Needs & Formulating Policy Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Stephen; Lawrence, Adrian; Morris, Brian

    2008-01-01

    People have clustered at the water's edge throughout civilization for the most fundamental of reasons: without water there is no life. Every major city in the world has a body of water or aquifer nearby, since rivers and lakes predetermined where people would gather and dwell, groundwater constitutes about 98 percent of the fresh water on our planet (excepting that captured in the polar ic...

  6. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  7. A groundwater management plan for Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, Sandra; Carle, Achim; Lang, Ulrich; Kirchholtes, Hermann Josef

    2016-09-01

    In general, groundwater in urban areas is exposed to anthropogenic influence and suffers from concentrations of contaminants. Stuttgart, as a highly industrialized city, has more than 5000 contaminated sites which might influence the Stuttgart's mineral water quality. Despite tremendous efforts and intensive single site orientated remediation since 1984 in downtown, the mineral springs were still affected with chlorinated hydrocarbons at low concentrations. Therefore, the applied practices of environmental management and measures for mitigation of pollution sources were not sufficient and had to be adjusted. The main goal of this study is to define an integral remediation plan (a groundwater management plan), focusing on the key sources of chlorinated solvents which are relevant for the mineral springs. For the large-scale investigated area of 26.6km(2) and eight aquifers, an extensive investigation and characterization methods were used in order to delineate the contamination plumes. By means of a 3D numerical model, the prioritization of the contaminated sites could be performed. Five contaminated sites with high remediation priority and need for optimized or additional remediation efforts were determined. For those five contaminated sites feasibility studies were performed which resulted in recommendation of remediation measures with total costs of more than 12.5 million euros. The proposed strategy and approach are suitable for multiple sources of contamination. Only in this way, the contributions of single contaminated sites to the total groundwater contamination can be identified and local remediation measures with their spatial impact simulated. Due to very complex geological conditions, technically there is no alternative to this strategy in order to achieve the contamination reduction in groundwater.

  8. A groundwater management plan for Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, Sandra; Carle, Achim; Lang, Ulrich; Kirchholtes, Hermann Josef

    2016-09-01

    In general, groundwater in urban areas is exposed to anthropogenic influence and suffers from concentrations of contaminants. Stuttgart, as a highly industrialized city, has more than 5000 contaminated sites which might influence the Stuttgart's mineral water quality. Despite tremendous efforts and intensive single site orientated remediation since 1984 in downtown, the mineral springs were still affected with chlorinated hydrocarbons at low concentrations. Therefore, the applied practices of environmental management and measures for mitigation of pollution sources were not sufficient and had to be adjusted. The main goal of this study is to define an integral remediation plan (a groundwater management plan), focusing on the key sources of chlorinated solvents which are relevant for the mineral springs. For the large-scale investigated area of 26.6km(2) and eight aquifers, an extensive investigation and characterization methods were used in order to delineate the contamination plumes. By means of a 3D numerical model, the prioritization of the contaminated sites could be performed. Five contaminated sites with high remediation priority and need for optimized or additional remediation efforts were determined. For those five contaminated sites feasibility studies were performed which resulted in recommendation of remediation measures with total costs of more than 12.5 million euros. The proposed strategy and approach are suitable for multiple sources of contamination. Only in this way, the contributions of single contaminated sites to the total groundwater contamination can be identified and local remediation measures with their spatial impact simulated. Due to very complex geological conditions, technically there is no alternative to this strategy in order to achieve the contamination reduction in groundwater. PMID:26524995

  9. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the δ18O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 ± 0.5 per-thousand), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high 18O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low 18O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in δ18O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are ∼10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for ∼40 years, creating cones of depression ∼25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low 18O water (-11.0 per-thousand) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp 18O gradients in our groundwater isotope map

  10. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  11. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  12. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER: VOLUME 3 MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive transport modeling has been conducted to describe the performance of the permeable reactive barrier at the Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. The reactive barrier was installed to treat groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium and chlorinated org...

  13. Characteristics of chemistry and stable isotopes in groundwater of the Chaobai River catchment, Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [Key Laboratory of Engineering Geomechanics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.; Wang, X. [Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology Team of Beijing, Beijing 100037 (China); Pang, Z. [Key Laboratory of Engineering Geomechanics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental isotopes and chemical compositions are useful tools for the study of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater of the Chaobai River catchment, Beijing was sampled for chemical and stable isotopes analyses in 2005. Geochemical signatures evolve progressively from CaMg-HCO{sub 3} to NaK-HCO{sub 3}, and then to Na-HCO{sub 3} compositions as groundwater flows from the mountain to discharge areas. Groundwater can be divided into two groups on the basis of stable isotope compositions: ancient groundwater and modern groundwater. Modern groundwater (-9.90/00 to -6.60/00 for δ{sup 18}O) plots along a line with a slope of 4.0 on a δ{sup 2}H versus δ{sup 18}O diagram, reflecting evaporation during the process of recharge, whereas ancient groundwater samples (30 to 12 Ka.) are different in isotopic composition (-11.00/00 and -68.20/00 for δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H, respectively), reflecting the cold and arid climate in the last glacial period. The results have important implications for groundwater management in Beijing City. (authors)

  14. Isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the study of groundwater isotope(2H and 18O, 34S, 15N, 3H, 14C) in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area, it is found that the deep confined groundwater has no pollution on the whole, whereas the shallow groundwater is polluted to a different degree in the area. The deep confined aquifers (main exploitation aquifers) in Changzhou area and in Wuxi and Suzhou area likely belong to two different aquifers. The main exploitation aquifers in Changzhou area are not connected with those in Wuxi and Suzhou area, or they are connected but not expedited. The lateral run-off of groundwater is at present directed to the exploitation center because of overexploitation of the deep groundwater for a long time, but the flowing speed of groundwater is still extremely slow. The deep confined groundwater is in a close to half close state. The 14C age of groundwater varies from 10000 a BP to 38000 a BP, with the oldest groundwater found at the nearest exploitation center (along the line of three cities of Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou) and the youngest at the furthest exploitation center.

  15. Isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG YueHua; JIA JunYuan; XU NaiZhen; WANG JingDong; KANG XiaoJun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the study of groundwater isotope(2H and 18O, 34S, 15N, 3H, 14O) in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area, it is found that the deep confined groundwater has no pollution on the whole, whereas the shallow groundwater is polluted to a different degree in the area. The deep confined aquifers (main exploitation aquifers) in Changzhou area and in Wuxi and Suzhou area likely belong to two different aquifers. The main exploitation aquifers in Changzhou area are not connected with those in Wuxi and Suzhou area, or they are connected but not expedited. The lateral run-off of groundwater is at present directed to the exploitation center because of overexploitation of the deep groundwater for a long time, but the flowing speed of groundwater is still extremely slow. The deep confined groundwater is in a close to half close state. The 140 age of groundwater varies from 10000 a BP to 38000 a BP, with the oldest groundwater found at the nearest exploitation center (along the line of three cities of Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou) and the youngest at the furthest exploitation center.

  16. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  17. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  18. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  19. Hanford Groundwater Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70 E+12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is

  20. Characterizing the regional pattern and temporal change of groundwater levels by analyses of a well log data set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmuda PARVIN; Naoyuki TADAKUMA; Hisafumi ASAUE; Katsuaki KOIKE

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of the amount and quality of groundwater resources is an important issue around the world.Changes in groundwater levels need to be monitored in efforts to preserve groundwater.This study investigates suitable methods to characterize changes in the groundwater level and determine the factors involved.The area of Kumamoto,a city in central Kyushu,southwest Japan,was selected to demonstrate the usefulness of the methods because this area is one of the richest in Japan in terms of groundwater resources and takes all its water from groundwater.Data of the groundwater level recorded at 69 wells from 1979 to 2007 were used in geostatistical and correlogram analyses.First,strong correlation between the topography and groundwater level was identified.Incorporating this correlation into spatial modeling of the groundwater level,co-kriging was demonstrated to be more accurate than ordinary kriging.The co-kriging results clarified the hydraulic characteristics of the Kumamoto area; the patterns of shallow and deep groundwater levels were agreeable generally,and the general trends of their annual average levels were similar regardless of precipitation.Another important feature was that the correlograms for the precipitation amount and groundwater level had a constant shape and changed smoothly with a change in lag time regardless of the precipitation only in the area of Togawa lava.These characteristics are probably due to the connections between shallow and deep aquifers and the high permeability of Togawa lava.

  1. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  2. Impact of groundwater use as heat energy on coastal ecosystem and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Demands for groundwater as a heat energy source to melt snow is increasing in many coastal snowy areas in Japan because of the lack of laborers for snow removal and the abundance of groundwater resources. The temperature of groundwater is relatively higher in winter than that of the air and river water, therefore it is a useful heat source to melt snow. However, groundwater is also beneficial for the coastal ecosystem and fishery production because of the nutrient discharge by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which is one of the water and dissolved material pathways from land to the ocean. Therefore, groundwater is involved in the tradeoff and management conflict existing between energy and food (fisheries). In this study, the impact of groundwater, used as a heat energy source for the melting of snow accumulated on roads, on the coastal ecosystem and fisheries has been analyzed in the snowy areas of Obama City, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Positive correlation has been found between primary production rates in Obama Bay and radon concentrations which show the magnitude of the submarine groundwater discharge. Therefore, the increase in groundwater pumping on land reduces fishery production in the ocean. Results of 3D numerical simulations of the basin scale groundwater model show a reduction of SGD by 5 percent due to an increase in groundwater pumping by 1.5 times. This reduction of SGD caused a 3.7 ton decrease in fishery production under the aforementioned assumptions. The groundwater-energy-fishery nexus was found in Obama Bay, Japan and the tradeoff between water and food was evaluated.

  3. Development of Groundwater Modeling Capacity in Mongolia: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Valder, J. F.; Carter, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is totally dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. Water is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence, however, suggests that current water use and especially the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population, is not sustainable from existing water sources. In response, the Mongolia Ministry of Environment and the Mongolian Fresh Water Institute requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS-SD Water Science Center provided a workshop to Mongolian water experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using MODFLOW. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. A preliminary steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater conditions in the Tuul River Basin and for use in water use decision-making. The model consisted of 2 layers, 226 rows, and 260 columns with uniform 500 meter grid spacing. The upper model layer represented the alluvial aquifer and the lower layer represented the underlying bedrock, which includes areas characterized by permafrost. Estimated groundwater withdrawal was 180 m3/day, and estimated recharge was 114 mm/yr. The model will be modified and updated by Mongolian scientists as more data are available. Ultimately the model will be used to assist managers in developing a sustainable water supply, for current use and changing climate scenarios. A key to success was developing in-country technical capacity and partnerships with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian Freshwater Institute, a non-profit organization, UNESCO, and the government of Mongolia.

  4. Determination of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater (Maribor, Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroša, A; Auersperger, P; Mali, N

    2016-11-15

    Micro-organic (MO) contaminants in groundwater can have adverse effects on both the environment and on human health. They enter the natural environment as a result of various processes, their presence in groundwater is the result of current anthropogenic activity and pollution loads from the past. A study on the occurrence and concentrations levels of selected contaminants in water was performed in the city of Maribor, Slovenia. A total of 56 groundwater and 4 surface water samples were collected in together four rounds in different hydrogeological periods (dry and wet seasons), and a total of 13 selected contaminants were analysed in this study. Carbamazepine, propyphenazone, caffeine, 2-methyl-2H-benzotriazole (2-MBT) and 2.4-dimethyl-2H-benzotriazole (2.4-DMBT) were determined as indicators of urban pollution, while pesticides and their metabolites (atrazine, desethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, terbuthylazine, desethylterbuthylazine, metolachlor, simazine, propazine) were mainly defined as indicators of crop production. All of the selected MO contaminants were detected both in the aquifer and Drava River. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were desethylatrazine (frequency of detection 98.2%; max. concentration 103.0ngL(-1)), atrazine (94.6%; 229ngL(-1)), 2.4-DMBT (92.9%; 273ngL(-1)), carbamazepine (80.4%; 88.00ngL(-1)), desethylterbuthylazine (76.8%; 7.0ngL(-1)) and simazine (76.8%; 29.6ngL(-1)), whereas propyphenazone (14.3%; 10.7ngL(-1)) was the least frequently detected. Detected MO concentrations in the study were compared with results published elsewhere around the world. Concentrations in groundwater indicate specific land use in their recharge areas. On the basis of correlations and the spatial distribution of selected MOs, groundwater origin for every sampling point was determined. Sampling sites were divided into three different groups for which indicative groundwater quality properties were defined. PMID:27395079

  5. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region.

  6. The challenges of water governance in Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; Dan, Nguyen P; Dieperink, Carel

    2016-04-01

    Population growth, urbanization, pollution, and climate change pose urgent water challenges in cities. In this study, the sustainability of integrated water resources management in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) was evaluated using the City Blueprint approach. The City Blueprint is a set of 24 dedicated indicators divided over 8 categories (i.e., water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity and attractiveness, and governance including public participation). The analysis showed that the rapid increase of water use for urban, industrial, and agricultural activities in HCMC has resulted in depletion of groundwater and severe pollution of both groundwater and surface water. Surface water quality, groundwater quality, biodiversity, and the sanitation of domestic and industrial wastewater are matters that need serious improvement. Current and future water supply in HCMC is at risk. HCMC can cope with it, but the 7 governance gaps as described by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are major obstacles for HCMC. Rainwater harvesting, pollution reduction, as well as wastewater reuse are among the practical options. Wastewater reuse could lower the water stress index to 10%. The window to do this is narrow and rapidly closing as a result of the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth of this region. PMID:26009880

  7. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; J. C. Talbot; Crane, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ is generally used to refer to compounds previously not considered or known to be significant to groundwater (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) which are now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected organic micropollutants are being observed in the aqueous environment. Many emerging contaminants remain unregulated, but the number of regulated contaminants will continue to grow slowly over th...

