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Sample records for backyard chickens bangladesh

  1. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in backyard and commercial layer chickens in Bhola district, Bangladesh

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    Mahfuzul Islam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh, during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. A total of 480 blood samples from chickens were collected from different upazilas (sub-districts of Bhola district. The sampling considered the types of chicken (backyard and commercial layer, age groups (pullet, adult and old and seasons (summer and winter. On the basis of the serum plate agglutination test, 55.83% (n=268/480 chickens were found positive for MG. The MG infection was higher (62.5% in backyard chickens as compared to those being reared in commercial farming systems (53.61%. With respect to age groups, the prevalence was highest in pullets (60.63% followed by adults (55.63% and old chickens (51.25%. Moreover, chickens reared in winter showed higher prevalence of MG (60.42% as compared to those reared in summer (51.25%. In conclusion, MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh. Appropriate strategies should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

  2. Zoonotic Public Health Hazards in Backyard Chickens.

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    Pohjola, L; Nykäsenoja, S; Kivistö, R; Soveri, T; Huovilainen, A; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-08-01

    Backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. In addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. However, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. The occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 51 voluntary backyard chicken farms in Finland during October 2012 and January 2013. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was investigated. The findings from this study indicate that backyard chickens are a reservoir of Campylobacter jejuni strains and a potential source of C. jejuni infection for humans. Backyard chickens can also carry L. monocytogenes, although their role as a primary reservoir is questionable. Campylobacter coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica were only found sporadically in the faecal and environmental samples of backyard poultry in Finland. No Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the virulence plasmid was isolated. All pathogens were highly susceptible to most of the antimicrobials studied. Only a few AmpC- and no ESBL-producing E. coli were found.

  3. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

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    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  4. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

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    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  5. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  6. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

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    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  7. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

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    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  8. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

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    P.K. Pathak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20 in free range conditions if plenty of natural feed resources are available. Chicks need brooding during initial 6 weeks of age to maintain the required body temperature and to protect from predators. In nursery rearing, feeding of broiler starter up to 28 days is better option but it can also be formulated with locally available materials. At 42 days of age, the birds can be let out under backyard free-range conditions. Birds should be vaccinated specifically against the Newcastle disease and fowl pox. The backyard poultry farming with improved birds provide a solution to food security to the needy villagers paving a way for sustainable agriculture in rural areas of India.

  9. Marek's disease in backyard chickens, a study of pathological findings and viral loads in tumorous and non-tumorous birds

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    Marek’s disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge on Marek’s disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. Forty backyard chickens with presumptive MD diagnosis based on hi...

  10. Prevalence of Antibodies to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Backyard Chickens around Maharlou Lake in Iran

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    Mohammad Mehdi Hadipour*, Gholamhossein Habibi and Amir Vosoughi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backyard chickens play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 500 backyard chickens from villages around Maharlou lake in Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 7.73 and 81.6%, respectively.

  11. Causes of mortality in backyard chickens in northern California: 2007-2011.

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    Mete, Ash; Giannitti, Federico; Barr, Bradd; Woods, Leslie; Anderson, Mark

    2013-06-01

    A 5-yr retrospective study was conducted to characterize the spectrum of diseases causing mortality in 1301 backyard chickens submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory in Davis, California. Infectious diseases were diagnosed in the majority (60.4%). Viral diseases comprised 50% of the infectious entities, followed by bacterial diseases with an incidence of 39%. Marek's disease in the viral group and Escherichia coli in the bacterial group were the most commonly diagnosed infectious diseases. Zoonotic agents including Aspergillus sp., Salmonella sp., Listeria sp., Mycobacterium sp., Candida sp., and Baylisascaris sp. were detected in 46 (3.5%) birds. Among noninfectious conditions, fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and reproductive tract adenocarcinoma were the leading causes of mortality. This analysis provides an overview of backyard chicken diseases for practitioners and avian pathologists working with backyard poultry. In addition, this study illustrates that backyard chickens do not seem to pose a major risk to public health, although zoonoses do comprise a notable portion (5.9% of all infectious cases) of isolated agents.

  12. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize Pasteurella isolated from backyard chickens using whole cell protein lysate profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to show their genetic relationship because Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important cause of fatal infections in backyard chickens. Methods:Twenty one P. multocida isolates were recovered previously from clinical cases of fowl cholera belonging to individual owners and phenotypically analyzed using biochemical tests and serotyping were used for the genetic characterization. Results:Phylogenetic study based on both methods revealed that the recovered population of P. multocida isolated from backyard chickens differs markedly, constituting a well-separated cluster and appearance of 3 distinguishing lineages with greater discrimination shown by RAPD-PCR that resulted in two suclusters in cluster A and three subclusters in cluster B and were related greatly with capsular serogroups for the examined strains. The whole cell protein revealed the presence of dominant protein bands at approximately 41 and 61 kDa in all of the examined isolates that may be a virulent proteins share in the increasing of its pathogenicity. Clear distinctive bands ranged from 123 to 1 554 bp. Conclusions: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P

  13. Backyard chickens in the United States: a survey of flock owners.

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    Elkhoraibi, C; Blatchford, R A; Pitesky, M E; Mench, J A

    2014-11-01

    Although it has become increasingly popular to keep backyard chickens in the United States, few studies have provided information about these flocks. An online survey of backyard chicken owners was conducted, advertised through Master Gardeners' websites, social platforms, and other sites. The survey had 56 questions about flock history, husbandry, health care, and owner attitudes and demographics. Surveys received (n = 1,487) came almost equally from urban, suburban, and rural areas. Most (71%) respondents owned fewer than 10 chickens and had kept chickens for less than 5 yr (70%). Major reasons for keeping chickens were as food for home use (95%), gardening partners (63%), pets (57%), or a combination of these. Rural respondents had larger flocks (P ≤ 0.001) and were more likely to keep chickens as a source of income or for show (P ≤ 0.001) than urban and suburban respondents. Owners thought that eggs/meat from their chickens were more nutritious (86%), safer to consume (84%), and tasted better (95%) than store-bought products, and also that the health and welfare of their chickens was better (95%) than on commercial farms. The majority (59%) indicated no flock health problems in the last 12 mo. However, there was a lack of awareness about some poultry health conditions. Many knew either little or nothing about exotic Newcastle or Marek's disease, and most (61%) did not vaccinate against Marek's. Respondents wanted to learn more about various flock management topics, especially how to detect (64%) and treat (66%) health problems. The Internet was the main source of information (87%) used by backyard flock owners, followed by books/magazines (62%) and feed stores (40%). Minimizing predation was the most cited challenge (49%), followed by providing adequate feed at low cost (28%), dealing with soil management (25%), and complying with zoning regulations (23%). The evidence obtained from this survey will help to determine what information and resources are

  14. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

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    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  15. Public health implications of lead poisoning in backyard chickens and cattle: four cases

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    Roegner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amber Roegner,1 Federico Giannitti,2 Leslie W Woods,2 Asli Mete,2 Birgit Puschner1,2 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Lead intoxication in livestock has historically been associated with cattle turned out to pasture and accidental ingestion of lead from drinking crankcase oil, licking grease from machinery, chewing on plumbing or batteries, or drinking water contaminated from leaching materials. Even with the decrease in manufactured items produced with lead, contaminants persist in the landscape and may enter the food supply through animal products. Changing patterns of open range herds moving to new pasture and the increased popularity of urban/suburban backyard chickens or other livestock necessitates public awareness about the clinical signs of lead intoxication, the potential for subclinical animals, public health concerns, particularly for exposure in children, and testing options available. Cases of lead intoxication in livestock demand a thorough case work-up to identify all sources of lead, address subclinical cases, evaluate risk to consumers, and make management suggestions for future prevention. We discuss four recent cases of confirmed lead poisoning in backyard chickens and open range cattle and assess the public health implications therein. Taken as a whole and considering the potential of the remaining herd or flock to be affected without necessarily showing signs, public health officials and veterinarians should be prepared to advise clients on case work-up and management and prevention considerations. Backyard chickens and cattle may not present for suspected lead poisoning as in several of the cases discussed herein yet may still contain concerning tissue or blood levels. The authors believe increased

  16. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens (Gallus domesticus) in and around Shimoga.

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    Javaregowda, Ananda K; Kavitha Rani, B; Revanna, Suresh Patel; Udupa, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51.36 %) were found positive for cestodes, includes 73 (77.6 %) Raillietina tetragona, 12 (12.8 %) Raillietina echinobothrida and 9 (9.6 %) Raillietina cesticillus. Whereas, 53 (28.96 %) were found harbouring nematode parasites includes 33 (62.3 %) had Ascaridia galli, 12 (22.6 %) had Heterakis gallinarum and 8 (15.1 %) had both A. galli and H. gallinarum infection. The remaining 36 (19.67 %) had mixed infections of both cestode and nematode parasites. The microscopic examination of the gut contents and faecal samples showed presence of coccidian oocysts and eggs of A. galli, H. gallinarum and Capillaria spp. respectively.

  17. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    RADFAR, Mohammad Hossein; Javad KHEDRI; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; NABAVI, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens ...

  18. Risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in backyard chicken farms, Thailand.

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    Paul, Mathilde; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Gasqui, Patrick; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thongratsakul, Sukanya; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François

    2011-06-01

    To reduce the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in humans, the pathways by which HPAI is spread in poultry must be determined. Backyard poultry farmers are particularly vulnerable to the threat of HPAI, with both their health and livelihoods at risk. Identifying the risk factors for HPAI infection in backyard farms should allow control measures to be better targeted. To study the risk factors of HPAI H5N1 infection, we carried out a case-control study on backyard chicken farms in Thailand, analyzing 104 case farms and 382 control farms. Data on farming practices and environmental characteristics were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. We show that farms where owners bought live chickens from another backyard farm had a higher risk of HPAI H5N1 infection (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.72-6.47), while those where owners used a disinfectant to clean poultry areas were exposed to lower risk (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.87). Our results highlight the important role of the trade of poultry between farms in the transmission of HPAI H5N1, in addition to farming practices and environmental characteristics. Findings from this study may help to tailor prevention measures to the local circumstances of backyard farms in different regions of the world.

  19. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Emily J., E-mail: Emily.Grace@newcastle.edu.au; MacFarlane, Geoff R.

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300 mg lead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1 mg lead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs. - Highlights: • We measured metal contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops in NSW Australia. • The levels of As, Cd, Cu and Zn were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs • The HIL for Pb in soil and the health standard for Pb in produce was exceeded in 7 of the 26 sites. • The level of Pb in home-grown eggs was higher than in commercial eggs. • As soil Pb increased, concentrations of Pb in eggs increased. No relationship was detected for Pb in feed.

  20. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

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    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  1. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

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    Mohamed-Wael Abdelazeem Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird types and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission.

  2. Assessment of the bioaccumulation of metals to chicken eggs from residential backyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Emily J; MacFarlane, Geoff R

    2016-09-01

    Soil in urban areas contains the residues of past land-uses and practices. Urban farming (keeping chickens, vegetable gardening) requires soil disturbance and can increase exposure of residents to these contaminants. We measured the level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc contaminants in soil and eggs from 26 backyard chicken coops across the Lower Hunter, NSW Australia. We compared the levels of metals in soil to Health Investigation Levels and metals in home-grown eggs to the levels in commercial eggs tested in this study or published by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. The levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc were low, both in soil and in home-grown eggs and were comparable to commercial eggs tested in this study. The Health Investigation Level for lead in soil (300mglead/kg soil) was exceeded at 7 of the 26 sites. The level of lead in home-grown eggs was generally higher than in commercial eggs. The reference health standard for meat (including chicken), fruit and vegetables of 0.1mglead/kg produce was exceeded in home-grown eggs from 7 of the 26 sites. There was a significant relationship between the lead level in eggs and the lead level in soil accessible to chickens. As soil lead increased, concentrations of lead in eggs tended to increase. No relationship was detected between the lead level in feed and in eggs. We recommend strategies to reduce ingestion of soil by chickens thereby reducing metal contamination in home-grown eggs.

  3. Serological Screening Suggests Extensive Presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in Backyard Chickens in Southern Mozambique

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    Taunde, Paula; Zandamela, Ana Felicidade; Junior, Alberto Pondja; Chilundo, Abel; Costa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    A total of 459 serum samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens originating from 4 villages in Mandlakazi district, Southern Mozambique, were tested for the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies through commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay [ELISA] kits. Anti-MG and anti-MS antibodies were detected in all villages surveyed and the overall seroprevalence was 48.8% [95% CI 39.1–57.8] and 84.5% [95% CI 76.8–90.4], respectively. The risk of being seropositive for both diseases was higher [P < 0.05] in Chidenguele village than other villages. It is concluded that MG and MS serum antibodies are present in backyard chickens.

  4. Questionnaire study and postmortem findings in backyard chicken flocks in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to ...

  5. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of Entre Rios in Argentina.

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    Xavier, J; Pascal, D; Crespo, E; Schell, H L; Trinidad, J A; Bueno, D J

    2011-04-01

    The present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection in backyard chickens located in Entre Ríos, Argentina, over 3 periods of time. A total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of Entre Ríos from January to May 2003 (first period), December 2004 to April 2005 (second period), and October 2006 to May 2007 (third period). The prevalence of family farms testing seropositive for Salmonella averaged 23.9, 15.9, and 28.6% during the first, second, and third period, respectively. The highest prevalence of Salmonella-seropositive farms recorded (66.7%) was on farms from Concordia county, and the lowest prevalence (0%) was on farms from La Paz county. In contrast, the prevalence of family farms seropositive for MG averaged 32.8, 55.1, and 76.2% during the first, second, and third periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MG-seropositive farms (100%) was found in the counties of Victoria and Tala, and the lowest prevalence (8.7%) was found on farms on Colón county. The prevalence of family farms seropositive for MS averaged 68.6 and 100% during the first and second periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MS-seropositive farms (100%) was on farms in 85% of the counties tested, and the lowest prevalence (21.7%) was on farms from Colón county. Salmonella, MG, and MS infection are present at high levels in backyard chicken farms, and this presents a high risk to commercial poultry production in Entre Ríos, the state with the highest chicken population and density in Argentina.

  6. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

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    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P backyard poultry production in Ethiopia.

  7. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chicken breeding in Northeast, Brazil

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    Marcela Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chickens bred in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. In total, 212 serum samples were collected from 16 properties, and 12 backyard chickens were collected in the six sanitary districts of Recife. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA was used to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA in brain, heart, liver and lung specimens. Of the samples analyzed by serology, 86/212 (40.56% were positive; of the samples analyzed by PCR, 2/12 (16.7% were positive, with both samples positive by both tests (serological and molecular. The presence of antibody anti-T. gondii and parasite DNA in tissues of these animals are worrying aspects for public health because there is a risk of transmission of the parasite to humans through eating undercooked or raw meat. Based on the results, the adoption of preventive measures to prevent the cats access to the chickens creations should be encouraged, since these animals were identified in most of the studied properties.

  8. Benefit cost analysis of Rhode Island Red chicken rearing in backyard on the basis of egg production performance

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    P. K. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze of the egg production features of backyard chicken rearing with an evaluation of production cost of an egg and there by benefit-cost analysis. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 60000 chicken covering five different agroclimatic zones in the state West Bengal, India. Initially each farmer was provided day-old Rhode Island Red chicks, commercial ration upto pre-laying stage having CP of 17.23% and 12.32% in chick and grower mash respectively along with common management support system for backyard poultry rearing viz. separate poultry night shelter and brooding facilities, deworming and vaccination and regular health check up system, later farmers were allowed to use the supplemented feed made by the locally available resources having various crude protein content. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in respect of total egg production under various supplemented crude protein containing feed, whereas significantly higher egg production feature is observed in Coastal and Old Alluvial zones. Conclusion: The study concluded that more profit was occurred to those farmers who provided the supplemented feed with less crude protein content along with scavenging. This scope is more in new alluvial zone. It was also observed that profit started from 11 month onwards in each agro-climatic zone as well as in each category of supplemented feed.

  9. Detection of T- and B-cell Target Antigens of Fowlpox Virus Isolated from Backyard Chickens in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bithi; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Samanta, Indranil; Das, Pradip K; Alam, Sk Sahanawaz; Nandi, Sudip

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of assessing the antigenic characteristics of a circulating pool of fowlpox virus (FPV) that exists in the backyard poultry system in India, one of the field isolates generated was characterized by in vitro immunologic techniques. FPV was isolated from clinically positive fowlpox cases (n  =  10) from the Jhargram (West Midnapur district) and Kakdwip (South 24 Pargana district) areas of West Bengal State, India. Initially, FPV-specific PCR was performed for confirmation of the samples. Isolation of FPV was done using embryonated chicken eggs and the choreoallantoic membrane route. Subsequently, FPV antigen was prepared from chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture-adapted field isolate. Biologic transmission of FPV was performed in Rhode Island red chickens experimentally to assess humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. High level of anti-FPV antibodies were observed in test birds as assessed by indirect ELISA. Seroreactive polypeptides (B-cell antigens) of FPV antigen with molecular weights of 44.5, 66.5, 75, 90.5, and 99 kDa were detected by western blot analysis. Significant increases in CMI responses were observed in inoculated chickens as assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytotoxicity assay, and T-cell immunoblotting. The predominant T-cell antigen of FPV detected had a molecular weight of 66.5 kDa. The present study revealed the antigenic characteristics of FPV that exists in backyard poultry system in West Bengal for the first time, thus exploring the rationality of designing future T- and B-cell vaccines against fowlpox.

  10. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  11. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Wael A; Ahmed, Ahmed I; Ibrahim, Awad A; Ahmed, Mohamed S

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6%) and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%), 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05%) and 5 could not be typed (23.8%). Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%), and 3 were type D (14.3%). The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  12. Pasteurella multocida in backyard chickens in Upper Egypt: incidence with polymerase chain reaction analysis for capsule type, virulence in chicken embryos and antimicrobial resistance

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    Moemen A. Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Pasteurella multocida strains among 275 backyard chickens from different regions of Upper Egypt was studied. A total of 21 isolates of P. multocida were recovered in 21 out of 275 chickens tested (7.6% and were confirmed using phenotypic characterisation. Somatic serotyping of the 21 isolates resulted in 12 isolates being classed as serotype A:1 (57.14%, 4 as serotype A:3 (19.05% and 5 could not be typed (23.8%. Capsular typing, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, demonstrated that 18 strains were capsular type A (85.7%, and 3 were type D (14.3%. The present findings suggest that a multiplex capsular PCR could be valuable for the rapid identification of P. multocida in cases of fowl cholera infection. A total of 5 isolates of P. multocida were selected to study their pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs instead of conducting a study in mature chickens. The results showed a variation in pathogenicity between the strains tested, namely: serotype A:1 strains caused 80% mortality, in contrast to 20% mortality by type D strains. Pathological findings included severe congestion of the entire embryo, haemorrhaging of the skin, feather follicles and toe, and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the liver of the inoculated embryos. The observations in this study indicate that P. multocida serogroup A could be highly pathogenic for mature chickens and therefore might be a cause of considerable economic losses in commercial production. A total of 10 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazol with trimethoprim and with varying degrees of sensitivity to the other agents.

  13. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region.

  14. Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, N A; Sultana, R; Muhsina, M

    2017-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interv......In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in...

  15. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings in commercial laying hens and in backyard chickens naturally infected with the infectious laryngotracheitis virus

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    IS Preis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-eight chickens from a very high poultry density (approximately eight million region and twelve backyard chickens from neighboring areas were analyzed by histopathology and additional techniques for the presence of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The virus distribution was determined in different tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The disease was histopathologically diagnosed in 41.0% (32/78 of the commercial layers. Lesions were mainly characterized by syncytial cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion body formed from the hyperplastic epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, primary and secondary bronchi, and conjunctiva. IHC showed 70% (21/30 positive signal in the larynx/trachea and, 53.8% (14/26 in the lungs, either in epithelial cells or syncytia. In the turbinates and paranasal sinuses, 29.6% (8/27 of samples showed positive signal. PCR detected the following gallid herpesvirus 1-positive percentages: conjunctiva 63.2% (31/49, lungs 57.6% (30/52, turbinates and paranasal sinuses 56% (28/50, and larynx/trachea 50% (39/78. IHC showed to be a useful additional tool for definitive ILT diagnosis, especially during the subacute phase of the disease when syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies are no longer observed. PCR using specific primers from ICP4 gene, generating a product of 237 base pairs, was sensitive for ILT diagnosis, and very useful for rapid detection of GaHV-1 in chickens. Fixed tissues allowing histopatological examination and detection of GaHV-1 by PCR, are a good option in areas where farms are located several hundred kilometers away from a diagnostic center, reducing problems with conservation of fresh samples and the risk of virus spread.

  16. Social network analysis for assessment of avian influenza spread and trading patterns of backyard chickens in Nakhon Pathom, Suphan Buri and Ratchaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolkhet, C; Chairatanayuth, P; Thongratsakul, S; Yatbantoong, N; Kasemsuwan, S; Damchoey, D; Rukkwamsuk, T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the social networks of the backyard chicken in Ratchaburi, Suphan Buri and Nakhon Pathom Provinces. In this study, we designed the nodes as groups of persons or places involved in activities relating to backyard chickens. The ties are all activities related to the nodes. The study applied a partial network approach to assess the spreading pattern of avian influenza. From 557 questionnaires collected from the nodes, the researchers found that the degree (the numbers of ties that a node has) and closeness (the distance from one node to the others) centralities of Nakhon Pathom were significantly higher than those of the others (P0.05). In this study, the nodes that play an important role in all networks are farmers who raise consumable chicken, farmers who raise both consumable chicken and fighting cocks, farmers' households that connect with dominant nodes, and the owners and observers of fighting cocks at arenas and training fields. In this study, we did not find cut points or blocks in the network. Moreover, we detected a random network in all provinces. Thus, connectivity between the nodes covers long or short distances, with less predictable behaviour. Finally, this study suggests that activities between the important nodes must receive special attention for disease control during future disease outbreaks.

  17. Salmonella awareness and related management practices in U.S. urban backyard chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, A; Garber, L; Sakugawa, J; Kopral, C

    2013-07-01

    Raising chickens in urban settings is a growing phenomenon in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted a cross-sectional study to better understand health and management of privately owned chicken flocks, and Salmonella awareness among chicken owners, in three urban settings-Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; and Miami, Florida. Feed stores in each city were visited by data collectors during summer 2010, and customers who owned chickens were asked to complete a questionnaire. A convenience sample of 449 feed store customers was selected, and 382 (85.1%) customers participated in the study. For analysis, a stratified random sample was assumed, with the strata being individual feed stores. Median flock sizes were 5, 11 and 19 chickens in Denver, Los Angeles and Miami, respectively. In all three cities, over three-fourths of flocks contained table egg chicken breeds on the day the questionnaire was completed. In Denver, 20.4% of flocks had another species of bird present in addition to chickens, compared with 65.6% of flocks in Los Angeles and 53.6% of flocks in Miami. At the time of data collection in 2010, less than 50% of respondents in Miami and Los Angeles (40.0 and 30.2%, respectively) were aware of a connection between poultry contact, such as contact with chicks or ducks, and Salmonella infection in people, compared to 63.5% of respondents in Denver. Urban chicken flock owners who completed the questionnaire in English were more likely to be aware of the connection between poultry contact and Salmonella, compared with respondents who completed the questionnaire in Spanish (OR=3.5). The likelihood of Salmonella awareness was also higher for respondents who had heard of USDA's Biosecurity for Birds educational campaign and for respondents who sold or gave away eggs from their flocks (OR=2.5 and 2.8, respectively). Study findings demonstrate the importance of

  18. Seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease in backyard chickens of North West Ethiopia

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    S.A. Kassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in North Gondar and West Gojjam Administrative Zones from November 2009 to June 2010 to determine the seroprevalence of infectious bursal disease by using I-ELISA (Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 400 chickens raised in the back yard production system, 200 from each study area, were randomly selected and examined for the presence of anti-IBD (anti- infectious bursal disease antibody. Anti-IBD antibody was detected from 294 chickens and this gives an overall seroprevalence of 73.5% (294/400 for the entire study area, where the higher 75% (150/200 and the lower 72% (144/200 was recorded from samples collected in West Gojjam and North Gondar respectively. Even though, place of origin and sex was considered as potential risk factors, the study result shows that variation in place of origin and sex of chickens doesn’t have significant influence on the occurrence of IBD (Infectious bursal disease. Generally, the higher prevalence (73.5% reported in this study indicates that the disease is widely distributed and one of the potential threat for poultry production in the study areas.  

  19. Modeling the dynamics of backyard chicken flows in traditional trade networks in Thailand: implications for surveillance and control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Paul, Mathilde Cécile; Bicout, Dominique Joseph; Tiensin, Thanawat; Triampo, Wannapong; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine

    2014-06-01

    In Southeast Asia, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by epidemics caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) virus. In Thailand, the trade of live backyard chickens is based on the activities of traders buying chickens from villages and supplying urban markets with chicken meat. This study aims to quantify the flows of chickens traded during a 1-year period in a province of Thailand. A compartmental stochastic dynamic model was constructed to illustrate trade flows of live chickens from villages to slaughterhouses. Live poultry movements present important temporal variations with increased activities during the 15 days preceding the Chinese New Year and, to a lesser extent, other festivals (Qingming Festival, Thai New Year, Hungry Ghost Festival, and International New Year). The average distance of poultry movements ranges from 4 to 25 km, defining a spatial scale for the risk of avian influenza that spread through traditional poultry marketing chains. Some characteristics of traditional poultry networks in Thailand, such as overlapping chicken supply zones, may facilitate disease diffusion over longer distances through combined expansion and relocation processes. This information may be of use in tailoring avian influenza and other emerging infectious poultry disease surveillance and control programs provided that the cost-effectiveness of such scenarios is also evaluated in further studies.

  20. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Sonali chickens at Bogra Sadar Upazila, Bogra, Bangladesh

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    Md. Lipon Talukdar

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that several infectious diseases are commonly present in Sonali chicken in the study area of Bangladesh. Mixed infections are more prevalent as compared to single infection. Proper hygienic management and appropriate vaccination should be taken in consideration for effective control the diseases. Further microbiological and molecular diagnoses are suggested for detail studies of these diseases and their pathogens. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 39-44

  1. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; PNewcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens.