  8. Groundwater Under Vertisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, D.; Baram, S.; Dahan, O.

    2015-12-01

    Vertisols are cracking clayey soils that: i) usually form in alluvial lowlands where normally, groundwater pools into aquifers; ii) have different types of voids (due to cracking) which make flow and transport of water and gas complex, and iii) are regarded as fertile soils in many areas. The combination of these characteristics results in the unique soil-aquifer phenomena that are highlighted and summarized in this review work. The following four vertisols-aquifer topics will be discussed: 1) Soil cracks as preferential pathways for water and contaminants - Lysimeter to basin-scale observations show the significance of cracks as preferential flow paths in vertisols that bypass matrix blocks in the unsaturated zone. Fresh recharge and groundwater contamination from these fluxes will be reviewed; 2) Soil cracks as deep evaporators and unsaturated-zone salinity - Deep soil samples under uncultivated vertisols in semiarid regions reveal a dry (immobile), saline matrix, partly due to enhanced evaporation through soil cracks. Observations of this phenomenon will be compared and the mechanism of evapoconcentration due to air flow in the cracks is discussed; 3) Impact of cultivation on flushing of the unsaturated zone and aquifer salinization - Land-use change of vertisols from native land to cropland promotes greater fluxes through the saline unsaturated-zone matrix, eventually flushing salts to the aquifer. Different degrees of salt flushing will be presented as well as aquifer salinization on different scales, and a comparison is made with aquifers under other soils; 4) Relatively little nitrate contamination in aquifers under vertisols - A number of observations show that aquifers under cultivated vertisols are somewhat resistant to groundwater contamination by nitrate (the major agriculturally related groundwater problem). Denitrification is probably the main mechanism supporting this resistance, whereas a certain degree of anion-exchange capacity may have a

  9. Hydrogeological evaluation of an over-exploited aquifer in Dhaka, Bangladesh towards the implementation of groundwater artificial recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Rusteberg, Bernd; Sauter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The population of Dhaka City is presently about 12 million and according to present trends in population growth, that number will most likely increase to 17.2 million by the year 2025. A serious water crisis is expected due to the extremely limited quality and quantity of water resources in the region. Previous studies have shown that the current trend in groundwater resource development is non-sustainable due to over-exploitation of the regional aquifer system, resulting in rapidly decreasing groundwater levels of about 2 to 3 meters per year. Today, annual groundwater extraction clearly exceeds natural groundwater recharge. New water management strategies are needed to guarantee future generations of Dhaka City a secured and sustained water supply as well as sustainable development of the city. The implementation of groundwater artificial recharge (AR) is one potential measure. As the first step towards a new water management strategy for Dhaka City, the authors report on the hydrogeological conditions of the greater Dhaka region and from this are able to present the location of potential recharge sites and identify appropriate recharge technologies for AR implementation. The aquifers of greater Dhaka can be grouped in three major categories: Holocene Deposit, Pleistocene Deposit and Plio-Pleistocene Deposit. The aquifers are generally thick and multilayered with relatively high transmissivity and storage coefficients. AR is considered feasible due to the fact these aquifers are alluvium deposit aquifers which characteristically have moderate to high hydraulic conductivity. Low costs for recovery of recharged water and large recharge volume capacity are generally associated with aquifers of unconsolidated sediments. Spatial analysis of the region has shown that Karaniganj, Kotoali, Savar, Dhamrai, Singair upazila, which are situated in greater Dhaka region and close to Dhaka City, could serve as recharge sites to the subsurface by pond infiltration technique. A

  10. European Cities in the World City Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Taylor (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis is primarily an empirical paper that brings together selected results from the GaWC research programme. The latter studies inter-city relations at a global scale. Empirical research is based upon a model of world city network network formation as a product of the location strategies

  11. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  12. Geospatial Data Management Platform for Urban Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, D.; Priceputu, A.; Gogu, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the large amount of civil work projects and research studies, large quantities of geo-data are produced for the urban environments. These data are usually redundant as well as they are spread in different institutions or private companies. Time consuming operations like data processing and information harmonisation represents the main reason to systematically avoid the re-use of data. The urban groundwater data shows the same complex situation. The underground structures (subway lines, deep foundations, underground parkings, and others), the urban facility networks (sewer systems, water supply networks, heating conduits, etc), the drainage systems, the surface water works and many others modify continuously. As consequence, their influence on groundwater changes systematically. However, these activities provide a large quantity of data, aquifers modelling and then behaviour prediction can be done using monitored quantitative and qualitative parameters. Due to the rapid evolution of technology in the past few years, transferring large amounts of information through internet has now become a feasible solution for sharing geoscience data. Furthermore, standard platform-independent means to do this have been developed (specific mark-up languages like: GML, GeoSciML, WaterML, GWML, CityML). They allow easily large geospatial databases updating and sharing through internet, even between different companies or between research centres that do not necessarily use the same database structures. For Bucharest City (Romania) an integrated platform for groundwater geospatial data management is developed under the framework of a national research project - "Sedimentary media modeling platform for groundwater management in urban areas" (SIMPA) financed by the National Authority for Scientific Research of Romania. The platform architecture is based on three components: a geospatial database, a desktop application (a complex set of hydrogeological and geological analysis

  13. Deterministic modelling of the cumulative impacts of underground structures on urban groundwater flow and the definition of a potential state of urban groundwater flow: example of Lyon, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Winiarski, Thierry; Cuvillier, Loann; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Underground structures have been shown to have a great influence on subsoil resources in urban aquifers. A methodology to assess the actual and the potential state of the groundwater flow in an urban area is proposed. The study develops a three-dimensional modeling approach to understand the cumulative impacts of underground infrastructures on urban groundwater flow, using a case in the city of Lyon (France). All known underground structures were integrated in the numerical model. Several simulations were run: the actual state of groundwater flow, the potential state of groundwater flow (without underground structures), an intermediate state (without impervious structures), and a transient simulation of the actual state of groundwater flow. The results show that underground structures fragment groundwater flow systems leading to a modification of the aquifer regime. For the case studied, the flow systems are shown to be stable over time with a transient simulation. Structures with drainage systems are shown to have a major impact on flow systems. The barrier effect of impervious structures was negligible because of the small hydraulic gradient of the area. The study demonstrates that the definition of a potential urban groundwater flow and the depiction of urban flow systems, which involves understanding the impact of underground structures, are important issues with respect to urban underground planning.

  14. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  15. Construction of a groundwater-flow model for the Big Sioux Aquifer using airborne electromagnetic methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  16. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  17. Bright Lights, Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overabundant lighting has become another pollution source in the Chinese cities The glow of electric lights illuminating the nights of ever-brighter cities has been regarded as one of the signs of prosperity and modern civilization.

  18. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  19. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  20. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  1. Imagineering the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Berg

    2015-01-01

    Cities today are products. The urban experience is commodified into marketable items by urban entrepreneurs. Urban administrations, city marketers, politicians, local businesses and other actors all over the world are developing entrepreneurial strategies to sell their city. From "‘I ♥ New York"’ to

  2. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  3. Estimation of impacts on groundwater quality in an urban area of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janža, Mitja; Prestor, Joerg; Pestotnik, Simona; Jamnik, Brigita

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water supply in many cities worldwide. It is relatively stable and better-protected water resource compared to surface water and will have a vital role in assuring water-supply security in the future. In urbanized catchments numerous human activities (e.g. settling, industry, traffic, agriculture) take place which pose a threat to groundwater quality. For sustainable management of urban groundwater resources an integrated and adaptive approach based on continuous monitoring supported by modeling is needed. The aim of presented study was to develop a model of environmental pressures and impacts on Ljubljansko polje aquifer which is the main source exploited for the public drinking water supply of the city of Ljubljana. It is based on estimation of contaminants emissions from different sources, coupled with numerical transport modelling which is used to assess the impact on groundwater quality. The model was built up on detailed analysis of nitrogen mass balance and validated with monitoring data - concentration measurements of relevant chemical parameters. Based on the model simulations impacts of different sources of pollution on groundwater quality was estimated and priority of measures for improvement of chemical status of groundwater was defined.

  4. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  5. Impact of groundwater protection standards on UMTRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed health and environmental standards to correct and prevent groundwater contamination beneath and in the vicinity of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. The standards, which are consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), address final disposal, aquifer cleanup, and supplemental standards. As a first step toward estimating the total project groundwater restoration costs, the conditions, requirements, and aquifer restoration costs at five sites were considered: Gunnison, Colorado; Riverton, Wyoming; Lakeview, Oregon; Tuba City, Arizona; and Falls City, Texas. For each site, preliminary groundwater restoration schemes were proposed and evaluated, and base costs were estimated in 1988 dollars. To forecast total project costs, the five site-specific evaluations and their lowest cost estimates were extrapolated to the remaining 19 UMTRA Project sites. To estimate a total program cost based on the lowest site remedial action construction costs described above, the ratio of total program cost to the site remedial action costs for the current UMTRA Project was calculated. On the basis of the preliminary analyses described above, if aquifer restoration were required at the 24 UMTRA Project sites, the total program cost may be in excess of /1 billion

  6. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  7. Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of 222Rn, 226Ra and total uranium in groundwater samples collected from wells distributed throughout the state of Chihuahua has been measured. The values obtained of total uranium activity concentration in groundwater throughout the state run from -1. Generally, radium activity concentration was -1, with some exceptions; in spring water of San Diego de Alcala, in contrast, the value reached ∼5.3 Bq l-1. Radon activity concentration obtained throughout the state was from 1.0 to 39.8 Bq l-1. A linear correlation between uranium and radon dissolved in groundwater of individual wells was observed near Chihuahua City. Committed effective dose estimates for reference individuals were performed, with results as high as 134 μSv for infants in Aldama city. In Aldama and Chihuahua cities the average and many individual wells showed activity concentration values of uranium exceeding the Mexican norm of drinking water quality. (authors)

  8. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  9. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  10. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  11. Monitoring of landfill influences on groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfills of waste present serious threat to groundwater. To prevent groundwater pollution from landfill monitoring is performed. Rule of groundwater pollution monitoring from dangerous substances implements principles in Slovene legislation. In everyday practice certain questions arose since validity of the rule. These questions are about responsible parties in monitoring, groundwater distribution in space, target groundwater units, characterization level of the landfill and its surroundings, background values in groundwater, table of content of groundwater monitoring plan, quality of groundwater monitoring network, phases of monitoring, maintenance of monitoring network and activation of piezometers.

  12. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    in the area near Lejre Denmark (approximately 15km to the SW of Roskilde) began in 1937, exporting approximately 18 million m3 of water per year to supply the city of Copenhagen. After abstraction began, streams in the area were observed to go dry after extended periods without precipitation, where...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams...... the same with very little impact on the groundwater divide between the two drainages. From 1987 to 2006, there was a recovery up to 8m in the Langvad drainage, with no significant changes elsewhere. The recovery was due to a reduction of approximately 8 million m3/year in groundwater abstraction...

  13. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  14. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  15. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  16. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  17. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  18. Issues in groundwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now widely recognized that the solution to future water problems in Texas will require more effective management of the water resources. New supplies to meet future needs are not without limit; therefore, the solution to the problem will have to come from better water conservation as well as by providing new supplies. In some cases, conservation and reuse may be the only feasible answer. To accomplish what is needed will require the best efforts of all Texans. And good research programs will be required to discover ways to improve on what has been done in the past. This publication contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled ''Groundwater--Crisis or Opportunity,'' which was held in San Antonio October 29-31, 1984. It was one of several efforts related to water resources undertaken cooperatively in recent years by The University of Texas at Austin and The Texas A and M University System. The papers in this proceedings discuss the groundwater problems of the future in Texas

  19. ANALYSIS ON ABSORPTION OF TELKOMAS REGION, BIRINGKANAYA DISTRICT, MAKASSAR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Patanduk, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: City of Makassar with a total population of approximately 1.3 million people has a fairly rapid process of urbanization, seen from the rampant development in the suburbs. Coefficient changes the basic building the greater the likely impact of the lack of green open spaces and groundwater catchment area. Gradually the surface condition of ground water will decrease and the external impact on other areas surrounding the lower. With the condition of the catchment area t...

  20. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  1. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  2. The thermal consequences of river-level variations in an urban groundwater body highly affected by groundwater heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñe, Enric; Schneider, Eduardo Garrido; Sánchez-Navarro, José Ángel; Mateo-Lázaro, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    The extensive implementation of ground source heat pumps in urban aquifers is an important issue related to groundwater quality and the future economic feasibility of existent geothermal installations. Although many cities are in the immediate vicinity of large rivers, little is known about the thermal river-groundwater interaction at a kilometric-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the thermal impact of river water recharges induced by flood events into an urban alluvial aquifer anthropogenically influenced by geothermal exploitations. The present thermal state of an urban aquifer at a regional scale, including 27 groundwater heat pump installations, has been evaluated. The thermal impacts of these installations in the aquifer together with the thermal impacts from "cold" winter floods have also been spatially and temporally evaluated to ensure better geothermal management of the aquifer. The results showed a variable direct thermal impact from 0 to 6 °C depending on the groundwater-surface water interaction along the river trajectory. The thermal plumes far away from the riverbed also present minor indirect thermal impacts due to hydraulic gradient variations.

  3. Simulation of groundwater flow in the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2014-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer, a major aquifer in the Pecos County region of western Texas, is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and public supply uses. Resource managers would like to better understand the future availability of water in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Pecos County region and the effects of the possible increase or temporal redistribution of groundwater withdrawals. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1, completed a comprehensive, integrated analysis of available hydrogeologic data to develop a groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in parts of Brewster, Jeff Davis, Pecos, and Reeves Counties. Following calibration, the model was used to evaluate the sustainability of recent (2008) and projected water-use demands on groundwater resources in the study area.

  4. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  5. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  6. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  7. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  8. Characterizing interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Jialu River basin using major ion chemistry and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huaihe River, has been severely contaminated for the major contaminant sources, such as a number of untreated or lightly treated sewage wastes in some cities. Groundwater along the river is not an isolated component of the hydrologic system, but instead connected with the surface water. This study aims to characterize the relationships between surface water (e.g. reservoirs, lakes and rivers and groundwater near the river in the shallow Quaternary aquifer. The concentration of Cl in North Zhengzhou City increased prominently due to the discharge of a large amount of domestic water. Nitrate and potassium show maximum concentrations in groundwater in Fugou County. These high levels can be attributed to the use of a large quantity of fertilizer over this region. The regional well had water with a constant stable isotopic signature, which illustrates that the groundwater never or rarely receive recharge from surface water. However, the groundwater of transitional well (location SY3 seemed to be recharged by river water via bank infiltration in September 2010. Fractional contributions of river water to the groundwater were calculated based on isotopic and chemical data using a mass-balance approach. Results show that the groundwater was approximately composed of 60–70% river water. These findings would be useful for a better understanding of hydrogeological processes at the river-aquifer interface and ultimately benefit water management in the future.

  9. An integrative method to quantify contaminant fluxes in the groundwater of urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiedek, T.; Beier, M.; Ebhardt, G. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences

    2007-08-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Background, Aims, and Scope. Groundwater in urban areas is often contaminated and emission sources can be located close to groundwater wells. The delineation of contaminant plumes is difficult because of the various potential emission sources. Thus, detection, quantification and remediation of contaminated sites in a city need more integrative approaches. Materials and Methods: A method has been developed which allows quantification of mass fluxes of contaminants in groundwater between control planes. Budget zones along the flow path are defined to calculate a contaminant balance and to quantitatively reveal input areas. Concentrations and water budgets are used to calculate mass balances for each contaminant. The city of Darmstadt (Germany) was chosen to evaluate the method. Results: The groundwater monitoring wells (GMWs) upstream of the city showed anthropogenically superposed background values for all naturally occurring inorganic species. The contaminant concentrations increased in the city (probably influenced by road traffic, gas stations, leaking sewers, etc.). Downstream from the city, concentrations usually decreased. Organic compounds typical for urban environments, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), locally exceeded drinking water regulations. In GMWs with high concentrations of organic contaminants in the city or downstream from industrial areas, a significant increase in Fe{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} could be observed, in some cases coinciding with a decrease in NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4} and an increase in NH{sub 4}. Discussion: For typical urban contaminants, a positive budget was calculated in several zones, which shows that emissions from urban sources are reaching the groundwater. Negative budgets can be mainly explained with diving plumes and degradation. The input calculated from the individual budget zones is usually higher than the input estimated from urban emissions. Differences between the calculated and the

  10. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  11. Cities and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cities have been researched mostly in terms of their economic, technological, and social value and significance. Despite some changes in this respect there is still a need to research cities as a fascinating phenomenon, also in respect of its capabilities to increase human security on a local and global scale. The article examines the role of cities for human security in the selected and representative fields such as sustainable development, human rights and environmental protection which are...

  12. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Verdugo, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    International audience We characterise how the assimilation patterns of minorities into the strong and the weak language differ in a situation of asymmetric bilingualism. Using large variations in language composition in Canadian cities from the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, we show that the differences in the knowledge of English by immigrant allophones (i.e. the immigrants with a mother tongue other than English and French) in English-majority cities are mainly due to sorting across cities. In...

  13. Assimilation in multilingual cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Using the Public Use Microdata Files of the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, we study the determinants of the assimilation of language minorities into the city majority language. We show that official minority members (i.e. francophones in English-speaking cities and anglophones in French-speaking cities) assimilate less than the "allophones" (the individuals with a mother tongue other than English or French), and that immigrants generally assimilate less than natives. In addition, the langua...

  14. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  15. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  16. Global scale groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  17. Groundwater infiltration by herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of herbicides, applied in various ways, are used by Canadian utilities to control the undesirable vegetation on rights-of-way under transmission and distribution lines, and at transformer stations. Above a soil organic carbon content of 0.1% the herbicide sorption on the immobile organic phase is best described by organic carbon partitioning coefficients. Order of magnitude estimates of these partitioning coefficients were to be derived from the octanol/herbicide partitioning coefficients. At dissolved organic matter contents above 30 mg/L (in bogs and swamps) the herbicide mobility is enhanced, below 1 mg/L the effect of sorption on the immobile phase of organic matter prevails. For all herbicides in question and most of the field conditions it can be safely assumed that transformation of the infiltrated amount will occur with a half-life of more than 30 days. The degradation is temperature dependent and ceases below 0 degree C. Assuming the water movement in sandy, loamy and clay soils as 2, 1 and 0.5 m/year, the transport rate of 2,4-D is calculated to be approximately 0.92, 0.46 and 0.23 m/year, respectively. The overall evaluation of herbicide mobility showed that the potential for groundwater contamination most sensitively depends on organic carbon content of soil, herbicide half-life, deep percolation, and depth to groundwater table. It was recommended that the use of herbicides in hydrogeologically sensitive areas be restricted and fast degrading herbicides be used in other areas. For continued use of herbicides, the implementation of an operation decision-making model combined with a migration model is suggested. 44 refs., 3 tabs

  18. A methodology to quantify the risks of urbanisation on groundwater systems in South Africa / Johanna Margaretha van Rooyen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooyen, Johanna Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the urbanised population grows exponentially and due to this growth, cities are forced to expand beyond their manageable borders resulting in greater pressure on the surrounding urban environment. Many South African towns or cities are dependent on surface water for water supply. These resources are slowly being depleted and the dependence on groundwater resources is becoming increasingly important. Due to increased mining, industrial and agricultural activities in South Africa the...

  19. Design and construction of falling groundwater level at conference and exhibition center, metro Line 2, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province%沈阳市地铁二号线会展中心站的降水设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁世春

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了沈阳市地铁二号线会展中心站的工程概况以及水文地质条件,分析其工程特点、地质特征,提出其基坑降水方案和降水施工需要注意问题。按该方案顺利完成该车站的基坑降水工作。%This paper introduced engineering general situation and the hydrogeological conditions in the study area and, analyzed the engineering characteristics, geological features, the falling groundwater level scheme and construction need to pay attention to the problem were put forward. According to the plan ,successfully completed the foundation pit falling groundwater level work. According to the plan successfully completed the work station foundation pit precipitation.

  20. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  1. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  2. Groundwater Resources Pollution Risk: Application of the Holman Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Maio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to make an attempt to assess, through the application of the Holman Method, the effects that a careless management of human induced activities could have on aquifers and in particular on tapping wells used for human supply. Approach: The study had been applied to two different territories, as far as both the geomorphological and human induced aspects are concerned: the city of Aosta, the capital city of the Autonomous Aosta Valley region and three municipalities located in the centre of the Veneto region. Results: Thanks to the first results that had been obtained from the application of this method and other ones, it is hoped that a strategic territorial management approach will be adopted in the future so that the Groundwater Resources (GWR can coexist with the economic and urban developments. Conclusion: All the analysis had been implemented utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS.

  3. Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking.

  4. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Groundwater-Source Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, G. A.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of groundwater in thermal applications has grown in popularity due to increases in environmental awareness and rising energy costs. While this source of energy is generally seen as beneficial to the environment, changes in subsurface temperatures resulting from thermal development and other factors may make this practice unsustainable. An example of such changes in subsurface temperatures has been observed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where groundwater is extensively used for cooling applications. Temperatures in a regional aquifer beneath the city were found to be as much as ten degrees Celsius greater than those measured in surrounding rural areas. Numerical modeling indicates increases in temperature of up to 5 degrees Celsius can be attributed to downward heat flow originating in buildings in many cases. Areas where increases in temperature were found to be greater corresponded to areas where water is being injected into the aquifer. This water is being produced in the process of using groundwater for cooling applications, such as air conditioning and industrial cooling, and is being injected back into the aquifer to maintain hydraulic head and reduce the demand on Winnipeg's sewer system. In most cases, the heat introduced by injecting this water is significantly affecting temperatures at the production well of the same system and numerical modeling indicates that this is inevitable with the current method of development. The combination of heat loss from buildings and injection of heated water is largely responsible for a reduction in the efficiency of groundwater as a coolant and may eventually make the use of groundwater in cooling applications unsustainable.

  5. Groundwater Vulnerability Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions onThis map represent areas with similar hydrogeologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  6. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  7. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More white-collar workers consider leaving major metropolises to find opportunities in small and medium-sized cities The energy and excitement of first-tier cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province, have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people. But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  8. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  9. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  10. Making Cities Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Livelihood programs change the lives of urban residents For decades Chinese cities have vied with each other to top national and international development rankings. However, the triennial national list of cities with an advanced living environment judges candidates according to less conventional

  11. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  12. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...

  13. The City in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden; Erica de Bruijne

    2001-01-01

    Original title: De Stad in de omtrek. The healthy economic growth in recent years has not passed the major Dutch cities by. There has been a veritable wave of construction of new commercial and office premises in and around the four largest cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht, and ho

  14. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  15. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  16. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.L.M. Verrest

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  17. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  18. Smart cities: event everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Penedo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The research attempts to provide a big picture from the literature through a Systematic Literature Review about the smart city and the existing standards topics for interchanging data through Smart City Apps. Additionally a prototype was created to analyze one of the standards found in the SLR

  19. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  20. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  1. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  2. Groundwater flow system and Nitrogen cycle in volcanic aquifer of pyroclastic flow uplands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, K.; Shimada, J.; Tashiro, S.; Niimi, H.

    2007-12-01

    Study area is well-known agriculture area in Southern Kyushu, Japan and highly depends on groundwater resources for their everyday use. Local unconfined groundwater aquifer is widely polluted by Nitrate-Nitrogen originated from agriculture and cattle farming. It will become serious problem if this unconfined Nitrate pollution enlarges into the confined aquifer system which is used for local city water source. The detailed three dimensional groundwater flow system study has been done by using existing wells in the basin to understand the three dimensional distribution pattern of Nitrate-Nitrogen in the aquifer. However, the detailed groundwater age analysis by using Tritium for unconfined and confined groundwater has not been succeeded because of present low atmosphere tritium concentration. Thus we applied to challenge the CFCs dating method. Although the CFCs method has been widely used for dating the young groundwater instead of tritium in many countries, in Japan CFCs has been used only by Oceanographic study and has not been used in the field of Hydrology. The history and fate of Nitrate contamination have been shown in multidisciplinary local transect studies in areas with agricultural sources (Bohlke and Denver 1995). However, identification of Nitrogen sources can be difficult in larger regional studies because of co-occurrence of multiple anthropogenic Nitrogen sources and uncertainty in Nitrogen transformation pathways. Thus, the characterization of N geochemistry remains challenging, particularly in aquifer-scale assessments (Stephen 2006). In this study, the evidence of the shallow groundwater flowing towards deep aquifer was verified by the groundwater dating and the detailed Nitrogen reduction process was confirmed along the groundwater flow.

  3. Purification of contaminated groundwater by membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Soo; Chung, Chin Ki; Kim, Byoung Gon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this study is to apply the membrane separation technology to the purification of contaminated ground water in Korea. Under this scope, the purification was aimed to the drinking water level. The scale of the membrane system was chosen to a small filtration plant for local clean water supplies and/or heavy purifiers for buildings and public uses. The actual conditions of ground water contamination in Korea was surveyed to determine the major components to remove under the drinking water requirements. To set up a hybrid process with membrane methods, conventional purification methods were also investigated for the comparison purpose. The research results are summarized as follows : 1) Contamination of the groundwater in Korea has been found to be widespread across the country. The major contaminant were nitrate, bacteria, and organic chlorides. Some solvents and heavy metals are also supposed to exist in the ground water of industrial complexes, cities, and abandoned mines. 2) The purification methods currently used in public filtration plants appear not to be enough for new contaminants from recent industrial expanding. The advanced purification technologies generally adopted for this problem have been found to be unsuitable due to their very complicated design and operation, and lack of confidence in the purification performance. 3) The reverse osmosis tested with FilmTec FT30 membrane was found to remove nitrate ions in water with over 90 % efficiency. 4) The suitable membrane process for the contaminated groundwater in Korea has been found to be the treatments composed of activated carbon, microfiltration, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration, and disinfection. The activated carbon treatment could be omitted for the water of low organic contaminants. The microfiltration and the reverse osmosis treatments stand for the conventional methods of filtration plants and the advanced methods for hardly removable components, respectively. It is recommended

  4. Collaborative trial on groundwater sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ghestem, Jean Philippe; Fisicaro, Paula; Champion, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The trial presented here was conducted by BRGM in collaboration with LNE under the work program AQUAREF 2009 with the support of ONEMA. This is a collaborative trial on groundwater sampling and on field physico chemical measurement. It is not a proficiency test. He had three goals: * Observe and evaluate the practices of groundwater sampling to improve future guides, standards and specifications. * Assess the impact of sampling on variability of results. * Study the accuracy of field measurem...

  5. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  6. Comparison of groundwater recharge estimation methods for the semi-arid Nyamandhlovu area, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Sibanda, T.; Nonner, J.C.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Nyamandhlovu aquifer is the main water resource in the semi-arid Umguza district in Matebeleland North Province in Zimbabwe. The rapid increase in water demand in the city of Bulawayo has prompted the need to quantify the available groundwater resources for sustainable utilization. Groundwater recharge estimation methods and results were compared: chloride mass balance method (19–62 mm/year); water-table fluctuation method (2–50 mm/year); Darcian flownet computations (16–28 mm/year); 14C ...