  2. Investigation of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus and eggs sold in free markets in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Valdez Juval Rocha Gomes Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and byproducts are the main protein source for man. However, such foods are related to outbreaks of food-borne infections around the world, caused mainly by Salmonella spp. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in material collected in properties of backyard chickens (eggs, ration, cloacal swab and drag swab and to perform a survey of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in eggs commercialized in the main free markets of Fortaleza. Individual cloacal swabs were collected from 405 backyard chickens from 18 houses and 10 eggs were also collected for analysis of eggshell and internal content from each sampled household, totaling 180 eggs. From the free markets, 90 eggs were collected. Once sampled, the ration, cloacal swab, drag swab, shell and internal contents of eggs were incubated in Peptone Water and aliquots were placed in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin. Following, aliquots of each broth were streaked in plates Brilliant Green agar and MacConkey agar. Suspect colonies for Salmonella spp. were submitted to biochemical identification, with the temperature and incubation time standardized in 37ºC/24h, respectively. Eggs collected from houses were broken in sterile beaker and maintained in bacteriological incubator at 37ºc/24h. After such period, aliquots collected were incubated in Rappaport- Vassiliadis broth and Selenite-Cystine broth added Novobiocin, following the same bacteriological procedure mentioned previously for swabs. Eggs from free markets were analyzed with the same methodology as the house eggs, minus the antibiotic Novobiocin in the Selenite-Cystin broth, and with further biochemical tests used to identify the different members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from swab or egg samples. However, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Klebsiella

  3. Detection of antibiotic resistant Avibacterium paragallinarum from broiler chickens in Bangladesh

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    Mst. Mousumi Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt was undertaken for the detection and characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from clinically sick broiler chickens during field outbreaks. Materials and methods: Nasal and ocular discharges (n=6, tracheal swab (n=6, tracheal washing (n=4 and infraorbital sinus exudates (n=4 were collected aseptically from broiler chickens (n=10. To isolate A. paragallinarum, the clinical samples were cultured onto blood agar and chocolate agar enriched with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD and feeder organism (Staphylococcus aureus. Identification of A. paragallinarum was performed by Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation profiles using five basic sugars (Dextrose, Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose and Mannitol and biochemical tests (Indole, Voges Proskauer and Methyl red tests. Antibiogram of the bacterial isolates of infected chicken was performed against five antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin using disk diffusion method. Results: Results of colonial morphology, Gram staining reaction, sugar fermentation and biochemical tests confirmed one isolate as A. paragallinarum. The overall prevalence of IC in broiler chicken was 10% (1 of 10. This isolate was found to be sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Azithroycin and Gentamicin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. Conclusion: This is the first report of detection of A. paragallinarum from broiler chicken in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 173-177

  4. Prevalence and impact of gastrointestinal helminths on body weight gain in backyard chickens in subtropical and humid zone of Jammu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R; Khajuria, J K; Borkataki, S; Sodhi, S S

    2012-04-01

    Necropsy of gastrointestinal tract of 125 free-range chickens from a subtropical and humid zone of northwestern India revealed four nematode spp. (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Cheilospirura hamulosa) and four cestode spp. (Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona and Amoebotaenia cuneata) The overall prevalence of the helminth parasites was 72.0%. Amongst various helminth species encountered in the region, A. galli emerged out as the most prevalent, followed by H. gallinarum, R. cesticillus and R. echinobothrida. The impact of helminthic infections on body weight gain in growing chickens was investigated. One hundred growing chickens, aged 40 days were randomly assigned to two groups (treated and untreated controls) of 50 birds each. The birds in treated group were given fenbendazole at 7.5 mg per kg body weight in drinking water, while the birds in other group served as untreated controls. At the end of the 90 days of the field trial, the mean body weight gain of untreated controls was 1232.2 ± 7.28 g (13.7 g/day) compared with 1617.6 ± 5.43 g (18.0 g/day) in the treated group. It was associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean worm burden (32.92 ± 6.12) in untreated controls than the treated group (2.46 ± 1.14). The prevalences of helminthic species and their impact on body weight gain in growing backyard chickens have been discussed.

  5. Phylogenetic study-based hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) detected from backyard chickens in Iran, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Syed Ali; Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Maghsoudloo, Hossein; Tehrani, Farshad; Khaltabadifarahani, Reza; Abdollahi, Hamed; Fallah, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.

  6. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  7. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  8. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  9. Popular Backyard Flock program reduces biosecurity risks of amateur production

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Sarah; Mete, Asli

    2013-01-01

    The California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories provide free necropsy (postmortem examination) services to owners of backyard poultry through the Backyard Flock program funded by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. We collected and analyzed data on the number of poultry submissions to the program between 2007 and 2012, the lab totals by location and the diseases diagnosed. During those 6 years, submissions increased 383%, with chickens representing 91% of them, and th...

  10. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Muzyka, Denys; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Solodiankin, Olexii; Gerilovych, Anton; Stegniy, Borys; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Silko, Nikita Y; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site ("113RQKR↓F117"), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranging from 1.61 to 1.96. These isolates are most closely related to viruses circulating in Eastern Europe, followed by viruses isolated in Asia during the same period of time. Interestingly, the majority of the viruses were isolated from backyard poultry, suggesting the possibility of a "domestic" or "urban" cycle of maintenance. The molecular characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the complete fusion protein gene of the studied viruses suggests continued circulation of virulent NDV of sub-genotype VIId in Eastern Europe, with occasional introductions from Asia. Furthermore, the high level of genetic similarity among those isolates suggests that the NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIId from Bulgaria and Ukraine may have been part of a broader epizootic process in Eastern Europe rather than separate introductions from Asia or Africa. The continuous monitoring of backyard poultry flocks for the presence of circulating virulent NDV strains will allow early identification of Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  11. Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Md. Abdul; Islam, Md. Ariful; Khatun, Mst. Minara

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. Results: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0.84%, and in layer, prevalence was 0.80%. The prevalence of colibacillosis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 25-30 days old and 31-35 days old broiler, respectively. In case of layer birds, the prevalence was 0.6% in 40-45 days old bird and 1% in 46-50 days old bird. Identity of the E. coli isolate of chicken was confirmed by sugar fermentation, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction assay. Antibiogram profile of E. coli isolate of chicken revealed that it was multidrug resistant (resistant against two antibiotics, such as ampicillin and cefalexin). Conclusion: Data of this study suggest that colibacillosis is prevalent in the study areas which underscore the need of implementation of prevention and control measure against this disease. PMID:28246445

  12. Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Matin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. Results: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0.84%, and in layer, prevalence was 0.80%. The prevalence of colibacillosis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 25-30 days old and 31-35 days old broiler, respectively. In case of layer birds, the prevalence was 0.6% in 40-45 days old bird and 1% in 46-50 days old bird. Identity of the E. coli isolate of chicken was confirmed by sugar fermentation, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction assay. Antibiogram profile of E. coli isolate of chicken revealed that it was multidrug resistant (resistant against two antibiotics, such as ampicillin and cefalexin. Conclusion: Data of this study suggest that colibacillosis is prevalent in the study areas which underscore the need of implementation of prevention and control measure against this disease.

  13. Frequent use of colistin-based drug treatment to eliminate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in backyard chicken farms in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Jinnai, Michio; Kawahara, Ryuji; Diep, Khong Thi; Thang, Nguyen Nam; Hoa, Tran Thi; Hanh, Le Kieu; Khai, Pham Ngoc; Sumimura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Reports of livestock infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) are increasing. Based on interviews conducted over a 6-month period, we found that veterinarians in the Vietnamese province of Thai Binh prefer to prescribe colistin-based drugs (CBD) in chicken farms. We aimed to clarify whether CBD use selects for strains of colistin-resistant ESBL-E. With the cooperation of seven local households, we detected ESBL-E in chickens' feces after treating chickens with CBD. Phylogenetic groupings and the presence of CTX-M/AmpC genes were determined, and the multi-antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was analyzed. Our results showed that ESBL-E presented in seven chickens' feces from two households. Seventy-two percent of ESBL-E isolates harbored CTX-M9 and the phylogenetic group A; the colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all isolated ESBL-E ranged from 0.064 to 1 μg mL(-1). Moreover, ESBL-E isolates were used to experimentally select for colistin resistance, and the effect of commercial CBD on ESBL-E was investigated. The results showed that an ESBL-E strain with a colistin MIC of 4 μg mL(-1) was able to grow in media with CBD. Although CBD treatment was effective, in vitro experiments demonstrated that ESBL-E can easily acquire colistin resistance. Therefore, restrictions on colistin use are necessary to prevent the emergence of colistin-resistant bacteria.

  14. Backyard Infrared Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    In this time of concern over climate change due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, teachers often choose to extend relevant classroom work by the use of physical models to test statements. Here we describe an activity in which inexpensive backyard models made from cardboard boxes covered with various household transparent materials allow…

  15. Evaluation of Maryland backyard flocks and biosecurity practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-06-01

    Domesticated poultry are susceptible to infectious and zoonotic diseases and can serve as a transmission source to other bird and human populations. In recent years, the number of noncommercial poultry has been on the rise in the United States. To evaluate potential risks of this growing population, a descriptive epidemiologic survey was conducted among Maryland backyard flocks. Owner and flock demographics were characterized as well as management practices such as husbandry, human-to-bird interaction, bird exposure risks, poultry health status, and biosecurity. Data from the 41 returned questionnaires indicated a median flock size of 38 birds (range, 3-901). Chickens accounted for 86.5% of the reported birds overall. Just over half of the owners (51.2%) kept chickens only, with the remaining backyard flocks consisting of chickens, other gallinaceous species, waterfowl, or a combination. Of flocks with multiple species, 70.0% of owners did not keep them separate. Almost two thirds of owners (61.0%) had kept poultry for backyard flocks. These results can be useful in developing educational extension and outreach programs as well as policies, in efforts to further mitigate the spread of diseases.

  16. Study of poultry coccidiosis in organized and backyard farms of Jammu region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Sharma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the Prevalence of chicken coccidiosis in Jammu division in both organized and backyard chickens during the year 2010-11. Materials and Methods: A total of 720 faecal samples were collected from both organized farms and backyard poultry (unorganized sector of Jammu. Results: The overall prevalence of 39.58% was recorded in the present study and five Eimeria species were identified viz., E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima, E. acervulina and E. mitis. E. tenella was the predominant species in both organized and unorganized farms. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of 53.61% in unorganized (backyard poultry birds as compared to organized birds (25.55% was recorded. The prevalence was the highest in monsoon from both organized and unorganized managemental practices. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 467-469

  17. Molecular epidemiology of circulating highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in chickens, in Bangladesh, 2007-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2012-01-01

    200 km and within 14 days of each other. This might indicate long distance dispersal through vectors such as migratory birds and vehicles, and challenges the effectiveness of movement restriction around 10 km radius of an outbreak. The study indicates possible endemicity of the clade 2.2 HPAI-H5N1...... virus in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the formation of a subclade capable of transmission to humans cannot be ruled out. The findings of this study might provide valuable information for future surveillance, prevention and control programme....

  18. Zoonoses, public health, and the backyard poultry flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L

    2011-09-01

    Raising a small flock of poultry for eggs, meat, and possibly companionship is becoming an increasingly popular hobby in the United States. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus, forma domestica), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, forma domestica), and members of the family Anatidae including ducks, geese, and swans are commonly kept in these privately owned backyard flocks. Multiple bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases which affect poultry are known zoonotic pathogens. This article reviews these zoonoses and gives recommendations for flock biosecurity, as well as for prevention of infection in both birds and humans. Diseases associated with other gallinaceous birds are only selectively discussed.

  19. THE BACKYARD OF THE CORN FARMERS. SAN NICOLÁS DE LOS RANCHOS, PUEBLA-MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis López González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the contribution that the backyards of corn farmers make to food security and the preservation and conservation of plant and animal diversity, and its link with farmers' knowledge, in San Nicolas de los Ranchos. To this end, 77 producers surveyed randomly selected corn was calculated using an equation, the role of food security in the backyard, and the calculation of the diversity index and species richness that helped expose the plant diversity found also estimated the amount of dung that provide animals to backyard farming, this helped to show synergy livestock farming. Some results suggest that the products obtained in the backyard contribute to feeding the family. Also found plant and animal diversity, as are most ornamental plants, food and medicinal use, it is also possible to identify animals such as chickens, turkeys, sheep, goats, cows, horses and donkeys.

  20. Anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal e detecção do genoma viral em criações de frango de corte e galinhas de quintal no polo avícola da Bahia Antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease virus and viral genome detection in broilers and chickens backyard at Bahia's poultry production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de anticorpos e detectar o genoma viral do vírus da Doença Infecciosa Bursal em criações de frangos de corte e em criações de subsistência localizadas em duas regiões do polo avícola da Bahia. Foram coletadas 758 amostras de soro de frangos de corte e 320 amostras de galinhas de quintal para avaliação da frequência de anticorpos utilizando ELISA indireto. Para a detecção e caracterização do vírus foram coletados 6 pools de bursas de Fabrícius em frangos de corte e 3 pools em criações de subsistência, analisados posteriormente com PCR/RFLP. Os resultados revelaram que não há proteção uniforme na criação comercial nas duas regiões estudadas, sugerindo falha na vacinação e desafio com vírus no ambiente. Também observaram-se altos títulos em galinhas de quintal não vacinadas, com variação nos títulos relacionada com desafios de campo. Nos testes moleculares, verificaram-se que três pools de frangos de corte eram positivos, sendo dois para cepa vacinal (G3 e um para cepa variante (G15. Nas criações de subsistência, houve uma amostra positiva para cepa variante (G15. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento em ambas as criações.The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies anti-Infectious Bursal Disease Virus as well as to detect the virus in broilers and chicken backyard, raised in two different regions at Bahia's poultry production area. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from broilers and 320 from chicken backyard, in order to assess the frequency of antibodies using an indirect ELISA. For virus detection and characterization it was collected 6 bursal pools from broilers and 3 from chicken backyard, which were further analyzed with PCR/RFLP. The results showed that there is no uniform protection in commercial flocks of the two different regions, suggesting that it may be occurring vaccination errors and

  1. Cluster randomised trial of the impact of biosecurity measures on poultry health in backyard flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Holl, Davun; Ra, Sok; Ponsich, Aurélia; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-12-01

    In Cambodia, most poultry are raised in backyard flocks with a low level of biosecurity, which increases the risk of spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a practical biosecurity intervention based on affordable basic measures. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in 18 villages in Cambodia from November 2009 to February 2011. Generalised estimating equations were used to test the association between the intervention and mortality rates in flocks of chickens and ducks. Mortality rates in chicken flocks in intervention villages (mean 6.3%, range 3.5-13.8%, per month) were significantly higher than in control villages (mean 4.5%, range 2.0-9.7%, per month; Pbiosecurity intervention implemented in this study was not associated with improvements in poultry mortality rates. These findings suggest that basic biosecurity measures may not suffice to limit the spread of infectious diseases in backyard poultry flocks in Cambodia.

  2. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  3. Prevalence and differentiation of diseases in Maryland backyard flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-09-01

    Several epidemiologic surveillance studies have implicated backyard flocks as a reservoir for poultry diseases; however, much debate still exists over the risk these small flocks pose. To evaluate this concern, the prevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Salmonella was determined in 39 Maryland backyard flocks. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds throughout nine counties in Maryland. Through PCR and ELISA analysis, disease prevalence and seroprevalence were determined in flocks, respectively, for the following: ND (0%, 23%); ILT (26%, 77%); MG (3%, 13%); and Salmonella (0%, not done). Vaccine status could not be accurately confirmed. Premise positives were further differentiated and identified by partial nucleotide sequencing. Screening of the 10 ILT premise positives showed that most were live attenuated vaccines: eight matched a tissue culture origin vaccine, one matched a chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine, and one was CEO related. The single MG-positive flock, also positive for the CEO-related sequence, was identified as the infectious S6 strain. The prevalence rates for these economically important poultry diseases ranged from none to relatively low, with the vast majority of sampled flocks presenting no clinical signs.

  4. Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M L; Roberts, V

    2014-10-01

    In law, backyard poultry are "food-producing animals" and "farmed animals" and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple "flock-health plan". This article reviews these topics.

  5. The prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in domestic 'backyard' poultry in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Horn, B J; Gilpin, B J

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most commonly notified illness in New Zealand. Whilst the importance of commercial poultry in campylobacteriosis is well established, little is known about the possible role of chickens kept at home as a direct animal/faecal contact or consumption exposure pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in domestic backyard chicken flocks in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. Poultry faecal samples were collected from 35 domestic 'backyard' poultry flocks from urban and rural properties around the Canterbury Region of New Zealand. A total of 291 samples were collected and tested for the presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and positive isolates were analysed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using both SmaI and KpnI enzymes. There was a high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. with 86% of flocks testing positive. Campylobacter jejuni alone, Campylobacter coli alone and both C. jejuni and C. coli were detected in 20 (57%), 2 (6%) and 8 (23%) of the flocks respectively. SmaI/KpnI PFGE analysis identified 50 different genotypes across the 35 flocks. Genotype diversity richness was highest on the lifestyle block and farm properties with 43 different genotypes isolated, whilst urban properties displayed the least richness with 12 genotypes isolated. Rural flocks tended to have more different genotypes in a given flock than urban flocks. Comparison of the genotypes with the PulseNet Aotearoa Campylobacter database showed that 28 of the genotypes had previously been isolated from human cases of campylobacteriosis. Many of these were also indistinguishable from Campylobacter spp. previously isolated from retail chicken. Therefore, contact with backyard poultry or their faecal material is a potential additional infection pathway outside of exposure to the established pathways associated with the consumption of Campylobacter-contaminated commercial meat or foods cross

  6. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  7. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman.

  8. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  9. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (P.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in backyard poultry and the possibility of transmission of infection to commercial poultry farms. Implementation of an AI surveillance program and biosecurity

  10. SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH TO AWARENESS AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL FARMERS IN SIKKIM, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A backyard poultry improvement technology programme based on scientific management practices with high yielding breed of chickens was desired by the rural communities of Sikkim to improve their income. For implementation of this programme, partnership with various line departments and extension agencies were chosen deliberately. Scaling out was realized through participatory approaches, use of trainers from the communities, locally managed feed with diminutive commercial feed, market orientat...

  11. Spotlight: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, L

    1998-01-01

    This brief article highlights the progress made in Bangladesh in reducing fertility and improving women's status. The mid-1997 population was an estimated 122.2 million persons. The land area is 50,260 square miles. Population density was 2432 people per square mile. Births were 31 per 1000 persons. Deaths were 11 per 1000 persons. Infant deaths were 77 per 1000 live births. Natural increase was 2% per year. The total fertility rate was 3.3 births per woman. Life expectancy was 58 years for males and females. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and has about 50% of US population situated on land the size of Wisconsin. Average annual income is about $240. Livelihoods from agriculture are affected by monsoons and natural disasters. Bangladesh has reduced its fertility by half since the mid-1970s. Almost 50% of married women relied on contraception during 1996-97, compared to only 8% of married women in 1975. Increases in contraceptive prevalence are attributed to the family planning program and parents' desire for smaller families. The government has made slowing population growth a priority since the 1970s. The 35,000 field workers provide door-to-door contraception and counseling. Mass media has promoted messages about the economic and health advantages of limiting or spacing births. Women continue to play a subordinate role to men, despite their improved control over fertility. Under 30% of women are literate compared to 50% of men. Islamic practices still confine women to the home. Programs are directed to improving women's financial status through credit programs. Women now hold many jobs in the new garment industry, which is the largest nonagricultural employer.

  12. Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheta, Basma M; Fuller, Trevon L; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Abdel Aziz, Soad; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A; Elbokl, Mohamed M; Habbak, Lotfy Z; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-10

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010-2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242) and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n=51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F=15.7, p<0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F=29.5, p<0.0001).

  13. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2) viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Saadat; Seyed Ali Ghafouri; Farshad Tehrani; Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation.Results:Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively.

  14. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  15. Egg residue considerations during the treatment of backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulak, Tara; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette; Baynes, Ronald E; Vickroy, Thomas W; Riviere, Jim E

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this digest was to provide US veterinarians guidance on the responsible treatment of backyard poultry flocks. The treatment of backyard poultry can be a daunting task for veterinarians because only limited resources are available; however, it is likely to become an increasingly common task owing to the increasing popularity of backyard poultry throughout the United States, especially in urban and suburban areas. Although backyard poultry flock owners may consider their birds pets, the FDA considers them food-producing animals, and veterinarians should follow all regulations that pertain to food-producing animals when administering or prescribing drugs to those birds. The lack of FDA-approved drugs for use in laying hens frequently necessitates the use of drugs in an extralabel manner in backyard poultry. Unfortunately, information regarding the depletion of drug residues in eggs from hens treated with various drugs in an extralabel manner is sparse or lacking, and veterinarians need to be cognizant of this issue, especially when the eggs from treated hens are intended for human consumption.

  16. Surveillance for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in backyard poultry flocks in Côte d'Ivoire, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kouakou, A V; Kouamé, C K; Kouassi, A L; Koffi, Y M; Godji, P; Nana, P; Tarnagda, Z; Akoua-Koffi, C

    2012-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, active surveys were conducted on backyard poultry (chickens, guinea fowls and ducks) in four areas of Côte d'Ivoire, including two areas where avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks occurred in 2006. Each bird underwent clinical examination. In total, 5,578 sera, 4,580 tracheal swabs and 5,120 cloacal swabs were collected, plus tissues from 35 sick chickens. Using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, 277 and 36 serum samples were positive for H5 and H7, respectively; all were negative for H9. All samples were negative by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the circulation of H5 and H7 influenza subtypes in backyard poultry in Côte d'Ivoire. Given that the seropositive birds were healthy, the circulating subtypes may be low pathogenicity avian influenza strains. Half (2,680) of the sera collected from chickens were tested by HI for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody: 531 were positive. The seroprevalence of 19.8% confirms the endemic status of NDV, but may underestimate its true prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire.

  17. A molecular survey of Eimeria in chickens across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Rosamond M; Morgan, Jess A T

    2015-11-30

    Coccidiosis is a costly enteric disease of chickens caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. Disease diagnosis and management is complicated since there are multiple Eimeria species infecting chickens and mixed species infections are common. Current control measures are only partially effective and this, combined with concerns over vaccine efficacy and increasing drug resistance, demonstrates a need for improved coccidiosis diagnosis and control. Before improvements can be made, it is important to understand the species commonly infecting poultry flocks in both backyard and commercial enterprises. The aim of this project was to conduct a survey and assessment of poultry Eimeria across Australia using genetic markers, and create a collection of isolates for each Eimeria species. A total of 260 samples (faecal or caecal) was obtained, and survey results showed that Eimeria taxa were present in 98% of commercial and 81% of backyard flocks. The distribution of each Eimeria species was widespread across Australia, with representatives of all species being found in every state and territory, and the Eimeria species predominating in commercial flocks differed from those in backyard flocks. Three operational taxonomic units also occurred frequently in commercial flocks highlighting the need to understand the impact of these uncharacterised species on poultry production. As Eimeria infections were also frequent in backyard flocks, there is a potential for backyard flocks to act as reservoirs for disease, especially as the industry moves towards free range production systems. This Eimeria collection will be an important genetic resource which is the crucial first step in the development of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and the development of new live vaccines which ultimately will provide savings to the industry in terms of more efficient coccidiosis management.

  18. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  19. Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Balish, Amanda; Shanta, Ireen S; Simpson, Natosha; Berman, Lashondra; Haider, Najmul; Poh, Mee Kian; Islam, Ausraful; Gurley, Emily; Hasnat, Md Abdul; Dey, T; Shu, Bo; Emery, Shannon; Lindstrom, Stephen; Haque, Ainul; Klimov, Alexander; Villanueva, Julie; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Ziaur Rahman, Md; Luby, Stephen P; Zeidner, Nord; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2014-02-01

    In Bangladesh, little is known about the genomic composition and antigenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, their geographic distribution, temporal patterns, or gene flow within the avian host population. Forty highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed by full genome sequencing and antigenic characterization. The analysis included viruses collected from avian hosts and environmental sampling in live bird markets, backyard poultry flocks, outbreak investigations in wild birds or poultry and from three human cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ancestors of these viruses reassorted (1) with other gene lineages of the same clade, (2) between different clades and (3) with low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus subtypes. Bayesian estimates of the time of most recent common ancestry, combined with geographic information, provided evidence of probable routes and timelines of virus spread into and out of Bangladesh.

  20. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanta, I. S.; Hasnat, Md A.; Zeidner, N.

    2016-01-01

    was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents’ reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or ‘bird flu’. Among the respondents...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  2. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  3. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  4. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  5. Native plants are the bee's knees: local and landscape predictors of bee richness and abundance in backyard gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Pardee, GL; Philpott, SM

    2014-01-01

    Urban gardens may support bees by providing resources in otherwise resource-poor environments. However, it is unclear whether urban, backyard gardens with native plants will support more bees than gardens without native plants. We examined backyard gardens in northwestern Ohio to ask: 1) Does bee diversity, abundance, and community composition differ in backyard gardens with and without native plants? 2) What characteristics of backyard gardens and land cover in the surrounding landscape corr...

  6. Made In Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUCHEN

    2004-01-01

    It is nothing new for global consumers to find the tag ‘Made in China' on the back of products from famous brands such as Nike or Panasonic.or will it surprise North American or European customers to find clothes from big brands like Esprit or GAP containing the mark ‘Made in Bangladesh'.

  7. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  8. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  9. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.

  10. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Zhu, C; McClurkan, C; Koelle, D M; Miller, P; Afonso, C; Donadeu, M; Dungu, B; Chen, D

    2014-05-17

    The immunisation of backyard poultry is critical for maintaining healthy flocks to provide nutrition and income for low-resource farmers worldwide. A vaccine presentation for flocks of less than 50 birds could make it more affordable and accessible, increasing uptake and impact. Fast-dissolving tablets (FDT) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine were produced by freeze drying the LaSota NDV strain combined with excipients into tablets containing a small number of doses and packaged in polymer blister sheets. The NDV-FDT vaccine maintained virus stability for more than six months at 4°C, based on plaque assay and egg infectivity dose data. Stability was further confirmed in a challenge study, where the tablet vaccine elicited a strong immune response and provided 100 per cent protection to vaccinated chickens infected with a virulent strain of NDV. The vaccine tablet can be diluted in water (no needle or syringe required) and administered either in drinking water or with a dropper via an intraocular and/or intransal route. Results indicate that FDTs containing a small number of doses are a feasible presentation for backyard poultry farmers. The compact packaging of the FDTs will also provide cost savings in storing and distributing the vaccine in the cold chain.

  11. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  12. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  13. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositivity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLAWS, M; Priyono, W; Bett, B; Al-Qamar, S; Claassen, I; Widiastuti, T; Poole, J; Schoonman, L; Jost, C; Mariner, J

    2015-06-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20-45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2-3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12-25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5-13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).

  14. SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH TO AWARENESS AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL FARMERS IN SIKKIM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath B.G.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A backyard poultry improvement technology programme based on scientific management practices with high yielding breed of chickens was desired by the rural communities of Sikkim to improve their income. For implementation of this programme, partnership with various line departments and extension agencies were chosen deliberately. Scaling out was realized through participatory approaches, use of trainers from the communities, locally managed feed with diminutive commercial feed, market orientation and credit facilities, collaborating with and influencing Govt and Non Govt Organizations (NGOs. The average profit from improved poultry keeping was US$451.83 per household per annum for a 50 bird enterprise. This programme contributed to increased awareness, development of leadership and entrepreneurial skills, increased status of trainers and investments in other businesses.

  15. Avian influenza in backyard poultry of the Mopti region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Abdallah; Gil, Patricia; Hammoumi, Saliha; Lesceu, Stéphanie; Servan de Almeida, Renata; Albina, Emmanuel; Chevalier, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    This study reports the first evidence of circulation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in Mali. In the Mopti region, where AIV have already been isolated in migratory water birds, we sampled 223 backyard domestic birds potentially in contact with wild birds and found that 3.6% had tracheal or cloacal swabs positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for type A influenza viruses (IVA) and that 13.7% had sera positive by commercial ELISA test detecting antibodies against IVA. None of the birds positive by rRT-PCR for IVA was positive by rRT-PCR for H5 and H7 subtypes, and none showed any clinical signs therefore indicating the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza. Unfortunately, no virus isolation was possible. Further studies are needed to assess the temporal evolution of AIV circulation in the Mopti region and its possible correlation with the presence of wild birds.