  7. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  8. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  9. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  10. Application of a fully-integrated groundwater-surface water flow model in municipal asset management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. K.; Unger, A.; Jones, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Access to affordable potable water is critical in the development and maintenance of urban centres. Given that water is a public good in Canada, all funds related to operation and maintenance of the drinking water and wastewater networks must come from consumers. An asset management system can be put in place by municipalities to more efficiently manage their water and wastewater distribution system to ensure proper use of these funds. The system works at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels, thus ensuring optimal scheduling of operation and maintenance activities, as well as prediction of future water demand scenarios. At the operational level, a fully integrated model is used to simulate the groundwater-surface water interaction of the Laurel Creek Watershed, of which 80% is urbanized by the City of Waterloo. Canadian municipalities typically lose 13% of their potable water through leaks in watermains and sanitary sewers, and sanitary sewers often generate substantial inflows from fractures in pipe walls. The City of Waterloo sanitary sewers carry an additional 10,000 cubic meters of water to wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, watermain and sanitary sewers present a significant impact on the groundwater-surface water interaction, as well as the affordability of the drinking water and wastewater networks as a whole. To determine areas of concern within the network, the integrated groundwater-surface water model also simulates flow through the City of Waterloo's watermain and sanitary sewer networks. The final model will be used to assess the interaction between measured losses of water from the City of Waterloo's watermain system, infiltration into the sanitary sewer system adjacent to the watermains, and the response of the groundwater system to deteriorated sanitary sewers or to pipes that have been recently renovated. This will ultimately contribute to the City of Waterloo's municipal asset management plan.

  11. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  12. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  13. Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Changes (GRAPHIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater is the major source of water across much of the world but there has been very little research on the potential effects of climate change, because of the invisibility of the phenomena and difficulty of the evaluations. Groundwater acts as a component of the global water cycle on Earth, and awareness of the importance of global groundwater issues is now increasing. In this study, the UNESCO-GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Changes) project is introduced, and we present an overview of global groundwater issues such as the effects of climate changes and human activities on groundwater, methodologies for evaluating those effects, and a brief summary of current activities by an international scientific team in this field and the pilot projects envisaged. The pilot study assesses the effects of climate change and human activities on the subsurface environment, an important aspect of human life in the present and future but not yet evaluated. This is especially true in Asian coastal cities where population increase and concentration occurs rapidly, and uses of subsurface environment have increased. The primary goal of this pilot study is to evaluate the relationships between developmental stage of cities and various subsurface environmental problems, as extreme subsidence, groundwater contamination, and subsurface thermal anomalies. We will focus on evaluations of (1) degradation of subsurface environments and changes of reliable water resources, (2) accumulations of materials (contaminants) in subsurface environment and their transports from land to ocean, and (3) subsurface thermal anomaly due to global warming and heat island effect.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Bay City NTMS Quadrangle, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Bay City Quadrangle, Texas are reported. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 55 groundwaters and 46 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting. The Bay City Quadrangle is represented by a small area with relatively simple surface and subsurface geology. Two stratigraphic units are exposed at the surface and only one aquifer system supplies the groundwater samples. The results of the groundwater geochemical analysis show uranium associated with saline waters thus indicating possible salt water infiltration from the Gulf. The geochemical results from the analysis of stream sediments indicate uranium in association with resistate mineral indicators

  15. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  16. Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data around municipal landfill and paper factory and their potential influence on population’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čačić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the level of 15 groundwater quality parameters in groundwater samples collected around municipal landfill and paper factory in order to evaluate usefulness of the groundwater and its possible implication on the human health. Methods Obtained data have been analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA technique, in order to differentiate the groundwater samples on the basis of their compositional differences and origin. Results Wastes and effluents from municipal landfill did not contribute significantly to the pollution of the aquatic medium. Groundwater degradation caused by high contents of nitrate, mineral oils, organic and inorganic matters was particularly expressed in the narrow area of the city centre, near the paper factory and most likely it has occurred over a long period of time. The results have shown that the concentrations of the most measured parameters(NO3-N, NH4-N, oils, organic matter, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr were above llowed limits for drinking and domestic purposes. onclusion This study has provided important information on cological status of the groundwater systems and for identification f groundwater quality parameters with concentrations above llowable limits for human consumption. The results generally evealed that groundwater assessed in this study mainly does not atisfy safe limits for drinking water and domestic use. As a consequence, ontaminated groundwater becomes a large hygienic nd toxicological problem, since it considerably impedes groundwater tilization. Even though, all of these contaminants havenot yet reached toxic levels, they still represent long term risk for ealth of the population.

  17. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew P.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason D.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  18. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  19. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  20. Globalization and cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation, new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and developing countries (including post-socialist. Urban policy and urban regime concepts are analysed in the third part, by focusing on economic competitiveness and democratic potentials of (developed, developing and post-socialist cities in the global world. Finally, paper concludes that new analytical concepts on cities developed since the1970’s actually deconstruct and reconstitute inherited forms of urban analysis with more or less success. Increased importance of cities as socio-economic actors in global economy has not contributed to the closure of the developmental gap. Contrary to that, it has been reproducing according to the new regulatory principles.

  1. Pressures on Dupi-tila Aquifer of Dhaka City and Possible Response Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, A.; Foglia, L.; Marandi, A.; Islam, M. B.; Ribbe, L.; Schueth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dhaka is a large growing megacity that depends on groundwater for mostly all kind of water needs. Consequently, overwhelming abstraction of groundwater has been causing a linear to exponential drop in groundwater level and substantial aquifer dewatering of the Dupi-Tila aquifer of Dhaka basin. Total water demand in Dhaka city varies from 2100 to 2300 Million Cubic Meter per Day (MCMD) with seasonal variation for a population of about 16 million. Analysis reveals that upper parts of the aquifer are already dewatered throughout the area, and the water level has dropped to 30 m below sea level in the south central part of the city, where the ground surface elevation is 5.7 m. Natural retention area and natural drainage areas are hindering by the unplanned and haphazard vertical and horizontal growth of the city which is ultimately fragmenting infiltration and aquifer recharge. This study uses MODFLOW-2005 to simulate three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater flow, while the inverse modeling approach of UCODE_2005 has been used for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, a through hydrogeological model has been constructed from 150 borehole lithological information for geological characterization of the aquifers. This study stresses the importance of the total water balance of the study area and how recharge and water pumping affect the total water balance. The calibrated model results exhibit the total water abstraction is about 2302 MCMD. The model results further reveals that, there is extreme decline of groundwater level in the extent of -37 meters below the mean sea level at the inner core of the city area and the trend of declining remains same over the years. The surrounding rivers play an important role to balance the water budget and there is stable connection between the rivers and aquifer. The outcome of the research will contribute to develop a rational and sustainable management approach for the groundwater resources management in

  2. Municipal Solid Waste and its Relation with Groundwater Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Malik Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste dumping sites always pose serious environmental problems on air, soil, surface water and groundwater. Landfill leachate contains thousands of complex components and become part of groundwater after infiltration. Vicinity communities are comparatively more affected through hazard activities. Generally, it is regarded as global issue but problems are more sever in developing countries due to mismanagement and lack of related facilities. The present study investigated the landfills effects on groundwater system in Lahore city, Pakistan. Sixteen points were selected for groundwater sampling in the study area during 2010 and were analyzed for selected twelve parameters. Samples were collected to and far from three dumping sites and found in mostly samples contains high pollutants concentration than Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA, 2004 and arsenic concentration over World Health Organization (WHO drinking water criteria. Dumping sites impacts are in result of changing groundwater chemistry, waterborne diseases and other environmental issues. Numerous studies have been conducted but still a comprehensive research needs with boarder aspects to preserve and protect groundwater resources.

  3. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION GENERATED BY LANDFILL LEACHATE PUBLIC OF THE CITY OF MOHAMMEDIA AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY / EVALUATION DE LA POLLUTION GENEREE PAR LES LIXIVIATS DE LA DECHARGE PUBLIQUE DE LA VILLE DE MOHAMMEDIA ET SON IMPACT SUR LA QUALITE DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Idlahcen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of the leachate has shown a strong no biodegradable (COD/BOD5 varies between 3 and 50 organic pollution. High NTK concentrations vary between 2296 and 490 mg∙L-1 have been observed which can induce a nuisance of surface water near the discharge and receiving of leachate. The analysis of metallic elements of leachate showed a high concentration in chrome 1598 µg∙L-1 as maximum value and 27 µg∙L-1 as minimum and maximum high in As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn which testifies to the pollution of leachate from the discharge gross receiving every type of waste (management waste and industrial waste. The results showned that P1, P3, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P10 have high concentrations in NO3- (389 and 111 mg∙L-1 exceeding the standards of potability (50 mg∙L-1. Sinks P1, P5, P7, P8, P9 and P10 are highly mineralized since the conductivity varies between 5990 and 1480 µS∙cm-1, while the organic matter remains higher than the standard of 2 mg∙L-1 The analysis of metallic element in groundwater have shown significant concentrations in Ni (175 and 59 µg∙L-1, Zn (266 and 6 µg∙L-1 and Pb (165 and 30 µg∙L-1 confirming the degradation of groundwater. These results show that the public discharge has a considerable impact on the groundwater near the discharge.

  4. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  5. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  6. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2011-01-01

    can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems...

  7. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...

  8. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...... makes an investigation into the complex relationship between the words and policies of the ‘Experience Economy' and the actual urban transformations made in cities with reference to these changes. The paper discusses the cases researched in relation to the state, market, civil society framework as well...

  9. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  10. The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the

  11. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  12. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  13. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  14. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  15. Excite City:Designing the Experience City

    OpenAIRE

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that hig...

  16. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  17. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  18. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  19. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  20. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  1. Other city symphonies

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Eva; Jacobs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Catalogue description of the film program curated by Eva Hielscher and Steven Jacobs on 'Other City Symphonies' during the 2015 Pordenone Silent Film Festival, including paragraphs on individual films.

  2. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  3. Should Cities Regulate Graffiti?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Graffiti, while still a new phenomenon to most Chinese, is becoming more familiar among teenagers in big cities like Beijing and Shanghai. A recent report by Xinhua News Agency discusses the trend. The report said a small

  4. Groundwater-level and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, predevelopment through January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Joshua A.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-01

    Development of the Wichita well field began in the 1940s in the Equus Beds aquifer to provide the city of Wichita, Kansas, a new water-supply source. After development of the Wichita well field began, groundwater levels began to decline. Extensive development of irrigation wells that began in the 1970s also contributed to substantial groundwater-level declines. Groundwater-level declines likely enhance movement of brine from past oil and gas production near Burrton, Kansas, and natural saline water from the Arkansas River into the Wichita well field. Groundwater levels reached a historical minimum in 1993 because of drought conditions, irrigation, and the city of Wichita’s withdrawals from the aquifer. In 1993, the city of Wichita adopted the Integrated Local Water Supply Program to ensure that Wichita’s water needs would be met through the year 2050 and beyond as part of its efforts to manage the part of the Equus Beds aquifer Wichita uses. A key component of the Integrated Local Water Supply Program was the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project. The Aquifer Storage and Recovery project’s goal is to store and eventually recover groundwater and help protect the Equus Beds aquifer from oil-field brine water near Burrton, Kansas, and saline water from the Arkansas River. Since 1940, the U.S. Geological Survey has monitored groundwater levels and storage-volume changes in the Equus Beds aquifer to provide data to the city of Wichita in order to better manage its water supply.

  5. City, ICT and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Galit Cohen; Peter Nijkamp

    2004-01-01

    New technologies tend to exert a profound influence on modern city life. This paper addresses the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the city. After a broad overview of the potential of ICT in a geographical setting and its possible impact on urban policy in regard to the ICT sector, the paper focusses attention on urban public policy in regard to the ICT sector. This study offers the proposition that urban ICT policy is driven by the stakeholders attitudinal and perc...

  6. Feeding the City

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  7. Small Cell City

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, S.; Steele, R.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, mobile operators have planned their networks to accommodate mobile terminals at ground level. Increasingly, mobile users communicate while stationary from within high-rise buildings. With mobiles operating at a variety of different heights and mobilities, plus the requirement to accommodate increasing teletraffic and multimedia services, there is a need to compact small cells into the three-dimensional city space. This article is concerned with using city buildings to act as el...

  8. Cities in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the urban development of transition countries in 1991–2010, primarily focusing on the last decade. Cities in transition face a unique set of challenges that came forth due to interplay of the legacy of socialist urban policies and the transition to the market economy. The socialist urban policies restrained growth of the largest cities and distorted the spatial equilibrium towards more uniform distribution of urban population. The transition to the market economy reduces d...

  9. Aging City Leads Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northern city of Dalian has become a model of care for the elderly that other Chinese cities are following Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs Li Xueju has called upon civil affairs agencies in the nation to learn from Dalian’s diversified models for elderly care,ranging from running collectively owned and foreign-designed nursing homes to offering tax incentives to private households and companies serving the elderly

  10. The Happiness of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta; Rentfrow, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research on subjective well-being has focused on cross-national differences, while research on cities and regions has shown that human capital is a key factor in metropolitan income and related outcomes. This investigation tests the hypothesis that human capital will have a significant effect on well-being at the metropolitan scale. Using metropolitan level data from the 2009 Gallup-Healthways Survey, we examine the effects of human capital on city happiness alongside many...

  11. Innovation across cities

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Kwok Tong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can infl...

  12. Cities and Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Mare, David C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity (and wage) gains from locating in dense, urban environments. We distinguish between three potential explanations of why firms are willing to pay urban workers more: (1) the urban wage premium is spurious and is the result of omitted ability measures, (2) the urban wage premium works because cities enhance productivity and (3) the urban wage premium is the result of faster skill accumulation in cities. Using a combination of standard regressions, individual...

  13. City marketing: online communication plan for the city of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Altrichter, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing City Marketing represents marketing efforts of cities in order to attract more visitors. Today, we are confronted everyday with marketing campaigns in all different communication media promoting countries, cities or events. Cities are competing for visitors on a global scale, forcing them to adapt successful marketing strategies for gaining and retaining costumers. Yet, City Marketing still remains an unknown chapter for a big part of the general public an...