  16. Astronomy for older eyes a guide for aging backyard astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2017-01-01

    This book is for the aging amateur astronomy population, including newcomers to astronomy in their retirement and hobbyists who loved peering through a telescope as a child. Whether a novice or an experienced observer, the practice of astronomy differs over the years. This guide will extend the enjoyment of astronomy well into the Golden Years by addressing topics such as eye and overall health issues, recommendations on telescope equipment, and astronomy-related social activities especially suited for seniors. Many Baby-Boomers reaching retirement age are seeking new activities, and amateur astronomy is a perfect fit as a leisure time activity. Established backyard astronomers who began their love of astronomy in their youth , meanwhile, may face many physical and mental challenges in continuing their lifelong hobby as they age beyond their 55th birthdays. That perfect telescope purchased when they were thirty years old now suddenly at sixty years old feels like an immovable object in the living room. The 20...

  17. Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of co...

  18. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). We reviewed literature on b...

  19. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A; Khan, Salah Uddin; Zanders, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; Haider, Najmul; Islam, Ausraful; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Rahman, Mahmudur Ziaur; Haque, Ainul; Hosseini, Parviez; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P; Wentworth, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Davis, C Todd

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year

  20. Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Gerloff

    Full Text Available Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50 were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the

  1. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of...

  2. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  3. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  4. Non-commercial poultry industries: surveys of backyard and gamefowl breeder flocks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, L; Hill, G; Rodriguez, J; Gregory, G; Voelker, L

    2007-07-16

    The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Poultry '04 study was conducted to better describe non-commercial United States poultry populations, in particular, backyard and gamefowl breeder flocks. To estimate the density of backyard flocks in close proximity to commercial operations, a sample of 350 commercial poultry operations in 18 top poultry producing states was selected from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) list of poultry operations. A 1 mile radius circle was drawn around each operation, and door-to-door canvassing was conducted within these circles to enumerate premises with all species of birds. Premises with backyard poultry flocks completed a questionnaire focusing on bird health, bird movement, and biosecurity practices. A similar questionnaire, provided in both English and Spanish, was mailed to all members of State affiliates of the United Gamefowl Breeders Association (UGBA) as well as to members of State associations not affiliated with UGBA. An average of 29.4 residences was found within a 1 mile radius of commercial operations, of which 1.9 residences per circle had backyard poultry flocks. Gamefowl breeder flocks were larger, used more health care and biosecurity practices, and moved birds more frequently compared to backyard flocks.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SALMONELLA GALLINARUM ISOLATED FROM FOWL TYPHOID OUTBREAK IN BACKYARD VANARAJA FOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From a disease outbreak among Vanaraja fowl, an indigenous Indian Breed reared by backyard system in Jhargram, West Bengal, Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated and characterised. The outbreak occurred among 6-8 day old chicks. A total of 150 birds died in a span of 5 days. Salmonella Gallinarum were identified and confirmed by standard bacteriological methods and presence of invasion ( invA gene was detected by PCR. The isolates were susceptible to 15 common antimicrobials in vitro. Although chemotherapy may be effective, outbreaks of fowl typhoid in backyard poultry warranted precise control policy

  6. Backyard poultry flocks and salmonellosis: a recurring, yet preventable public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravesh, Casey Barton; Brinson, Denise; Hopkins, Brett A; Gomez, Thomas M

    2014-05-01

    Poultry are well recognized as possible carriers of Salmonella species. As part of the local foods movement, backyard poultry flocks have increased in popularity in recent years. Between 1996 and 2012, 45 outbreaks of human Salmonella infections linked to live poultry from mail-order hatcheries were documented. This review examines the history of live poultry-associated salmonellosis in humans in the United States, the current status of the issue, and what can be done to help prevent these illnesses. An integrated One Health approach involving the mail-order hatchery industry, feed stores, healthcare providers, veterinarians, and backyard flock owners is needed to help prevent live poultry-associated salmonellosis.

  7. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  8. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  9. Projects to get you off the grid rain barrels, chicken coops, and solar panels

    CERN Document Server

    Instructablescom

    2014-01-01

    Instructables is back with this compact book focused on a series of projects designed to get you thinking creatively about thinking green. Twenty Instructables illustrate just how simple it can be to make your own backyard chicken coop, or turn a wine barrel into a rainwater collector.Illustrated with dozens of full-color photographs per project accompanying easy-to-follow instructions, this Instructables collection utilizes the best that the online community has to offer, turning a far-reaching group of people into a mammoth database churning out ideas to make life better, easier, and in this

  10. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  11. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS-2 INFECTION IN BACKYARD AND COMMERCIAL POULTRY BIRDS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. ALKHALAF

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was conducted to detect avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2 antibodies in commercial and backyard bird flocks, using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. Sera were collected from 212 commercial and 56 backyard birds. Age of commercial birds ranged from one-day old to 62 weeks. In the backyard birds, seroprevalence of APVM-2 was 71.42 and 78.57%, whereas this seroprevalence was 52.35 and 60.84% using the HI test and the ELISA, respectively in commercial poultry birds. No antibodies against APMV-2 were detected in 1-5 days old chicks with either test. The HI test showed the highest positive samples (P<0.05 of APMV-2 in 19-35 days age group (58.33%, followed by age group 11-18 weeks (51.35% and 25-62 weeks (47.05%. Similarly, ELISA also showed the highest positive samples of APMV-2 (68.75% in 19-35 days age group (P<0.05, followed by age group 11-18 weeks (62.16% and 25-62 weeks (56.86%. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APMV-2 among backyard and commercial poultry birds in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001). In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004). In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019), and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040). In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming practices and take

  13. Risk factors for infectious diseases in backyard poultry farms in the Poyang Lake area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573, 95% CI: 2.148-20.115, P=0.001. In Region B, the most significant factor was contact of poultry with neighboring backyard waterfowls (OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.555-10.122, P=0.004. In Region C, significant factors were poultry purchase from local live bird markets (OR: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.243-11.255, P=0.019, and contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 3.379, 95% CI: 1.058-10.791, P=0.040. In summary, backyard poultry was significantly affected by neighboring commercial poultry and close contact with wild birds. The results are expected to improve our understanding of the transmission risks of infectious diseases in a typical backyard poultry environment in rural China, and address the need to improve local farming

  14. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G; Dunipace, S

    2011-06-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (e.g. commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers.

  15. Thinking about Complaint of Raising Backyard Poultry%对散养家禽投诉引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万庆文; 张映媚

    2014-01-01

    Againsting one complaints on backyard poultry,caused to think about the problem of managing health and epidemic prevention.The current situation of poultry in Dongguan City,the influence on residential backyard poultry and suggestions in residential backyard poultry were described.%针对一起散养家禽的投诉,引发对散养家禽的卫生防疫管理问题的思考,阐述了东莞市目前饲养家禽的现状、住宅区散养家禽的危害及建议。

  16. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan Anne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI. We reviewed literature on biosecurity practices for prevention of infectious diseases, and published recommendations for backyard poultry and assessed evidence of their impact and feasibility, particularly in developing countries. Documents were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO website, and from Pubmed and Google databases. Results A total of 62 peer-reviewed and non-referred documents were found, most of which were published recently (after 2004 and focused on HPAI/H5N1-related biosecurity measures (64%. Recommendations addressed measures for flock management, feed and water management, poultry trade and stock change, poultry health management and the risk to humans. Only one general guideline was found for backyard poultry-related biosecurity; the other documents were drawn up for specific developing settings and only engaged their authors (e.g. consultants. These national guidelines written by consultants generated recommendations regarding measures derived from the highest standards of commercial poultry production. Although biosecurity principles of isolation and containment are described in most documents, only a few documents were found on the impact of measures in family poultry settings and none gave any evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness for backyard poultry. Conclusions Given the persistent threat posed by HPAI/H5N1 to humans in developing countries, our findings highlight the importance of encouraging applied research toward identifying

  17. Bangladesh Development Update, October 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This update introduces Bangladesh's new poverty numbers at $1.90 per capita per day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices, followed by an account of recent economic development, the outlook, risks, and policy responses. The revised poverty rates are significantly lower, but follow the same downward historical trend seen when using the 2005 international extreme poverty line. Banglad...

  18. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  19. Molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh between 2007 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M E; Giasuddin, M; Chowdhury, E H; Islam, M R

    2014-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first detected in February 2007. Since then the virus has become entrenched in poultry farms of Bangladesh. There have so far been seven human cases of H5N1 HPAI infection in Bangladesh with one death. The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 2007 was followed by the introduction of clade 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011. However, only clade 2.3.2.1 viruses could be isolated in 2012, indicating progressive replacement of clade 2.2 and 2.3.4 viruses. There has been an event of segment re-assortment between H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus acquired the PB1 gene from a H9N2 virus. Point mutations have accumulated in Bangladeshi isolates over the last 5 years with potential modification of receptor binding site and antigenic sites. Extensive and continuous molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor the evolution of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

  20. Development of a duplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay with an internal control for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in clinical samples from commercial and backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprygin, A V; Andreychuk, D B; Kolotilov, A N; Volkov, M S; Runina, I A; Mudrak, N S; Borisov, A V; Irza, V N; Drygin, V V; Perevozchikova, N A

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we report the development and validation of a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with an internal control using TaqMan-labelled probes for the detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae (duplex MGMS PCR). The MGMS PCR was highly specific with a sensitivity of 7 and 1 colony-forming units/ml for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae, respectively, using dilution of pure culture that corresponds to 34 and 29 DNA copies per reaction. Validation of the assay was completed with 260 and 27 pooled samples (tracheal swabs) from commercial chickens and turkeys, respectively, with potential M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae involvement and 42 samples (palatine cleft swabs) from backyard geese and ducks. Using isolation as the gold standard, the MGMS PCR was more sensitive than isolation and the analytical sensitivity was 0.944 and 0.958 for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae, respectively. In comparison with a gapA-based assay (gapA PCR) and a 16S rRNA-based assay (16S PCR) for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae, respectively, the results agreed for 94.5% and 96.6%, respectively. The use of the internal control allowed monitoring of proper extraction and inhibition of amplification that was detected in 12 samples. The duplex MGMS PCR was shown to be superior to the presently reported real-time PCR assays in terms of combination of sensitivity, specificity and capacity of detection of more than one target in a single tube. In conclusion, the duplex MGMS PCR was highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible and could be used on clinical samples from commercial chickens, turkeys and backyard poultry including ducks and geese.

  1. Histomoniasis outbreak in free-range chickens in semiarid Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeann Leal Araújo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Juvenile chickens aged approximately 48 days showed disease over a 15-day period. Seven of 16 chickens showed yellow, watery stool, anorexia, lethargy, and death within 3-5 days of clinical illness. The mortality rate was 43.7%. The chickens were raised in a backyard with 12 adult birds that remained healthy. None of the chickens were vaccinated or dewormed. A necropsy on one deceased bird showed lesions confined to the cecum and liver. The left cecum was distended and had yellow, slightly elevated areas on the serosa. The liver was reddened with centrally depressed areas surrounded by a pale halo, which were distributed throughout the capsular surface and extended deep throughout the parenchyma. Microscopically, typhlitis and pyogranulomatous necrotizing hepatitis associated with numerous intralesional Histomonas trophozoites was observed. The birds were administered metronidazole and albendazole, which effectively controlled the histomoniasis. Although histomoniasis is rare in free-range poultry, it can occur and cause high mortality and significant economic losses.

  2. CHICKEN COOPS, Triatoma dimidiata INFESTATION AND ITS INFECTION WITH Trypanosoma cruzi IN A RURAL VILLAGE OF YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Escobedo-Ortegón, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Jorge Carlos; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Chablé-Santos, Juan; Selem-Salas, Celia; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study longitudinally investigated the association between Triatoma dimidiata infestation, triatomine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and household/backyard environmental characteristics in 101 homesteads in Molas and Yucatan, Mexico, between November 2009 (rainy season) and May 2010 (dry season). Logistic regression models tested the associations between insect infestation/infection and potential household-level risk factors. A total of 200 T. dimidiata were collected from 35.6% of the homesteads, mostly (73%) from the peridomicile. Of all the insects collected, 48% were infected with T. cruzi. Infected insects were collected in 31.6% of the homesteads (54.1% and 45.9% intra- and peridomiciliary, respectively). Approximately 30% of all triatomines collected were found in chicken coops. The presence of a chicken coop in the backyard of a homestead was significantly associated with both the odds of finding T. dimidiata (OR = 4.10, CI 95% = 1.61-10.43, p = 0.003) and the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi (OR = 3.37, CI 95% = 1.36-8.33, p = 0.006). The results of this study emphasize the relevance of chicken coops as a putative source of T. dimidiata populations and a potential risk for T. cruzi transmission.

  3. CHICKEN COOPS, Triatoma dimidiata INFESTATION AND ITS INFECTION WITH Trypanosoma cruzi IN A RURAL VILLAGE OF YUCATAN, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar KOYOC-CARDEÑA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study longitudinally investigated the association between Triatoma dimidiata infestation, triatomine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and household/backyard environmental characteristics in 101 homesteads in Molas and Yucatan, Mexico, between November 2009 (rainy season and May 2010 (dry season. Logistic regression models tested the associations between insect infestation/infection and potential household-level risk factors. A total of 200 T. dimidiata were collected from 35.6% of the homesteads, mostly (73% from the peridomicile. Of all the insects collected, 48% were infected with T. cruzi. Infected insects were collected in 31.6% of the homesteads (54.1% and 45.9% intra- and peridomiciliary, respectively. Approximately 30% of all triatomines collected were found in chicken coops. The presence of a chicken coop in the backyard of a homestead was significantly associated with both the odds of finding T. dimidiata (OR = 4.10, CI 95% = 1.61-10.43, p = 0.003 and the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi (OR = 3.37, CI 95% = 1.36-8.33, p = 0.006. The results of this study emphasize the relevance of chicken coops as a putative source of T. dimidiata populations and a potential risk for T. cruzi transmission.

  4. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  5. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  6. Application of radiation in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiyyum Choudhury; Najmul Alam Chowdhury; Feroza Akhtar [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various field. All over the world, this technology is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation sterilisation of medical products, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, radiation processing of polymeric materials and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission mainly using Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The investigation covers medical sterilisation, food preservation and development and modification of polymeric materials by gamma radiation. Both food preservation and radiation sterilisation of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. As a result of successful achievement of R and D activities in all these projects, a pilot plant project involving about US$ 4.00 million is under implementation at the Atomic energy Research Establishment campus of BAEC. In addition a project on 'National Polymer Centre' at a cost of US$ 2.00 million has already been approved. It is expected that work on radiation processing including commercialization will be accelerated with the implementation of these projects. The impact of radiation

  7. Avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M H; Arafa, A; Abdelwhab, E M; Selim, A; Khoulosy, S G; Hassan, M K; Aly, M M

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we describe results from a high-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance program in previously H5-vaccinated commercial and family-backyard poultry flocks that was conducted from 2007 to 2008 by the Egyptian National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production. The real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to detect the influenza A virus matrix gene and detection of the H5 and N1 subtypes was accomplished using a commercially available kit real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. The virus was detected in 35/3,610 (0.97%) and 27/8,682 (0.31%) of examined commercial poultry farms and 246/816 (30%) and 89/1,723 (5.2%) of backyard flocks in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Positive flocks were identified throughout the year, with the highest frequencies occurring during the winter months. Anti-H5 serum antibody titers in selected commercial poultry ranged from poultry in Egypt to combat H5N1 AIV, continuous circulation of the virus in vaccinated commercial and backyard poultry was reported and the efficacy of the vaccination using a challenge model with the current circulating field virus should be revised.

  8. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update - December 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  9. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update June 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  10. Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh Quarterly Economic Update (QEU) has been produced by the Bangladesh Resident Mission of the Asian Development Bank since March 2001. The QEU provides information and analysis on Bangladesh’s macroeconomic and sector developments, key development challenges, and policy and institutional reforms. The QEU has wide readership in government, academia, development partners, private sector, and civil society.

  11. Genomic and biological characterization of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from a healthy backyard poultry flock in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV causes severe and economically important disease in poultry around the globe. None of NDV strains in Pakistan have been completely characterized and the role of rural poultry in harbouring NDV is unclear. Since they have a very important role for long-term circulation of the virus, samples were collected from apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP flocks. These samples were biologically analyzed using mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI, whereas genotypically characterized by the real-time PCRs coupled with sequencing of the complete genome. Findings Despite of being non-pathogenic for BYP, the isolate exhibited MDT of 49.6 h in embryonated chicken eggs and an ICPI value of 1.5. The F gene based real-time PCR was positive, whereas M-gene based was negative due to substantial changes in the probe-binding site. The entire genome of the isolate was found to be 15192 nucleotides long and encodes for six genes with an order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The F protein cleavage site, an indicative of pathogenicity, was 112RRQKRF117. Complete genome comparison indicated that the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene was the most and the phosphoprotein was least conserved gene, among all the genes. The isolate showed an Y526Q substitution in the HN protein, which determines neuraminidase receptor binding and fusion activity of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis, based on F and HN genes, classified this isolate into genotype VII, a predominant genotype responsible for ND outbreaks in Asian countries. However, it clustered well apart from other isolates in this genotype to be considered a new subgenotype (VII-f. Conclusions These results revealed that this isolate was similar to virulent strains of NDV and was avirulent in BYP either due to resistance of local breeds or due to other factors such as substantial mutations in the HN protein. Furthermore, we have characterized the first isolate of

  12. LEVEL OF ADOPTION AND CONSTRAINTS OF SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING PRACTICES IN RURAL TRIBAL AREAS OF SIKKIM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. NATH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on level of adoption and constraints of backyard poultry rearing practices in rural tribal areas of Sikkim. The data were collected from 125 respondents of Dzongu area, North Sikkim through personal interview with the help of questionnaire. From the present study it was found that 64.8% respondents were medium level adopters followed by high level (19.2% and low level (16% adopters. Housing (43.2% were highly adopted followed by feeding and watering (41.6%, marketing (40.0%, general management (39.2%, health care practices (36.8% and breeding practice (33.6%. The overall adoption of different backyard poultry rearing practices showed medium level adoption. Non availability of backyard poultry chicks, non-availability of medicine, high incidence of diseases, lack of knowledge about scientific practices, lack of market, attack of predators etc. were the major constraints faced by backyard poultry farmers. The study also pointed some suggestions for solving the constraints regarding backyard poultry rearing practices in Dzongu, North Sikkim.

  13. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  14. Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Ross; McArthur, John; Burgess, William; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Ravenscroft, Peter; Rahmanñ, Mizanur

    1998-09-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, alluvial Ganges aquifers used for public water supply are polluted with naturally occurring arsenic, which adversely affects the health of millions of people. Here we show that the arsenic derives from the reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides, which in turn are derived from weathering of base-metal sulphides. This finding means it should now be possible, by sedimentological study of the Ganges alluvial sediments, to guide the placement of new water wells so they will be free of arsenic.

  15. Agrobiodiversity in riparian backyards and rural cutover lands in the Boca do Moa community – Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The riparian rural cutover lands and backyards represent a sustainable alternative for the production of food and medicinal drugs to the traditional communities from the Amazon, especially with regard to products diversity and income generation. Considering the ecological and social functions of these spaces, this paper aims at analyzing the agrobiodiversity of these environments in the Boca Moa community, in the town of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through participative, formal, and inductive interviews following a semi-structured questionnaire with open questions, besides in loco visits. The rural cutover lands present many species at the same area, and manioc is the main product cultivated. The backyards have spatial arrangements of food species, with emphasis on fruits and vegetables, besides medicinal plants. Thus, both the backyards and rural cutover lands participate in the subsistence and income of riparian families from this community.

  16. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  17. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx and Esophagus with Pulmonary Metastasis in a Backyard Laying Hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Nordio; Marta, Vascellari; Giacomo, Berto; Luca, Bano

    2016-09-01

    A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation. The diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with the uncommon feature of pulmonary metastasis.

  19. Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. et spec. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae) from a backyard site in Öland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Jaschhof, Catrin

    2015-09-15

    A new genus containing a single new species of Porricondylinae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described and named Linnaeomyia hortensis gen. nov., spec. nov. The sole known specimen of L. hortensis, a male, was Malaise trapped in a backyard site on the Baltic island of Öland, southeast Sweden, in summer 2014. Morphological evidence supports our hypothesis that Linnaeomyia is most closely related to Neurepidosis Spungis, 1987. Several male genital characters, notably the spine-bearing gonostyli and the vestigial ejaculatory apodeme, substantiate the generic distinctiveness of L. hortensis. Although a backyard discovery, L. hortensis is unlikely to be a synanthropic species.

  20. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  1. Surface Geology of Bangladesh (geo8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Bangladesh. It also includes...

  2. Rohingyas and refugee status in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Prytz Phiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rohingya refugees from northern Rakhine Statein Myanmar are living in a precarious situation in theircountry of asylum, Bangladesh, but have seen significantimprovements in recent times.

  3. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  4. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  5. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. [Children and bankers in Bangladesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1991-06-01

    This critique of the World Bank's role in developing country population programs begins with a description of a 1987 case in which an 80-year- old Bangladeshi man was persuaded to undergo vasectomy and then robbed of his incentive payment by the health agent. For over 20 years, the World Bank has pressured 3rd World governments to implement population control programs. Although there are divergent opinions within the World Bank, the most dominant is the neomalthusian view that the poor through their high fertility help perpetuate their own poverty. This view hides the real source of poverty in the Third World: the unequal distribution of resources within these countries and between the developed and developing countries. The World Bank has always been blind to the inequalities, and has associated with the elites of developing countries who monopolize the resources of their countries and thereby impede authentic development. Furthermore, the emphasis on population control distorts social policy and hinders the implementation of safe and voluntary family planning services. In many countries the World Bank has required governments to give greater priority to population control than to basic health services. It has pressured them to relax contraceptive prescription norms and has promoted the more effective methods without regard to proper use or side effects. In Bangladesh the World Bank has sponsored sterilization programs that rely on coercion and incentives. In that country of enormous inequities, 10% of landowners control over 50% of lands, while nearly half the population is landless and chronically underemployed. Political power is concentrated in the military government, which annually receives over 1.5 billion dollars in external aid. External aid primarily benefits the wealthy. 3/4 of the population are undernourished and less than 1/3 are literate or have access to basic health care. The poor of Bangladesh, as in many other countries, feel that their only

  7. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  8. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  9. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  10. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  11. Using Implementation and Program Theory to Examine Communication Strategies in National Wildlife Federation's Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Dain; Dann, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    Our evaluative approach used implementation theory and program theory, adapted from Weiss (1998) to examine communication processes and results for a national wildlife habitat stewardship education program. Using a mail survey of 1427 participants certified in National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) Backyard Wildlife Habitat (BWH) program and a study…

  12. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  13. Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin and major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from backyard and farmed poultry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9%) harboured eaeA gene alone...

  14. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  15. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  16. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gilbert

    Full Text Available The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation. A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP per capita (in purchasing power parity. This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification.

  17. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Cinardi, Giuseppina; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; D'Aietti, Laura; Wint, William; Newman, Scott H; Robinson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption) and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation). A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power parity). This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification.

  18. Pemberian Grit pada Ayam Buras Memperpanjang Saluran Pencernaan, Menambah Bobot Ampela, dan Bobot Tulang Karkas (PROVISION OF GRIT TO NATIVE CHICKEN IMROVED THE DEVELOMPMENT OF GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT AND INCREASE CARCAS BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cytske Sabuna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, native chicken is raised in an extensive management system. The chickens were free toscavenge in the backyard, and eat a wide variety of feeds including, rice, corn, insects, or even grit. Grit is anabrasive material that can help to grind feedstuffs and use as a source of mineral for chicken. In anintensive farming system, native chickens are given full feeding program throughout the production period,without grit. The objective of this research was to study the development of gastrointestinal tract andcarcass bone of native chickens supplemented to grit. Eighty chickens were used in the study usingrandomized block design. The four treatments were: R0 = basal feeds without grit ; R1 = R0 + grit 0,25% ofbody weight ; R2 = R0 + grit 0,50% of body weight ; R3 = R0 + grit 0,75% of body weight. The results showedthat administration of grit up to the level of 0.75% body weight significantly increased grit consumption,digestive tract length, gizzard weight and carcass bone weight of native chicken.

  19. Backyard botica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, P A

    1992-01-01

    Barangay Veterans Village (BVV) is a community of World War II veterans. After one of the village leaders in 1987 asked the Institute for Social Studies and Action (ISSA) to help develop the community, the BVV community outreach project was launched. Project components promote health care and mobilize women to take an active role in their health as well as their family's and the community's. Once the project was implemented, the ISSA facilitated the formation of an association of volunteers to help residents design and carry out community projects. Exposure trips and lectures outside BVV led to the establishment of communal gardens of medicinal plants by the first three groups of volunteers. Three years later, the trained workers continue to maintain the concept of herbal gardening through individual plots. On their own and with the help of friends, books, and seminars, the women volunteers at BVV have discovered and shared knowledge about the curative powers of medicinal plants. Their faith in herbs and other plants is reinforced by the knowledge that some of the ingredients of imported drugs are medicinal plants native to the country. Herbal produce from the garden has therefore become a viable alternative to expensive name brand drugs. Consumers are, however, told by a volunteer registered nurse to seek her input should improvement in health status not be forthcoming following administration of the appropriate herbs. At the ISSA weekly outreach clinic, whenever applicable or appropriate, an herbal remedy is suggested instead of a branded or generic drug. The article explains which herbs are used per affliction.

  20. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production.

  1. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  2. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  3. Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Charles F.; Swartz, Christopher H.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Keon-Blute, Nicole; Yu, Winston; Ali, M. Ashraf; Jay, Jenny; Beckie, Roger; Niedan, Volker; Brabander, Daniel; Oates, Peter M.; Ashfaque, Khandaker N.; Islam, Shafiqul; Hemond, Harold F.; Ahmed, M. Feroze

    2002-11-01

    High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Bangladesh. In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh, chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon. High concentrations of radiocarbon-young methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes, and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum. The results of field injection of molasses, nitrate, and low-arsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic, oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations, and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials.

  4. The role of backyard poultry flocks in the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N7) in the Netherlands in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, V; Bouma, A; van Boven, M; Bos, M E H; Stassen, E; Stegeman, J A

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused the death of millions of poultry and of more than 200 humans worldwide. A proper understanding of the transmission dynamics and risk factors for epidemic spread of these viruses is key to devising effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to quantify the epidemiological contributions of backyard flocks using data from the H7N7 HPAI epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003. A dataset was constructed in which flocks in the affected area were classified as susceptible (S), infected but not yet infectious (E), infectious (I), and removed (R). The analyses were based on a two-type SEIR epidemic model, with the two types representing commercial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. The analyses were aimed at estimation of the susceptibility (g) and infectiousness (f) of backyard flocks relative to commercial farms. The results show that backyard flocks were considerably less susceptible to infection than commercial farms (g = 0.014; 95%CI = 0.0071-0.023), while estimates of the relative infectiousness of backyard flocks varied widely (0 backyard flocks played a marginal role in the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the Netherlands in 2003.

  5. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No hormones are used in the raising of chickens. Antibiotics may be used to prevent disease and increase ... a "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered. ... not allowed on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as ...

  6. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, J A; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of Campylobacter to humans in Bangladesh. We determined the population structure of C. jejuni isolated from poultry (n = 66) and patients with enteritis (n = 39) or GBS (n = 10). Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) typing showed that 50/66 (76 %) C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry could be assigned to one of five LOS locus classes (A-E). The distribution of neuropathy-associated LOS locus classes A, B, and C were 30/50 (60 %) among the typable strains isolated from poultry. The LOS locus classes A, B, and C were significantly associated with GBS and enteritis-related C. jejuni strains more than for the poultry strains [(31/38 (82 %) vs. 30/50 (60 %), p < 0.05]. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) defined 15 sequence types (STs) and six clonal complexes (CCs) among poultry isolates, including one ST-3740 not previously documented. The most commonly identified type, ST-5 (13/66), in chicken was seen only once among human isolates (1/49) (p < 0.001). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed three major clusters (A, B, and C) among C. jejuni isolated from humans and poultry. There seems to be a lack of overlap between the major human and chicken clones, which suggests that there may be additional sources for campylobacteriosis other than poultry in Bangladesh.

  7. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  8. Gender Disparities in Secondary Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Molla; Rahman, Pk Md. Motiur

    2008-01-01

    Enrolment and success rates are very crucial for any educational system in the world but they are more important for the developing countries like Bangladesh. Gender differences in enrolment and success rates are also emerging issues. This study investigated the enrolment and success rate's status in secondary educational system of Bangladesh…

  9. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  10. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  11. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  12. First case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brun Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromoblastomycosis is a rare and chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by black fungi and mostly reported in tropical and subtropical areas. Here we report the first case of chromoblastomycosis from Bangladesh. Molecular biology permitted to identify Fonsecaea nubica, and the patient responded well to antifungal treatment alone.

  13. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  14. Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Gurung, R B; Loeffen, W L A

    2016-12-01

    Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods.

  15. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  16. Antibody prevalence of low-pathogenicity avian influenza and evaluation of management practices in Minnesota backyard poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendell, S J; Rubinoff, I; Lauer, D C; Bender, J B; Scheftel, J M

    2012-03-01

    Low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have caused illness in poultry and humans with poultry contact. To determine whether there is evidence of exposure to avian influenza viruses (AIV) among backyard poultry in Minnesota and their human caretakers, 150 flocks of backyard birds were sampled for antibodies to AIV from August 2007 through December 2008. One hundred flocks were tested through routine slaughter surveillance by the Minnesota Board of Animal Health and an additional 50 flocks were contacted and sampled by study investigators. Blood was collected from 10 to 13 birds from each flock and a survey of biosecurity and management practices was administered to the flock owner. Blood samples were tested by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for influenza A antibodies. Tested flocks had a median flock size of 100 birds (range: 12-800 birds), and were most commonly owned for meat for personal use (81% of respondents), fun or hobby (58%) and eggs for personal use (56%). Although 7% of flock owners reported that their birds had shown respiratory signs in the previous 3 months, only 1 of 150 flocks tested positive for influenza by AGID. Antibodies to LPAI H6N1 were detected in the positive flock. The owner of the positive flock did not have antibodies to H6 or other common AIV. Based on the findings of this study, the risk of transmission of LPAI viruses from backyard poultry to owners in Minnesota appears to be low under current conditions and management practices.

  17. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  18. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  19. The Question of Evolution in the Buddhist Ecology of Thalia Field’s Bird Lovers, Backyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Parrish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalia Field’s work, which she has described as an “ecology of questions,” inhabitsthe edges of genres, where she grows her verbal environments of researched materialanimated by her asking. Her most recent book, Bird Lovers, Backyard (New Directions,2010, spins itself from the twigs and strands and of terminologies ranging fromarchitecture to zoology as she tracks questions of language, behavior, and relationshipsbetween species. “Whose Umwelt is it anyway?” she asks in this extended study ofhuman behavior and the uses of language in how we interpret and shape the world forourselves and other life forms.Through this exploration of human contradictions and miscommunicationbetween species, Field makes a nest for an egg that is a question of possibilities—forBird Lovers, Backyard is also a kind of future studies for human potential, operating byway of past example, telling tales of what might amount to a “series of mistakes.”Kicking off this inquiry into what we might be, the book opens with an epigraph fromher young son that slyly functions as a kind of crossroads: “What if everyone in theworld wasn’t nice?” asks the child—a question that may serve as a hardnosed premisefor going forth into the world or as a challenge, a call to grow up.And here, for a reader looking, Field’s submerged Buddhist outlook catches thelight. For in her allegiance to an agile balance of “nichelessness,” Field keepsBuddhism—fitting its central idea of interdependent origination—as but one strand inthe weave of her influences. In the book’s third poem-essay “This Crime Has a Name,”which this paper will focus on, Tibetan Buddhist figures and ideas form a part of anecosystem that encompasses industrial design, biosemiotics, and Chinese logicianswherein she thinks through the displacement of sparrow by spaceman, asking whatextinction looks like and what our species might mean.

  20. The prospects and challenges of plastic industries in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Pintu, MD. Nazmul Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Plastic is one of the most used engineered material in Bangladesh that has come out as im-portant industrial sector during the last few decades. The size of Domestic market is more than thousands of billions euros. The available cheap labor, vast population and fast development of plastics wastes recycling industries have given Bangladesh a huge potential advantages to compete in the global market. Although, plastics sector is one of the most growing markets in Bangladesh, but still it is fac...

  1. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths are highly prevalent in scavenging chickens of selected districts of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne

    2012-03-15

    A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised.

  3. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  4. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  5. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  6. Anthrax in a backyard domestic dog in Ukraine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Skrypnyk, Artem; Bagamian, Karoun H; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Skrypnyk, Valeriy

    2014-08-01

    Anthrax has been reported in domestic and wild dogs throughout much of the world. Generally, canids are considered resistant to anthrax, although there are several reports of anthrax deaths in both wild and domestic canid populations. Prior to 2012, anthrax had not been reported in dogs in Ukraine, despite a long history in livestock and wildlife. An outbreak involving at least one cow and one dog was reported from a backyard setting in southern Ukraine in August of 2012. Laboratory results and epizootic data were compiled from official investigation reports of regional and state veterinary services involved in the case response. A single dog died after being fed meat and bones from an illegally slaughtered heifer that died of anthrax 5 days earlier. On the evening of the dog's death, the dog refused food or water; however, there were no other clinical signs. Laboratory tests of dog tissue included traditional bacteriology for Bacillus anthracis, a small rodent bioassay for virulence, and immunoprecipitation tests (IPT). IPT was positive, viable B. anthracis colonies were cultured, and a bioassay confirmed virulence. This was the first confirmed case of canid anthrax in Ukraine. This case report serves to remind veterinary officials that anthrax can affect a wide number of species. We advise surveillance systems remain flexible and include animals that might not otherwise be tested.

  7. Approaches to characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamase/beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in healthy organized vis-a-vis backyard farmed pigs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mahanti, Achintya; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence and to characterize the ESBL/beta-lactamase producing-Escherichia coli in healthy pigs of organized and backyard farms in West Bengal, India. Total 200 rectal swabs were collected randomly from healthy pigs maintained in four organized farms and 10 backyard farms (n=100 each) and 76 isolates were identified as E. coli from organized (48/100, 48%) and backyard pigs (28/100, 28%). Twelve E. coli isolates (6%) in the present study were detected to possess any of the ESBL/beta-lactamase genes studied. ESBL/beta-lactamase producers were isolated with significantly more frequency from backyard pigs than the organized farm pigs (p=0.026). Six of ESBL/beta-lactamase producing isolates were phenotypically confirmed as CTX-M producers and ten of them were confirmed as TEM/SHV producers. PCR and sequencing of the amplified product from representative isolates revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-9, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. No unique combination of the studied beta lactamase genes for organized and backyard farm pig isolates was noted. The ESBL isolates belonged to O13, O55, O133, O153, O157, O158, O166, rough and OUT serogroups. The association of heat labile toxin (elt) (pIndia.

  8. Programme impact on current contraception in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A

    1994-03-01

    "This paper analyses the impact of three credit programmes--the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the Bangladesh Rural Development Board's Rural Development-12 (BRDB RD-12), and the Grameen Bank (GB), on current rate of contraception. These programmes are targeted to alleviate poverty by providing group-based credit to the rural poor in creating self employment opportunities. With small credits, these programmes combine family planning activities in terms of consciousness raising, awareness building and motivation. Sample survey data are used to analyse the problem of impact evaluation. The analyses show that the BRAC and the GB programmes have [a] significantly positive impact on the current rate of contraception, while the BRDB RD-12 programme does not have any such impact. It is also found that education, both of female[s] and male[s] separately, and child survivorship have independently positive impact[s] on current contraception."

  9. Development Dynamics of Remittances in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munim K. Barai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remittance inflows in the economy of Bangladesh are getting larger every passing year, matching with the increasing external demand for its manpower. The ensuing development impacts of remittances, as a means of transfer of wealth, on socioeconomic factors are increasingly viewed with importance. Remittances have helped improve the social and economic indicators like nutrition, living condition and housing, education, health care, poverty reduction, social security, and investment activities of the recipient households. The relative weight of remittances has also increased against most of the macroeconomic variables alongside the contribution to GDP. Moreover, Bangladesh has been able to avoid any serious imbalances in BOP’s current account, although it has persistent merchandize trade deficits. Not only that, the export tradable sector has thus far remained unaffected from the Dutch Disease effects of remittances.

  10. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  11. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    to other continents and the three monotheistic religions namely Islam , Christianity and Judaism took root. In the nineteenth century, the technology...Institute of Development Studies, Institute of Development Studies (Sussex) and Oxfam-Great Britain-Bangladesh Program, January 2003, 2. 2Md Saiful ...Haque, Md Saiful . “Critical Challenges Await the Economy’s Thrust Sector.” The Independent (Dhaka), 15 May 2003, 4. 63 Mondal Abdul Hye, “Study

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Bangladesh, India and Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Bang-ladesh-China People’s Friendship Association (BCPFA), the Unity International Foundation of India (UIFI), the India-China Society and the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association (TCFA), from November 7 to 22, 2005, a CPAFFC delegation led by its Vice President Wang Yunze paid a visit to Bangladesh, India and Thailand, where they were accorded warm and friendly reception. The BCPFA attached great importance to the CPAFFC delegation’s visit.

  13. Impact of Iraq War on Bangladesh Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Debapriya Bhattacharya; Mustafizur Rahman; Ananya Raihan

    2003-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing an early assessment of the anticipated consequences of Iraq war and its possible impacts on Bangladesh economy. Critical insights and fact-based information on possible changes in several areas including oil price, flow of remittance, volume of export and import, migration of labour force etc., and how these will reshape the country’s economic settings in the post-war era, have been presented in the paper.

  14. OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING TOURISM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism appeal includes natural places like beaches, eco-parks, lakes, valleys, rivers, islands etc., archeological sites, historic mosques and monuments, resorts, picnic spots, forest and wildlife. Bangladesh is a riverine country having attractive panoramic beauty. There are hills, valley, canals, lake, eco-park and mangrove forests, rivers, so many islands and the longest beach in the world. In this country, the scope of nature based tourism, resource based tourism, culture based tourism and eco-tourism is quite evident. Bangladesh is trying hard to develop its tourism industry. Therefore the whole situation deserves to be seen from right perspectives. Role of government is positive since the last twenty years both private and public organizations have come forwarded to attract the local and foreign tourists. The cracks of problem could not identify accurately because of the paucity number of researches and investigations in our country. Developed and organized tourism industry could change the economic condition and contribute a big share in the GDP of Bangladesh. This study will impede the opportunities of developing tourism industry in the light of existing resources.

  15. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  16. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R

    1994-08-01

    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  17. Type 1 diabetes: The Bangladesh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishwar Azad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common endocrine disorder among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. The latest International Diabetes Federation atlas estimated the incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM in Bangladesh as 4.2 new cases of T1DM/100,000 children (0-14 years/year, in 2013. Diabetes, being a lifelong disease, places a huge burden on the economy of the most densely populated, and resource-poor country of the world. The Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS, the largest of its kind in the world, provides comprehensive care to the biggest number of diabetics at any one centre and is engaged in advocacy. Although sounding grandiose, it′s aims that ′no diabetic shall die untreated, unfed or unemployed, even if poor′ is pursued with a passion. Recently BADAS has been supported in its endeavor for children and adolescents by two programmes; viz the Changing Diabetes in Children program (a joint initiative of BADAS, the World Diabetes Foundation and Novo Nordisk, and the Life for a Child Programme (LFAC supported by the IDF. Numerous studies from the prosperous countries have demonstrated the incidence of T1DM is increasing. Data from the CDiC clinic at BIRDEM shows a rising trend in patients presenting with classical T1DM. In addition, the pattern of DM is changing.

  18. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  19. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  20. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  1. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  2. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  3. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  4. Making Work Pay in Bangladesh : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the important roles of labor markets, employment, productivity, and labor income in facilitating shared growth and promoting poverty reduction in Bangladesh. First, the report provides a background discussion of poverty, reform, and growth in Bangladesh. Following that, it gives an overview of the labor market, describing the country's demographic...

  5. Evaluation of egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses under intensive and backyard system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Choudhuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, egg quality traits of endangered Nicobari fowl and its crosses (Nicorock and Nishibari were evaluated under intensive (deep litter as well as backyard system, in the regions of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Materials and Methods: Fresh eggs (15 of all the three genetic groups of birds were collected randomly from institute farm (intensive system and from farmers’ field. The eggs were collected from adult birds (50 weeks of age 3 times with 5 in number in each time. All the genetic groups of birds were subjected to same husbandry practices. The eggs were subjected to external and internal quality parameters study. Results: The effect of genetic groups on egg weight was significant (p<0.05 for all the groups. Nicorock had significantly higher egg weight (g (56.79±0.77 in comparison to Nicobari (53.20±0.34 and Nishibari (48.98±0.22 under intensive system of management. Under backyard condition, the egg weight (g of Nicorock (48.60±1.04 was significantly higher than Nicobari but not with Nishibari. In general, the egg weight was found less under backyard system than intensive system that might be due to scavenging nature of birds. Egg length, egg width and shape index differed significantly (p<0.05 among the genetic groups. Yolk index of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 higher than Nishibari under intensive as well as backyard condition. The shell thickness varied significantly (p<0.05 among different genetic groups. Haugh unit of Nicorock was significantly (p<0.05 lower in comparison to Nicobari and Nishibari under intensive system, but did not vary significantly among genetic groups under backyard condition. Conclusions: The study revealed that there was a significant effect of genetic groups on different egg quality traits; both in intensive system and backyard condition.

  6. Evidence of infection with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses among Lebanese chicken growers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Kayali

    Full Text Available Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying under two major migratory birds flyways and is home to many wild and domestic bird species. Previous reports from this country demonstrated that low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses are in circulation but highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses were not reported. In order to study the extent of human infection with avian influenza viruses in Lebanon, we carried out a seroprevalence cross-sectional study into which 200 poultry-exposed individuals and 50 non-exposed controls were enrolled. We obtained their sera and tested it for the presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses types H4 through H16 and used a questionnaire to collect exposure data. Our microneutralization assay results suggested that backyard poultry growers may have been previously infected with H4 and H11 avian influenza viruses. We confirmed these results by using a horse red blood cells hemagglutination inhibition assay. Our data also showed that farmers with antibodies against each virus type clustered in a small geographic area suggesting that unrecognized outbreaks among birds may have led to these human infections. In conclusion, this study suggests that occupational exposure to chicken is a risk factor for infection with avian influenza especially among backyard growers and that H4 and H11 influenza viruses may possess the ability to cross the species barrier to infect humans.

  7. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-01-01

    Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262) and 23.1% (9/39), respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05), AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15). AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  8. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Madsen

    Full Text Available Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262 and 23.1% (9/39, respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05, AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15. AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  9. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (≥1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p valuebiosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (pbiosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time.

  10. LEVEL OF ADOPTION AND CONSTRAINTS OF SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING PRACTICES IN RURAL TRIBAL AREAS OF SIKKIM, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on level of adoption and constraints of backyard poultry rearing practices in rural tribal areas of Sikkim. The data were collected from 125 respondents of Dzongu area, North Sikkim through personal interview with the help of questionnaire. From the present study it was found that 64.8% respondents were medium level adopters followed by high level (19.2%) and low level (16%) adopters. Housing (43.2%) were highly adopted followed by feeding and watering (41.6%), marketing...

  11. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from chickens, preparation of formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine, and determination of efficacy in experimental chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Akhtar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify Pasteurella multocida from fowl cholera (FC suspected chicken, and to prepare and efficacy determination of formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine using the isolated P. multocida strain. Materials and methods: A total of five suspected dead chickens were collected from Brothers Poultry Farm located at Gazipur district, Bangladesh. The samples were processed and the P. multocida was isolated through conventional bacteriological techniques, were finally confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using P. multocida specific primers targeting cap gene. The P. multocida isolate was used to develop a formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine. The efficacy of the newly prepared vaccine was determined in Starcross-579 chickens (n=30 aging 15 weeks either by injecting 1 mL (group-A; n=10 or 0.5 mL (group-B; n=10 vaccine containing approximately 3.2x108 CFU/mL P. multocida organism; 10 birds were kept as unvaccinated control. The sera from the vaccinated and control birds were collected and were subjected for antibody titre determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Finally the vaccinated birds were challenged using virulent strains of P. multocida to confer the protection against FC. Results: P. multocida could be isolated from both the samples. The formalin killed vaccine prepared from the isolated bacteria was subjected for the determination of antibody titre in chicken, and found that the antibody titres in the birds of group A and group B were 4.513 and 4.07 respectively after primary vaccination, and 4.893 and 4.37 respectively after booster vaccination. Most of the vaccinated birds were found to be survived after challenging with virulent strain of P. multocida. Conclusion: It is concluded that the causal agent of FC (P. multocida was successfully isolated from FC affected dead chickens. The prepared formalin killed fowl cholera vaccine induces protective immune response and

  12. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  13. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh-21 Years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Alauddin, Mohammad; Hassan, Manzurul; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shymapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Roy, Shibtosh; Quamruzzman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Morshed, Salim; Islam, Tanzima; Sorif, Shaharir; Selim, Md; Islam, Md Razaul; Hossain, Md Monower

    2015-01-01

    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub

  14. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  15. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  16. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  17. A Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Mridha, Shahjahan; Afroz, Maqsuda

    2015-08-01

    In its strategic planning for the "Astronomy for Development Project," the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has ecognized, among other important missions, the role of astronomy in understanding the far-reaching possibilities for promoting global tolerance and citizenship. Furthermore, astronomy is deemed inspirational for careers in science and technology. The "Pilot Astronomy Outreach Project in Bangladesh"--the first of its kind in the country--aspires to fulfill these missions. As Bangladesh lacks resources to promote astronomy education in universities and schools, the role of disseminating astronomy education to the greater community falls on citizen science organizations. One such group, Anushandhitshu Chokro (AChokro) Science Organization, has been carrying out a successful public outreach program since 1975. Among its documented public events, AChokro organized a total solar eclipse campaign in Bangladesh in 2009, at which 15,000 people were assembled in a single open venue for the eclipse observation. The organization has actively pursued astronomy outreach to dispel public misconceptions about astronomical phenomena and to promote science. AChokro is currently working to build an observatory and Science Outreach Center around a recently-acquired 14-inch Scmidt-Cassegrain telescope and a soon-to-be-acquired new 16-inch reflector, all funded by private donations. The telescopes will be fitted with photometers, spectrometers, and digital and CCD cameras to pursue observations that would include sun spot and solar magnetic fields, planetary surfaces, asteroid search, variable stars and supernovae. The Center will be integrated with schools, colleges, and community groups for regular observation and small-scale research. Special educational and observing sessions for adults will also be organized. Updates on the development of the Center, which is expected to be functioning by the end of 2015, will be shared and feedback invited on the fostering of

  18. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  19. Virulence repertoire, characterization, and antibiotic resistance pattern analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from backyard layers and their environment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Das, Pradip K; Das, Palas; Sar, Tapas K; Dutta, Tapan K; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Batabyal, Subhasis; Isore, Devi P

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the prevalence, serogroup, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)-associated virulence gene, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) pattern, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli in backyard layers and their environment in India. From the 360 samples of healthy layers and their environment, 272 (75.5%) E. coli were isolated. The majority (28.67%) of them were untypeable. Among the studied virulence genes (papC, tsh, iucC, astA), 52 (14.32%) isolates were found to possess astA, including the isolates from the drinking water of the birds (4/272, 1.47%). These strains belonged to 18 different serogroups. Most of the isolates were typeable by RAPD and they produced different patterns. Phenotypic resistance of the isolates was most frequently observed to erythromycin (95.83%), chloramphenicol (87.52%), and cotrimoxazole (78.26%). None of the isolates was found to possess extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M) or quinolone resistance (qnrA) genes by PCR. The present study was the first attempt in India to assess APEC distribution in backyard poultry production.

  20. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  1. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A U

    1986-01-01

    The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."

  2. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  3. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  4. Summer rains in northeast Bangladesh: Onset and triggering mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ssemujju, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on convective triggering mechanisms around the onset of the summer rains in Northeast Bangladesh. We want to understand this rainfall since it has a large impact on the local climate, and because 25.3% of the annual rainfall in Northeast Bangladesh falls in Bangladesh summer (March - May). To do this, we first identified the onset of the summer rains for each year using Sylhet station rainfall data with a 11 mm/day pentad rainfall mean threshold and a 6-...

  5. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  6. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.

  7. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositvity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaws, M.; Priyono, W.; Bett, B.; Al-Qamar, S.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Widiastuti, T.; Poole, J.; Schoonman, L.; Jost, C.; Mariner, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportio

  8. Comparative possession of Shiga toxin, intimin, enterohaemolysin and major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from backyard and farmed poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, I; Joardar, S N; Das, P K; Sar, T K

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to compare the occurrence of Escherichia coli possessing virulence and ESBL genes in backyard and farmed poultry. Three hundred and sixty samples from the poultry kept in backyard system and 120 samples from the farmed birds were collected from West Bengal, India. Among the E. coli isolates of backyard poultry (O2, O10, O25, O55, O60, O106, UT), none of them possessed any of the Shiga toxin genes and eight E. coli isolates (8/272; 2.9%) harboured eaeA gene alone. Whereas among the E. coli isolated from the farmed poultry (O17, O20, O22, O102, O114, O119, rough, UT), four isolates (4/78, 5.1%) harboured stx 1/stx 2 gene and 11 isolates (11/78, 14.1%) possessed eaeA gene. None of the E. coli isolates from the backyard poultry harboured any studied ESBL gene. Whereas 29.4% of E. coli isolates from the farmed poultry were found to possess the ESBL genes.

  9. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  10. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immunization of backyard poultry in rural and peri-urban areas worldwide is critical for providing adequate nutrition and income for small farmers and for ensuring global food security. A vaccine presentation for flocks of 30 to 50 birds that is stable at ambient temperatures could make it affor...

  11. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses circulating in Bangladesh from 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S P; Balasuriya, U B R; Yamage, M

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been endemic in Bangladesh since its first isolation in February 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of HPAI H5N1 viruses demonstrated that 25 Bangladeshi isolates including two human isolates from 2007-2011 along with some isolates from neighbouring Asian countries (India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, China and Vietnam) segregate into two distinct clades (2.2 and 2.3). There was clear evidence of introduction of clade 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011 in addition to clade 2.2 viruses that had been in circulation in Bangladesh since 2007. The data clearly demonstrated the movement of H5N1 strains between Asian countries included in this study due to migration of wild birds and/or illegal movement of poultry across borders. Interestingly, the two human isolates were closely related to the clade 2.2 Bangladeshi chicken isolates indicating that they have originated from chickens. Furthermore, comparative amino acid sequence analysis revealed several substitutions (including 189R>K and 282I>V) in HA protein of some clade 2.2 Bangladeshi viruses including the human isolates, suggesting there was antigenic drift in clade 2.2.3 viruses that were circulating between 2008 and 2011. Overall, the data imply genetic diversity among circulating viruses and multiple introductions of H5N1 viruses with an increased risk of human infections in Bangladesh, and establishment of H5N1 virus in wild and domestic bird populations, which demands active surveillance.

  12. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cucurbitaceae family comprising about 125 genera and 960 species is a family that is further characterized by commonly having five-angled stems and coiled tendrils and is also known as gourd family of flowering plants. Plant species belonging to this family have a worldwide distribution, but most species can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. A number of the plants belonging to this family have reported important pharmacological activities. Cucurbitaceae family plants are also in use in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh-a traditional medicinal system, which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments. Aims: Since folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health care in Bangladesh, the objective of this study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among 75 folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of randomly selected 75 villages in 64 districts of Bangladesh and 8 tribal practitioners (1 each from 8 major indigenous communities or tribes, namely, Bede, Chakma, Garo, Khasia, Marma, Murong, Santal, and Tripura of the country. Materials and Methods: Surveys were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: It was observed that the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners use a total of 19 Cucurbitaceae family species for treatment of ailments such as dysentery, diabetes, edema, skin disorders, leukoderma, hypertension, jaundice, typhoid, spleen disorders, respiratory problems, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, chicken pox, and cancer. The 19 species of Cucurbitaceae family plants in use were Benincasa hispida, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatu, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Hodgsonia macrocarpa, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Momordica

  13. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  14. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  15. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Atkins, Peter J; Dunn, Christine E

    2005-11-01

    Besides its toxicity, groundwater arsenic contamination creates widespread social problems for its victims and their families in Bangladesh. There is, for instance, a tendency to ostracise arsenic-affected people, arsenicosis being thought of as a contagious disease. Within the community, arsenic-affected people are barred from social activities and often face rejection, even by their immediate family members. Women with visible arsenicosis symptoms are unable to get married and some affected housewives are divorced by their husbands. Children with symptoms are not sent to school in an effort to hide the problem. This paper employs mainly qualitative methods to interpret people's understandings about the toxic impact of groundwater arsenic poisoning on their social lives. Arsenic-affected patients in southwest Bangladesh were asked to determine their 'own priorities' in measuring arsenic toxicity on their social activities and to explore their perceptions about their own survival strategies. We found that patients' experiences reveal severe negative social impacts, and a sharp difference of perceptions about arsenic and social issues between arsenicosis patients and unaffected people.

  16. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  17. Strategic Intervention of ODL in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Education has been considered as a priority sector and a great challenge to the Bangladesh Government, with a view to transforming human potential into a productive workforce. The conventional face to face education system is not enough to cope with the need of an ever increasing population, rapid changes in human knowledge and the global context being changed. Education through open and distance learning (ODL has been recognized as an important alternative in the country. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, established in 1992, has been mandated to improve the quality, relevance and efficiency of the education system with a view to eradicating illiteracy, developing human resources and alleviating poverty in the country. This article outlines the services provided by BOU, and explains how BOU utilizes its infrastructure and support services to deliver formal and non-formal programmes in basic and applied sciences, agriculture, technology, health, environment, education, language, teaching education, literature, population and gender issues to create awareness and promote knowledge. The impact of the programmes are reviewed and evaluated, based on feedback studies with target groups, and with particular reference to ODL in agriculture and rural development.