  14. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city making. "City hacking" evokes more participatory, inclusive, decentralized, playful and subversive alternatives to often top-down ICT implementations in smart city making. However, these discourses ...

  15. Multivariate analysis of groundwater resources in Ganga-Yamuna basin (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargaonkar, Aabha P; Gupta, Apurba; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-07-01

    Groundwater quality data on physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal concentrations in three cities (Faridabad, Allahabad and Varanasi) in Ganga-Yamuna basin was subjected to multivariate analysis (MVA) using SPSS. The factors extracted showed high loading (> 0.3) of various parameters, such as Cl, conductivity, TDS, hardness, Na, Mg, and SO4, indicating contamination due to leaching of pollutants. Major manifest variable associated with these factors is the unorganized solid waste dumping practiced in all the cities. Bacterial contamination of hand pump samples in Allahabad is attributed to surface water-groundwater interaction. The factor with high loading of Ca and F is indicative of geological conditions of the region. Wells in Yamuna river sub-watershed exhibit less freshwater recharge, which is attributed to surface water pollution and sediment deposition in the river. Thus, the methodology for hydrogeological analysis is useful to identify critical water quality issues and possible sources of pollution in river basins. PMID:19552076

  16. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-08

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P&T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume – primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (“brownfield”) scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P&T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations.

  17. Variation of groundwater salinity in the partially irrigated Amudarya River delta, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olov; Aimbetov, Izzet; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2009-03-01

    The Amudarya delta region contains surface and groundwater resources that discharge into the shrinking Large Aral Sea and ultimately control its future fate. These freshwater resources are prerequisites for sustaining the population of the region. However, salinization and pollution caused by agricultural irrigation is a key problem for these water systems. Here, we report results from a recent field measurement campaign conducted during April 2005 which included 24 monitoring wells located in an irrigated region of the Amudarya delta, thereby extending the historical data set of groundwater levels and salinity measurements. This data set is combined with corresponding data from a downstream, non-irrigated region that was formerly irrigated (together covering 16,100km 2 between the Uzbek cities of Nukus and Muynak). This comparison shows that in the downstream region, which is currently not irrigated, shallow groundwaters are far more saline (average 23g l - 1) than the currently irrigated region (average 3g l - 1). We estimate that the unconfined aquifer within the 13,500km 2 non-irrigated zone of study area contains 9billion tons of salt, or almost as much salt as the entire Aral Sea (containing 11billion tons of salt and covering an area of 20,000km 2 in year 2000). Within the non-irrigated zone, there are statistically significant large-scale spatial correlations between groundwater salinity and distance to the Amudarya River, irrigation canals and surface water bodies when distance is measured along the modelled regional groundwater flow direction. Generally, groundwater salinities are lower downstream of surface water bodies in the non-irrigated zone. Annual fluctuations in groundwater salinity are too large to be explained by input from surface water (Amudarya) or wind-blown salt from the dried Aral Sea sediments. Salt transport by groundwater is the only plausible remaining explanation for these changes.

  18. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  19. Local groundwater governance in Yemen: building on traditions and enabling communities to craft new rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Taha; Bruns, Bryan; Bamaga, Omar; Al-Weshali, Adel; van Steenbergen, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Local groundwater management in Yemen and the means by which stakeholders can work together to improve water governance are discussed. In the last few decades the discourse on groundwater management in Yemen has increasingly been cast in terms of crisis, triggered by rapidly declining water tables around cities and in the main agricultural areas. However, in some places in Yemen, communities have responded by implementing local rules that have reduced conflict and provided more reliable and equitable access to water. This trend towards development of local groundwater governance is described, and could make a major contribution in realizing the goals of national water-sector policies and strategies. Twenty-four cases have been identified from different parts of the country and five cases are presented in detail. The article discusses how the process of local management could be nurtured and how it could contribute to rebalancing water use in several parts of Yemen.

  20. Hydrology: Indo-Gangetic groundwater threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendorf, Scott; Benner, Shawn G.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction supports hundreds of millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Data suggests that despite the increase in withdrawals, groundwater depletion is localized and the most widespread threat is contamination.

  1. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  2. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  3. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  4. Groundwater: Saturated and Unsaturated Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interpretation of isotope hydrological data is not straightforward. Many field studies lead to a conclusion that the origin of groundwater and the chemical and isotopic processes in groundwater systems can only be studied successfully, if a composition of isotopic, chemical, geological and hydrogeological data is available for interpretation. Following the previous volumes on isotopic principles, precipitation and surface waters, this volume is dealing with the application of isotope hydrological methods in groundwater studies. It conveys basic knowledge in geohydraulics and hydrogeology required for a consistent interpretation of isotope hydrological data. This volume starts with a brief discussion of the characteristics and behaviour of groundwater as a medium of mass transport for gases, dissolved constituents and colloids. The geohydraulic aspects of groundwater flow under steady-state conditions are described in combination with an explanation of the most important terms related to isotope hydrology (e.g. transit time, turn-over time, mean residence time, water age). Non-steady state flow conditions caused by palaeoclimatic variations and anthropogenic activities such as overexploitation or groundwater mining seriously affect the interpretation of isotope hydrological data. Also water-rock interactions may modify the isotope composition of a carbonate rock environment, especially in high-temperature systems. Environmental isotope techniques are pre-eminently suitable for studying the unsaturated and saturated zone, the latter particularly concerning the stable and radioactive natural isotopes. Stable isotope data preferentially yield information on the origin of groundwater. Radioactive isotopes allow groundwater to be 'dated' in support of geohydraulic investigations. In undisturbed high-temperature systems isotopic geothermometry, i.e. the study of the temperature effect of stable isotopic abundances, is applied for gaining information on water mixing as

  5. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  6. Groundwater : site scale, catchment scale, basin scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Stephanie; Bloomfield, John; Gooddy, Daren; MacDonald, David; Ward, Rob

    2011-01-01

    There are significant groundwater resources in the Thames Basin (Figure 1) supporting approximately 40 per cent of public water supply. Additionally many of the rivers in the catchment are supported by groundwater from the underlying aquifers. Effective management of both groundwater resources and groundwater-dependent ecosystems requires a good understanding of how our aquifers behave. We must also consider how these systems will respond to future changes, in particular climat...

  7. To study the effects of groundwater contamination in Kasur due to Nallah Rohi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater contamination is a worldwide known problem. Pakistan, being a developing country, is also facing the problem created by groundwater pollution. Disposal of domestic wastes and agricultural treatments has been reported to be a considerable factor for causing the pollution, especially the groundwater contamination. In the rural areas of Pakistan, latrines and septic tanks have become common because of the advancement in the living standards. All of the domestic wastes is disposed off into the ponds or nearby passing streams. In the similar fashion, drains in the big and well developed cities of Pakistan lead the domestic waste, along with the industrial waste, into the passing by streams, canals and rivers. All of such disposed off waste is untreated because of the lack of legislation and its improper implementation. The contaminated water affects the health of human beings and also destroys the crops when this water is used for irrigation. So this paper deals with the effects and condition of the disposal of the harmful chemicals, which ultimately through seepage reach the groundwater and make it hazardous. Also, the lateral distances of the contaminated groundwater were found out. For experimentation, major city of Kasur which is in the vicinity of Nullah Rohi, was selected. All the wastes including both the industrial as well as domestic, of the whole area, is disposed off into the Nullah. The percolation of the harmful chemicals and its mixing with groundwater has resulted in the hazardous effects on the inhabitants of the area on the irrigation land as well. So the water in the vicinity, at different locations was tested and the degree of contamination and the lateral distances of contaminated water were also worked out. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  9. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  10. Environmental Characteristics of Groundwater: an Application of PCA to Water Chemistry Analysis in Yulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dong-lin; HUANG Song-lin; WU Qiang; ZHANG Rui; SONG Ying-xia; CHEN Shu-ke; LI Pei; LIU Shou-qiang; BI Cen-cen; LV Zhen-qi

    2007-01-01

    For our investigation into the water quality in Yulin city, we collected 76 typical water samples to be tested for particle quality. By applying a Romani type classification method the groundwater of Yulin city was classified into nine categories by type, i.e., Ca-HCO3, Na-HCO3, Na-HCO3-SO4-Cl, Na-HCO3-SO4, Na-Cl, Na-Cl-HCO3, Na-CaHCO3, Ca-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3-SO4-Cl. A principal component analysis was carried out in order to analyze the groundwater environment. From this analysis we considered that the information collected could be represented by 21 indices from which we extracted seven principal components, which, respectively, accounted for 37.4%, 13.0%, 8.1%,7.2%, 6.3%, 5.9% and 4.6% of the total variation. The results show that the groundwater environment of this region is largely determined by characteristic components of the natural groundwater background. One part of the water was polluted by leaching/eluviation of solid waste generated from coal mining. Another part of the ground water was contaminated by acid mine water from the coal layer and from improper irrigation. In addition, geological and hydrogeological conditions also cause changes in the water environment.

  11. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  12. Proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports on hydrogen contaminated soils and groundwater. Topics covered include: perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination; emerging hydrocarbon contamination issues; analytical methodologies and site assessment for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; environmental fate and modeling; remedial technologies for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; and risk assessment and risk management

  13. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  14. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2016-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  15. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  16. Characterizing interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Jialu River basin using major ion chemistry and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huaihe River, has been severely contaminated from major contaminant sources, such as a number of untreated or lightly treated sewage waste in some cities. Groundwater along the river is not an isolated component of the hydrologic system, but is instead connected with the surface water. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial variations in water chemistry affected by humans and to characterize the relationships between surface water (e.g. reservoirs, lakes and rivers and groundwater near the river in the shallow Quaternary aquifer. Concentration of Cl in north Zhengzhou City increased prominently due to the discharge of a large amount of domestic water. Nitrate and potassium show maximum concentrations in groundwater in Fugou County. These high levels can be attributed to the use of a large quantity of fertilizer over this region. Most surface water appeared to be continuously recharged from the surrounding groundwater (regional wells based on comparison surface water with groundwater levels, stable-isotopes and major ion signatures. However, the groundwater of a transitional well (location SY3 seemed to be recharged by river water via bank infiltration in September 2010. Fractional contributions of river water to the groundwater were calculated based on isotopic and chemical data using a mass-balance approach. Results show that the groundwater was approximately composed of 60–70% river water. These findings should be useful for a better understanding of hydrogeological processes at the river-aquifer interface and ultimately benefit water management in the future.

  17. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  18. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  19. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Shin Shyu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy.

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  2. Monitoring of pore water pressure and groundwater chemistry at MSB-2 and MSB-4 boreholes in the MIU construction site. April, 2004 - March, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been carried out investigations to understand the fluctuation of groundwater chemistry related to the shafts excavation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) in Mizunami City, Gifu prefecture, Japan. We compiled data of pore water pressure, water temperature and groundwater chemistry obtained from two surface-based boreholes, MSB-2 and MSB-4 boreholes, installed a groundwater monitoring system (MP system: Westbay Instruments Inc.) from April 2003. Groundwater sampling, chemical analysis and measurements of pore water pressure have been conducted once a month. This report summarized the data of groundwater chemistry and pore water pressure obtained from these two boreholes for two years (April, 2009 - March, 2006). A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  3. Isotope techniques application in understanding the recharge process of the Davao City aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area, 42 km x 33 km, is within the Talomo-Lipadas-Sibulan (TLSS) catchment basin. The groundwater aquifer is composed of reworked and redeposited overlapping flows of Quaternary pyroclastics. It has an upper unconfined aquifer composed of sand, gravel and occasional boulders which is tapped by shallow domestic wells. The deeper aquifer which is being tapped by wells of the Davao City Water District at depths ranging from 46 to about 140 meters below ground level is multi- layered aquifer separated by thin, relatively less permeable layers of clay. Three river systems, Lipadas River to the west, and Talomo and Davao Rivers to the east traverse the study area. These flow through the city and empty into Davao Gulf, south of the city. Chemical composition of the groundwater shows that most of the waters in the Talomo- Lipadas-Sibulan catchment (TLSS), are classified as Ca+Mg-HCO3 waters with the fluid with the exception of one well which is a mixture of Ca+Mg-HCO3 and Na+K-Cl waters. The composition diagrams of the water sources indicate mixing between water sources. The mean isotopic composition of precipitation in Davao City has been established from data obtained for the period December 1999 to January 2002 from four stations located at different elevations in the watershed. d18O values ranged from -13.51 per mille to -3.54 per mille and d2H values ranged from -85.28 per mille to -16.13 per mille. A local meteoric line (LMWL) was established for the region with the equation d2H = 8 d 18O +12. The isotopic composition of groundwater and surface waters in Davao City showed small variations, clustered along the LMWL. Groundwater from production wells with depths ranging from 90 m to 152 m, exhibited isotopic compositions ranging from -49.9 per mille to 39.90 per mille for δ2H and -7.64 per mille to -6.38 per mille. This suggests a uniform and large amount of groundwater recharge. Differences in recharge altitude and mixing of different water origin could

  4. FINITE ELEMENT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LAND SUBSIDENCE AND GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION BASED ON VISCO-ELASTIC PLASTIC BLOT'S CONSOLIDATION THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; ZENG Feng

    2011-01-01

    The land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation has an obvious hysteretic nature with respect to the decrease of the under groundwater level,and the uneven settlement often causes ground fissures.To study these important features,a visco-elastic plastic constitutive relationship with consideration of the coupling of seepage and soil deformation is proposed,and a finite element model with variable coefficients based on the Biot's consolidation theory is built.With the groundwater exploitation and the land subsidence control in Cangzhou City,Hebei Province as an example,the variations of the under groundwater level and the development of the land subsidence due to the groundwater exploitation are simulated and ground fissures are predicted by the horizontaldisplacement calculation.The results show that the lag time between the land subsidence and the under groundwater level descent is about a month,and the simulated results of fissures agree well with the observed data.The model can well reveal the characterization of the interaction between the land subsidence and the groundwater exploitation.