  18. Profile of childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Selina H; Khan, Naila Z; Hossain, Mahmuda; Jahan, Anisa; Parveen, Monwara; Rahman, Narsis; Boyd, Stewart H; Neville, Brian

    2003-07-01

    Very little is known about childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh. This study was conducted within a national children's hospital in Dhaka city to provide baseline information on diagnosis and clinical outcomes of 151 children (98 males, 53 females, age range between 2 months to 15 years, median age of 3 years). Participants who presented with recurrent unprovoked seizures were followed up in an epilepsy clinic for at least 1 year. Of presenting families, 68.3% were from middle-income and lower-income groups. A history of perinatal asphyxia and neonatal seizures was present in 46.4% and 41.1% of participants respectively. Generalized, partial, and unclassifiable epilepsy were found in 63.6%, 25.2%, and 11.2% respectively. Severe outcome (malignant) epilepsy syndromes were diagnosed in 14.6%. Symptomatic epilepsy was found in 61%. Poor cognitive development was present in 72.8% and poor adaptive behaviour in 57%. Poor seizure remission occurred in 50.3%. Factors most predictive of poor seizure remission were: multiple types of seizures, poor cognition at presentation, high rates of seizures, associated motor disability, and EEG abnormalities. The study suggests that most children presenting at tertiary hospitals for seizure disorders come late and with associated neurodevelopmental morbidities. Specialized services are needed closer to their homes. The process for establishing early referral and comprehensive management of childhood epilepsies in Bangladesh requires further study.

  19. Widespread of H5N1 infections in apparently healthy backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abozaid, Khaled G A; Aly, Mona M; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-08-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 represents a threat to the poultry industry and human health worldwide. Inapparently infected birds are suspected to play an essential role in the spread of avian influenza virus. In the current study, a total of 25,646 samples (16,185 chicken, 4696 ducks, 1633 geese and 3132 turkeys) from apparently healthy birds were screened for the presence of positive samples for H5N1 during 2009-2014. The samples were examined by reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for M, H5 and N1 genes of avian influenza viruses. The results revealed that the HPAI H5N1 existed in an inapparent manner in ducks (4.68 %), geese (4.10 %), chickens (2.48 %) and turkeys (2.29 %). The current finding highlights the serious impact of such type on birds in the epidemiology of H5N1 in birds, animals and humans. It also highlights the existence of another reason other than vaccination that contributes to the widespread of inapparent infection of H5N1 in Egypt.

  20. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  1. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  2. Map Service Showing Geologic and Geophysical Data of Bangladesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, major faults, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in Bangladesh. This compilation is part of an interim product of the...

  3. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  4. History, problems, and prospects of Islamic insurance (Takaful) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.

  5. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  6. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  7. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  8. Tourism in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Chandra Roy; Mallika Roy

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is full of natural beauty. Rivers, coasts and beaches, archaeological sites, religious places, hills, forests, waterfalls, tea gardens surround it. The Sundarban, Historic Mosque in city of Bagerhat, Ruins of the Buddihist Vihara at Paharpur are the three world heritage sites in Bangladesh among 1007. To observe the beauty of nature, huge amount of domestic and foreign tourists visit the country and its tourist attraction sites. In 2012, around six-lakh (6 hundred thousand) tourist...

  9. Female labour force participation in Bangladesh : trends, drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Rushidan I; Islam, Rizwanul

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the stylized implications of the U-shaped hypothesis, there has been an increase in female labour force participation in Bangladesh, alongside the acceleration in economic growth since the 1990s. In this regard, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in female employment in labour- intensive export-oriented industries in urban areas. The study also finds that the rapid expansion of micro-finance in rural areas has supported women’s employment. However, the economy in g...

  10. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinhard Vogl; Brojo Gopal Paul

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798) aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Banglade...

  11. Health Insurance for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  12. Causality relationship between electricity consumption and GDP in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozumder, Pallab [Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: pallab@tei.umass.edu; Marathe, Achla [Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, 1880 Pratt Drive, Bldg XV, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail: amarathe@vt.edu

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita GDP for Bangladesh using cointegration and vector error correction model. Our results show that there is unidirectional causality from per capita GDP to per capita electricity consumption. However, the per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita GDP in case of Bangladesh. The finding has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, emission reduction and economic development.

  13. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  14. Molecular dating of HIV-1 subtype C from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontell, Irene; Sarker, Md Safiullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Afrad, Mokibul Hassan; Sönnerborg, Anders; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has an overall low HIV prevalence of Bangladesh and related strains from other countries, and thereby clarify when and from where subtype C was introduced in the country and how it subsequently spread within Bangladesh. The phylogenetic analysis included 118 Bangladeshi gag sequences and 128 sequences from other countries and was performed using the BEAST package. Our analysis revealed that the vast majority of Bangladeshi sequences (97/118, 82%) fall into a large regional cluster of samples from Bangladesh, India, China and Myanmar, which dates back to the early 1960's. Following its establishment in the region, this strain has entered Bangladesh multiple times from around 1975 and onwards, but extensive in-country transmission could only be detected among drug users and not through sexual transmission. In addition, there have been multiple (at least ten) introductions of subtype C to Bangladesh from outside this region, but no extensive spread could be detected for any of these. Since many HIV-infections remain undetected while asymptomatic, the true extent of the transmission of each strain remains unknown, especially among hard to reach groups such as clients of sex workers and returning migrants with families.

  15. MEASURING THE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has been playing a significant role in achieving the economic growth of Bangladesh, where contribution of Islamic Banking Sector is remarkable. Islamic Banking Sector shows a substantial growth position in Bangladesh. Customer satisfaction is the most significant affecting phenomenon in determining the banking growth. Thus, this study attempts to measure the existing level of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banks in Bangladesh, using the Structural Equation Model (SEM. This study uses the 22 dimensions of customer satisfaction which used in the earlier studies in different countries for measuring the customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector. A total of 385 samples have been taken from six full pledged Islamic Banks in Bangladesh. It reveals form the study that Human Resources and Systemization Service Delivery is the strongest indicator of customer satisfaction of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh followed by Core Product, Service Capability and Social Responsibility. The findings therefore, may be helpful for policy-makers of banking authorities who have been making serious endeavor to sustain the growth of Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh.

  16. Past and future flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, Insa; Hopson, Thomas; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Currently, an average of about 20 % of the land surface in Bangladesh is flooded each year, affecting one of the most densely populated regions in the world. We aim to understand the processes currently determining flooding in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin, in particular the role of precipitation and sea-level rise, as well as to assess how climate change might impact flood characteristics in the future. Water level and discharge data were provided by the Bangladesh Water Development Board on a daily basis for a period of 1909-2009. Monthly maps based on daily sea level anomalies from the Data Unification Altimeter Combination System DUACS are available on a 0.25° by 0.25° grid for the time period 1993-2014. Ensemble model output for upper catchment precipitation and annual mean thermosteric sea-level rise is taken from historical and RCP scenario runs conducted with the CCSM4. We first analyzed daily water levels of the past 100 years in order to detect potential shifts in extremes. The available observations are then used to set up a generalized linear model to detect how precipitation influences flooding in the GBM basin. This model can then be used to give a prognosis on changes in future flooding. Our analysis suggests that water levels have indeed changed over the course of the past century. While the magnitude and duration of average flood events decreased, the frequency of extreme flood events has increased. Low water levels have also changed, with a significant decrease in the annual minimum water level most noticeable when we compare the time periods 1909-1939 and 1979-2009. For the future, first results confirm the decrease in return periods of strong flood events found in previous studies. The impact of climate change on flooding will also be compared to the impact of man-made structures such as Farakka barrage, built across the Ganges on the border between India and Bangladesh and operating since 1975. This is of particular interest as

  17. Changing Climate; Bangladesh Facing the Challenge of Severe Flood Problems; A Comparison of Flood Management between Bangladesh and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, KALLOL KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Both Bangladesh and the Netherlands are the most flood prone countries in two continents Asia and Europe. Bangladesh is known to be highly vulnerable to floods. Frequent floods have put enormous constraints on its development potential. Unfortunately, the frequency of high intensity floods is increasing every year. So far the country has struggled to put a sizeable infrastructure in place to prevent flooding in many parts of the country with limited success. Where, the Netherlands has develop...

  18. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  19. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Samir; Lamichhane, Ram Sharan; Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Fatouros, Maria; Neville, Peter; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2) traps were also deployed, to assess adult

  20. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mainali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2 Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices Survey in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions, attitudes (3 questions, and practices (3 questions, as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2 traps were also deployed, to

  1. Plantas medicinais em quintais urbanos de Rio Branco, Acre Medicinal plants in urban backyards in Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siviero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar levantamento das espécies vegetais de uso medicinal cultivadas em quintais urbanos da cidade de Rio Branco. Foram realizadas entrevistas presenciais com aplicação de questionário especifico registrando as espécies vegetais de uso medicinal e dados sócio-econômicos dos moradores em 132 quintais urbanos de Rio Branco entre 2009 e 2010. Os bairros selecionados para o estudo foram: Aeroporto Velho, Placas, e Novo Horizonte, todos situados na periferia do município. Foram detectadas 83 espécies vegetais de uso medicinal pertencente a 50 famílias botânicas com destaque para Lamiaceae (12,0% e Asteraceae (6,0%, sendo 66,2% exóticas, e 28,9% e 16,8%, associadas ao uso alimentar e ornamental, respectivamente. A decocção das folhas visando à obtenção do chá foi o principal modo de preparo das plantas. A análise de regressão logística entre a riqueza de espécies e diversos fatores socioeconômicos dos entrevistados mostrou que a probabilidade de ocorrência de espécies é três vezes maior em quintais manejados por moradores com idade superior a 50 anos de idade. A análise de correlação não paramétrica de fatores quantitativos mostrou que a variável tempo de moradia está mais correlacionada com a riqueza de plantas medicinais do que a variável idade. O cultivo das plantas medicinais em quintais urbanos de Rio Branco auxilia no combate a doenças e promove a conservação ex situ da agrobiodiversidade agroflorestal, bem estar aos moradores pela melhoria da paisagem, ambiência microclimática e espaço de lazer.This study aimed to survey the medicinal plant species grown in urban backyards in the city of Rio Branco. Personal interviews were conducted by applying a specific questionnaire recording the plant species of medicinal use and the socioeconomic data of residents in 132 urban backyards in Rio Branco between 2009 and 2010. The districts selected for the study were "Aeroporto

  2. Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hasnat, Mohammed Abul; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Mikolon, Andrea; Chakraborty, Ranjit Kumar; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Ara, Khorsed; Haider, Najmul; Zaki, Sherif R.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, M. Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22492157

  3. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  4. Stockmanship competence and its relation to productivity and economic profitability: the context of backyard goat production in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcedo, M J; Ito, K; Maeda, K

    2015-03-01

    A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals' needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer's income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively, a percentage difference of 65.23%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM was 14 kg and 30% respectively. After FLS-IGM, median mature weight was 19 kg and mortality rate decreased from 30% to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers who were able to undergo FLS-IGM. With regard to income, there was a 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved SC could lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also to

  5. Educating girls in Bangladesh: exploding the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M

    1993-01-01

    Poor landless families in Bangladesh typically see no need to educate their girls. Even where school fees are waived, exercise books, pencils, and school clothes cost money, and girls are especially needed to care for siblings and do other household chores. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), however, has found it possible to get girls to school by adapting education to the circumstances of poverty instead of requiring families and students to adjust to the conventional rules of primary school. The BRAC non-formal primary education (NFPE) program in five years has expanded to 12,000 centers serving 360,000 children in two programs of three-year duration each for 8-10 year olds and 11-14 year olds. Reflecting the policy of giving priority to girls, more than 70% of enrolled children are female. Almost all teachers are also female and typically young, married, from the neighborhood, and with 9-10 years of schooling. Each center is a thatch or tin-roofed hut accommodating thirty children managed by a village committee and a parent-teacher committee at a cost of US$18 per child per year. All learning materials are provided at the center for the three hours of courses six days per week set according to students' availability and convenience. The course for the younger children offers the equivalent of three years of primary education, while the course for the older children offers basic literacy and life skills. The success of the BRAC centers demonstrates how parents and children may respond when education is socially and culturally acceptable, affordable, and strives to meet parents' and child's expectations.

  6. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  7. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes the ClpPX and Lon proteases for optimal fitness in the ceca of chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a leading cause of salmonellosis. Poultry and poultry products are implicated in transmission of Salmonella to humans. In 2013, an outbreak of S. Typhimurium occurred that comprised 39 states within the United States and was associated with backyard flocks of chickens. Colonization of the avian host by S. Typhimurium requires numerous genetic factors encoded within the bacterium. Of particular interest are genetic factors induced by alternative sigma factors within S. Typhimurium since these genetic elements are important for adaptation to different environmental stresses. The heat shock response is a dedicated change in gene regulation within bacteria in response to several stresses, specifically growth at 42°C. Because chickens have a higher body temperature than other animals (42°C) the hypothesis was tested that components of the heat shock response are important for optimal fitness within the chicken. To this end, deletion of the heat shock proteases clpPX (BTNC0022) or lon (BTNC0021) was accomplished and the bacterial fitness in vivo was compared to the “wild-type” strain (NC1040) using a competition assay. One-day-old chicks were orally gavaged with an equal mixture of NC1040 and either BTNC0022 or BTNC0021. Quantification of viable bacteria over time by using plate counts indicated that deletion of either heat shock protease resulted in significantly reduced colonization of the chicken ceca compared to the wild-type strain. To satisfy the molecular Koch's postulates, clpPX and lon mutants were complemented in trans using a low-copy number plasmid for additional in vivo experiments. Complementation studies confirmed the importance of either heat shock protease to colonization of the chicken ceca. This report demonstrated that both ClpPX and Lon were important for optimal fitness within chickens. Moreover, these results suggested that components of the heat shock may be critical factors used

  8. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  9. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  10. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    , outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge, farmers training, proper market access, difficulties of parent stock collection, inadequate biosecurity practices, and limited access to veterinary care. Thus, a proper training on quail farming, bio-security management, and government subsidy on feeds could make quail farming sustainable in Bangladesh. Conclusions: The study concludes that Japanese quail farming has enormous potentiality and could be an alternative to chicken farming particularly in providing gainful employment, supplementary income and as a valuable source of meat and egg, quail farming should be encouraged and promoted in Bangladesh.

  11. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    diseases, lack of proper knowledge, farmers training, proper market access, difficulties of parent stock collection, inadequate biosecurity practices, and limited access to veterinary care. Thus, a proper training on quail farming, bio-security management, and government subsidy on feeds could make quail farming sustainable in Bangladesh. Conclusions: The study concludes that Japanese quail farming has enormous potentiality and could be an alternative to chicken farming particularly in providing gainful employment, supplementary income and as a valuable source of meat and egg, quail farming should be encouraged and promoted in Bangladesh.

  12. Anticorpos contra vírus em galinhas de terreiro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Antibodies against avian viruses in backyard poultry from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Fernandes dos Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a população de aves conhecida como galinhas de terreiro encontra-se fora do sistema de biosseguridade aplicada às criações comerciais. Para investigar a presença de anticorpos contra alguns vírus específicos nesta população, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 867 aves não-vacinadas em 60 propriedades de 22 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O soro foi testado para a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IBV, reovírus aviário (ARV e o vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa (IBDV pela técnica de soroneutralização. Anticorpos contra IBV foram detectados em 65% (564/867 das amostras, contra ARV em 21,6% (187/867 e contra IBDV em 80,2% (695/867 das aves. Todas as propriedades avaliadas apresentavam uma ave positiva para anticorpos contra IBV e IBDV e 88,3% delas eram positivas para ARV. Os resultados demonstram que esses vírus estão presentes em galinhas de terreiro nas criações avícolas não-industriais da região central do Estado. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de um programa de vigilância permanente nessa população e ainda indicam a necessidade de avaliar o impacto destas infecções nos próprios plantéis e o risco associado à transmissão destas às criações comerciais.The backyard poultry are not included in the biosecurity system applied in commercial flocks in Brazil. To investigate the presence of antibodies to specific viral pathogens in this population, blood samples were collected from 867 non-vaccinated birds, from 60 flocks in 22 counties of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The samples were tested to detect antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, avian reovirus (ARV and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV, through the virus neutralization test. Antibodies to IBV were detected in 65% (564/867, against ARV in 21.6% (187/867, and against IBDV in 80.2% (695/867 of the samples. All the flocks had chickens positive to IBV

  13. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  14. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FEED ADDITIVES ON BROILER CHICKENS HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ALLOUI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics were very important pieces of the puzzle that enabled the poultry production to move from a backyard flock based industry to the large-scale production facilities of today. Public health professionals have suggested that the use of subtherapeutic antibiotics in animal production may be partially responsible for the development of antibiotic resistant bacterial populations. The probiotics may be substituted by antibiotics (growth promoting in certain cases. Pediococcus acidilactici is a bacterial probiotic used in this experience. 16000 broiler chickens were assigned in two experimental groups: treatment (109 cfu/kg of feed of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and control. In each group 8000 broiler chickens were allocated in the same batch and divided by a physical barrier. Individual live weight of a sample of 200 birds for each group from day 0 to day 56 was measured weekly. Feed intake, feed efficiency, mortality, carcass quality, serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides and number of white blood cells, were recorded per group. The administration of Pediococcus acidilactici affected positively the growth performance of broilers (2586.43 vs. 2252.79 g, p≤0.01 and feed conversion ratio (2.00 vs. 2.5. There were no significant difference between groups in dressing, breast meat and thigh percent, at the end of day 56. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between treatments for serum lipids (p≤0.01. Mortality was almost similar in both groups (6.56 vs. 6.51. The numbers of white blood cells were significantly affected by dietary treatment (p≤0.01.

  15. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...... difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp, multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered...... the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry, The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back...

  16. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  17. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  18. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints.

  19. Determinants of drinking arsenic-contaminated tubewell water in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M H; Aklimunnessa, Khandoker; Kabir, M; Mori, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    Bangladesh has already experienced the biggest catastrophe in the world due to arsenic contamination of drinking water. This study investigates the association of drinking arsenic-contaminated water (DACW) with both personal and household characteristics of 9116 household respondents using the household data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004. Here DACW means that arsenic level in the drinking water is greater than the permissible limit (50 microg/l) of Bangladesh. The overall rate of DACW was 7.9%. It was found to be significantly associated with education, currently working, and division of Bangladesh, either by cross tabulation or multivariate logistic regression analyses or both. Similarly, household characteristics -- namely television, bicycle, materials of the wall and floor, total family members, number of sleeping rooms, and availability of foods -- were significantly associated in bivariate analyses. Many household characteristics -- namely electricity, television, wall and floor materials, and number of sleeping rooms -- revealed significant association in the logistic regression analysis when adjusted for age, education and division. This study indicates that respondents from Chittagong division and lower socio-economic groups (indicated by household characteristics) are at significantly higher risk of DACW. These findings should be taken into account during the planning of future intervention activities in Bangladesh.

  20. History and Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Raihan

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the smaller states in Asia. But it has a long and rich history of nuclear medicine for over sixty years. The progress in science and technology is always challenging in a developing country. In 1958, work for the first Nuclear Medicine facility was commenced in Dhaka in a tin-shed known as 'Radioisotope Centre' and was officially inaugurated in 1962. Since the late 50s of the last century nuclear medicine in Bangladesh has significantly progressed through the years in its course of development, but still the facilities are inadequate. At present there are 20 nuclear medicine establishments with 3 PET-CTs, 42 gamma camera/SPECTs with 95 physicians, 20 physicists, 10 radiochemists and 150 technologists. The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh (SNMB) was formed in 1993 and publishing its official journal since 1997. Bangladesh also has close relationships with many international organizations like IAEA, ARCCNM, AOFNMB, ASNM, WFNMB and WARMTH. The history and the present scenario of the status of nuclear medicine in Bangladesh are being described here.

  1. Bangladesh Enterprises Continue to Participate in Trade Promotion Events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On March 26, 2007,Bangladesh celebrated its 36th anniversary of the Independence and National Day.China and Bangladesh enjoy time tested friendly relations. The bilateral relations are characterized by sustained efforts to further broaden the nature and scope of the cooperation. In 2005, China emerged as the biggest source of import for Bangladesh, outstripping the volume of import from Bangladesh's other immediate neighbors. Bangladesh is the third largest trading partner of China in South Asia. The total bilateral trade volume has reached beyond US$ 3 billion in 2006.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  3. Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with

  4. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  5. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... to use’ compared to Bangla medium students. Significantly higher percentage of students can use and own desktop, laptop, cellphone, iPOD and MP3 player. While teachers mostly use computers for work (73%), study (45%) and listening music (34%), students use for playing games (63%), listening musing (62...... University, Bangladesh (IUB) in autumn 2009 participated in conducting survey activities. Total 33 academic institutes were south for approval and 11 could be surveyed before the Christmas and annual recess. Responses from 6 other academics institutes were collected from the personal networks of students...

  6. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  7. Applicability of Telemedicine in Bangladesh: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nessa, Ahasanun; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the use of information and communication technology to provide and support health care mainly for the purpose of providing consultation. It is also a way to provide medical procedures or examinations to remote locations. It has the potential to improve both the quality and the access to health care services delivery while lowering costs even in the scarcity of resources. Understanding the potentiality of telemedicine, many developing countries are implementing telemedicine to provide health care facility to remote area where health care facilities are deficient. Bangladesh is not an exception to this either. In this paper we mention the reasons why Bangladesh has to move for telemedicine. We also present the past and on-going telemedicine activities and projects in Bangladesh. Analyzing these projects we have found out some factors which should be assessed carefully for successful implementation of telemedicine application. Finally we propose a prototype telemedicine network for Banglad...

  8. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Mohan Tulsiani, Suhella

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  9. Inflation Targeting as the Monetary Policy Framework: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed SAIFUL ISLAM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflation targeting strategy has become a widely accepted monetary policy framework in many countries all over the world. Our study finds that the central bank of Bangladesh is neither inflation targeting nor does follow any other rule-guided monetary policy, rather the policy is formulated with substantial discretion under the guidelines of donor agencies. This paper provides the evidence that monetary sector of Bangladesh economy has gained considerable degree of maturity and fulfils a number of prerequisites to adopt inflation targeting strategy. Using data over 1980-2010 we estimate an error correction model in order to examine if interest rate policy could fight the inflation. This is evident that deviation in inflation from target can be corrected via the changes in interest rate. Empirical findings jointly with few descriptive statistics provide strong evidence to recommend inflation targeting as the monetary policy strategy for Bangladesh.

  10. Board Composition and Firm Performance: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of corporate board composition in the form of representation of outsideindependent directors on firm economic performance in Bangladesh. Two hypotheses are developed toexamine the relationship among composition of board memberships including independent directors andfirm performance. An observation of 274 Bangladeshi firm-years is used in the study. A linear regressionanalysis is used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that the outside (independent directors cannot addpotential value to the firm’s economic performance in Bangladesh. The idea of the introduction ofindependent directors may have benefits for greater transparency, but the non-consideration of theunderlying institutional and cultural differences in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh may not resultin economic value addition to the firm. The findings provide an insight to the regulators in their quest forharmonization of international corporate governance practices.

  11. Challenges in Teaching Pronunciation at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzina Tahereen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching pronunciation is one the most challenging parts of ELT in Bangladesh. Very few research and least attention on pronunciation teaching has instigated those challenges more. Moreover, setting an ambitious target to achieve native like pronunciation and teaching without considering the Bangladeshi context are more specific reasons for creating those problems. Therefore, this paper concentrates on the discussion of the existing condition of teaching pronunciation in Bangladesh. Consequently, it starts with presenting existing circumstances of pronunciation teaching in Bangladesh, and showing what the achievable and realistic goal should be for this situation. Then, it talks about the challenges that the teachers face while teaching pronunciation in ELT classroom. This discussion provides deep insight into those challenges which are only applicable to Bangladeshi students. Finally, the paper suggests some contextual and practical solutions to those specific problems.

  12. The Effects of Remittances on Inflation: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing countries, remittances are relatively larger capital inflows in Bangladesh in the recent years. Hence, understanding the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic variables such as inflation is essential for the policy makers of the recipient economy. Incorporating remittances as an exogenous variable to the standard inflation function, this paper verifies how it affects the inflation rate in Bangladesh in the 1972-2010 periods. Applying Vector Autoregressive (VAR techniques, the empirical results find that a one percent increase in remittances inflows increases inflation rate by 2.48 percent in the long run, whereas no significant relationship is evident between these two variables in the short-run in Bangladesh.

  13. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaduzzaman, M. [Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  14. FORMAL TRADE BETWEEN INDIA AND BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K.S. YADAV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of improving trade flows between India and Bangladesh is not only beneficial to them, but for the whole SAARC region, given that Bhutan and Nepal utilise Bangladesh ports as gateways to trade outside the region. Bangladesh’s overall exports are dominated by labour-intensive manufacturing and its imports to India by primary commodities. The shares of manufactured goods in country’s overall export were about 92 and 91 percent in 2001 and 2011 respectively. However, the composition of bilateral trade between these two countries has been changing over time. Addition and removal in the list of products of trade basket is a usual process. Consistent products in the trade basket of Bangladesh are ready made garments and sea food, whereas those of India are raw cotton, cereals and products and machinery of iron and steel. Expansion of trade of these countries with outside world, but not with each other confirms the prevalence of certain barriers, physical or non-physical in nature, rendering many potential products remain untraded. India and Bangladesh being geographically proximate to each other possess huge scope to trade. Specifically as both the countries are rich in natural resources and are competent in the production of small-scale manufacturing and agrarian supplies, mostly from the eastern parts of India and Bangladesh, both possess huge potential for bilateral trade. Many items having high trade potential are still not able to get market exposure in the neighbouring country because of various non-tariff barriers prevailing in current trade scenario, which have hiked up the cost of doing business to unacceptable proportions and as most of the highly tradable products are still kept under the sensitive lists of Bangladesh. There are numerous bottlenecks in the current trade infrastructure which turns out to be physical barrier to trade. The present paper highlights the import export and Exchange Rate change and prospects of

  15. NEW TRENDS IN LEGAL EDUCATION AT BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid FERDOUSI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, Formal legal education is provided by either a department of a university or an affiliated college. There are four public universities and above twenty six private universities in our country with law as a regular subject of teaching. Besides, the National University imparts teaching of law through law colleges in the country. All public and private universities providing law graduate degree by conventional system but many people deprived from this opportunities. Thus to increase equitable access to education and to develop the human resources of the country the Bangladesh Open University playing significant role. Large numbers of students of rural areas, particularly women, out of school and adults who must do work to support their families are include with the university. Bangladesh Open University is the only institution in Bangladesh which imparts education in open and distance mode and offers 23 formal programmes, the demand for the introduction of LL.B programme for the benefit of those who have been, for various reasons, deprived of the opportunity of undertaking graduate course in law in conventional mode of education. The decision to offer the programme in distance mode is being taken in response to the earnest desire of the relevant quarters expressed in various dailies and formal applications submitted to the university authority as the learners in the open and distance mode learn at his own place and any time whenever he feels convenient to learn and is not for restricted by time, space or age. Distance learning is, indeed, presently considered as a viable alternative of the conventional system of education to fulfill the growing demand for legal education.This paper presents the new academic trends in Bangladesh Open University by distance learning Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. degree and modern aspects of the legal education at School of Law in Bangladesh Open University.

  16. Sexual violence towards married women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2013-05-01

    This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.

  17. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  18. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in environmental water in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Anwarul; Yoshizumi, Ayumi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes represent a threat for failure of empirical antibiotic therapy and are associated with high mortality, morbidity and expenses. We examined surface water in Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh and isolated ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, suggesting the potential role of water for the dissemination and transmission of resistant genes among microorganisms. E. coli found most prevalent among isolated Enterobacteriaceae from environmental water. Molecular and genetic analysis revealed CTX-M-type and SHV-type ESBL genes in isolates that may influence the spread of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria causing human and animal infections in Bangladesh.

  19. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  20. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  1. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  2. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  3. Ebola Virus Disease – Global Scenario & Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-03-01

    test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, electron microscopy and virus isolation by cell culture.1 Supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD.1 Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors like reducing the risks of wildlife-to-human transmission and human-to-human transmission and also on outbreak containment measures.1 Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus should apply extra infection control measures to prevent contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and contaminated surfaces or materials such as clothing and bedding, wear face protection besides routine measures. Samples taken from humans and animals for investigation of Ebola infection should be handled by trained staff with utmost care and processed in suitably equipped laboratories.1 The infections of two health care workers in Dallas, USA and a nurse in Madrid, Spain have revealed the truth that even highly developed nations are not immune. Still, Asia has some advantages as it readies itself for Ebola. Flight patterns suggest that the influx of travelers from Ebola-stricken West African countries to the Asian continent is far less than it is to Africa, Europe or North America.10 The recent outbreak affecting several nations also alarmed the public health sector of Bangladesh. But virus and healthcare experts have assured that there is nothing to be anxious about Ebola in Bangladesh as it has been categorized as among the least threatened countries by the World Health Organization (WHO on August 8, 2014 in its first Emergency Committee meeting.11 Bangladesh Government has already taken effective preventive measures suggested by WHO, which

  4. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  5. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  6. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  7. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  8. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  9. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  10. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  11. Insight into live bird markets of Bangladesh: an overview of the dynamics of transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jasmine C M; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Hasan, M Kamrul; Akhtar, Sharmin; Walker, David; Seiler, Patrick; Barman, Subrata; Franks, John; Jones-Engel, Lisa; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi; Webster, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016. Overall, the prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in collected samples was 24%. Our data show that AIVs are more prevalent in domestic birds within LBMs (30.4%) than in farms (9.6%). Quail, chickens and ducks showed a high prevalence of AIVs (>20%). The vast majority of AIVs detected (99.7%) have come from apparently healthy birds and poultry drinking water served as a reservoir of AIVs with a prevalence of 32.5% in collected samples. HPAI H5N1 was more frequently detected in ducks while H9N2 was more common in chickens and quail. LBMs, particularly wholesale markets, have become a potential reservoir for various types of AIVs, including HPAI H5N1 and LPAI H9N2. The persistence of AIVs in LBMs is of great concern to public health, and this study highlights the importance of regularly reviewing and implementing infection control procedures as a means of reducing the exposure of the general public to AIVs.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2017) 6, e12; doi:10.1038/emi.2016.142; published online 8 March 2017.

  12. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  13. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  14. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  15. Children's Rights and the Imagination of Community in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that sharply divergent images of children in Bangladesh reflect different "imagined communities" of society and polity, local and global. Universal concepts of "the rights of the child" contrast strongly with a local culture of "guardianship", as the key social institution that governs children's lives. How might bringing these…

  16. Antimalarial drug resistance in Bangladesh, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E; Haque, Waziul; Islam, Nazrul; Roy, Shyamal; Karim, Jahirul; Noedl, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Malaria remains an important health problem in Bangladesh, with approximately 14 million people at risk. Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to the control of malaria in endemic countries. In 2012, Bangladesh reported an estimated 29 522 malaria episodes, of which 94% were reported as being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we reviewed and summarized antimalarial drug resistance data from Bangladesh published until June 2013. We searched published sources for data referring to any type of P. falciparum drug resistance (in vivo, in vitro, or molecular) and found 169 articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Of these, 143 articles were excluded because they did not meet our inclusion criteria. After detailed review of the remaining 26 articles, 14 were selected for evaluation. Published studies indicate that P. falciparum shows varying levels of resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Combination therapy of chloroquine and primaquine has proven ineffective and combinations of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with either quinine or chloroquine have also shown poor efficacy. Recent studies indicate that artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate, remain highly efficacious in treating P. falciparum malaria. Available data suggest that artemisinins, quinine, doxycyline, mefloquine-artesunate and azithromycin-artesunate combination therapy remain efficacious in the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

  17. Private University Librarian's Experience on Procurement of Books in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Muhammad Hossam Haider

    2011-01-01

    The private universities in Bangladesh are playing an important role in modernizing the higher education system in the country and the role of librarians is also different and challenging. Specially, procuring books and monographs is an exigent function being this lost its demand very quickly. In some cases, titles bear only one semester…

  18. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M.M. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications.

  19. Dowry and Spousal Physical Violence against Women in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether payment issues or presence of dowry demand in marriage reflecting patriarchal attitude of marital family underlies the positive relationship between dowry and wife abuse using a sample of reproductive-age women (N = 2,702) from a population-based survey conducted in urban and rural Bangladesh in 2001. Regression…

  20. International Briefing 24: Training and Development in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Akhter, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Training and development activities in Bangladesh have yet to be systematic and able to fulfil the needs of the economy and industry. The national educational and training system failed to provide adequate knowledge and skills to the workforce. However, private sector organizations are undertaking different initiatives to cope with the industry…

  1. Enhanced Ties with China Can Help Bangladesh Develop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihabur; Rahman

    2013-01-01

    <正>Construction of a deep seaport in Chittagong and establishment of Chittagong-Kunming rail and road communications have been a much-talked-about issue following Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s visit to China.She went for the trip in the rising economic superpower in one and a half years of her assuming office early 2009.During

  2. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  3. Neoliberalism, Policy Reforms and Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh has introduced neoliberal policies since the 1970s. Military regimes, since the dramatic political changes in 1975, accelerated the process. A succession of military rulers made rigorous changes in policy-making in various sectors. This article uses a critical approach to document analysis and examines the perceptions of key…

  4. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  5. Financial Liberalization, Savings and the Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); I.A. Robin (Iftekhar Ahmed)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the consequences of financial liberalization policy on the banking sector in Bangladesh. Following a motivating portfolio selection theor-etical model on the impact of liberalization, it applies time series techniques with annual banking sector data for the period 1

  6. Military Strategy of Bangladesh to Counter Terrorism in Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Paper presented at first bi-annual international symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) at Denpensar, Bali , Indonesia, 19-21...observed phenomena . Bangladesh has had and is likely to experience more terrorist acts in the near future...qualitative in nature. By characteristics, qualitative research uses a naturalistic approach that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific

  7. Postburn contracture treatment: a healthcare project in Bangladesh.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, A.; Swapan, K.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Niemeijer, R.P.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 6 years, a health care program aimed at the surgical correction of postburn contractures has taken place in Faridpur, Bangladesh. People in this rural region are very poor and often cannot afford medical treatment. Often secondary flexion contractures of the face and chin as well as th

  8. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  9. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  10. MEDIA CONCERN AND TRENDS OF FERTILITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Morad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the media interprets Bangladeshian fertility trends by analyzing 11 online available articles from two Bangladeshi leading dailies, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo. The exploration of the newspaper articles reveals that print media in Bangladesh has shown concern notably on the present scenario of the country’s declining fertility trend. It has been observed from the newspaper clippings that both population growth rate and fertility rate are gradually declining in Bangladesh which they explain as a matter of great satisfaction. Drawing on examples from South Asia, the articles explain that Bangladesh has a remarkable achievement in fertility reduction compared to India and Pakistan. However, almost all of the articles have expressed concern over the population bomb of Bangladesh. The newspapers also report that though fertility is declining at the national level, significant variation exists at the regional level and among different socio economic groups. The fertility rate is reported to be very high in the urban shanties and poverty-stricken rural areas. In this regard, the clippings have often criticized the government activities, especially governmental population control programme.

  11. Living Sexualities: Negotiating Heteronormativity in Middle Class Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Karim (Shuchi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstract‘Living Sexualities’ is a study of erotic desires, practices and identities, lived within the heteronormative and marriage-normative socio-sexual structures of the urban middle class in contemporary Bangladesh. The study is based on two years fieldwork during which data was generated thr

  12. IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON SACHET PRODUCTS IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.

  13. Quality and Processes of Bangladesh Open University Course Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tofazzal; Rahman, Morshedur; Rahman, K. M. Rezanur

    2006-01-01

    A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU) introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team…

  14. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  15. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  17. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D

    2014-12-12

    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  18. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  19. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  20. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizul Baten

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent need to upgrade its banking system. This paper is aimed at to determine economical prospects of e-banking and to explain the present scenario of banking sectors in Bangladesh and at the same time it demonstrates the scope and benefits of e-banking compared with the existing system. This paper also tries to present actual sit uation of e-banking in the marketing point of view in Bangladesh. The results of th is study shows that e-banking serves several advantages to Bangladeshi banking sector, however, the study also shows that the Bangladeshi customers have not enough knowledge regarding e-banking which is rendering by banking sector in Bangladesh. A discussion of the implications of these results and limitations are provided at the end.

  1. Occurrence of Hybrid Escherichia coli Strains Carrying Shiga Toxin and Heat-Stable Toxin in Livestock of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Parveen, Rozina; Islam, Atiqul; Sadique, Abdus; Rahim, Md Niaz; Monira, Shirajum; Khan, Anisur R.; Ahsan, Sunjukta; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo; Chakraborty, Subhra; George, Christine M.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Navarro, Armando; Hasan, Badrul; Alam, Munirul

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36:H5, O174:H−, O152:H8, O109:H51, and O8:H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16 (n = 2), OR:H2 (n = 1), O110:H16 (n = 1), and O152:H8 (n = 1). The STEC–ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76:H19 (n = 3), O43:H2 (n = 2), O87:H16, OR:H2, and O152:H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC–ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC–ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh. PMID:28119905

  2. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  3. The intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towfiqua Mahfuza Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. Objective: We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. Methods: We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. Results: One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0–2.8 times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0–3.0 times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8–3.0 times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4–2.3 times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. Conclusions: This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)); Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Berghman, L.R. (Laboratory for Neuroendocrinology and Immunological Biotechnology, Louvain (Belgium))

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and {gamma}-{sup 32}P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of {sup 32}P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of {sup 32}P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer.

  5. Out of the Not-in-My-Backyard Dilemma Between Community Development and Ecological Protection: A Case Study on the Implementation of Basic Ecological Control Line Planning in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma; Hang; Sun; Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the implementation of basic ecological control line planning in Shenzhen since 2005 and finds that the communities located in the ecological areas delimited by the basic ecological control lines demonstrate strong opposition to the relevant regulations, refl ecting a typical Not-in-My-Backyard effect. It then analyzes the inherent reasons for the Not-in-My-Backyard dilemma. Based on the advanced experience of other countries and regions, it proposes the strategies of mutual benefits for the communities to go out of the Not-in-My-Backyard dilemma, so as to effectively alleviate the social contradiction and economic cost resulting from ecological protection, which can serve as a reference for other Chinese cities to conduct the basic ecological control line planning.

  6. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  7. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  8. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  9. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  10. The Big Four in Bangladesh:Caught between the Global and the Local

    OpenAIRE

    Belal, Ataur; Spence, Crawford; Carter, Chris; Zhu, Jingqi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis article explores the work practices of Big 4 firms in Bangladesh with the aim of exploring the extent to which Global Professional Service Firms can be thought of as being genuinely ‘global’. Methodology/Approach Interviews were undertaken with the vast majority of Big 4 partners in Bangladesh. These interviews explored a number of themes related to the professional service work context in Bangladesh and the relationship between local and global firms. Findings The central finding...

  11. Reanalysis of the Stress-Strain Conditions in Maddhapara Granite Mine, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dr.Quamruzzaman; Kaniz, Fatema; Hasan, Md. Rizwanul; Noor, Samia; Sanzida, Murshed; WoobaidUllah, A.S M

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining is not a process to the world but Bangladesh is experiencing second underground mining and first hard rock mining project at Maddhapara in the district of Dinajpur. Maddhapara is the only hard rock mining project in Bangladesh. Since Maddhapara is the first experience of hard rock mine in Bangladesh, it is a matter of great interest to make it successful and highly profitable project. While research it was found that there are lot of doubtful calculations and interpretation...

  12. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  13. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  14. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  15. Classical and molecular characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 isolated from backyard poultry – first report in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naletoski Ivancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to characterize pigeon variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolated from backyard poultry using classical and molecular methods. In standard hemagglutination inhibition (HI test both polyclonal NDV antiserum and monoclonal antibodies 161/617 specific for pigeon variants of NDV showed inhibition of heamagglutination of the isolated virus. Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI has shown that the isolate is mesogenic virus (ICPI = 0.81. One-step RT-qPCR for detection of M gene was performed indicating a presence of NDV and RT-qPCR for discrimination between lentogenic and velogenic strains based on F gene was also performed indicating a presence of virulent NDV. A portion of the F gene was amplified and sequenced for determination of virulence and phylogenetic characterization. The F protein cleavage site sequence of the isolate had multiple basic amino acids at residues 112–116 and a phenyl alanine at residue 117 (112RRQKR*F117 which is typical for velogenic strains. The nucleotide sequence of 374 bp was aligned to begin at nt 47 and finish at 420 immediately after the cleavage site and compared with other reference strains from the region and worldwide. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate clustered into genotype VIb, typical for PPMV-1. This strain is phylogenetically very similar to other PPMV-1 isolated from pigeons in Macedonia. Poultry infected with PPMV-1 can spread the virus in the absence of clinical signs, thus PPMV-1’s are constant threat to domestic poultry. This is the first report of evidenced spillover of PPMV-1 into poultry in Macedonia.

  16. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  17. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  18. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  19. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  20. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Ittyachen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is a rare complication of chicken pox. It is described mainly in children. Even in children it is a rare complication and the long-term prognosis remains to be elucidated. Herein we report an adult, a 23-year-old male who developed AIHA secondary to chicken pox.

  1. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  2. Bangladesh: currently the worst, but possibly the future's best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett

    2015-02-01

    Garment workers in Bangladesh producing clothing for international brands have experienced repeated factory fires and building collapses in the last 10 years, resulting in more than 1,600 deaths and hundreds of disabling injuries. After the Tazreen Fashion fire in December 2012 and the Rana Plaza building collapse in April 2013, more than 190 international clothing brands and retailers signed an "Accord on Fire and Building Safety" with two international union federations. Full implementation of the provisions of the Accord would change "business as usual" in Bangladesh's garment industry and set a positive example for other countries and other industries with global supply chains. The components, challenges, and controversies of the Accord are detailed in the article.

  3. Observations of cyclone-induced storm surge in coastal Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Soyee

    2015-01-01

    Water level measurements from 15 tide gauges in the coastal zone of Bangladesh are analyzed in conjunction with cyclone tracks and wind speed data for 54 cyclones between 1977 and 2010. Storm surge magnitude is inferred from residual water levels computed by subtracting modeled astronomical tides from observed water levels at each station. Observed residual water levels are generally smaller than reported storm surge levels for cyclones where both are available, and many cyclones produce no obvious residual at all. Both maximum and minimum residual water levels are higher for west-landing cyclones producing onshore winds and generally diminish for cyclones making landfall on the Bangladesh coast or eastward producing offshore winds. Water levels observed during cyclones are generally more strongly influenced by tidal phase and amplitude than by storm surge alone. In only 7 of the 15 stations does the highest plausible observed water level coincide with a cyclone. While cyclone-coincident residual water level ...

  4. Secondary Educational Institution Centered Diffusion of ICT in Rural Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    were: an integrated purchase and training facilitation, smart classroom implementation, educational administration, extracurricular activities, a non-formal computer literacy center, and school-based internship. Two live-in field studies were conducted: from August 2011 to January 2012 and from August......This dissertation presents a holistic approach for exploring, analyzing, solving, and circumventing the barriers to the integration and adoption of ICT in relation to the learning environments of secondary educational institutions in rural Bangladesh. It contributes to the fields of ICT...... in the secondary education systems (i.e., covering grades 6–12) in Bangladesh. Having positioned this investigation within the transformative paradigm, I took six strategic approaches to diffuse ICT in the learning environment of the stakeholders in rural private vocational school. The ICT diffusion strategies...

  5. Flourescence Humic Substances in Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAFI M. TAREQ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, only arsenic (As concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh were considered as having direct effects on the epidemical degrees of different types of diseases including arsenicosis, but the results of the present investigation indicated that fluorescence humic substance (HS is also an important component of dissolved organic matter in groundwater of Bangladesh. Therefore, it is suspected that both fluorescent HS and As in groundwater may have effects on the biological toxicity. The evidence of presence of high fluorescent HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur supports the above synergistic effect. The spatial distribution of fluorescence HS and As in groundwater of Faridpur indicated that the variations may be related to local hydrogeological conditions.

  6. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  7. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... of the chicken processing line model....

  8. Prevalence and characterization of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and Gallinarum from chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Parvej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen responsible for animal and human diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and stereotyping of Salmonella isolates isolated from apparently healthy poultry. Furthermore, the clonal relatedness among the isolated Salmonella serovars was assessed. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cloacal swab samples from apparently healthy chickens were collected, and were subjected for the isolation and identification of associated Salmonella organisms. The isolated colonies were identified and characterized on the basis of morphology, cultural characters, biochemical tests, slide agglutination test, polymerase chain reaction, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were also investigated using commonly used antibiotics. Results: Of the 150 samples, 11 (7.33% produced characteristics pink colony with black center on XLD agar medium, and all were culturally and biochemically confirmed to be Salmonella. All possessed serovar-specific gene SpeF and reacted uniformly with group D antisera, suggesting that all of the isolates were Salmonella Enterica serovar Gallinarum, biovar Pullorum and/or Gallinarum. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 54.54% of the isolated Salmonella Enterica serovars were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas the 81.81% isolates were resistant to amoxycillin, doxycycline, kanamycin, gentamycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the XbaI-digested genomic DNA exhibited identical banding patterns, suggesting that the multidrug resistant Salmonella Enterica serovars occurring in commercial layers are highly clonal in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of poultry Salmonella in layer chicken and to find out the clonal relationship among them. The data in this study suggest the prevalence of Salmonella Enterica, which is multidrug resistant and

  9. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  10. Serodiagnosis of Viruses Infecting Some Crops of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akanda, Abdul Mannan; Tsuno, Kazunori; Wakimoto, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    As many as 39 plant samples representing nine different botanical families, showing symptoms like virus diseases, were collected from different locations of Bangladesh in 1986- X7. The samples were preserved at 4°C after drying by lyophilization or over calcium chloride. Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) were applied for serological detection of viruses by using 11 different antiivirus-sera. Many of the samples (28/39) sh...

  11. Lead Poisoning: An Alarming Public Health Problem in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. K. Bashar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105 of those tested had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs ≥10 µg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 ± 10.32, 7.24 ± 6.31, and 2.47 ± 3.32 µg/dL, respectively; p <0.001. Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 ± 1.88 vs. 0.20 ± 1.16, p <0.001. Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05 than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  12. Inflation and Financial Sector Correlation: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Wahid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of inflation on financial development in case of Bangladesh for the period of 1985-2005. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach and Error Correction Method (ECM have been employed. Empirical findings reveal that high trends of inflation impede the performance of financial markets. GDP per capita promotes development of financial sector through its causal channels.

  13. Mapping malaria risk in Bangladesh using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heidi; Haque, Ubydul; Clements, Archie C A; Tatem, Andrew J; Vallely, Andrew; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Islam, Akramul; Haque, Rashidul

    2010-10-01

    Background malaria-control programs are increasingly dependent on accurate risk maps to effectively guide the allocation of interventions and resources. Advances in model-based geostatistics and geographical information systems (GIS) have enabled researchers to better understand factors affecting malaria transmission and thus, more accurately determine the limits of malaria transmission globally and nationally. Here, we construct Plasmodium falciparum risk maps for Bangladesh for 2007 at a scale enabling the malaria-control bodies to more accurately define the needs of the program. A comprehensive malaria-prevalence survey (N = 9,750 individuals; N = 354 communities) was carried out in 2007 across the regions of Bangladesh known to be endemic for malaria. Data were corrected to a standard age range of 2 to less than 10 years. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models with environmental covariates were used to predict P. falciparum prevalence for 2- to 10-year-old children (PfPR(2-10)) across the endemic areas of Bangladesh. The predictions were combined with gridded population data to estimate the number of individuals living in different endemicity classes. Across the endemic areas, the average PfPR(2-10) was 3.8%. Environmental variables selected for prediction were vegetation cover, minimum temperature, and elevation. Model validation statistics revealed that the final Bayesian geostatistical model had good predictive ability. Risk maps generated from the model showed a heterogeneous distribution of PfPR(2-10) ranging from 0.5% to 50%; 3.1 million people were estimated to be living in areas with a PfPR(2-10) greater than 1%. Contemporary GIS and model-based geostatistics can be used to interpolate malaria risk in Bangladesh. Importantly, malaria risk was found to be highly varied across the endemic regions, necessitating the targeting of resources to reduce the burden in these areas.

  14. Knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh. Methods This is ...

  15. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  16. Relative sea-level changes during the Holocene in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Towhida; Suzuki, S.; Sato, Hiroshi; Monsur, M. H.; Saha, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of the Holocene paleo-environment in the central part of Bangladesh in relation to relative sea-level changes 200 km north of the present coastline. Lithofacies characteristics, mangal peat, diatoms and paleophysiographical evidence were considered to reconstruct the past position and C-14 ages were used to determine the time of formation of the relative sea level during the Holocene. With standard reference datum, the required m.s.l. at the surface of five sections was calculated. The relative sea-level (RSL) curve suggests that Bangladesh experienced two mid-Holocene RSL transgressions punctuated by regressions. The curve shows an RSL highstand at approximately 7500 cal BP, although the height of this highstand could not be determined because the transgressive phase was observed in a bioturbated sand flat facies. The curve shows a regression of approximately 6500 cal BP, and the RSL was considerably lower, perhaps 1-2 m, than the present m.s.l. The abundant marine diatoms and mangrove pollens indicate the highest RSL transgression in Bangladesh at approximately 6000 cal BP, being at least 4.5 to 5 m higher than the modern m.s.l. After this phase, the relative sea level started to fall, and consequently, a freshwater peat developed at approximately 5980-5700 cal BP. The abundant mangrove pollens in the salt-marsh succession shows the regression at approximately 5500 cal BP, when it was 1-2 m higher than the modern sea level. The curve indicates that at approximately 5000 cal BP and onwards, the RSL started to fall towards its present position, and the present shoreline of Bangladesh was established at approximately 1500 cal BP and has not noticeably migrated inland since.

  17. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M

    1990-02-01

    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.

  18. Impact of wealth inequality on child nutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortuza Ahmmed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of malnutrition in Bangladesh is among the highest in the world. Millions of women and children suffer from one or more forms of malnutrition, including low birth weight, wasting, stunting, underweight, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders, and anemia. Today malnutrition not only affects individuals, but its effects are passed from one generation to the next as malnourished mothers give birth to infants who struggle to develop and thrive. Objective To assess the economic impact on child nutrition in Bangladesh. Methods The 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data was used for this study. In this study, quintiles were calculated based on asset and wealth scores by use of principal component analysis. To understand the nutritional status and health inequality, concentration index was also calculated. Results The negative concentration index showed a higher rate of malnutrition in the children less than five years of age from the poorest class. Furthermore, the ratio of poorest to richest indicated that stunting and underweight conditions in rural children under five years of age were almost two times higher than that of the richest children. This inequality in the health situation of children may be explained in terms of income inequality. In Bangladesh, about 40% of the wealth is concentrated in 10% of the families. The results are discussed as possible input for public policy. Conclusion Bangladeshi children under the age of five years and in the poorest economic class are nearly twice as likely to be underweight or stunted compared to children of similar age in the richest economic class. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:299-304.].

  19. The tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talwani, M.; Desa, M.; Ismaiel, M.; Krishna, K.S.

    Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892, USA  2Geological Oceanography, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa –403004, India 3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona... spreading magnetic anomalies south off Sri Lanka, Mar. Geol., 229, 227-240.  Frielingsdorf, J., S.A. Islam, M. Block, M.M. Rahman, and M.G. Rabbani (2008), Tectonic subsidence modeling and Gondwana source rock hydrocarbon potential, northwest Bangladesh...

  20. BRAC's experience in scaling-up MNP in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Mohammad Raisul; Sobhan, Shafinaz; Shahin, Shaima Arjuman

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in health status and achievements in Millennium Development Indicators, Bangladesh presents a gloomy scenario for nutrition. In 2009, BRAC (formerly known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has begun to implement a community-based approach of Alive & Thrive with Family Health International 360, aiming to reduce undernutrition among children under two by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding practices. To address anemia and other micronutrient deficiencies, home-fortification with micronutrient powders (MNP) has been promoted among under-fives across Bangladesh along with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). BRAC's frontline community health workers play a critical role in promoting micronutrient powders with better feeding practices. Over the years, improvements have been observed in the intervention areas: exclusive breastfeeding rose from 49% to 83% of children (0-6 months), 86% of children received complementary feeding at 6-8 months with about two/thirds being fed the recommended number of times; and 70% of children (6-59 months) adhered to MNP use, ie consumption of 1 sachet per day in the past 60 days. However, many challenges are still observed in traditional feeding practices, along with limited skills of community health workers and households' poor access to quality food, necessitating constant interactions between caregivers, mothers-in-law and fathers with the frontline workers. Maintaining the supply chain of micronutrient powders and a visible and convincing change in nutritional status of children are key success factors. The partnerships between BRAC, GAIN and Renata, the producer of MNP in Bangladesh, have given birth to a home-fortification model that can deliver impact at scale.

  1. Human Rights Violations in the Garment Industry of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jalava, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    In the span of a few decades, Bangladesh has risen to become the second largest garment exporter in the world as a result of liberalized trade policies that have attracted large scale foreign investment. The growing industry has provided the country with much needed capital to curb distressing poverty rates by giving employment to millions of young women from rural areas, while international apparel retailers have gained access to virtually unlimited cheap and low-skilled labour ideal for the...

  2. Heterogeneous effects of international migration: evidences from Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the general consensus regarding the important role played by international migration in the development of Bangladesh, little has been done to quantitatively estimate its effects. Within the framework of Rubin's causal model, this paper contributes to the literature estimating the net impact of international migration on the welfare of the members of households with migration experience. By taking advantage of the non-parametric nature of matching estimators, the effect of migration i...