  5. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  7. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  8. Groundwater regulation and integrated planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe; Batelaan, Okke; Hunt, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of groundwater and the diversity of uses and environmental interactions call for emerging groundwater problems to be addressed through integrated management and planning approaches. Planning requires different levels of integration dealing with: the hydrologic cycle (the physical process) including the temporal dimension; river basins and aquifers (spatial integration); socioeconomic considerations at regional, national and international levels; and scientific knowledge. The great natural variation in groundwater conditions obviously affects planning needs and options as well as perceptions from highly localised to regionally-based approaches. The scale at which planning is done therefore needs to be carefully evaluated against available policy choices and options in each particular setting. A solid planning approach is based on River Basin Management Planning (RBMP), which covers: (1) objectives that management planning are designed to address; (2) the way various types of measures fit into the overall management planning; and (3) the criteria against which the success or failure of specific strategies or interventions can be evaluated (e.g. compliance with environmental quality standards). A management planning framework is to be conceived as a “living” or iterated document that can be updated, refined and if necessary changed as information and experience are gained. This chapter discusses these aspects, providing an insight into European Union (EU), United States and Australia groundwater planning practices.

  9. Summary report on groundwater chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal (in Finland) carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) during the period 1987 to 1992 yielded data on hydrogeochemistry from a total 337 water samples. The main objective of the groundwater chemistry studies was to characterize groundwaters at the investigation sites and, specifically, to create a concept for the mean residence times and evolution of groundwater by means of isotopic analyses. Moreover, the studies yielded input data for geochemical modelling and the performance assessment. Samples were taken from deep boreholes (with a depth of 500 to 1000 m), percussion-drilled boreholes (depth approx. 200 m), flushing-water wells (approx. 100 m) and multi-level pietzometers (approx. 100 m) used in the hydrological tests. The water used for drilling the deep boreholes was taken from local flushing-water wells, whose water was also analyzed in detail. The flushing water used in drilling was marked with two tracers, iodine and uranine, analyzed with two different methods. For reference purposes, samples were also taken from surficial and groundwaters over a large area surrounding the investigation site. Precipitation over a period of at least one year was collected at all the five investigation sites and the samples were analyzed in great detail, particularly with regard to isotopes. Similarly, snow profile samples representing precipitation during the entire winter was taken from each site at least once

  10. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1993-10-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code`s scalability.

  11. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  12. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  13. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  14. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  15. A multiphased approach to groundwater investigations for the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2014-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and public supply uses in the Pecos County region of western Texas. Resource managers would like to understand the future availability of water in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Pecos County region and the effects of the possible increase or temporal redistribution of groundwater withdrawals. To provide resource managers with that information, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1, completed a three-phase study of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in parts of Brewster, Jeff Davis, Pecos, and Reeves Counties. The first phase was to collect groundwater, surface-water, geochemical, geophysical, and geologic data in the study area and develop a geodatabase of historical and collected data. Data compiled in the first phase of the study were used to develop the conceptual model in the second phase of the study. The third phase of the study involved the development and calibration of a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Analysis of well, geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic data contributed to the development of the conceptual model in phase 1. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data was used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater-flow system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Geochemical data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water-rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources in phase 2. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction, as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map

  16. Are megacities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, E; Mazari-hiriart, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the poor environmental and living conditions in Mexico City due to its huge size. Mexico City's size is a challenge to sustainability, and the outcome is unknown. Mexico City and the geographic basin surrounding it included about 18.5 million population in 1995. The basin and surrounding volcanic ranges include nine major environmental zones. Urban growth followed four stages. Different cultures applied different solutions to water supply problems. The basin shifted from self-sufficiency to reliance on 31% of supplies from external watersheds. The water table is declining and canals are polluted. Irrigated agriculture is disappearing. There is an average water deficit of over 800 million cubic meters per year. Mexico City is actually sinking due to groundwater exploitation. There is bacterial contamination of wells due to improper seals. About 75% of the population has access to wastewater treatment and sanitation, but sewage treatment plants operate at under 50% efficiency and treat only about 7% of the total wastewater. Atmospheric pollution from suspended particles has been a problem for decades. Ozone was the most significant air contaminant in 1994. Lead was the most harmful pollutant in 1986. Air pollutants may be the source of submucosal inflammations. Industrial areas are contaminated with suspended particles and sulfur dioxide. High traffic areas have high carbon monoxide levels. Atmospheric pollution has affected the quality of the rainwater. The city survives by importing food, energy, wood, water, building materials, and other products. The development model aims to improve quality of life. The city has been the center of political power since Aztec times, and its preeminent position forces government action. The author concludes that there are limits to urbanization, which the city is approaching rapidly.

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas

  19. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  20. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  1. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case i...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  2. A stable isotope reconnaissance of groundwater resources in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater, surface water, spring water, and precipitation obtained during the monsoon season in the Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal were analysed for the stable environmental isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H). The distributions of the isotopes in the hydrologic cycle suggest that valley groundwaters have different origins. The Kathmandu Valley is a tectonic basin in the middle hill region of Nepal, 80 km south of the crest of the Himalayan Mountains. The 600 km2 bowl-like valley contains more than 400 m of lacustrine and fluvial sediments. The elevation of the relatively flat valley floor is roughly 1300 m. Steep hills surrounding the valley rise generally to 1600 m, and to a maximum of 2760 m. The small mountain reservoirs that supplied 80% of the drinking water for the city of Kathmandu (population exceeds 200 000) no longer meet demand during the dry season. New production wells show high levels of dissolved iron (> 2 mg/L) and high acidity (pH 18O and δ2H. The isotopically lightest sample was -10.4 and -74, and the heaviest was -6.9 and -55. Light surface waters originating in northern and southern uplands plot near the world meteoric water line. Waters with intermediate values, groundwater in the northern area of the valley and several small rivers, plot along a possible evaporation or mixing line. The heaviest waters, collected from a small river flowing from the east, groundwater in the centre of the valley, and deep groundwater containing natural gas in the southwestern area of the valley, all have signatures similar to those reported from the first range of the Himalayan uplift, roughly 1000 m lower in elevation. A volume weighted composite sample of rain water collected in the city of Kathmandu from August 22 to September 12, 1986 had values of -8.0 and -58. One overnight storm produced more than 10 cm of rain with values of -1.8 and -6. It is assumed that large variations between individual precipitation events are naturally averaged to

  3. High levels of uranium in groundwater of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, Jerome, E-mail: stoten@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dinh, Hau [College of Literature, Science and Arts, University of Michigan (United States); Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren [Department Of Preventive Medicine, School Of Public Health, Health Science University, Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush [Central Water Laboratory of Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (USUG), Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (< 0.1-7.9) {mu}g/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) {mu}g/L for Mn; 0.2 (< 0.05-1.9) {mu}g/L for Co; 16 (< 0.1-686) {mu}g/L for Zn; 0.7 (< 0.1-1.8) {mu}g/L for Se; < 0.1 (< 0.02-0.69) {mu}g/L for Cd; and 1.3 (< 0.02-32) {mu}g/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 {mu}g/L; range < 0.01-57 {mu}g/L), with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 {mu}g/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed water samples from wells across the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for total uranium along with arsenic, manganese, cobalt, zinc, selenium, cadmium and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that compared to other trace metals and metalloids, the levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline for drinking water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The health risk associated with drinking the groundwater

  4. Groundwater Potential of a Fastly Urbanizing Watershed in Kerala, India: A Geospatial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 6th order watershed, which hosts Thiruvananthapuram, the capitol city of Kerala State, India, has been studied in terms of groundwater potential, employing Geospatial Technologies. The watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 2600 mm. Geologically, the major part of the watershed is characterized by Khondalites, Charnockites and Migmatites of Archaean age, and the remaining by Tertiary sedimentaries, Miocene and Holocene formations. All these rocks are extensively lateritised. Geomorphology, geology, drainage, fracture systems in hard rocks and the slope of the terrain play a significant role on the accumulation and movement of groundwater in the watershed. The integration of these datasets has been accomplished through Geospatial technology. The basin area has been categorised into four zones, namely, Very high, High, Moderate and Low in terms of groundwater potential. It is estimated that about 35% of the watershed, comes under the very high to high category in terms of groundwater potential and is confined to the less inhabited upstream reaches. Low groundwater potential category dominates in the watershed which covers 40% of the area characterized by Built up Area, evidently due to the urbanization.

  5. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  6. Stream Nitrogen Inputs Reflect Groundwater Across a Snowmelt-Dominated Montane to Urban Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven J; Weintraub, Samantha R; Eiriksson, David; Brooks, Paul D; Baker, Michelle A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Bowling, David R

    2016-02-01

    Snowmelt dominates the hydrograph of many temperate montane streams, yet little work has characterized how streamwater sources and nitrogen (N) dynamics vary across wildland to urban land use gradients in these watersheds. Across a third-order catchment in Salt Lake City, Utah, we asked where and when groundwater vs shallow surface water inputs controlled stream discharge and N dynamics. Stream water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) reflected a consistent snowmelt water source during baseflow. Near-chemostatic relationships between conservative ions and discharge implied that groundwater dominated discharge year-round across the montane and urban sites, challenging the conceptual emphasis on direct stormwater inputs to urban streams. Stream and groundwater NO3(-) concentrations remained consistently low during snowmelt and baseflow in most montane and urban stream reaches, indicating effective subsurface N retention or denitrification and minimal impact of fertilizer or deposition N sources. Rather, NO3(-) concentrations increased 50-fold following urban groundwater inputs, showing that subsurface flow paths potentially impact nutrient loading more than surficial land use. Isotopic composition of H2O and NO3(-) suggested that snowmelt-derived urban groundwater intercepted NO3(-) from leaking sewers. Sewer maintenance could potentially mitigate hotspots of stream N inputs at mountain/valley transitions, which have been largely overlooked in semiarid urban ecosystems. PMID:26744921

  7. Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca D’Água galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes G.; Marques J.M.; Lopes M.E.; Devy-Vareta N.F.; Gomes A.; Fonseca P.E.; Plancha J.P.; Monteiro Santos F.A.; Cortez C.; Rodrigues P; Robalo P.M.; Afonso M.J.; Chaminé Helder I.; Pires A.; Rocha F.

    2010-01-01

    The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula) was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that f...

  8. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Benmenni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21st 2003 earthquake hit the region. The public discharge of Boumerdes city has been used as a temporary landfill. It is located about 5 km downtown of Boumerdes at the Tidjelabine site which is marly-calcareous formation. Leachate from the landfill was directly rejected in the receiving environment, where the soil is marly-calcareous type with cracks giving a variable permeability (10-2 m sec-1 to nearly 10-6 m sec-1 that facilitates infiltration of potential pollutants to the groundwater. The slope character (from 5-10% of the field contributes to pollutants movement and may accentuate water quality deterioration. Three domestic wells (designated S1, S2 and S3 were selected in the vicinity of the landfill and served as piezometers. Leachate samples were taken from the landfill and evaluated. Results: Leachate analysis indicated organic matter with relatively high COD (1136 mg L-1 O2 and BOD5 (200 mg L-1 O2; whereas the pH yielded 7.65 thus indicating fermentation phase of the landfill. Heavy metal contents were beyond national standard limits except for Pb with 0.51 mg L-1 which is slightly higher than limit value of 0.5 mg L-1. More than five years after the creation of this landfill and despite its predominant C&D nature, these results showed that it was following a typical urban wastes decomposition scheme. Same analysis carried on water samples drawn from the piezometers yielded following results: acidic pH (6.88, acceptable values of target heavy metals

  9. Healthy Cities: a guide to the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenzer, M

    2000-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on attempts by city governments, international agencies, and nongovernmental and community organizations to improve city life around the world through Healthy Cities projects.

  10. Cultural diversity, cities and innovation: firm effects or city effects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a...

  11. Groundwater flow pattern in the Ruataniwha Plains as derived from the isotope and chemistry signature of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ruataniwha Basin is situated in the upper Tukituki catchment, approximately 70 km south west of Napier City. The boundaries of the Ruataniwha Basin are the foothills of the Ruahine Range in the west, Turiri Range and Raukawa Range in the east and rolling hills in the north. The Ruataniwha Plains groundwater system is a multi-layered aquifer system that has a complex hydrogeological setting, as the plains evolved in response to sea-level changes, tectonic activity, and geomorphic processes. Aquifers in the basin occur in gravel, sandstone, pumice and limestone strata within a basin structure. In this study, groundwater samples have been collected for hydrochemistry, dissolved gases, and age tracer analysis. Tracer results were interpreted in terms of groundwater recharge source and rate, groundwater age, changes in groundwater source, and the homogeneity of the aquifers. This helps with conceptual understanding of Ruataniwha Basin groundwater flow patterns, and provides data for calibration of a numerical surface-groundwater flow model. Most water samples across the Ruataniwha Basin contain old water, with a mean residence time (MRT) > 25 years. The old age of most of the waters indicates that these groundwaters are not directly linked to surface water. In the south eastern part of the basin, all groundwater samples are old (>100 years), indicating slow movement of groundwater and slow recharge, consistent with the geology of the area. In the south eastern part of the basin the geologic units have low permeability. The age depth relationship is biased by upwelling groundwater and reflects the closed nature of the basin. The average vertical flow velocity indicates a recharge rate of 0.19 m/y. Four wells in the vicinity of the lower Waipawa River show excellent age-depth relationships, indicating absence of disturbance by groundwater upwelling. The recharge rate there of 0.42 m/y is substantially higher than in the other parts of the basin, indicating river

  12. Investigation of hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Harzandat aquifer, Northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Nosrat; Mogaddam, A A

    2011-05-01

    The Harzandat plain is part of the East Azerbaijan province, which lies between Marand and Jolfa cities, northwestern of Iran, and its groundwater resources are developed for water supply and irrigation purposes. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of limestone, dolomite, shale, conglomerate, marl, and igneous rocks. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in study area, 36 samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Chemical indexes like sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is generally very hard, brackish, high to very high saline and alkaline in nature. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: Cl(-) >HCO3(-)>SO4(2-) and Na(+) >Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facieses of groundwater is Na(-)Cl type, and alkalis (Na(+), K(+)) and strong acids (Cl(-), SO4(2-) are slightly dominating over alkali earths (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and weak acids (HCO3(-), CO3(2-). The chemical quality of groundwater is related to the dissolution of minerals, ion exchange, and the residence time of the groundwater in contact with rock materials. The results of calculation saturation index by computer program PHREEQC shows that nearly all of the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite) and undersaturated with respect to sulfate minerals (gypsum and anhydrite). Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that groundwater in study area is chemically unsuitable for drinking and agricultural uses.

  13. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  14. Groundwater Policy Research: Collaboration with Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Weinheimer, Justin; Amosson, Stephen H.; Almas, Lal K.; Golden, Bill B.; Wheeler-Cook, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The unique nature of the Ogallala Aquifer presents interesting and confounding problems for water policymakers who are coping with changing groundwater rules in Texas. The purpose of this article is to link previous efforts in water policy research for the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas with current collaborations that are ongoing with regional water planners. A chronological progression of economic water modeling efforts for the region is reviewed. The results of two recent collaborative studies ...

  15. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city m

  16. Escaping The Big Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The energy and excitement of first-tier cities,including Beijing,Shanghai,Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province,have long served as magnets attracting enthusiastic young people.But recent surveys have overturned the perception of this urban draw.

  17. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  18. Scarcity Makes the City

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The first talk in the series, Scarcity Makes the City, features Vancouver-based economic geographer Geoff Mann. Looking at how modern political economy affects social relations and our experience of everyday life, Mann will discuss how contemporary capitalist dynamics shape Vancouver’s urban context, and the pasts, presents, and futures that weave it together.

  19. Nature in the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  20. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  1. City of layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    mobility practices are played out in a relational space where the potential for movement is shifted in favour of the elite and the tourists. The Sky Train reconfigures the mobility patterns of the inner city of Bangkok in ways that are more than planning policies to overcome congestion and traffic jams...

  2. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  3. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak...

  4. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  5. City Kids Go Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  6. Cities on the GROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, Richard; Meulen, Suzanne; Mol, G.; Bailey, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Cities on the Grow is a cross-disciplinary project that has been funded by Climate-KIC, an initiative of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. It seeks to support the sustainable growth of urban food enterprises toward the implementation of more commercially viable business practices.

  7. Bandung City, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarigan, A.K.M.; Sagala, S.S.; Samsura, D.A.A.; Fiisabiilillah, D.F.; Simarmata, H.A.; Nababan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bandung City has grown to become a very important centre in Indonesia, demonstrating a higher economic growth rate than the national average. It has experienced many challenges resulting from rapid urbanisation, including slums, basic infrastructures, and flooding. Despite such issues, a gradual imp

  8. City fiiling / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Andres Alveri ja Tiit Trummali tähtsamatest töödest. Pikemalt Tallinna kesklinnas asuvatest majadest City Plaza ja Rävala Neli. Kommentaarid Rein Veidemannilt, Veljo Kaasikult, Hardo Aasmäelt, Toomas Tammiselt, Jaak Aaviksoolt ja Karin Pauluselt

  9. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  10. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  11. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  12. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  13. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  14. Guangzhou,The Spring City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Guangzhou is an ancient city with a history of 2800 years.It is named "the spring city" because with long summer the city is always with green plants and blooming with fresh flowers all years round.Myth legend tells of Guangzhou was founded by Five Immortals riding five rams, each ram planted a stalks of rice grain which symbolizes abundant of harvest or prosperity.And this is how Guangzhou got its nickname, "Yang Cheng" literally means "Goat City".

  15. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  16. Water-Rock Interaction and the Hydrogeochemistry of Chromium in Groundwater from Multilevels Monitoring Wells in Urania, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Antonio Bertolo; Leonardo Nobuo Oshima Marcolan; Christine Laure Marie Bourotte

    2009-01-01

    Anomalous natural concentrations of chromium, sometimes exceeding the potability limit (0.05 mg.L-1), have been detectedin the groundwater of Adamantina Aquifer in the municipality of Urânia, and in a wide region of the western part ofthe State of São Paulo. In order to identify the possible geochemical reactions that may explain the occurrence of chromiumin groundwater, chemical and mineralogical analyses were conducted in rock samples collected from deep boreholes drilledin the city of Urân...

  17. Estimated ground-water use in Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, Minnesota, for 2030 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, is studying six alternatives for delivering water to the Red River of the North Valley in North Dakota and to the cities of Breckenridge, Moorhead, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. In order to evaluate these alternatives the Bureau of Reclamation needs estimates of ground-water use for 2030 and 2050 for six counties in Minnesota: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study to estimate ground-water use in these counties for 2030 and 2050.

  18. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping. PMID:23243867

  19. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  20. Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fayez Abdulla; Tamer Al-Assa’d

    2006-06-01

    Jordan is an arid country with very limited water resources.Groundwater is the main source for its water supply.Mujib aquifer is located in the central part of Jordan and is a major source of drinking water for Amman,Madaba and Karak cities.High abstraction rates from Mujib aquifer during the previous years lead to a major decline in water levels and deterioration in groundwater quality. Therefore,proper groundwater management of Mujib aquifer is necessary;and groundwater flow modeling is essential for proper management.For this purpose,Mod flow was used to build a groundwater flow model to simulate the behavior of the flow system under different stresses.The model was calibrated for steady state condition by matching observed and simulated initial head counter lines.Drawdown data for the period 1985-1995 were used to calibrate the transient model by matching simulated drawdown with the observed one.Then,the transient model was validated by using drawdown data for the period 1996-2002.The results of the calibrated model showed that the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the B2/A7 aquifer ranges between 0.001 and 40 m/d. Calibrated speci fic yield ranges from 0.0001 to 0.15.The water balance for the steady state condition of Mujib aquifer indicated that the total annual direct recharge is 20.4 × 106 m3, the total annual in flow is 13.0 × 106 m3, springs discharge is 15.3 × 106 m3, and total annual out flow is 18.7 × 106 m3. Different scenarios were considered to predict aquifer system response under different conditions. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the model is highly sensitive to horizontal hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy and with lower level to the recharge rates.Also the model is sensitive to specific yield.

  1. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. M. de Graaf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global scale groundwater model (run at 6' as dynamic steady state using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The aquifer schematization and properties were based on available global datasets of lithology and transmissivities combined with estimated aquifer thickness of an upper unconfined aquifer. The model is forced with outputs from the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB, specifically with net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed variation in saturated conductivity causes most of the groundwater level variations. Simulated groundwater heads were validated against reported piezometer observations. The validation showed that groundwater depths are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95. The simulated regional scale groundwater patterns and flowpaths confirm the relevance of taking lateral groundwater flow into account in GHMs. Flowpaths show inter-basin groundwater flow that can be a significant part of a basins water budget and helps to sustain river baseflow, explicitly during times of droughts. Also important aquifer systems are recharged by inter-basin groundwater flows that positively

  2. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  3. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  4. Policy Preferences about Managed Aquifer Recharge for Securing Sustainable Water Supply to Chennai City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to bring out the policy changes with respect to managed aquifer recharge (focusing on infiltration ponds, which in the view of relevant stakeholders may ease the problem of groundwater depletion in the context of Chennai City; Tamil Nadu; India. Groundwater is needed for the drinking water security of Chennai and overexploitation has resulted in depletion and seawater intrusion. Current policies at the municipal; state and national level all support recharge of groundwater and rainwater harvesting to counter groundwater depletion. However, despite such favorable policies, the legal framework and the administrative praxis do not support systematic approaches towards managed aquifer recharge in the periphery of Chennai. The present study confirms this, considering the mandates of governmental key-actors and a survey of the preferences and motives of stakeholder representatives. There are about 25 stakeholder groups with interests in groundwater issues, but they lack a common vision. For example, conflicting interest of stakeholders may hinder implementation of certain types of managed aquifer recharge methods. To overcome this problem, most stakeholders support the idea to establish an authority in the state for licensing groundwater extraction and overseeing managed aquifer recharge.

  5. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana;

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  6. An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.

  7. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  8. Numerical simulation of groundwater artificial recharge in a semiarid-climate basin of northwest Mexico, case study the Guadalupe Valley Aquifer, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Gaytan, J. R.; Herrera-Oliva, C. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this study was analyzed through a regional groundwater flow model the effects on groundwater levels caused by the application of different future groundwater management scenarios (2007-2025) at the Guadalupe Valley, in Baja California, Mexico. Among these studied alternatives are those scenarios designed in order to evaluate the possible effects generated for the groundwater artificial recharge in order to satisfy a future water demand with an extraction volume considered as sustainable. The State of Baja California has been subject to an increment of the agricultural, urban and industrials activities, implicating a growing water-demand. However, the State is characterized by its semiarid-climate with low surface water availability; therefore, has resulted in an extensive use of groundwater in local aquifer. Water level measurements indicate there has been a decline in water levels in the Guadalupe Valley for the past 30 years. The Guadalupe Valley aquifer represents one the major sources of water supply in Ensenada region. It supplies about 25% of the water distributed by the public water supplier at the city of Ensenada and in addition constitutes the main water resource for the local wine industries. Artificially recharging the groundwater system is one water resource option available to the study zone, in response to increasing water demand. The existing water supply system for the Guadalupe Valley and the city of Ensenada is limited since water use demand periods in 5 to 10 years or less will require the construction of additional facilities. To prepare for this short-term demand, one option available to water managers is to bring up to approximately 3.0 Mm3/year of treated water of the city of Ensenada into the valley during the low-demand winter months, artificially recharge the groundwater system, and withdraw the water to meet the summer demands. A 2- Dimensional groundwater flow was used to evaluate the effects of the groundwater artificial recharge

  9. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This

  10. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  11. Review of Groundwater Protection and Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; ZHANG Ai-ping

    2008-01-01

    This review begins with an introduction of groundwater resources in China and their distribution characteristic, followed by an elaboration of the exploitation and utilization of groundwater and the negative environmental effects from groundwater overexploitation, and a description of the existing groundwater protection and management measures. At last, the existing problems in groundwater protection and management, with some suggestions, are presented.

  12. Identifying Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recharge epodicity in arid regions provides a method to estimate annual groundwater recharge given a relationship expressed as the recharge to precipitation ratio. Traditionally, in-situ observations are required to identify aquifer recharge events, while more advanced approaches such as the water-table fluctuation method or the episodic master recession method are necessary to delineate the recharge event. Our study uses the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations to estimate monthly changes in groundwater storage which are attributed to the combination of groundwater abstraction and episodic recharge in the arid southwestern United States. Our results illustrate the ability of remote sensing technologies to identify episodic groundwater recharge in arid regions which can be used within sustainable groundwater management frameworks to effectively manage groundwater resources.

  13. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  14. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  15. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretari??a de Recursos Hidra??ulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands. ?? 1981.

  16. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  18. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, I.E.M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; M. F. P. Bierkens

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral...

  19. Thermal management of an urban groundwater body

    OpenAIRE

    J. Epting; Huggenberger, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a management concept for the sustainable thermal use of an urban groundwater body. The concept is designed to be applied for shallow thermal groundwater use and is based on (1) a characterization of the present thermal state of the investigated urban groundwater body; (2) the definition of development goals for specific aquifer regions, including future aquifer use and urbanization; and (3) an evaluation of the thermal use potential for these regions.

  20. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the article, as well as the problems and the new opportunities in the ‘Experience city’. It focuses on the design of the ‘Danish Experience City’ with a special emphasis on hybrid...... to relate to the wider international debate and development. In section two we present the main theoretical concepts and framings that will guide the understanding and the analysis of the experience city. In section three we focus on the design of the ‘Danish experience city’ and present the first research...

  1. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development......The paper explores how urban bodies such as architecture, urban design, art works and social action can be drawn together in as urban assemblages producing “a movement of generalised deterritorialization”(Deleuze & Guattari 2004:78) in relation to the city. The first example, “The Elbæk bench...... milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over a period...

  2. City under the Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    military conflicts are taking place. Studying the wealth of public representations of Camp Century, established 1959-60 by the US Army 128 miles east of the Thule Air Base and often referred to as the “City under the Ice”, we find a sharp contrast between the domesticated interior and the superpower...... conflict that gave impetus to the camp’s construction. Presented to the public as a scientific station and a technologically-advanced, under-ice extension of the American way of life, while situated in the titanic struggle between West and East, Camp Century took on a number of closed-world meanings....... However, the military logic of Camp Century was self-referential and closed in the sense that the very idea of constructing the city under ice emerged from Cold War strategy. The closed world of Camp Century established a temporary boundary between, on the one hand, the comfortable space controlled by US...

  3. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    ” – urban furniture that was originally part of an election campaign for the cultural minister of Denmark, will illustrate how both political and artistic signatures become deterritorialized through urban space, time and every day social use. The second example is taken from corporate city development at...... the urban milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over...... a period of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether...