  3. Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Haque, Akhlaque; Islam, Manirul; Bashar, S A M K

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of lead poisoning among preschool and school-aged children in Bangladesh, 345 children were screened for blood lead levels (BLLs) from one rural and two urban areas in Bangladesh from September 2007 through January 2008. An urban industrial area at Tongi was identified as a disaster area, where 99% (104/105) of those tested had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. Industrial emissions and use of leaded gasoline by two-stroke engine vehicles were identified as possible sources of lead in that area. A rural nonindustrial area at Chirirbandar, Dinajpur was identified as another high-risk area, where 14% of the children screened had BLLs >or= 10 microg/dL. BLLs at the urban industrial area were significantly higher than those at the rural and urban nonindustrial areas (24.58 +/- 10.32, 7.24 +/- 6.31, and 2.47 +/- 3.32 microg/dL, respectively; p <0.001). Weight-for-age z-scores of the urban children were significantly lower than that of the rural children (-1.41 +/- 1.88 vs. 0.20 +/- 1.16, p <0.001). Children with elevated BLLs had poorer nutritional status (p = 0.05) than those with normal BLLs. Over 90% of the parents did not know that lead causes health problems. In conclusion, the problem of lead poisoning in children was found to be high in both urban and rural Bangladesh. A universal lead screening for preschool and school-aged children and a lead education program for parents are recommended for implementation in Bangladesh.

  4. Vermi-compost production to enterprise: case studies from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2014-01-01

    In recent years organic agriculture practices have been gaining support from both consumers and producers in Bangladesh. Considering the economic benefits and environmental advantages, one such practice vermi-compost, or worm based composting, is growing in popularity with small-scale households. In the program study area it is fostering entrepreneurship, and with proper guidance and monitoring, is demonstrating that it can be a profitable enterprise.

  5. ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IN THE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Islam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As it is viewed English Medium Instruction (EMI at tertiary level has emerged as a big educational issue in Bangladesh as well as many parts of the world. Hence, the present trend of Bangladeshi higher education has assessed some crucial reasons of the extended use of English as a medium of instruction. Although education researchers in other countries have worked in this area to understand this educational issue, there has been very little research on EMI at tertiary level in Bangladesh. That is why, this study reports a case study involving teachers and students in a private university in Bangladesh by critically examining the language practice and implementation of EMI policy within the context of Bangladeshi higher education. Based on the analysis of interview data, it is argued that through their language practices and beliefs students and teachers constructed their perception towards the accomplishment of EMI policy, educational choice and effectiveness of EMI policy. It is suggested that implications of MOI policies world-wide and the national level practices of students’ content knowledge and English proficiency development in a globalizing world where English is widely believed to hold mammoth prospective for individuals and societies because of its role in human capital development.

  6. Prospects and problems of medical tourism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Muhammad Z; Andaleeb, Syed Saad

    2013-01-01

    The growing trend of Bangladeshi patients travelling abroad for medical services has led to some soul-searching in policy circles. While other countries of the Southeast Asia region are profiting from medical tourism, Bangladesh not only lags behind, it also loses patients to these countries in a continuous stream. This exodus for medical treatment is seemingly driven by the higher perceived quality of treatment abroad, despite the fact that similar treatment is available more cost-effectively within the country. Certainly the Bangladesh health care system is not without its problenis, which have diminished the perception of quality in the sector. Thus, this study focuses on key factors for Bangladeshi health service providers to address. By doing so, they will be better able to develop the local health care sector and retain Bangladeshi patients within the country. Subsequently, by identifying strategic niches, Bangladesh could focus on delivering higher quality health care services to develop medical tourism and attract patients from abroad in specific categories of health care.

  7. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam, E-mail: mg.ahamad@gmail.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul, E-mail: nazrul2002@yahoo.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: > Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. > Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. > For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. > Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  8. Commercial cultivation by farmers of medicinal plants in northern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants (MPs are an important component of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, which are traditionally used in healthcare and source of livelihood all over the world. In an over-populated country like Bangladesh, the pressure on natural forests is immense; thus the cultivation of MPs can significantly contribute towards improving the livelihood of poor people, reducing the pressure on natural forests and enhancing biological diversity. Notwithstanding the growing recognition of its importance and economic and ecological potential, there has been little research on MPs, especially the cultivation, management and marketing aspects, in Bangladesh. Based on extensive fieldwork in a northern district of Bangladesh, this study explores various aspects of the cultivation, management and marketing of MPs. How collective efforts have brought economic and social benefits to communities was also examined in this study. It assesses the major processes and elements of management, identifies key problems and challenges and indicates ways of maximizing the potential of this important sector. The issues covered in this research include: farmers ’ perceptions and experiences; existing research and policy-making processes related to the MP sector; constraining factors (such as lack of processing technology, inadequate transportation, logistics, financial and storage infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity; markets, finance and networking; land use; pattern of livelihood and value chain issue.

  9. Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafi Noor ISLAM; Albrecht GNAUCK

    2008-01-01

    The Sundarbans is one of the productive man-grove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh. The delta is undergoing rapid eco-logical changes due to human activity. In the present study, surface water salinity data from 13 rivers of the Sundarbans were collected in order to investigate the sal-ine water intrusion in the mangrove wetlands. Results demonstrate that saline water has penetrated the upstream area as river water salinity has increased signifi-cantly in 1976 compared to the year 1968. The soil and river water salinity data also shows that it has crossed the water salinity threshold line in most parts of the Sundarbans wetlands. These observations are due to the construction of Farakka Barrage in 1975, which reduced the water discharge of the Ganges River from 3700 m3/s in 1962 to 364 m3/s in 2006. The shortage of freshwater dis-charge to the deltaic area is trailing active ecosystems function, especially in the dry season in the south western region in Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to understand and analyze the present degraded mangrove wetland ecosystems and their negative impacts. The find-ings of this study would contribute to the formulation of the mangrove wetland ecosystems management plan inthe Ganges delta of Bangladesh.

  10. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P=0.02. The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P=0.04. Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P>0.05. Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh.

  11. THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hassan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations are claimed to have impacts on the sustainable development in rural areas of the developing countries and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC is identified as an example. This study has considered BRAC as the case and has been aimed to critically outline the roles of this selected non-governmental organization (BRAC in sustainable development process. With this particular aim, this study has also explored the trends of current poverty situations in Bangladesh. In addition, impacts of the BRAC sustainable development initiatives have also been analyzed, to some extent. This study has selected two villages of the Chandpur district of Bangladesh, where BRAC has been operating intense programmes. This study has used both the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Results suggest that programmes undertaken by NGOs are capable of having positive contributions in the sustainable development process to a certain level. The fact is that the programme implementation, where efficiency of the NGO employees is an indicator of success factor. The research is empirical and is expectedly fill the gap of literature.

  12. Micro-insurance in Bangladesh: risk protection for the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    Health services and modem medicines are out of reach for over one billion people globally. Micro-insurance for health is one method to address unmet health needs. This case study used a social exclusion perspective to assess the health and poverty impact of micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh and contrasts this with several micro-insurance systems for health offered in India. Micro-insurance for health in Bangladesh targeted towards the poor and the ultra-poor provides basic healthcare at an affordable rate whereas the Indian micro-insurance schemes for health have been implemented across larger populations and include high-cost and low-frequency events. Results of analysis of the existing literature showed that micro-insurance for health as currently offered in Bangladesh increased access to, and use of, basic health services among excluded populations but did not reduce the likelihood that essential health-related costs would be a catastrophic expense for a marginalized household.

  13. How and what rural women know: experiences in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius-von Harder, G

    1979-01-01

    A study was conducted in Bangladesh to determine the contribution rural women make to the economic conditions in their country. The study was necessary because little research has been done into the working patterns of rural women and their economic contributions have often been overlooked because they do not produce actual income. This article is a discussion of the problems faced by field researchers in countries like Bangladesh. Certain types of questions cannot be asked of women in rural Muslim areas, e.g., questions dealing with acreage of property, supply and demand in the marketplace, and irrigated land. Secluded women would have no way of knowing answers to these questions. Observation had to be used for a study of time-use, since the women do not live by the clock. Questions on women's ages can never be asked. Questions to females had to concern themselves with activities of females and questions to males, with activities of males. Rural people in Bangladesh do not seem to think in terms of exact measurement; this must be taken into account when analyzing answers. Researchers have to adapt their interviewing to the socioeconomic conditions of the area.

  14. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  15. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  16. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-01-01

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  17. Ecological determinants of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) outbreaks in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Biswas, Paritosh K.

    2012-01-01

    between Bangladesh and e. g., Thailand and Vietnam. The primary aim of the current study was to establish ecological determinants associated with the risk of HPAI-H5N1 outbreaks at subdistrict level in Bangladesh. The secondary aim was to explore the performance of two different statistical modeling...

  18. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations'…

  19. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  20. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  1. Potentiality of Disaster Management Education through Open and Distance Learning System in Bangladesh Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saima; Numan, Sharker Md.

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh Open University (BOU) is the only public educational institution in Bangladesh, where, a dual-mode method of learning system has been introduced. Established in 21st October, 1992, the University now accommodates 174,459 learners in 2012. The wide range networking of this university provides it a great prospect to execute a broad…

  2. Approaches to Increase Arsenic Awareness in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of an Arsenic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Khan, Khalid; Islam, Tariqul; Singha, Ashit; Moon-Howard, Joyce; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a household-level arsenic education and well water arsenic testing intervention to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh. The authors randomly selected 1,000 study respondents located in 20 villages in Singair, Bangladesh. The main outcome was the change in knowledge of arsenic from…

  3. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Ali, Anees Janee

    2014-01-01

    Although microcredit is considered the main vehicle for increasing the income of the poor and alleviating poverty in Bangladesh, it is now well recognised that more than this is needed to reach the ultra poor in rural areas. Consequently, almost half of the Bangladesh population is in some way linked to non-governmental organizations' development…

  4. The Diffusion of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned about Alleviating Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwal, Mohammad A.; Singhal, Arvind

    1992-01-01

    Discusses rural poverty in Bangladesh and describes the creation of the Grameen Bank, which combines business with social engineering. The rapid diffusion of the bank both within and outside Bangladesh is described; interpersonal strategies used in communicating its programs, especially to women, are explained; and the socioeconomic impact in…

  5. Employment of Active Learning at HEIs in Bangladesh to Improve Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faieza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, education quality and quality assessment have received a great deal of attention at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bangladesh. Most of the HEIs in Bangladesh face severe resource constraints and find it difficult to improve education quality by improving inputs, such as better infrastructure and modernized classroom…

  6. An Exploratory Review of Bangladesh Gas Sector: Latest Evidence and Areas of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Professor A K M A Quader; Professor Edmond Gomes

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and explores the latest evidence from the gas sector of Bangladesh and highlights areas that would benefit from further research. The study reported actual consumption of gas by different sectors; projection of demands by various studies and plan documents; estimates of gas reserves and potential by various studies; and operation of the International Oil Companies (IOCs) in Bangladesh.

  7. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  8. Analysis of Quality in Public and Private Universities in Bangladesh and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2014-01-01

    To meet the growing need for increased capacity in higher education, the government of Bangladesh encouraged development of private universities in 1992. Currently, there are sixty private universities, thirty-four public universities and three international universities in Bangladesh. Although the increased number of universities has provided…

  9. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2 viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Saadat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2 were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program.

  10. Temporal trends in severe malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Maude Richard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division. Methods Malaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Results From 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67% between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period. A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border. Conclusions The overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for

  11. Effect of Replacing Beef Fat with Chicken Skin on Some Properties of Model System Chicken Emulsions

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    Aslı Zungur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*. Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking yield and decreased fluid release. Increasing chicken skin in formulation increased a* and b* values of emulsion samples. Therefore, adding of chicken skin instead of beef fat is useful in improving technological quality and producing low fat formulation.

  12. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

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    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  13. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

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    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A (H5N1) viruses, Bangladesh, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Tun, Hein Min; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Islam, Skm Azizul; Islam, Md Nurul; Giasuddin, Md; Osmani, Tabm Muzaffar Goni; Islam, Ariful; Thornton, Ronald Norman; Burgess, Graham William; Skerratt, Lee Francis; Selleck, Paul; Brun, Edgar; Debnath, Nitish Chandra; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the origins, evolution and patterns of spread of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction analysis using Bayesian methods. The analysis was conducted using 81 hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences from the H5N1 viruses isolated in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011, together with 264 publicly available HA sequences of clade 2.2, 2.3.2 and 2.3.4 retrieved from GenBank. Our study provides evidence that clade 2.2.2 viruses that caused outbreaks in Bangladesh were lineages independent from the viruses introduced earlier into India. Furthermore, the Bangladesh clade 2.2.2 descendents subsequently spread to India and Bhutan. This has implications for avian influenza control in southern Asia suggesting multiple routes of entry of the virus including one pathway that spread to neighboring countries via Bangladesh.

  15. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  16. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  17. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  18. Production of Biodiesel from Chicken Frying Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Emaad T. Bakir; Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different biodiesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base–base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by...

  19. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  20. Municipal solid waste (MSW management in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

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    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dhaka is the capital city of Bangladesh, with the highest population density (129,501 people/square km in the world. Municipal solid waste (MSW generation in the city is 4634.52 tons/day. This study aims to explore current MSW management scenario which is found one of the most underestimated sectors of Dhaka City Corporation (DCC – the responsible authority for MSW management. Overall operational and collection efficiency of DCC MSW management is 45% and 60%, respectively. Vehicle fleet for waste transport showed considerably low efficiency in terms of load carrying capacity and fuel consumption. Residential waste is found potential source of composting. At present, a 500 tons/day compost plant has been operating since September 1998. Worth of recoverable recyclable material is found US$ 82,428,449.9989. Open dumping is a pressing problem leading to groundwater pollution, environmental contamination and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Each day, approximately, 1800 tons of MSW is dumped in the only official landfill site – Matuail. DCC spends 1.5% (601,350 Bangladesh Taka (BDT/day of the total budget for landfilling operation and management. Land required for disposal of MSW in Dhaka is estimated to be 110 ha per year. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects in waste sector in Bangladesh are found promising. This study urge to prepare a detailed plan for sustainable MSW management in Dhaka for source separation, large scale investment on composting and Waste to Energy (WTE projects, recycling, state of the art landfill development, and optimized reverse logistic operation

  1. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  2. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  3. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Phung, Dac Cam; Watanabe, Haruo; Kuo, Jung-Che; Wang, Pei-Jen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Chen, Pei-Chen

    2014-11-01

    We characterized Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance. The isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were genetically closely related but were distant from those from Indonesia and Taiwan. All but a few isolates from Indonesia and Taiwan were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The majority of isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to the widespread haplotype H58 clone. IncHI1 plasmids were detected in all MDR S. Typhi isolates from Vietnam but in only 15% of MDR isolates from Bangladesh. Resistance genes in the majority of MDR S. Typhi isolates from Bangladesh should reside in the chromosome. Among the isolates from Bangladesh, 82% and 40% were resistant to various concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Several resistance mechanisms, including alterations in gyrase A, the presence of QnrS, and enhanced efflux pumps, were involved in the reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones. Intensive surveillance is necessary to monitor the spread of chromosome-mediated MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Typhi emerging in Bangladesh.

  5. The backyard of transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on the current period of transition in Serbian society indicates deep contradictions between the urge for European integration and the delay of institutional transformation that fuse with the indolence of a large part of the people. The crisis of values is conspicuous almost everywhere. Continuous changes have had hard consequences on Serbian society. During these changes moral patterns, values, spirituality were destroyed, rebuilt, and lost again. Hence, Serbian society now lies on the ruins of past 'traditions', general values, collective identities, and a common purpose. In everyday life, it is noticeable very often as, for example, in the Belgrade 'park-scape' whose photos obviously illustrate these problems.

  6. Genesis of avian influenza H9N2 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Alam, SMRabiul; Hasan, MKamrul; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many bird species in Asia and the Middle East and has contributed to the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8, which are potential pandemic threats. H9N2 viruses that have spread to Bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (HP) H7N3 viruses that are presumably in Pakistan and currently cocirculate with HP H5N1. However, the source and geographic origin of these H9N2 viruses are not clear. We characterized the complete genetic sequences of 37 Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses isolated in 2011-2013 and investigated their inter- and intrasubtypic genetic diversities by tracing their genesis in relationship to other H9N2 viruses isolated from neighboring countries. H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh are homogenous with several mammalian host-specific markers and are a new H9N2 sublineage wherein the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is derived from an Iranian H9N2 lineage (Mideast_B Iran), the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes are from Dubai H9N2 (Mideast_C Dubai), and the non-structural protein (NS), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (MP), polymerase acidic (PA) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1) genes are from HP H7N3 originating from Pakistan. Different H9N2 genotypes that were replaced in 2006 and 2009 by other reassortants have been detected in Bangladesh. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses suggest that the current genotype descended from the prototypical H9N2 lineage (G1), which circulated in poultry in China during the late 1990s and came to Bangladesh via the poultry trade within the Middle East, and that this genotype subsequently reassorted with H7N3 and H9N2 lineages from Pakistan and spread throughout India. Thus, continual surveillance of Bangladeshi HP H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 is warranted to identify further evolution and adaptation to humans.

  7. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32 and in a suburban (n = 22 area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON

  8. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  9. Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Ahsan, Habibul; Shea, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a Class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer because of its increased risk for skin cancer, as well as internal cancers, such as lung and bladder cancer. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh has been called the "largest mass poisoning of a population in history." This inorganic arsenic contamination is of natural origin, with arsenic thought to be released to the groundwater from the surrounding sediment. Arsenicosis and its risk factors and prevention and management are discussed in this article.

  10. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  11. Analyzing The Factors For Rejection Of Leather In Bangladesh

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    Md.Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leather plays a vital role in earning the foreign currency for Bangladesh. Export of finished leather and leather products have an important impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Mainly cow goat sheep and buffalo leathers are produced in this country. Different defects of leather due to numerous numbers of diseases of animals of poor management of people deteriorate the quality of leather which has negative impact in this sector. This paper analyses the magnitude and category of major defects in case of cow goat and buffalo of Bangladesh. We have studied in sixteen tanneries of Hazaribagh Dhaka where 95 tanneries of the whole country are situated. This study found that in case of cow skin hair slip parasitic skin diseases wound and pox are mainly responsible for the defects in leather in raw condition. Again in case of the wet blue leather of cow flay cut pox mark parasitic diseases growth mark wound sun burn scratch dark mole are responsible for the defects. Further for crust leather of cow flay cut parasitic diseases pox looseness for bating scratch wrinkle grain damage are found as the reason of defects. In case of goat parasitic diseases pox growth mark mole scratch flay cut hair slip were found responsible mostly for the defects in Bangladesh. Moreover parasite pox wound branding growth mark wrinkle jam wrinkle mole scratch flay cut curing have been detected for the defects of buffalo in this country. Again in this study it is found that average leather grade A-D is 15 E-F is 25 G-H is 30 HH is 12.5 and again the rejection is 18.43. It is observed that most of the defects occur during animal life period. The rest of the defects happen during slaughter flaying preservation and processing period of hides and skins into leather. By proper caring of the farm level and at the point of slaughter and flaying desired quality of hides and skins could be obtained.

  12. Poverty Trends and Growth Performance: Some Issues in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mujeri, Mustafa K

    2000-01-01

    With a low level of per capita income, nearly one of every two persons in Bangladesh is poor, and one of three lives below the income poverty line of $ 1 a day.1 If those who are deprived of adequate clothing or shelter or other basic needs are counted, the number will be considerably higher. Similarly, if the people who live ‘above’ the poverty line but are vulnerable to risks, crisis and socioecononomic shocks and are in constant danger of income erosion below the poverty threshold are cons...

  13. Long-term socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.

    2013-05-01

    Natural disasters lead to myriad negative impacts upon society, causing loss of life, property, and income. Among disasters, floods annually affect the most people, and lead to widespread negative outcomes, particularly in developing countries. While immediate effects of disasters are readily observed, long-term socioeconomic effects have received little attention. Recent work in development economics finds that environmental exposure in early life can have negative impacts upon later outcomes in health, education, and labor markets. Such research is problematic for disasters, however, as objective measurements of hazard exposure are difficult to obtain. This study develops a remote sensing method to detect flooding in Bangladesh, one of the most flood-prone countries, using MODIS 8-day composite data. This approach addresses one of the main problems in the literature on the social impacts of disasters by deriving an objective measure rather than using self-reported damages. Flood data from 2000-2012 is matched to geolocated social surveys conducted by the Bangladesh government to identify impacts of exposure to floods at critical periods of life. While flooding is noted to be a natural and important part of ecosystem functioning in Bangladesh, we aim to understand the impacts of a flood of greater than normal magnitude or abnormal timing to identify the effects on human capital formation. We find that an increase in flooding of one standard deviation (SD) above the mean in the birth month leads to a 3% increase in stunting (2 SD below cohort height). This has implications for physical and cognitive development, shown elsewhere to persist to adulthood. We find that children from households that are exposed to floods while in elementary school are more likely to drop out. Other impacts will be identified in the course of this research. The stated impacts suggest that the long-term health and economic fortunes of the rural poor in Bangladesh are significantly

  14. Migration of female construction labourers to Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, R M

    1997-03-01

    The author analyzes migration patterns and processes of female construction workers in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, and considers the impact of this migration. "Interviews...reveal that the major goal of these female migrants, whose mobility and employment have traditionally been restricted, is to take responsibility in the struggle for livelihood.... Success of many migrations is linked with participation in construction work in the city. Employment in such activities is largely by women from male-headed households, indicating male support in the work, followed by females heading their own households."

  15. Groundwater Exploration in Freshwater/Saline Layered Aquifers - Southern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, P. A.; Rahman, M.

    2001-05-01

    A major urban water supply and sanitation project is being implemented in the southern coastal districts of Bangladesh, by the Governments of Bangladesh and Denmark (DPHE/DANIDA). Due to the poor quality and reliability of surface water in the coastal districts, the source for these schemes will be groundwater. However, the abstraction of large quantities of water is complicated by the fact that the shallow aquifers are thin and of poor hydraulic quality. In addition, there is saline water underlying the shallow aquifer and, in recent years, arsenic has been discovered in many shallow wells throughout Bangladesh. Over the majority of the coastal districts, a thick freshwater sand underlies the saline aquifers, at depths below 200 m. This freshwater unit is bounded by thick clays which protect it from overlying and underlying saline water. The deep aquifer has been exploited in some of the project towns but in a few areas no freshwater aquifers had been located. An exploration programme was undertaken in each of these towns to prove the location of the freshwater sands and to help plan the location and depth of production well drilling. The first exploration stage was to locate any existing deep hand pumped wells and to carry out a water quality survey. Generally, this was sufficient to prove the existence of a thick freshwater aquifer. However, exact well depths and geological data were usually lacking and an exploration well was usually required. In three of the project towns, no deep aquifers had been exploited by existing hand pumped wells and geophysical surveys were undertaken to identify the locations of freshwater aquifers. These surveys comprised resistivity sounding both within the towns and in outlying areas within a feasible pumping distance. In two cases, freshwater aquifers were inferred from the geophysical surveys and exploration drilling was undertaken to prove the resource. Exploration drilling was undertaken by local contractors using hand

  16. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

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    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  17. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

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    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  19. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  20. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

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    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  1. Exploring the communication barriers in private commercial banks of Bangladesh

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    Sultana, Nahneen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, lots of private commercial banks are contributing for economic growth. The performance of the banks depends on a well-structured communication system. So by maintaining an effective communication system, the banks can gain competitive advantage. Thus the study aims to investigate the communication barriers that should be removed for effective communication in the private commercial banks of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire survey based on 5-point Likert-scale was conducted on 165 full-time employees of private commercial banks. The sample includes 15 private commercial banks. The Principal Component Analysis reveals three types of communication barriers; personal barriers, job barriers, and organizational barriers. Among these barriers, personal barriers are the most significant barriers according to the respondents of the study. Personal barriers include lack of English knowledge, local tone, opposite sex and hot temper. The second most important barriers are job barriers that include technical words, personal life and job monotony. The third most important barriers are organizational barriers which include defective technology and internal politics.

  2. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it.

  3. Arsenic incorporation into authigenic pyrite, Bengal Basin sediment, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, H.A.; Breit, G.N.; Foster, A.L.; Whitney, J.; Yount, J.; Uddin, Md. N.; Muneem, Ad. A.

    2007-01-01

    Sediment from two deep boreholes (???400 m) approximately 90 km apart in southern Bangladesh was analyzed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), total chemical analyses, chemical extractions, and electron probe microanalysis to establish the importance of authigenic pyrite as a sink for arsenic in the Bengal Basin. Authigenic framboidal and massive pyrite (median values 1500 and 3200 ppm As, respectively), is the principal arsenic residence in sediment from both boreholes. Although pyrite is dominant, ferric oxyhydroxides and secondary iron phases contain a large fraction of the sediment-bound arsenic between approximately 20 and 100 m, which is the depth range of wells containing the greatest amount of dissolved arsenic. The lack of pyrite in this interval is attributed to rapid sediment deposition and a low sulfur flux from riverine and atmospheric sources. The ability of deeper aquifers (>150 m) to produce ground water with low dissolved arsenic in southern Bangladesh reflects adequate sulfur supplies and sufficient time to redistribute the arsenic into pyrite during diagenesis.

  4. Impact of Liquidity on Islamic Banks' Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

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    Limon Moinur Rasul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks’ profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash & due from banks to total assets (CDTA, cash & due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP, investment to total assets (INVSTA and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP. According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and return on deposits (ROD are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. Unsurprisingly the findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by.

  5. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  6. Modeling for Growth and Forecasting of Pulse Production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Md. FarhatRahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to estimate growth pattern and examine the best ARIMA model to efficiently forecasting pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. It appeared that the time series data for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea were 1st order homogenous stationary. Two types of models namely Box-Jenkins type Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and deterministic type growth models, are examined to identify the best forecasting models for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. The study revealed that the best models were ARIMA (1, 1 and 1, ARIMA (0, 1 and 0 and ARIMA (1, 1 and 3 for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production, respectively. Among the deterministic type growth models, the cubic model is best for pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The analysis indicated that short-term forecasts were more efficient for ARIMA models compared to the deterministic models. The production uncertainty of pulse could be minimized if production were forecasted well and necessary steps were taken against losses. The findings of this study would be more useful for policy makers, researchers as well as producers in order to forecast future national pulse production more accurately in the short run.

  7. Floristic composition and management of cropland agroforest in southwestern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mahmood Hossain; Mustafa Saroar

    2014-01-01

    Cropland agroforest is an important production system in the southwest region of Bangladesh. This study focused on the floristic composition and management of existing cropland agroforests. A total of 313 cropland agroforests were surveyed and 83%respondents practiced pure agroforestry while the remaining 17% practiced agroforestry with fisheries. A total of 18 forest trees and 2 shrubs were recorded from 11 families and 59 species of agricultural crops were from 28 families. A higher proportion (79%) of cropland agroforests were occupied small land areas (0.12-0.80 ha). About 63% of respondents planted trees for fruit production and 47%for timber production, and 35%of respondents engaged in commercial production (35%). Swietenia macrophylla was the most prevalent species (relative prevalence 20.83) followed by Man-gifera indica (relative prevalence 15.57) and Cocos nucifera (relative prevalence 7.08). Shorter spacing was used for timber and fuel wood species and wider spacing for fruit trees. A wide range of rotation periods, from 5 to 25 years, was observed for both cases. The use of chemical fertilizer was highest followed by cow dung and compost in cropland agroforests. Overall management practices of cropland agroforest in southwest Bangladesh were determined by the end product and local demand.