  4. Application of a modified conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulation of groundwater level in an undefined watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Hama, Takehide; Suenaga, Yuichi; Aqili, Sayed Waliullah; Huang, Xiaowu; Wei, Qiaoyan; Kawagoshi, Yasunori

    2016-01-15

    Groundwater level simulation models can help ensure the proper management and use of urban and rural water supply. In this paper, we propose a groundwater level tank model (GLTM) based on a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (tank model) to simulate fluctuations in groundwater level. The variables used in the simulations consist of daily rainfall and daily groundwater level, which were recorded between April 2011 and March 2015 at two representative observation wells in Kumamoto City, Japan. We determined the best-fit model parameters by root-mean-square error through use of the Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona algorithm on a simulated data set. Calibration and validation results were evaluated by their coefficients of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients, and root-mean-square error values. The GLTM provided accurate results in both the calibration and validation of fluctuations in groundwater level. The split sample test results indicate a good reliability. These results indicate that this model can provide a simple approach to the accurate simulation of groundwater levels. PMID:26410713

  5. Application of a modified conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulation of groundwater level in an undefined watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Hama, Takehide; Suenaga, Yuichi; Aqili, Sayed Waliullah; Huang, Xiaowu; Wei, Qiaoyan; Kawagoshi, Yasunori

    2016-01-15

    Groundwater level simulation models can help ensure the proper management and use of urban and rural water supply. In this paper, we propose a groundwater level tank model (GLTM) based on a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (tank model) to simulate fluctuations in groundwater level. The variables used in the simulations consist of daily rainfall and daily groundwater level, which were recorded between April 2011 and March 2015 at two representative observation wells in Kumamoto City, Japan. We determined the best-fit model parameters by root-mean-square error through use of the Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona algorithm on a simulated data set. Calibration and validation results were evaluated by their coefficients of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients, and root-mean-square error values. The GLTM provided accurate results in both the calibration and validation of fluctuations in groundwater level. The split sample test results indicate a good reliability. These results indicate that this model can provide a simple approach to the accurate simulation of groundwater levels.

  6. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  7. The Temporary City Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Niamh; McCarthy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The Temporary City Workshop was hosted by Dr Niamh Moore-Cherry on Tuesday 21 October in Nova UCD. The workshop is part of the Greening as Spatial Politics project funded by the IRC New Foundations scheme 2013 and is a collaboration between geographers at University College Dublin and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. The goal of the workshop was to facilitate networking across a diversity of stakeholders and initiate discussion on temporary urban interventions in Dublin. The workshop wa...

  8. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRAKTISTAN 2011 og udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY på Utzon Centeret i Aalborg vil vi derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at der i Urban design fagligheden er et potentiale. Både for de der bruger byen og for dem der udøver arkitekturen med en stærk urban intention i det skala...

  9. City of open works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava; Søberg, Martin; Braae, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    Cities change – and so do the tasks and agendas of landscapes architects. New types of urban schemes are increasingly arising. On the one hand, new sorts of commissions have emerged in recent years – on the other hand, traditional commissions have been interpreted in radically new ways. These con......-geneous design method. But what actually characterizes this new design method? We have pointed out five specific strategies...

  10. Tackling Cities' Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world will continue to rely on scientists and technicians to tackle looming challenges in climate,medicine and transportation.A forum addressing science and technological innovations and the future of urbanization was held in Wuxi City in east China's Jiangsu Province on June 21-22,where scientists and government officials the world over discussed these three main issues.Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Cities, connections and cronyism

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the global system of cities present a curious paradox. With the cost of communications declining almost to zero and substantial, though less dramatic reductions in transport costs, there is now little technical requirement for most kinds of production to be undertaken in any particular location, or for elements of production chains to be located close to each other. This fact has had dramatic consequences for the organisation of manufacturing industry. Simple production...

  12. Businessplan Smart Sustainable cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verdeyen, Nadia; Opstelten, Ivo; Eweg, Erlijn; Rietbergen, Marieke; Martinovic, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Uit voorwoord Anton Franken, lid CvB `Smart Sustainable Cities is een platform voor het bedrijfsleven, kennisinstellingen en Hogeschool Utrecht waar gezamenlijk vernieuwende producten en diensten worden ontwikkeld die de realisatie van slimme, duurzame en gezonde steden dichterbij brengt. Startende en ervaren professionals hebben hiermee de mogelijkheid om via het onderwijs of via bij- en nascholing de nieuwste toepasbare kennis en inzichten op dit gebied op te doen. Tevens verricht het platf...

  13. Transport for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    The global megatrend of the last century’s migration from rural to ever-larger conurbations has created immense gains to society through economies of scale and benefits from agglomeration. These include – other things remaining equal – a lesser need for transport because a bigger share of peoples’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. T...

  14. CityVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Learn to build and play CityVille to its full potential! You don't have to move to the city?just build one! Free to play, CityVille is a real-time simulation game that is available on Facebook and is the latest online game craze. As the only how-to beginner guide for new and current players, this helpful book walks you through the process of building a city from the ground up while acting as the city leader. You'll learn how to clear land, assemble roads, construct buildings, ship and import goods, trade with others, interact with the city's residents, and visit neighboring cities. Vibrant ful

  15. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  16. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration projectof Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field andlaboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent,on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Airpollution(odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt(TDS) ongroundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contaminationof surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  17. Water dating in groundwater resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that groundwater dating by tritium or radiocarbon can give valuable data on the groundwater age and, as a consequence, can provide information on the age structure and dynamics of the groundwater bodies. The question is: can they and to what extend can they give us a key to decide on the future dynamics on the man-impacted groundwater bodies? The three examples presented below attempt to demonstrate that the benefits and results can be gained from its use do not so much depend on the tool itself but on the art of using that tool

  18. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  19. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  20. In situ remediation of atrazine contaminated groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The natural attenuation of groundwater pesticides by biological degradation, is widely accepted to occur at concentrations > 1 mg 1-1. However from observations of groundwater monitoring data it can be indicated that the occurrence of pesticides in groundwater is primarily at trace μg 1-1 concentrations, with 45 % of UK groundwater samples that failed the EC Drinking Water Directives PV of 0.1 μg 1-1 between 1995 – 2000, accounting for an average concentration of 64 μg 1-1. However, there are...

  1. The role and limitations of groundwater vulnerability maps in evaluating groundwater pollution hazard beneath contaminated land

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Melinda; Stuart, Marianne; Robins, Nicholas; Davey, Ian R

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are currently being produced for the UK as a tool to aid decision making reagrding land use. The maps classify the hazard to groundwater in an underlying aquifer posed by a contaminant load on the ground surface. Their role in assessing the potential impact of contaminated land on groundwater is reviewed.

  2. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is

  3. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  4. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina;

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse...

  5. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  6. Evaluating Land Surface Changes of Makassar City Using DInSAR and Landsat Thematic Mapper Images

    OpenAIRE

    Alimuddin, Ilham

    2014-01-01

    Urban growth has been a major issue in environmental monitoring and changes occurred on land surfaces have been monitored by applying remote sensing as well as ground measurement. Most major cities in the world have experienced land subsidence phenomena on some parts of them due to the load of development and modernization. Excessive extraction of groundwater for the needs of industry has led to the condition where the water table drops, and this can possibly trigger subsidence, as observed ...

  7. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  8. Recharge source and hydrogeochemical evolution of shallow groundwater in a complex alluvial fan system, southwest of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fadong; Pan, Guoying; Tang, Changyuan; Zhang, Qiuying; Yu, Jingjie

    2008-09-01

    Many cities around the world are developed at alluvial fans. With economic and industrial development and increase in population, quality and quantity of groundwater are often damaged by over-exploitation in these areas. In order to realistically assess these groundwater resources and their sustainability, it is vital to understand the recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in alluvial fans. In March 2006, groundwater and surface water were sampled for major element analysis and stable isotope (oxygen-18 and deuterium) compositions in Xinxiang, which is located at a complex alluvial fan system composed of a mountainous area, Taihang Mt. alluvial fan and Yellow River alluvial fan. In the Taihang mountainous area, the groundwater was recharged by precipitation and was characterized by Ca-HCO3 type water with depleted δ18O and δD (mean value of -8.8‰ δ18O). Along the flow path from the mountainous area to Taihang Mt. alluvial fan, the groundwater became geochemically complex (Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl-SO4 type), and heavier δ18O and δD were observed (around -8‰ δ18O). Before the surface water with mean δ18O of -8.7‰ recharged to groundwater, it underwent isotopic enrichment in Taihang Mt. alluvial fan. Chemical mixture and ion exchange are expected to be responsible for the chemical evolution of groundwater in Yellow River alluvial fan. Transferred water from the Yellow River is the main source of the groundwater in the Yellow River alluvial fan in the south of the study area, and stable isotopic compositions of the groundwater (mean value of -8.8‰ δ18O) were similar to those of transferred water (-8.9‰), increasing from the southern boundary of the study area to the distal end of the fan. The groundwater underwent chemical evolution from Ca-HCO3, Na-HCO3, to Na-SO4. A conceptual model, integrating stiff diagrams, is used to describe the spatial variation of recharge sources, chemical evolution, and groundwater flow paths in the

  9. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  10. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  11. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  12. Detection of Septic System Waste in the Groundwaters of Southern California Using Emerging Contaminants and Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Conkle, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D.; Pang, F.; Gan, J.

    2011-12-01

    In California, groundwater supplies 30-40% of the State's water and in rapidly growing regions like the Inland Empire, groundwater makes up 80-90% of the municipal water supply. However, anthropogenic contamination could adversely affect groundwater quality and thereby reduce available supplies. Appropriate tracers are needed to identify groundwater contamination and protect human health. Stable isotopes δ15N and δ 18O offer unique information about the importance of nitrate sources and processes affecting nitrate in aquifers. We investigated the influence of septic systems on groundwater quality in and around the city of Beaumont, CA during 2010-11. Groundwater samples were collected from 38 active wells and 10 surface water sites in the region (urban and natural streams, agricultural drainage and groundwater recharge basins supplied by the California State Water Project). Stable isotopes and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed for all the water samples. The variations of δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate were 2 - 21 per mil and -4 - 9 per mil respectively. δ15N-NO3 values greater than 10 per mil have been associated with nitrate inputs from sewage and animal waste, but in the Beaumont wells, PPCP concentrations were at or below the detection limit in most wells with high isotope ratios. We also observed a strong linear relationship between δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate (slope of~ 0.5) in the vast majority of our samples including those with high isotope ratios. Our results suggest that denitrification was widespread in the Beaumont aquifer and strongly affected the isotope composition of nitrate. In some wells, PPCPs (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, meprobamate and diuron) and isotope measurements indicated inputs from human waste, but these sites were affected primarily by local waste-water treatment plant effluent. A mixing model was developed using multiple tracers to determine sources and contributions of groundwater

  13. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  14. A worldwide view of groundwater depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.; van Kempen, C.; Reckman, J. W.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades, global water demand has increased two-fold due to increasing population, expanding irrigated area and economic development. Globally such demand can be met by surface water availability (i.e., water in rivers, lakes and reservoirs) but regional variations are large and the absence of sufficient rainfall and run-off increasingly encourages the use of groundwater resources, particularly in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Excessive abstraction for irrigation frequently leads to overexploitation, i.e. if groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge over extensive areas and prolonged times, persistent groundwater depletion may occur. Observations and various regional studies have revealed that groundwater depletion is a substantial issue in regions such as Northwest India, Northeast Pakistan, Central USA, Northeast China and Iran. Here we provide a global overview of groundwater depletion from the year 1960 to 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree by assessing groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and subtracting estimates of groundwater abstraction obtained from IGRAC-GGIS database. PCR-GLOBWB was forced by the CRU climate dataset downscaled to daily time steps using ERA40 re-analysis data. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily global groundwater recharge (0.5 degree) while considering sub-grid variability of each grid cell (e.g., short and tall vegetation, different soil types, fraction of saturated soil). Country statistics of groundwater abstraction were downscaled to 0.5 degree by using water demand (i.e., agriculture, industry and domestic) as a proxy. To limit problems related to increased capture of discharge and increased recharge due to groundwater pumping, we restricted our analysis to sub-humid to arid areas. The uncertainty in the resulting estimates was assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis of 100 realizations of groundwater recharge and 100 realizations of groundwater abstraction

  15. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  16. Ecology and living conditions of groundwater fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, Barbara (Geo Innova AB (Sweden)); Hahn, Hans Juergen (Arbeitsgruppe Grundwasseroekologie, Univ. of Koblenz-Landau (Germany))

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the current state of ecological knowledge and applied research relating to groundwater. A conceptual picture is given of groundwater fauna occurrence in regard to Swedish environmental conditions. Interpretation features for groundwater fauna and applications are outlined. Groundwater is one of the largest and oldest limnic habitats populated by a rich and diverse fauna. Both very old species and species occurring naturally in brackish or salt water can be found in groundwater. Groundwater ecosystems are heterotrophic; the fauna depends on imports from the surface. Most species are meiofauna, 0.3-1 mm. The food chain of groundwater fauna is the same as for relatives in surface water and salt water. Smaller animals graze biofilms and detritus, larger animals act facutatively as predators. A difference is that stygobiotic fauna has become highly adapted to its living space and tolerates very long periods without food. Oxygen is a limiting factor, but groundwater fauna tolerates periods with low oxygen concentrations, even anoxic conditions. For longer periods of time a minimum oxygen requirement of 1 mg/l should be fulfilled. Geographic features such as Quaternary glaciation and very old Pliocene river systems are important for distribution patterns on a large spatial scale, but aquifer characteristics are important on a landscape scale. Area diversity is often comparable to surface water diversity. However, site diversity is low in groundwater. Site specific hydrological exchange on a geological facies level inside the aquifer, e.g. porous, fractured and karstic aquifers as well as the hyporheic zone, controls distribution patterns of groundwater fauna. For a better understanding of controlling factors indicator values are suggested. Different adequate sampling methods are available. They are representative for the aquifer, but a suitable number of monitoring wells is required. The existence of groundwater fauna in Sweden is considered as very

  17. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  18. Groundwater contamination and pollution in micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detay, M.; Alessandrello, E.; Come, P.; Groom, I.

    1989-12-01

    This paper is an overview of groundwater contamination and pollution in th e main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Republic of Belau (Palau). A strategy for the comprehensive protection of groundwater resources in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is proposed.

  19. Groundwater Site Characterization: A Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater remedial actions are highly complex projects. During the past 10 years, many remedial actions have begun, but very few have been successfully completed. This paper describes the complexity of groundwater remediation and offers an alternative management approach involving systems movement successfully utilized at a site in the…

  20. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.