  8. Bangladesh: an Emerging Centre for Terrorism in Asia

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    Sajjan M. Gohel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This Research Note examines the political developments that have occurred in Bangladesh in 2013 and explores how these have fed into the rise of religious militancy. The ongoing conflicts not only intensify the instability and schisms within the country, but also illustrate that there is a rise in religious militancy that the country can ill afford at this juncture. Furthermore, it highlights how some members of the Bangladeshi diaspora in the United States and United Kingdom have been recruited by al-Qaeda and its affiliates to plot mass casualty attacks. Significantly, it is argued that all these threads are tied together because of the murky role of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (JEI, which is Bangladesh’s largest religious political party. A further deterioration of Bangladesh’s democracy and political stability could create additional space within which Islamist militants may be increasingly free to operate not just for domestic terrorist activity but for preparing internationals plots as well.

  9. Effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Azad, Abul Kalam; Akber, Md Ali; Rahman, Masudur; Sadhu, Indrojit

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of drinking water in the coastal area of Bangladesh compels the inhabitants to be highly dependent on alternative water supply options like rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-feed ponds. Susceptibility of these alternative water supply options to microbial contamination demands a low-cost water treatment technology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of solar disinfection (SODIS) to treat drinking water from available sources in the southwest coastal area of Bangladesh. A total of 50 households from Dacope upazila in Khulna district were selected to investigate the performance of SODIS. Data were collected in two rounds to examine fecal coliform (FC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of drinking water at the household water storage containers and SODIS bottles, and thereby determined the effectiveness of SODIS in reducing fecal contamination. All water samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and salinity. SODIS significantly reduced FC and E. coli contamination under household conditions. The median health risk reduction by SODIS was more than 96 and 90% for pond and RWHS, respectively. Besides, turbidity of the treated water was found to be less than 5 NTU, except pond water. Only 34% of the participating households routinely adopted SODIS during the study.

  10. ANALYZING AND ESTIMATING PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is one of the most important developments in the finance literature. Simply, CAPM is a model that describes the relationship between risk and expected return. The theoretical validity of CAPM is well tested and accepted but the practical validity of CAPM is in questioned. This study is designed to analyze and estimate the portfolio performance of Bangladesh stock market in a CAPM framework. For this study, monthly stock returns from 80 companies for the period of January 2005 to December 2009 are chosen. In order to examine whether the CAPM is satisfied in the portfolio or not, the 80 stocks are arranged in descending order of beta and 10 portfolios are being made of eight stocks in each. The All Share Price Index (DSI is used as a proxy for the market portfolio and Bangladesh government 3-Month T-bill rate is used as the proxy for the risk-free asset. The results of this analysis show that the intercept terms are not significantly different from zero, linearity in the securities market line and insignificant unique risk for the 10 portfolios during the period. But, the results in term of slope contradict the CAPM hypothesis and indicate evidence against the CAPM in the portfolios. This analysis will obviously be used as a basis of reference for future investigates and the researchers and they will get proper instruction from this study.

  11. Practicing governance: pitfalls and potentials - a study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rubayet RAHAMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance is a manner of undertaking activities performed for a state’s people by the state’s government to ensure development. Hence, it has scope of having conflicts between state policy and government bodies resulting poor quality of governance: abuse of rule of law, bureaucratic discrimination, corruption, poverty, inequality, low level of human resource development, low level of per capita income, poor utilization of country resources, etc. The reason for conflicts is poor governance vis-à-vis the result from poor governance, i.e., as there has conflict, there exists poor governance and at the same time as there exists poor governance, there has conflict. On the other hand, interrelationships between state policy and government bodies assist ensuring good governance: participatory, consensus oriented, transparent and accountable, equitable and efficient, etc. Developing nations like Bangladesh require having good governance in their countries for promoting development indicators: ‘country resource’ mobilization, increasing GDP growth, increasing per capita income, enhancing quality of socioeconomic indices of people, etc. The major of findings from this paper is ‘good governance for sustainable development’. This paper addresses issues of historical performance of governance exercise, obstacles towards good governance, and reforming agendas come up in past studies. The authors conclude by explaining why and how good governance is essential in Bangladesh for sustainable development.

  12. Education for Disabled Children in Bangladesh: Perceptions, Misconceptions and Challenges

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    Prof. Neaz Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite having specific policy, laws and services, disabled children in Bangladesh are facing troubles in obtaining education. Poverty, limited institutional services, lack of trained teachers, weak academic support, etc. are the most common visual causes behind their physically challenged conditions but the root causes remains hidden in our social system. The paper describes as to how people view the concept, educational need and importance of the disabled children while considering existing social, cultural and religious misconceptions and stigmas. Besides, opinion of the respondent are also described here. Based on quantitative research method, the data was collected from disabled children, their parents and their teachers through interviews and observation of the researchers. The findings reveal that majority of the population considered in the study are still maintaining different attitudes. Moreover, religious and cultural trends are not in favour of the disabled children. Families are found more attentive and sensitive but external supports are not appropriate to ensure their educational rights with harmony. Even disabled children often fail to receive proper cooperation and mental support from their institutions, society and from their parents. However, changes are visible but at a slower pace, and this trend should be speeded up. The paper also probes for the opinions and suggestions of the parents and teachers to overcome those barriers and limitations. The study was conducted in the Sylhet city of Bangladesh covering general and specialised schools where disabled children attend.

  13. Spectrum of Acute Pharmaceutical and Chemical Poisoning in Northern Bangladesh

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    Devendranath Sarkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute poisoning is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. It is a common method for suicide. A clear picture regarding clinical presentation, most commonly used toxic agents, background factors and outcome of poisoned patients is necessary in every region. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency and outcome of acute pharmaceutical and chemical poisoning cases in Northern Bangladesh. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study on poisoned patients with 18 years of age and above who were admitted to Rangpur Medical College Hospital during 1st December 2011 to 30th November 2012. Results: During the study period, a total of 956 patients were investigated. Males slightly outnumbered females (51.6%. The majority of patients (92% were in the 18-40 year age-group. Regarding occupation, housewives were the most frequent (33.6% followed by farmers (31.7% and students (20.9%. Organophosphate compounds (OPC were the most commonly used toxic agents (73.5%. Most of poisoning cases occurred following suicidal attempts (88%. Familial disharmony was the main cause of suicidal attempts (92.3%. Univariate Analysis showed that age less than 40 years, being married, living in rural areas and educational attainment below secondary level were significantly associated with an increased risk of poisoning (P

  14. Socio-economic determinants of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M; Howlader, A A

    1980-01-01

    Infant mortality in Bangladesh is 1 of the highest in Asian countries. There are several reasons why infant mortality is still high in Bangladesh. A large number of births occur prematurely, or there is poor handling by birth attendants leading to injury and infection. In addition, there is a gross shortage of maternity clinics, trained midwives, and other paramedical personnel in the country. The children are generally born in the most unhygienic of conditions. Malnutrition is a common factor. In recent years, the study of socioeconomic differentials of infant and child mortality has occupied an important position in demographic research. Given the limited data available to measure many variables which could have an effect on mortality as measured here by infant mortality, the analysis has been essentially confined to an analysis of differences in infant mortality by various socioeconomic characteristics. The factors and relative contributions of the combined effects of medical services, general socioeconomic and environmental factors need to be examined. Mortality can be seen in this context as a final consequence of the interactions between health, work, and income. Due to lack of data availability, very little work has been done on this. The World Fertility Survey has given a unique opportunity to researchers to explore this field more comprehensively.

  15. Rain Attenuation Prediction for Terrestrial Microwave Link in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN Sakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain attenuation is a major shortcoming of microwave transmission. As a subtropical country, Bangladesh is one of the highest rainy areas of the world. Thus, designing a terrestrial microwave link is a serious challenge to the engineers. In this paper, the annual rain rate and monthly variation of rate are predicted for different percentage of time of the year from the measured rainfall data. Using ITU rain model for terrestrial microwave communication, the rain attenuation is predicted for five major cities of Bangladesh, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Sylhet, and Khulna. It is found that rain attenuation is the most severe in Sylhet and least in Rajshahi. The attenuation is estimated for different frequency and polarization. A horizontally polarized signal encounters 15% more rain attenuation than that of vertically polarized signal. It is also found that attenuation in Rajshahi is about 20% lesser than that in Sylhet. Thus, the horizontally polarized transmission in Rajshahi experiences about 5% less attenuation than the vertically polarized transmission in Sylhet.

  16. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  17. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  18. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  19. Price Transmission Analysis in Iran Chicken Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Safdar Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades vertical price transmissionanalysis has been the subject of considerable attention inapplied agricultural economics. It has been argued that theexistence of asymmetric price transmission generates rents formarketing and processing agents. Retail prices allegedly movefaster upwards than downwards in response to farm level pricemovements. This is an important issue for many agriculturalmarkets, including the Iranian chicken market. Chicken is animportant source of nutrition in Iranian society and many ruralhouseholds depend on this commodity market as a source of income.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent, if any,of asymmetric price transmission in Iran chicken market usingthe Houck, Error Correction and Threshold models. The analysisis based on weekly chicken price data at farm and retail levelsover the period October 2002 to March 2006. The results oftests on all three models show that price transmission in Iranianchicken market is long-run symmetric, but short-run asymmetric.Increases in the farm price transmit immediately to the retaillevel, while decreases in farm price transmit relatively moreslowly to the retail level. We conjecture the asymmetric pricetransmission in this market is the result of high inflation ratesthat lead the consumers to expect continual price increases anda different adjustment costs in the upwards direction comparedto the downwards direction for the marketing agents and a noncompetitiveslaughtering industry and that looking for ways tomake this sector of the chicken supply chain more competitivewill foster greater price transmission symmetry and lead towelfare gains for both consumers and agricultural producers.

  20. Chicken sperm transcriptome profiling by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Shafeeque, C M; Sharma, S K; Singh, R; Mohan, J; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, V K; Azeez, P A

    2016-03-01

    It has been confirmed that mammalian sperm contain thousands of functional RNAs, and some of them have vital roles in fertilization and early embryonic development. Therefore, we attempted to characterize transcriptome of the sperm of fertile chickens using microarray analysis. Spermatozoal RNA was pooled from 10 fertile males and used for RNA preparation. Prior to performing the microarray, RNA quality was assessed using a bioanalyzer, and gDNA and somatic cell RNA contamination was assessed by CD4 and PTPRC gene amplification. The chicken sperm transcriptome was cross-examined by analysing sperm and testes RNA on a 4 × 44K chicken array, and results were verified by RT-PCR. Microarray analysis identified 21,639 predominantly nuclear-encoded transcripts in chicken sperm. The majority (66.55%) of the sperm transcripts were shared with the testes, while surprisingly, 33.45% transcripts were detected (raw signal intensity greater than 50) only in the sperm and not in the testes. The greatest proportion of up-regulated transcripts were responsible for signal transduction (63.20%) followed by embryonic development (56.76%) and cell structure (56.25%). Of the 20 most abundant transcripts, 18 remain uncharacterized, whereas the least abundant genes were mostly associated with the ribosome. These findings lay a foundation for more detailed investigations on sperm RNAs in chickens to identify sperm-based biomarkers for fertility.

  1. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  2. How to finance investment in Bangladesh: Finding long-run factors in a bounds test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biru Paksha Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment in Bangladesh has been at almost one-fourth of the country’s output since the early 2000s. Consequently, Bangladesh’s growth has also remained stagnant at around 6 percent since then. The question of how to increase investment in Bangladesh has been of crucial discussion of late. This study examines the long run determinants of investment in Bangladesh by applying the bounds test over 1976-2010. There should not be any policy dilemma about the effect of lending rates, which must be reduced to boost investment and domestic credit should be expanded. Further liberalization in trade and finance is recommended since economic openness and financial deepening show a positive impact on capital formation. The policy prescriptions for Bangladesh are not different from those for other nations that embarked on liberalization to augment investment for accelerating growth.

  3. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  4. Undiscovered gas resources assessment unit boundaries for Bangladesh (au8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the undiscovered natural gas resources assessment unit boundaries of the Bangladesh. This...

  5. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS. These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than terrestrial soil moisture observations by GRACE observations and GLDAS model output.

  6. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  7. Undiscovered natural gas resources Total Petroleum System unit boundaries for Bangladesh (tps8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the Total Petroleum System boundaries of the natural gas resources of Bangladesh. This...

  8. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  9. Undiagnosed hypertension in a rural district in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F M A; Bhuiyan, A; Chakrabarti, R; Rahman, M A; Kanagasingam, Y; Hiller, J E

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is mainly asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed until the disease progresses. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in rural Bangladesh. Using a population-based cluster random sampling strategy, 3096 adults aged ⩾30 years were recruited from a rural district in Bangladesh. Data collected included two blood pressure (BP) measurements, fasting blood glucose, socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ⩾140 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) ⩾90 mm Hg or self-reported diagnosed hypertension. Logistic regression techniques were used for data analyses. The crude prevalence of hypertension was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI) 38-42%) of which 82% were previously undiagnosed. People from lower socio-economic status (SES) had a significantly higher percentage of undiagnosed hypertension compared with people with higher SES (PBangladesh than that reported from the rural area in neighbouring India and China. Lower SES was associated with a higher risk of undiagnosed hypertension. Public health programs at the grass-roots level must emphasise the provision of primary care and preventive services in managing this non-communicable disease.

  10. Rural development scheme of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited - A study on its growth, effectiveness and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people of Bangladesh are living under poverty line. To alleviate poverty, thousands of NGOs and GOs have been working since the inception of the Bangladesh. But the success rate of these programs appears to be insignificant. Rural Development Scheme (RDS being a shariah and teaching of Islam based technique has been introduced in order to graduate the rural poor from poverty trap by bringing them in the main stream of economy by providing micro-credit and teaching for value creation. The present study has been undertaken aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of the program and its prospect. It has collected both primary and secondary data, and analyzed these with the help of both financial and statistical techniques. The findings of the study are: the growth performance of RDS in important parameters are robust across study period, and RDS influence the income and income generating activities of borrowing members significantly. Finally the study has put forward some logical suggestions for enhancing the sustainability as well as robustness of the program.

  11. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  12. An ethnographic investigation on land and life of Santal community in Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akan, Mashiur Rahman; Al Mamun, Md Abdullah; Naznin, Tahmina

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of life style of Santal community, one of the largest tribal communities in Bangladesh. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), participant observation, focus group discussions (FGD), and informal and semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Santals......, social problems i.e., poverty, inequality, resource scarcity, illiteracy, maladjustment are more severe. Respecting the national constitution, Bangladesh should generate a multi-ethnic leadership to bring glory and protect Santal from all sorts of hazards and discriminations....

  13. Challenges for Sustainable Development: Rapid Urbanization, Poverty and Capabilities in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, haider

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the causes and consequences -- in particular, the policy implications -- of the ongoing urbanization in Bangladesh. Like many other Asian developing countries, a rapidly increasing share of the population of Bangladesh migrates to urban centers in search for employment opportunities outside agriculture in industrial enterprises or the services sector. For the first time in its history, the urban population is growing faster than the rural...

  14. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Mainstream Primary Education of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Das

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Bangladesh has shown a remarkable progress in primary education. Inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream primary education is also increasing year by year. But in the context of quality teachinglearning for all, Bangladesh is still a far away from effective inclusive education. Inclusive education requires some additional arrangement within the mainstream system that is really a challenge. The present paper reports on the prevailing situation of education of stude...

  15. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

    2011-01-01

    The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

  16. Reviewing the status of agricultural production in Bangladesh from a food security perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose Bishwajit; Razib Barmon; Sharmistha Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural f...

  17. Designing an Health Insurance Scheme for Government Employees in Bangladesh: A Concept Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Syed Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Introducing compulsory health insurance for government employees bears immense importance for stepping towards universal healthcare coverage in Bangladesh. Lack of scientific study on designing such scheme, in the Bangladesh context, motivates this paper. The study aims at designing a comprehensive insurance package simultaneously covering health, life and accident related disability risks of the public employees, where the health component would extend to all dependent family members. ...

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING MASS MEDIA FP PROGRAMS ON CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. Amirul; Kabir, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the significant role of mass media and factors affecting it have been investigated. . Mass media has played an important role in the success of Bangladesh family planning programs. Different mass media are employed to disseminate FP-MCH messages. Evaluation of the impact of mass media exposures on FP-MCH programs would provide new directions and strategy for its effectiveness. In this study a total of 3100 currently married women from all over Bangladesh were interviewed. The ai...

  19. The Adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the University Libraries of Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddike, Abul Kalam; Munshi, Nasiruddin; Sayeed, Abu

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the extent of adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in the university libraries of Bangladesh. The study discusses the present conditions of using ICT by the public and private university libraries in Bangladesh. The study also finds out the systems and services provided by the university libraries. The paper is a basic work so far such study has not been carried out by anyone in Bangladesh and it investigates the original views o...

  20. The microbiome of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, Carl J; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio; Sipos, Maksim; Goldenfeld, Nigel D; White, Bryan A

    2012-06-01

    The modern molecular biology movement was developed in the 1960s with the conglomeration of biology, chemistry, and physics. Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Molecular techniques have led to significant gains in our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome. New advances, primarily in DNA sequencing technologies, have equipped researchers with the ability to explore these communities at an unprecedented level. A reinvigorated movement in systems biology offers a renewed promise in obtaining a more complete understanding of chicken gastrointestinal microbiome dynamics and their contributions to increasing productivity, food value, security, and safety as well as reducing the public health impact of raising production animals. Here, we contextualize the contributions molecular biology has already made to our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome and propose targeted research directions that could further exploit molecular technologies to improve the economy of the poultry industry.

  1. IMPACTS OF REMITTANCE ON THE SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION OF BANGLADESH: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittance is considered to be one of the influential sectors of the socioeconomic development of the Third World countries, particularly countries like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, remittance contributes to the socioeconomic development, maintain foreign exchange reserves, and manage balance of payment, etc. This paper particularly explains the impacts of remittance on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. The paper is written based on secondary sources, published documents on the impacts of remittance. The paper reveals that remittance has both positive and negative impacts on the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. However, the positive impacts are more influential than negative one. In Bangladesh, remittance helps people generate income, provide children advanced education, increase social status, create employment opportunities for poor, and above all empower women. People can avail material and non-material culture and can enjoy civic amenities of the modern era. Although, it creates inequality in the society and cultural lag among people, its influential aspect to the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh is more prevailing. As a result, this paper recommends for necessary initiatives from Government Organizations and Non Government Organizations to maintain both remittance and migration flow normal and congenial.

  2. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Masashi; Akter, Shirin; Yasin, Md Golam; Nakao, Ryo; Kato, Hirotomo; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Katakura, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite of dogs that often causes fever and hemolytic illness. Detection of B. gibsoni has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present study shows the first molecular characterization of B. gibsoni detected from dogs in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected on FTA® Elute cards from 50 stray dogs in Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. DNA eluted from the cards was subjected to nested PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia species. Approximately 800bp PCR products were detected in 15 of 50 dogs (30%). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the PCR products, all parasite isolates were identified as B. gibsoni. Furthermore, the BgTRAP (B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein) gene fragments were detected in 13 of 15 18S rRNA gene PCR positive blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasites in Bangladesh formed a cluster, which was genetically different from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Bangladeshi isolates. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to elucidate the origin, distribution, vector and pathogenesis of B. gibsoni parasites circulating in dogs in Bangladesh.

  3. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhimly Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

  4. Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Akhter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

  5. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0

  6. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  7. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  8. ESR dose assessment in irradiated chicken legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordi, F. [II Universita, Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Medicina Interna; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Pantaloni, M. [Istituto Superiore di Santia, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita

    1994-05-01

    The electron spin resonance technique has received a wide consensus for dose assessment in irradiated chicken bone. Nevertheless, some practical problems are still open like the most suitable mathematical expression to be used for dose evaluation with the re-irradiation method. In the present paper the linear and exponential approximations were analyzed using 40 bone chicken samples and a reproducible readout procedure. The results suggested the use of the exponential dose-effect relationship and gave some indications on the procedure to be practically adopted. (author).

  9. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  10. Chlamydia Psittaci Strains from Broiler Chickens Induce Histopathological Lesions and Mortality in SPF Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on histopathological lesions induced by two C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA genotype B strains (10/423 and 10/525 and one genotype D strain (10/298 in experimentally infected (aerosol specific pathogen free (SPF chickens was performed. The strains were derived from Belgian and French commercially raised broilers with pneumonia. Both genotype B and D strains induced conjunctivitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, airsacculitis, splenitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and enteritis in sequentially (days 2 to 34 post infection euthanized chickens. Inflammation of the ovaries was only observed in genotype D infected chickens. Overall, the genotype D strain caused more severe gross and histopathological lesions and mortality (54.5% early upon infection. The genotype D strain seemed to replicate faster as severity of the lesions increased more quickly. C. psittaci is a primary pathogen in chickens, and efficient monitoring and control of this emerging zoonotic pathogen is urgently needed.

  11. QUALITY AND PROCESSES OF BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY COURSE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A new member of the mega-Universities, Bangladesh Open University (BOU introduced a course team approach for developing effective course materials for distance students. BOU teaching media includes printed course books, study guides, radio and television broadcasts, audiocassettes and occasional face-to-face tutorials. Each course team comprises specialist course writer(s, editor, trained style editor, graphic designer,illustrator, audio-visual producer and anonymous referees. An editorial board or preview committee is responsible for the final approval for publishing or broadcasting materials for learners. This approach has been proved to be effective, but appeared to be complicated and time-consuming. This report focuses on the quality and processes of BOU course materials development taking into account the strengths and weaknesses of the current approach.

  12. Credit programs, women's empowerment, and contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings of research addressing the question of how women's status affects fertility. The effects on contraceptive use of women's participation in rural credit programs and on their status or level of empowerment were examined. A woman's level of empowerment is defined here as a function of her relative physical mobility, economic security, ability to make various purchases on her own, freedom from domination and violence within her family, political and legal awareness, and participation in public protests and political campaigning. The main finding is that participation in both of the credit programs studied, those of Grameen Bank and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), is positively associated with women's level of empowerment. A positive effect on contraceptive use is discernible among both participants and nonparticipants in Grameen Bank villages. Participation in BRAC does not appear to affect contraceptive use.

  13. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain.

  14. Reducing the health effect of natural hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Richard A; Halder, Shantana R; Husain, Mushtuq; Islam, Md Sirajul; Mallick, Fuad H; May, Maria A; Rahman, Mahmudur; Rahman, M Aminur

    2013-12-21

    Bangladesh, with a population of 151 million people, is a country that is particularly prone to natural disasters: 26% of the population are affected by cyclones and 70% live in flood-prone regions. Mortality and morbidity from these events have fallen substantially in the past 50 years, partly because of improvements in disaster management. Thousands of cyclone shelters have been built and government and civil society have mobilised strategies to provide early warning and respond quickly. Increasingly, flood and cyclone interventions have leveraged community resilience, and general activities for poverty reduction have integrated disaster management. Furthermore, overall population health has improved greatly on the basis of successful public health activities, which has helped to mitigate the effect of natural disasters. Challenges to the maintenance and reduction of the effect of cyclones and floods include rapid urbanisation and the growing effect of global warming. Although the effects of earthquakes are unknown, some efforts to prepare for this type of event are underway.

  15. Men's views on gender and sexuality in a Bangladesh village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muradul; Karim, K M Rabiul

    The violation of women's sexual rights is a crucial public health problem, which is often related to the way people view gender and sexuality in a society. This study explores married men's typical views on gender, family, and sexuality in a rural Bangladesh context. Using a qualitative methodological approach, 10 married men were purposively included from a northwest village. The study revealed that married men's views about gender and sexuality are heavily influenced by patriarchal norms. Men think that a wife is the property of her husband and that the wife should obey her husband by giving sex to her husband whenever he wants. Men also think that if women fail to obey their husbands or please them sexually, men are allowed to beat their wives. Interviews explored that the violation of women's sexual rights might be closely related to men's gendered views about women's rights.

  16. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Bangladesh: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M Monwarul; Majumder, A A S

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are the most-common cardiovascular disease in young people aged <25 years, globally. They are important contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. Classical risk factors, i.e. poverty, overcrowding, ignorance, and insufficient health care services were responsible for the high incidence and prevalence of these diseases over the last century. In concert with the progresses in socioeconomic indicators, advances in health sectors, improved public awareness, and antibiotic prophylaxis, acute RF came into control. However, chronic RHD continues to be prevalent, and the actual disease burden may be much higher. RHD predominantly affects the young adults, seriously incapacitates them, follows a protracted course, gets complicated because of delayed diagnosis and is sometimes maltreated. The treatment is often palliative and expensive. Large-scale epidemiological and clinical researches are needed to formulate evidence-based national policy to tackle this important public health issue in future.

  17. The limitations of microcredit for promoting microenterprises in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahmudul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit is regarded as a tool for poverty alleviation. A stereotyped delivery system is designed and used for promoting and serving survival- and subsistence-level economic activities, particularly for poor female clients. In Bangladesh its success has raised social expectations as to its potential as also a promoter of microenterprises, which are growth-yielding small businesses beyond subsistence-level economic activity. The field survey shows that about 11.7% of the microcredit borrowers are this kind of potential or growing microentrepreneur. It also shows that microcredit’s standardised delivery system, particularly in respect of gender preference, loan size, loan disbursement, and repayment schedules, is a strong limiting factor in effectively serving the microenterprises, which require a more flexible credit package. Therefore a methodological modification is necessary to accommodate flexibility in the microcredit delivery system.

  18. Determinants of Customer Satisfaction of Banking Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal Uddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate, through the development and operationalized constructs of service quality, service charge, perceived value, and customer satisfaction; customersatisfaction and its determinants of the banking industry in Bangladesh. An exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was used to analyze data. Measurement model and structural model indicate that service quality and fair service charge both havepositive direct impact on customer satisfaction in a mass service industry (i.e., banking industry. It was further observed that they also have indirect influence on customer satisfaction through perceive value, i.e. perceived value has mediating role betweenquality, charge fairness and satisfaction. Bank managers are recommended to formulate operations and marketing strategies that focus on desires of customers to enhance level of satisfaction.

  19. Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

    2010-10-01

    For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims).

  20. The Role of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Cholera Epidemic in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir Ahmed, Md.; Raknuzzaman, Md.; Akther, Hafeza; Ahmed, Sumaiya

    A study was conducted on association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton specially emphasis on cyanobacteria in relation to some physico-chemical parameters in the River Buriganga, Dhaka, from January to December 2002. Monthly abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton varied from 457 to 14166 and from 169 to 1055 individual L-1, respectively. Monthly average of faecal coliform in water, zooplankton and phytoplankton samples were 3.99x109, 4.54x103 and 4.28x102 (CFU L-1), respectively. During epidemics, toxigenic V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were isolated from the patients as well as from the surface water. V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were also isolated from plankton samples. More over, it was observed that ctx (cholera toxic) positive in water and phytoplankton samples of the river. A bloom of Oscillatoria sp. (1.6x104 individual L-1) occurred in the upper reaches of the River Buriganga in May 2002. Methanol-water extract of bloom sample was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and Mass Spectrum (MS) detected microcystin-RR. Cyanobacteria are abundant in the aquatic environment of Bangladesh and it was established that V. cholerae maintain a symbiotic relationship with these algae particularly mucilaginous cyanobacteria. During epidemics, patients symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis and in severe cases hemorrhagic diarrhea. So, question has arisen that which is responsible, microcystins or cholera for death of cholera/diarrhea patients in Bangladesh. Future research should be directed to isolate microcystins and cholera toxins from the epidemic areas to clarify the fact.